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Registration
SOR/2014133May29,2014
IMMIGRATIONANDREFUGEEPROTECTIONACT

RegulationsAmendingtheImmigrationandRefugeeProtectionRegulations
P.C.2014619May29,2014
Whereas,pursuanttosubsection5(2)(seefootnotea)oftheImmigrationandRefugeeProtectionAct(see
footnoteb),theMinisterofCitizenshipandImmigrationhascausedacopyoftheproposedRegulations
AmendingtheImmigrationandRefugeeProtectionRegulations,substantiallyintheannexedform,tobelaid
beforeeachHouseofParliament
Therefore,HisExcellencytheGovernorGeneralinCouncil,ontherecommendationoftheMinisterof
CitizenshipandImmigration,pursuanttosubsection14(2)(seefootnotec),section32(seefootnoted)and
subsection89(1)(seefootnotee)oftheImmigrationandRefugeeProtectionAct(seefootnotef),makesthe
annexedRegulationsAmendingtheImmigrationandRefugeeProtectionRegulations.

REGULATIONSAMENDINGTHEIMMIGRATIONANDREFUGEEPROTECTIONREGULATIONS
AMENDMENTS
1.Paragraph(b)ofthedefinitiondependentchildinsection2oftheImmigrationandRefugee
ProtectionRegulations(seefootnote1)isreplacedbythefollowing:
(b)isinoneofthefollowingsituationsofdependency,namely,
(i)islessthan19yearsofageandisnotaspouseorcommonlawpartner,or
(ii)is19yearsofageorolderandhasdependedsubstantiallyonthefinancialsupportofthe
parentsincebeforetheageof19andisunabletobefinanciallyselfsupportingduetoa
physicalormentalcondition.
2.TheRegulationsareamendedbyaddingthefollowingaftersection25:
Generalruleonestepprocess
25.1(1)Forthepurposesofdeterminingwhetherachildisadependentchild,thelockindatefortheage
ofachildofapersonwhoisamemberofanyoftheclassessetoutintheseRegulations,otherthaninthose
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casesreferredtoinsubsections(2)to(9),andwhomakesanapplicationunderDivision5,6or7ofPart5is
thedateonwhichtheapplicationismade.
Certificatdeslectiondistressfulsituation
(2)Forthepurposesofdeterminingwhetherachildisadependentchild,thelockindatefortheageofa
childofapersonwhoisreferredtoinsection71,towhomaCertificatdeslectionduQubechasbeenissued
declaringthatthatpersonisinaparticularlydistressfulsituationandwhomakesanapplicationunderDivision
6ofPart5isthedateonwhichtheapplicationforselectionwasmadetoQuebec.
Quebececonomiccandidate
(3)Forthepurposesofdeterminingwhetherachildisadependentchild,thelockindatefortheageofa
childofapersonwhoisreferredtoinsection86,96,99or101,towhomaCertificatdeslectionduQubec
hasbeenissuedandwhomakesanapplicationunderDivision6ofPart5isthedateonwhichtheapplication
forselectionwasmadetoQuebec.
Provincialnominee
(4)Forthepurposesofdeterminingwhetherachildisadependentchild,thelockindatefortheageofa
childofapersonwhoisamemberoftheprovincialnomineeclass,whoisnominatedbytheprovinceandwho
makesanapplicationunderDivision6ofPart5isthedateonwhichtheapplicationfornominationwasmade
totheprovince.
Liveincaregiver
(5)Forthepurposesofdeterminingwhetherachildisadependentchild,thelockindatefortheageofa
childofapersonwhoisamemberoftheliveincaregiverclassandwhomakesanapplicationunderDivision
6ofPart5isthedateonwhichtheinitialapplicationforaworkpermitasaliveincaregiverwasmade.
Sponsorshiprefugee
(6)Forthepurposesofdeterminingwhetherachildisadependentchild,thelockindatefortheageofa
childofapersonwhoisreferredtoinparagraph139(1)(h),whomakesanapplicationunderDivision6ofPart
5andinrespectofwhomanundertakingapplicationismadebyasponsorwhomeetstherequirementsof
sponsorshipsetoutinsection158isthedateonwhichtheundertakingapplicationwasmadetoQuebec.
Refugee
(7)Forthepurposesofdeterminingwhetherachildisadependentchild,thelockindatefortheageofa
childofapersonwhosubmitsanapplicationforapermanentresidentvisaunderDivision1ofPart8along
withoneofthereferralssetoutinsection140.3isthedateonwhichthereferralwasmade.
Familymemberwhodoesnotaccompanyapplicant
(8)Forthepurposesofdeterminingwhetherachildwhosubmitsanapplicationunderparagraph141(1)(b)is
thedependentchildofapersonwhohassubmittedanapplicationunderparagraph139(1)(b),thelockindate
fortheageofthatchildisthedateonwhichthatpersonsubmittedtheapplication.
Refugeeprotection
(9)Forthepurposesofdeterminingwhetherachildisadependentchild,thelockindatefortheageofa
childofapersonwhohassubmittedaclaimforrefugeeprotectioninsideCanadaundersubsection99(3)of
theAct,whohasacquiredprotectedpersonstatusandwhohasmadeanapplicationforpermanentresidence
isthedateonwhichtheclaimforrefugeeprotectionwasmade.
3.Subsection61(6)oftheRegulationsisreplacedbythefollowing:
Child
(6)Forthepurposesofsubparagraphs28(2)(a)(ii)and(iv)oftheAct,achildmeansachildwhoisnota
spouseorcommonlawpartnerandislessthan19yearsofage.
4.TheRegulationsareamendedbyaddingthefollowingaftersection69:
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Requirementsfamilymember
69.1Subjecttosubsection25.1(1),tobeconsideredafamilymemberoftheapplicant,apersonshallbea
familymemberofanapplicantbothatthetimetheapplicationundersection66ismadeandatthetimeof
thedeterminationoftheapplication.
5.TheRegulationsareamendedbyaddingthefollowingbeforetheheadingDivision1before
section73:

DIVISION0.1
GENERAL
Requirementsfamilymember
72.8Subjecttosubsections25.1(3)to(5)andforthepurposesofthisPart,tobeconsideredafamily
memberofanapplicant,apersonmustbeafamilymemberoftheapplicantbothatthetimetheapplication
underDivision6ofPart5ismadeandatthetimeofthedeterminationoftheapplication.
6.Section121oftheRegulationsisreplacedbythefollowing:
Requirements
121.Subjecttosubsection25.1(1),apersonwhoisamemberofthefamilyclassorafamilymemberofa
memberofthefamilyclasswhomakesanapplicationunderDivision6ofPart5mustbeafamilymemberof
theapplicantorofthesponsorbothatthetimetheapplicationismadeandatthetimeofthedetermination
oftheapplication.
7.Theportionofsection128oftheRegulationsbeforeparagraph(b)isreplacedbythefollowing:
Requirementsfamilymember
128.Therequirementswithrespecttoapersonwhoisafamilymemberofamemberofthespouseor
commonlawpartnerinCanadaclasswhomakesanapplicationunderDivision6ofPart5arethefollowing:
(a)subjecttosubsection25.1(1),thepersonisafamilymemberoftheapplicantbothatthetimethe
applicationismadeandatthetimeofthedeterminationoftheapplicationand
8.(1)Subparagraphs132(1)(b)(ii)and(iii)oftheRegulationsarereplacedbythefollowing:
(ii)iftheforeignnationalisadependentchildofthesponsororofthesponsorsspouse,commonlaw
partnerorconjugalpartnerorisapersonreferredtoinparagraph117(1)(g),andislessthan19yearsof
agewhentheybecomeapermanentresident,ontheearlierof
(A)thelastdayoftheperiodof10yearsfollowingthedayonwhichtheforeignnationalbecomes
apermanentresident,and
(B)thedayonwhichtheforeignnationalreaches22yearsofage,
(iii)iftheforeignnationalisadependentchildofthesponsororofthesponsorsspouse,commonlaw
partnerorconjugalpartnerandis19yearsofageorolderwhentheybecomeapermanentresident,onthe
lastdayoftheperiodofthreeyearsfollowingthedayonwhichtheforeignnationalbecomesapermanent
resident,
(2)Paragraphs132(2)(b)and(c)oftheRegulationsareamendedbyreplacing22with19.
(3)Subsection132(4)oftheRegulationsisamendedbyreplacing22with19.
9.Section142oftheRegulationsisreplacedbythefollowing:
Requirementsfamilymembers
142.Subjecttosubsections25.1(1)and(6)to(8)andforthepurposesofthisDivision,tobeconsidereda
familymemberofanapplicant,apersonmustbeafamilymemberoftheapplicant
(a)atthetimetheapplicationreferredtoinparagraph139(1)(b)ismadeand
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(b)atthetimeofthedeterminationoftheapplicationreferredtoinparagraph141(1)(b).
10.(1)Subparagraphs295(1)(a)(ii)to(iv)oftheRegulationsarereplacedbythefollowing:
(ii)inrespectofaprincipalapplicantwhoisaforeignnationalreferredtoinanyofparagraphs117(1)(b)
or(f)to(h),islessthan19yearsofageandisnotaspouseorcommonlawpartner,$75,
(iii)inrespectofafamilymemberoftheprincipalapplicantwhoisaspouseorcommonlawpartner,$550,
and
(iv)inrespectofafamilymemberoftheprincipalapplicantwhoisadependentchild,$150
(2)Subparagraphs295(1)(b)(ii)and(iii)oftheRegulationsarereplacedbythefollowing:
(ii)inrespectofafamilymemberoftheprincipalapplicantwhoisaspouseorcommonlawpartner,$550,
and
(iii)inrespectofafamilymemberoftheprincipalapplicantwhoisadependentchild,$150and
(3)Subparagraphs295(1)(c)(ii)and(iii)oftheRegulationsarereplacedbythefollowing:
(ii)inrespectofafamilymemberoftheprincipalapplicantwhoisaspouseorcommonlawpartner,$550,
and
(iii)inrespectofafamilymemberoftheprincipalapplicantwhoisadependentchild,$150.
11.(1)Subparagraphs301(1)(a)(ii)and(iii)oftheRegulationsarereplacedbythefollowing:
(ii)inrespectofafamilymemberoftheprincipalapplicantwhoisaspouseorcommonlawpartner,$550,
and
(iii)inrespectofafamilymemberoftheprincipalapplicantwhoisadependentchild,$150and
(2)Subparagraphs301(1)(b)(ii)and(iii)oftheRegulationsarereplacedbythefollowing:
(ii)inrespectofafamilymemberoftheprincipalapplicantwhoisaspouseorcommonlawpartner,$550,
and
(iii)inrespectofafamilymemberoftheprincipalapplicantwhoisadependentchild,$150.
12.Paragraphs307(b)and(c)oftheRegulationsarereplacedbythefollowing:
(b)inthecaseofafamilymemberoftheprincipalapplicantwhoisaspouseorcommonlawpartner,
$550and
(c)inthecaseofafamilymemberoftheprincipalapplicantwhoisadependentchild,$150.

TRANSITIONALPROVISIONS
13.(1)Thedefinitiondependentchild,setoutinsection2oftheImmigrationandRefugee
ProtectionRegulations,asitreadimmediatelybeforethecomingintoforceoftheseRegulations,
continuestoapplyinrespectofadependentchildofthefollowingpersons:
(a)apersonwhoseapplicationforapermanentresidentvisaorforpermanentresident
statusismadebeforethecomingintoforceoftheseRegulations
(b)apersonwhomadeanapplicationtoQuebecforselectionasapersoninaparticularly
distressfulsituationbeforethecomingintoforceoftheseRegulationsandaCertificatde
slectionduQubecwasissuedtothatpersonbeforeorafterthecomingintoforceofthese
Regulations
(c)apersonwhomadeanapplicationtoQuebecforselectionasamemberoftheeconomic
classbeforethecomingintoforceoftheseRegulationsandaCertificatdeslectiondu
QubecwasissuedtothatpersonbeforeorafterthecomingintoforceoftheseRegulations
(d)apersonwhomadeanapplicationinaprovincefornominationasamemberofthe
provincialnomineeclassbeforethecomingintoforceoftheseRegulationsandanomination
certificatewasissuedtothatpersonbytheprovincebeforeorafterthecomingintoforceof
theseRegulations
(e)apersonwhomadetheirworkpermitapplicationunderDivision3ofPart6ofthe
ImmigrationandRefugeeProtectionRegulationsandwhoseworkpermitapplicationwas
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approvedbeforethecomingintoforceoftheseRegulations
(f)apersonwhomadeaclaimforrefugeeprotectioninCanadabeforethecomingintoforce
oftheseRegulationsandwhoacquiredprotectedpersonstatusbeforeorafterthecoming
intoforceoftheseRegulations
(g)apersonrespectingwhomareferralsetoutinsection140.3oftheImmigrationand
RefugeeProtectionRegulationswassubmittedtotheimmigrationofficebeforethecoming
intoforceoftheseRegulations
(h)apersonrespectingwhomasponsorshipapplicationwasmadeunderPart8ofthe
ImmigrationandRefugeeProtectionRegulationsonorbeforeOctober18,2012
(i)apersonrespectingwhomanundertakingapplicationwasmadetoQuebecbeforethe
comingintoforceoftheseRegulationsbyasponsorwhomeetstherequirementsof
sponsorshipsetoutinsection158andaCertificatdeslectionduQubecwasissuedtothat
personbeforeorafterthecomingintoforceoftheseRegulations
(j)apersonwhosecircumstanceswerebeingexaminedundersection25.2ofthe
ImmigrationandRefugeeProtectionActbeforethecomingintoforceoftheseRegulations
andwhomadeanapplicationforapermanentresidentvisaunderthatsectionafterthe
comingintoforceoftheseRegulationsand
(k)aparentorgrandparentrespectingwhomasponsorshipapplicationwasmadebefore
November5,2011.
(2)Section25.1oftheImmigrationandRefugeeProtectionRegulationsdoesnotapplywith
respecttothedependentchildofapersonreferredtoinsubsection(1).
(3)Thefeespayableforprocessinganapplicationreferredtoinsections295,301and307ofthe
ImmigrationandRefugeeProtectionRegulations,astheyreadimmediatelybeforethecominginto
forceoftheseRegulations,shallapplytoadependentchildofapersonreferredtoinsubsection(1)if
thatchildis22yearsofageorolderor,iflessthan22yearsofage,isaspouseorcommonlaw
partnerandmeetsthedescriptionsetoutinsubparagraph(b)(ii)ofthedefinitionofdependent
childinsection2ofthoseRegulationsasitreadimmediatelybeforethecomingintoforceofthese
Regulations.

COMINGINTOFORCE
14.TheseRegulationscomeintoforceonAugust1,2014.

REGULATORYIMPACTANALYSISSTATEMENT
(ThisstatementisnotpartoftheRegulations.)

Issues
Dependentchildrenofselectedimmigrantsareadmittedonthebasisoftheirrelationshiptotheprincipal
applicantinallimmigrationclasses(economic,family,andrefugee/humanitarian).Aswell,dependentchildren
maybesponsoredinthefamilyclass.Dependentchildrenrepresent30%oftheoverallimmigrantsadmitted
annuallytoCanada.Statisticsdemonstratethatolderdependentchildren(thosewhoarrivebetweentheages
of19and21)havelowereconomicoutcomesoverthelongrunthanthosewhoarriveinCanadaatayounger
age(between15and18yearsold).(seefootnote2)
Governmentandacademicresearchhasdemonstratedthatolderimmigrantshaveamorechallengingtime
fullyintegratingintotheCanadianlabourmarketthisismoreevidentforimmigrantswhoarenotselected
basedontheirownmerits(e.g.dependentchildren).(seefootnote3)
WhileCitizenshipandImmigrationCanada(CIC)hastightenedtheselectioncriteriaofeconomicmigrants
overtheyears,littleconsiderationhasbeengiventotheroleofyoungerdependentchildren,whohavebetter
socialandeconomicintegrationoutcomes.
Insum,thecurrentdefinitionofadependentchildforimmigrationpurposesisoutofstepwiththe
GovernmentofCanadasobjectiveofselectingmigrantswhocontributebesttoCanadaseconomicgrowthand
sustainability.

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Furthermore,thecurrentallowanceforolderdependentchildrenwhoarepursuingfulltimestudiesto
accompanyprincipalapplicantscreatessignificantchallengesandinefficienciesinprocessingapplications.The
verificationofattendanceandenrolmentisbothlabourintensiveandvulnerabletofraud.Processing
applicationsofolderchildrenwhoindicatethattheyarefulltimestudentsistimeconsumingforvisaoffices
becauseoftheneedtoverifysuchfactorsasthenatureoftheeducationalinstitutions,schoolrecords,and
claimsoffulltimeattendance.
Additionally,theexpandedeligibilityforfulltimestudentscanallowthosewhoarewellintotheirlate20sor
even30stocometoCanadaasdependentchildren,despiteweakerintegration,andweakerlongterm
economicperformanceoutcomes.Inadditiontotheabove,therearecurrentlyinconsistenciesinthe
proceduresCICusestolockin(orfreeze)theageofadependentchildataspecifiedpointintimeduring
theapplicationprocess.
CurrentagelockinproceduresforthefamilyandrefugeestreamsarebroadlydescribedintheRegulations
(sections121,128and142respectively)andfurtherclarifiedinoperationalmanuals(OP2Processing
MembersoftheFamilyClass,IP8SpouseandCommonlawPartnerInCanadaClass,andOP5Overseas
SelectionandProcessingofConventionRefugeesAbroadClassandMembersoftheHumanitarianprotected
PersonsAbroadClasses).Agelockinproceduresfortheeconomicstream(includingprovincialandterritorial
nomineeprogramsandQuebececonomicprograms)areexpressedinoperationalmanualsonly.
ForallpermanentresidentapplicationsexceptthosesubmittedunderQuebececonomicprograms,CIClocks
intheageofadependentchildatthedatethatCICreceivesacompleteapplicationforpermanentresidence.
AcompleteapplicationisonethatismadeinwritingusingtheformprovidedbytheDepartment,signedby
theapplicant,includingallinformationanddocumentationrequiredbytheRegulationsandotherevidence
requiredbytheActaswellasevidenceofpaymentoftheapplicablefee(seesection10oftheRegulations).
ForQuebececonomicapplicants,whomustobtainaCertificatdeslectionduQubec(CSQ)fromthe
provincepriortobeingabletosubmitapermanentresidentapplicationtoCIC,theageofanydependent
personislockedinatthedateQuebecreceivestheCSQapplication.
Agelockindeterminationshaveanimpactonapplicantswhomustundertakeamultistepimmigration
processsuchasthetwostepapplicationprocessforQuebecseconomicprograms.Otherimmigration
processeswithtwoormorestepsareprocessesforQuebecdistressedcasesandcollectivesponsorships,
provincialnominees,liveincaregivers,resettledrefugeesfromabroad,andinCanadaasylumclaimants.
Theseprogramsallinvolvetwoormorestepsintheimmigrationprocess,andsomecantaketwoyearsor
morebeforeanindividualisinapositiontosubmitanapplicationforpermanentresidencetoCIC.For
applicantsinalloftheseprograms,agelockindeterminationshaveasignificantimpactonwhethertheirchild
willbefoundeligibleforpermanentresidenceastheirdependentchild.

Background
TheGovernmentofCanadasdefinitionofadependentchildhasevolvedovertheyears.In2002,withthe
introductionoftheImmigrationandRefugeeProtectionRegulations(IRPR)undertheImmigrationandRefugee
ProtectionAct(IRPA),theeligibilityageofadependentchildwasraisedfrom19to22yearsofage.
UndertheIRPR,oneschildmaybeinasituationofdependencyandthereforefallunderthedefinitionof
dependentchildifheorsheisunder22yearsofageandnotaspouseorcommonlawpartner.Achildwho
is22yearsofageoroldermayalsobeconsideredadependentchildifthatpersonhasdependedonthe
financialsupportoftheparent(s)andhasattendedschoolcontinuouslyasafulltimestudentsincebeforethe
ageof22(or,ifmarriedorinacommonlawrelationshipbeforethatage,sincebecomingaspouseor
commonlawpartner).Finally,achildwhois22yearsofageoroldermaybeconsideredadependentchildif
thatpersonhasdependedonthefinancialsupportofhisorherparent(s)sincebeforetheageof22andis
unabletobefinanciallyselfsupportingduetoaphysicalormentalcondition.
Overthepastfiveyears,Canadahasweatheredtheglobalrecessionwell.However,economicstability
remainsfragile.Accordingly,emphasisontheobjectivesofIRPAtomaximizetheeconomicbenefitsof
immigrationandsupportthedevelopmentofastrongandprosperousCanadianeconomyhasbecomemore
centraltotheimmigrationagenda.SignificanttransformationstoCanadasimmigrationsystemarestillneeded
tosustaineconomicgrowth,jobcreationandprosperity.Akeyelementofthesetransformationsisanefficient
andeffectiveimmigrationsystemfocusedonCanadaseconomicandlabourforceneedstoattractimmigrants
whowillcontributetotheCanadianeconomy.

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Theaboveprinciplesarereflectedinthe2012and2013economicactionplansandthe2013Speechfrom
theThrone.The2012EconomicActionPlansettheGovernmentsimmigrationprioritygoalstofueleconomic
prosperity,transitiontoafastandflexibleeconomicimmigrationsystem,andselectimmigrantsthathavethe
skillsandexperiencerequiredtomeetCanadaseconomicneeds.Initseconomicactionplans2013and2014,
theGovernmentindicateditsintentiontofurtherimprovetheimmigrationsystemtofocusmoreonmeeting
Canadaseconomicneeds.

Objectives
Theprimaryobjectiveoftheseregulatoryamendmentsistoenhanceeconomicintegrationofimmigrant
dependentchildrentoincreaseCanadaseconomicpotential.Thiswillbeachievedbyreducingthemaximum
ageofdependentchildrentoadmitthosechildrenwhoaremorelikelytosuccessfullyintegrateintothelabour
marketandcontributetotheCanadianeconomy.Tofurtherensureadmittanceofyoungerchildren,the
exceptiontotheagelimitofdependentchildrenforfulltimestudentswillberemoved.
Asecondaryobjectiveoftheseamendmentsistoincreaseprocessingefficienciesandreducetheriskof
fraudbyremovingthecurrentexceptiontotheagelimitofdependentchildrenforfulltimestudents.
Athirdobjectiveistomitigatetheimpactofthenewdefinitiononeconomicandhumanitarianprograms
involvingamultistepimmigrationprocess,andbringconsistencyacrossallprogramsbyamendinginthe
RegulationsthedeterminationsCICusestolockintheageofadependentchildforallimmigrationcategories.
Transitionalprovisionswillalsomitigatetheimpactoftheamendmentsonmultistepimmigrationprograms,
butonlyforthosewhoseapplicationsarealreadyinprocess(seetheDescriptionsection).

Description
TheamendedRegulationswillnarrowthedefinitionofdependentchildbyreducingtheagelimittounder19
andremovetheexceptionforfulltimestudents.
Thelimitationintermsofcivilstatus(i.e.thatthechildmustnotbeaspouseorcommonlawpartner)and
theexceptionforolderdependantsunabletobefinanciallyselfsupportingduetoaphysicalormental
conditionwillberetained.
Consequentialamendmentstoensureconsistencywiththeproposeddefinitionwillbemadethroughoutthe
IRPR.
Lockindeterminationsthatofficersmustusetodeterminetheageofachildforthepurposeofassessing
whetherornotthechildmeetsthedefinitionofdependentchildwillbedefinedclearlyintheRegulationsfor
allcategories.Specifically,theageofdependentchildrenwillbelockedinat

Applicationprocesseswithonestep
ThedateCICreceivesacompletepermanentresidentapplication,forapplicantsinthefederaleconomic
class(e.g.federalskilledworkers,federalskilledtrades,CanadianExperienceClass,federalbusiness).
ThedateCICreceivesacompletepermanentresidentapplication,forapplicantsinthefamilyclass
(includingtheSpouseandCommonLawPartnersinCanadaclass).
ThedateCICreceivesacompletepermanentresidentapplication,forapplicantsforhumanitarianand
compassionateconsiderationinCanada.
ThedateCICreceivesacompletepermanentresidentapplication,togetherwithacompletesponsorship
undertaking,forprivatelysponsoredrefugees.

Applicationprocesseswithtwoormoresteps
ThedateQuebecreceivesacompleteapplicationforaCertificatdeslectionduQubec,forapplicants
inQuebececonomiccategories(QuebecskilledworkersandQuebecinvestors,entrepreneursandself
employed),personsindistressfulsituationsandpersonssponsoredundercollectivesponsorships
destinedtoQuebec.
ForprovincesandterritoriesotherthanQuebec,thedatetheprovinceorterritoryreceivesacomplete
applicationforprovincialnomination,forapplicantsintheProvincialNomineeprogram.
ThedateCICreceivesaninitialandcompleteworkpermitapplicationfromabroadfromapplicantsinthe
LiveInCaregiverprogram.
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ThedateCICreceivesareferralfromareferralorganization,forrefugeesselectedabroadwhoare
referredbyareferralorganization.
ThedateCICreceivesthepermanentresidencevisaapplicationforrefugeeprotectionasperparagraph
139(1)(b)oftheRegulationsforpersonswhodonotaccompanytheapplicantandapplyforpermanent
residencewithinoneyearfromthedayonwhichtherefugeeprotectionwasconferredtothatapplicant
(referredtoasoneyearwindow).
Thedateapersonsclaimwasmadetoanofficeraspersubsection99(3)ofIRPA,forpersonswhomade
aclaimforrefugeeprotectioninCanadaandwhosubsequentlyacquiredprotectedpersonstatus.
GiventhatagelockindeterminationsaredefinedintheRegulationsforallimmigrationstreamsand
programs,thereferencestoagelockinundersection121(Familyclass),section128(SpouseandCommon
LawPartnerclass)andsection142(Resettledrefugees)oftheRegulationshavebeenremoved.However,the
portionofthesesectionsdealingwiththeotherelementsofthedefinitionofdependentchildhavebeen
retained,i.e.thatthechildisnotaspouseoracommonlawpartnerand,whereitapplies,andthatthechild
isfinanciallydependentonhisorherparentsduetoaphysicalormentalcondition.Theseelementsarenot
lockedinatanypointduringtheimmigrationprocesstheymustbesatisfiedatthetimeofapplicationandat
thetimeatwhichthepermanentresidencestatusisgranted.Furthermore,asnosuchprovisionsexistinthe
currentRegulationsfortheeconomicandinCanadahumanitarianstreams,sectionswereaddedforthese
streams.
Finally,amendmentsareintroducedtothefeesofoveragedependentchildrenwhoarefinanciallydependent
ontheirparentsduetoaphysicalormentalcondition.Currently,thesechildrenaresubjecttothesame$550
processingfeesforaccompanyingaprincipalapplicantasdependentchildrenof22yearsofageorolder,or
lessthan22(butaspouseorcommonlawpartner),whoarefinanciallydependentontheirparentsbecause
theyarefulltimestudents.Foryoungeraccompanyingdependants(under22yearsoldandnotaspouseor
commonlawpartner),thoseprocessingfeesare$150.UndertheamendedRegulations,theonlyoverage
dependentchildren(19yearsofageorolder)willbethosewhoarefinanciallydependentontheirparentsdue
toaphysicalormentalcondition.Theamendmentswillapplythesamefeeof$150toallaccompanying
dependentchildren.The$550feewillcontinuetoapplytochildrenof22yearsofageandolderandtothose
lessthan22whoareaspouseorcommonlawpartner,whoareincludedinapplicationscoveredbytransitional
provisionsandwhoarefinanciallydependentontheirparentsbecausetheyarefulltimestudents(see
Transitionalprovisionsbelow).

Transitionalprovisions
Transitionalprovisionswillapplytoapplicationsinmultisteppermanentresidentimmigrationprograms,and
inparticularforapplicationswhichwillalreadybeinprocessatthetimeofcomingintoforce,butforwhich
theapplicationforpermanentresidencehasnotbeensubmittedtoCIC.Forthesegroupsofapplicants,there
wouldhavebeenanassumptionthatthesamedefinitionofdependentchildwouldapplythroughouttheentire
process,withtheexpectationthattheapplicantswouldbeabletobringtheirdependantstoCanadaupon
completionofthepermanentresidencyprocess.Thetransitionalprovisionswillallowtheseapplicantsto
benefitfromthepreamendmentdefinitionofdependentchild.
Programsinthiscategoryare
(i)ApplicantsselectedbyaprovinceorterritoryundertheProvincialNomineeorQuebececonomic
programs
ProvincialnomineesandQuebececonomicmigrantsmustfirstapplytotheprovince/territoryfor
nominationorselectionand,ifapproved,canapplytoCICforpermanentresidence.Incertainprovinces
andterritories,applicantsunderprovincialnomineebusinessstreamsarealsorequiredtofirstcometo
Canadaonatemporaryworkpermitforaperiodofuptotwoyearsbeforebeingnominated.Overall,it
maytakefromafewmonthstoyearsbeforeapplicantsareabletosubmitanapplicationforpermanent
residencetoCIC.
(ii)PersonsindistressfulsituationsselectedbyQuebec
PersonsinparticularlydistressfulsituationswhoaredestinedtoQuebecmustfirstobtainaCertificatde
slectionfromtheprovincebeforetheycansubmitanapplicationforpermanentresidence.
(iii)PersonsbeingsponsoredunderacollectivesponsorshipinQuebec
Forpersonsbeingsponsoredunderacollectivesponsorship,anundertakingapplicationmustfirstbemade
toQuebecifapproved,anapplicationforpermanentresidencecanbemadetoCIC.
(iv)Liveincaregivers
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LiveincaregiverscometoCanadafirstastemporaryforeignworkers,usuallywithouttheirchildren.Most
(98%)applyforpermanentresidencewiththeaimofreunitingwiththeirchildrenafterhavinggainedthe
requiredexperience,yearslater.
(v)SomerefugeeclaimantsandsomerefugeesapplyingforresettlementtoCanadafromabroad
Refugeesabroadandrefugeeclaimantshavebeenforcedtofleepersecutionandhavelittlecontrolonthe
destinationandtimingoftheirmigration.Itmaytakeyearsbeforetheyaregrantedprotectedperson
statusandcanfileanapplicationforpermanentresidence.
(vi)Personswhosecircumstancesarebeingexaminedunderpublicpolicyconsiderationsissuedbythe
MinisterofCitizenshipandImmigrationpursuanttosection25.2ofIRPA
PersonscomingtoCanadaunderpublicpoliciespursuanttosection25.2ofIRPAoftenexperiencerefugee
likesituationsandmayalsohavetowaitsometime,onceselectedunderthesepolicies,beforebeingable
tosubmittheirpermanentresidentapplications.
Furthermore,insomeprograms,twoapplicationsmustbesubmitted:asponsorshipapplicationanda
permanentresidentapplication.Inthepast,applicationsintheparentsandgrandparentscategoryandthe
PrivateSponsorshipofRefugeesProgramcouldbesubmittedseparately,i.e.thepermanentresident
applicationwouldfollowapositiveassessmentofthesponsorshipapplication.Althoughthereisnowa
requirementtosubmitbothapplicationstogether,therearestillsomeapplicationsthathavenotyetbeen
processedforwhichthenewrulesdonotapply.Inordernottopenalizeapplicantswhoatthetimeofcoming
intoforceoftheRegulationswouldhavesubmittedtheirsponsorshipapplicationundertheoldrulesbutnot
yetsubmittedtheirpermanentresidentapplication,thetransitionalprovisionswillalsobeapplied.Inboth
cases,thepermanentresidentapplication,whichincludestheapplicationforthedependentchild,willnot
havebeensubmittedwiththesponsorshipapplicationorwillnothavebeenreceivedbyCICatthetimeof
comingintoforceoftheproposednewdefinition.Applicantsintheseprogramsare
(vii)ParentsandgrandparentsforwhomasponsorshipapplicationalonewassubmittedbeforeNovember
5,2011,thedateonwhichCICputinplaceatemporarypauseontheacceptanceofnewsponsorship
applicationsinthiscategoryaspartofitsActionPlanforFasterFamilyReunification.
(viii)PrivatelysponsoredrefugeesforwhomasponsorshipapplicationwasreceivedbeforeOctober18,
2012.

Feerelatedtransitionalprovisions
Thefeespayableforprocessingapplicationsreferredtoinsections295,301and307ofIRPR,astheyread
immediatelybeforethecomingintoforceoftheseRegulations,willcontinuetoapplytodependentchildren
whoseapplicationsarecoveredbytransitionalprovisionsdescribedabove,whoare22yearsofageorolder
orlessthan22andaspouseorcommonlawpartnerandwhoarefinanciallydependentontheirparents
becausetheyarefulltimestudents,asdescribedinsubparagraph(b)(ii)ofthedefinitionofdependentchild
asitreadimmediatelybeforethecomingintoforceoftheseRegulations.

OneforOneRule
TheOneforOneRuledoesnotapplytothisproposal,asthereisnochangeinadministrativecoststo
business.

Smallbusinesslens
Thesmallbusinesslensdoesnotapplytothisproposal,astherearenocoststosmallbusiness.

Consultation
Inspring2012,aspartofCanadasActionPlanforFasterFamilyReunification,theMinisterofCitizenship
andImmigrationhostedaseriesofmulticityinpersonmeetingswithstakeholders.Anonlineconsultation
questionnairewasalsoavailableforpubliccommentregardingCanadasParentandGrandparentImmigration
Program.
Amongstdifferingquestions,participantswereaskedifCICshouldredefinetheeligibilityoffamilymembers
whoaccompanyparentsandgrandparents,includingtheirdependentchildren.Therewasageneralconsensus
thatyoungerapplicantswouldbenefitCanadaeconomically.Commentatorsfeltthattheywouldbebetterable
toparticipateinthelabourmarketandintegrateintoCanadiansocietyandmorelikelytosupporttheir
families.
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Prepublicationcomments
CICreceivedcommentsfromprovincialandterritorialgovernments,aswellas60submissionsofwritten
commentsinresponsetotheprepublicationoftheproposaltochangethedefinitionofdependentchildinthe
CanadaGazette,PartI,onMay18,2013.
The32organizationsthatsubmittedcommentsrepresented,inthemajority,immigrantandrefugeeserving
organizationsandadvocacygroups,aswellasanumberofsocialserviceagenciesandlegalclinics.
Respondentsalsoincludedfaithbasedorganizations,organizationsrepresentingthelegalprofession,and
ethnoculturalorganizations.Twentyeightcommentswerereceivedfromindividualsincludinglawyersand
immigrationconsultants.
AmongkeydomesticstakeholdersweresubmissionsfromtheCanadianBarAssociation,theBarreaudu
Qubec,theCanadianCouncilforRefugees,theTabledeconcertationdesorganismesauservicedes
personnesrefugiesetimmigrantes,theOntarioCouncilofAgenciesServingImmigrants,theCanadian
RefugeeSponsorshipAgreementHoldersAssociation,theMennoniteCentralCommitteeandsmallerregional
andlocalorganizationsfrommanyprovinces(Alberta,Saskatchewan,Ontario,Quebec,NewBrunswickand
NovaScotia).TheUnitedNationsHighCommissionerforRefugees(UNHCR)alsosubmittedwrittencomments
thatfocusedontheimpactoftheproposalontherefugeeresettlementprogram.
Ofthe60submissions,mostofthestakeholderswhorespondedwereopposedtoloweringtheupperage
limit.Anumberofimmigrantandrefugeesupportingorganizationsandindividualsopposedthereductionin
ageonseveralgrounds.

IRPAobjectives
ManywhowereopposedtotheproposalarguedthatitcountersIRPAsobjectivetoseefamiliesreunitedfor
allpermanentresidenceprograms(economic,familyandrefugee/humanitarian).Forexample,some
stakeholdersarguedthat19to21yearoldyoutharestillemotionallyandfinanciallydependentontheir
parents,particularlyinsomecultures.

Humanitarianandsafetyconcerns
Severalstakeholdersexpressedconcernswiththeimpactoftheproposalonrefugees.Theypointedoutthat
itwouldbedifficultforrefugeestomakearrangementsfortheiryoungadultchildrentolivesafelywith
extendedfamilyinthecountryoforiginandthatthereisariskthatsomefamiliesmaysacrificethesafetyof
youngadultchildren,particularlywomen,forwhomtheycanmakenoadequatearrangements.
TheUNHCRstatedtheproposalwouldresultinamisalignmentbetweentheUNHCRsconceptofadependent
childandCanadas,andnegativelyimpactitsabilitytorefersomerefugeefamiliestoCanadafor
resettlement.Theorganizationrequestedamitigatingmeasureshouldtheproposalbeimplemented,namely
tosettheagelockinpointasthedateonwhichCICreceivesarefugeereferralfromtheUNHCR.

Economicimpacts
Somestakeholdersdisagreedwiththenotionthatyoungerimmigrantsexperiencebettereconomic
outcomes.Somesuggestedthattheoveralleconomicimpactoftheamendmentsshouldconsiderother
factors,suchaswhethersomeoftheeconomicallybeneficialimmigrantsCanadaseekstoattractmightdecide
nottocometoCanadaiftheymaynotbringtheirolderchildren.

ProvincialNomineeprogramandQuebececonomicprogram
Provincesandterritories,immigrationconsultantsandsomeotherindividualsraisedconcernsthat
transitionalprovisionshadnotbeenproposedforProvincialNomineeandQuebececonomicprograms.The
absenceoftransitionalprovisionsfortheseprogramswouldmeanthatsomeprospectiveimmigrantsthrough
theseprogramswhoseapplicationswereawaitingdecisionswouldseetheirolderchildrenbecomeineligible.
Transitionalprovisionsallowingtheseapplicantstobenefitfromthepreamendmentdefinitionwouldmitigate
theimpactofthechangeinthedefinitionofdependentchildontheseapplicants.
Followingtheprepublicationconsultationandfurtheranalysis,CICdeterminedthattheproposedreductionin
agelimitandremovaloftheexceptionforstudentswillbemaintained.Inadditiontoreunitingfamilies,IRPA
envisionsthesuccessfuleconomicandsocialintegrationofpermanentresidentsintoCanada.Childrenover
theageof19willnotbepreventedfromimmigratingtoCanadatheywillhavetoqualifyontheirownmerits
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underoneofCanadasimmigrationprogramsorstreams.Additionally,CICdecidedtocomplementtheoriginal
proposalwithmeasuresthatwouldrespondtoseveralkeyconcerns.Thesemeasuresinclude
1)providingtransitionalprovisionsforprovincialandterritorialnomineeprogramsandQuebececonomic
programs,aswellasQuebecspecialprocessesforpersonsinaparticularlydistressfulsituationselected
byQuebecandpersonssponsoredundercollectivesponsorshipsdestinedtoQuebec(seethe
Implementation,enforcementandservicestandardssection)
2)addingregulatoryprovisionsregardingagelockinproceduresforallcategories.Suchlockin
procedureswillmitigatetheimpactofthechangestothedefinitionforcertainoftheeconomic
immigrationprograms,addresssomeofthehumanitarianandsafetyconcernsidentifiedwithregardsto
youngadultrefugees,andprovideaconsistentapproachacrossallimmigrationprograms.

Rationale
Amendmentstothedefinitionofdependentchild
Twofactorsexplainthesuccessfuleconomicintegrationofyoungerdependants:(1)theyreceiveaCanadian
educationandlaterobtainCanadianworkexperience,whichisbetterrecognizedbyCanadianemployersand
(2)theydisplayanincreasedabilitytoadjusttoanewlinguisticandculturalcontext.(seefootnote4)
TheyoungerimmigrantsarewhentheyaregrantedCanadianpermanentresidence,thebettertheirlong
termlabourmarketoutcomesrelativetothosewhoimmigrateatalaterage,andthemorecloselytheir
experienceresemblesthatofpeopleborninCanada.(seefootnote5)Theearlierinlifeimmigrantsarrive,the
moretheireducationalexperiencewillresemblethatoftheirCanadianborncounterpartsandtheeasieritwill
beforthemtolearnanofficiallanguage,assumingtheirfirstlanguageisnotEnglishorFrench,andadaptto
Canadianculturaltraitsandsocialnorms.TheyoungeranimmigrantiswhenlandinginCanada,themoretime
theimmigranthastogainhumancapitalskillsspecifictotheCanadianlabourmarket.
Ageatimmigrationfrequentlydetermineswhereapersonreceiveshisorhereducation.Withevidencethat
thereturnonCanadianeducationinCanadaisusuallymuchhigherthanthereturnonforeigneducation,age
atimmigrationbecomesoneofthemostimportantfactorsindeterminingtheeconomicoutcomesof
immigrants.(seefootnote6)Researchfurthersuggeststhatthechildrenofimmigrantswhohaveschoolingin
Canadahaveeconomicoutcomeswhichareonparwith,andinsomeinstancessurpass,theaverageonesof
Canadianbornchildren.(seefootnote7)
Theamendeddefinitionofdependentchild,basedontheageof19,isinlinewithmostprovincial,federal
andinternationalstandardsbywhichachildisconsideredtohavereachedtheageofindependence(i.e.age
18or19).
InCanada,eachprovinceandterritorydecidesitsrespectiveageofmajority.Anyoneunderaprovincialage
ofmajorityisconsideredtobeaminororchild.AcrossCanada,theageofmajorityis18or19years,
varyingfromprovincetoprovince.Currently,itis18yearsinAlberta,Manitoba,Ontario,PrinceEdwardIsland,
QuebecandSaskatchewan,whileitis19yearsinBritishColumbia,NewBrunswick,Newfoundlandand
Labrador,NovaScotia,Nunavut,theNorthwestTerritoriesandYukon.CanadasCriminalCodealsotreatsthose
whoare18yearsoldandoverasadults.
Inmostcountries,includingtheUnitedStates,theUnitedKingdom,Australia,NewZealandandCanada,a
personiseligibletovoteattheageof18.
TheamendmentstothedefinitionofdependentchildrespondtoGovernmentprioritiesofhavingan
immigrationsystemfocusedonCanadaseconomicandlabourforceneeds.Reducingtheageofdependants
allowsforflexibilitytoselectimmigrantsbasedontheireconomicpotential,theirabilitytointegratemore
rapidlyintothelabourmarket,andthedurationoftheircontributiontotheeconomy.Analysisrevealsthat,on
average,skilledworkershavethebesteconomicoutcomes.(seefootnote8)Theyarefollowedbydependent
childrenunder19yearsofage,whoaresuccessfullyintegratedintoCanadiansocietybythetimetheyenter
thelabourmarket.
ThechangetothedefinitionofdependentchildstillmeetstheIRPAobjectiveoffamilyreunificationas
parentscanstillbringwiththemtheirchildrenwhoareundertheageof19,anagewheremostchildrenare
justcompletingsecondaryschool.Olderchildren(aged19andover)willhavetodemonstratetheirown
integrationmeritsthroughotherCanadianimmigrationprograms.In2012,dependentchildrenundertheageof

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19constituted90%(66782)ofallchildrenforwhomapermanentresidentapplicationwasapprovedthat
year,whilethoseaged19andolderwere10%(7832).(seefootnote9)
Atcurrentprocessinglevels,approximately7000individuals(seefootnote10)(ages19andabove,fromall
immigrationcategoriescombined)willnolongerbeconsidereddependentchildrenasaresultofthe
amendmenttothedefinitionofdependentchild.Mostoftheseindividualswillbechildrenofapplicantsinthe
PGP(25%),Business(14%),andProvincialNomineeprograms(19%)whoapplyafterthecomingintoforceof
thenewdefinition.
Theimpactonapplicantsoftheamendmenttothedefinitionofdependentchildwillbemitigatedona
temporarybasisbytransitionalprovisionsthatwillallowapplicantswhohavealreadyinitiatedtheir
immigrationprocessatthetimeofcomingintoforceofthenewdefinitiontocompletethisprocessunderthe
samecriteria,i.e.thepreamendmentdefinitionofdependentchild(seetheImplementation,enforcementand
servicestandardssection).
Childrenaged19andabovewhowillnolongerbeabletoimmigrateasdependantsoftheirapplicant
parentsmaydecidetocometoCanadaasinternationalstudents.Ifsuchinternationalstudentsacquire
Canadianworkexperienceaftergraduationandmeetotherapplicablerequirements,theymayapplyfor
immigrationundertheCanadianExperienceClass,whichtodatehasyieldedpositiveeconomicandlabour
marketoutcomes.OthersmaydecidetoapplytocometoCanadaontheirownmeritthroughvariouseconomic
programs.ThiswillhelpCanadaattractandretainqualifiedimmigrantswhohavetheskillsandexperience
requiredtocontributetoCanadasoveralleconomicgrowth.

Amendmentsrelatedtoagelockin
Giventheamendmenttotheupperagelimitfromunder22tounder19,parentswithchildreninthe16to18
agerangewhoarejustbeginningamultistepimmigrationprocesswillreasonablyworrywhethertheirchildren
willstillbeeligiblebythetimetheyareabletosubmittheirapplicationforpermanentresidencetoCIC.This
maydetersomeoftheeconomicallybeneficialimmigrantsthatCanadaisseekingtoattractfromchoosing
Canada.
Regulationsdefininglockindeterminationswillmitigatethisimpactforcertainimmigrationcategoriesand
provideaconsistentapproachacrossallpermanentresidenceprogramsbasedontheprincipleoflockingin
thechildsageatthefirstformalstageoftheimmigrationprocess.
Thesenewlockinprovisionswillprovideapermanentandconsistentapproachtoagelockinbasedonthe
principlethatthechildsagewillbelockedinatthefirststageofamultistepapplicationprocess(i.e.Quebec
economicprograms,theProvincialNomineeprogram,theLiveinCaregiverprogram,refugeeresettlementin
whichareferralorganizationmakesareferral,andtheInCanadaAsylumprogram).Theearlierlockinpoints
willoffsetthedeterrenceeffectofthenarrowerdefinitionofdependentchildforsomeoftheimmigrants
CanadaisseekingtoattractthosewiththeskillsCanadaneedstostrengthentheeconomy,whoare
seekingtoimmigrateviaoneofthesemultistepimmigrationprograms,andwhohaveteenagechildrenwho
mightnotbeeligibletoaccompanythembythetimetheirpermanentresidentapplicationisassessed.They
willalsohelpoffsettheimpactonCanadasrefugeeprotectionprograms,andhelpCanadacontinuetoprovide
protectiontofamiliesinneed.
Basedonthenumberofpersonswhosepermanentresidentapplicationswereapprovedin2012,newlockin
determinationswillreducetheimpactofthenewdefinitionbyabout35%.Inotherwords,theannualnumber
ofindividualswhowillnotbeeligibletoimmigrateasdependentchildrenbecauseofbothchanges(the
changeindefinitionofdependentchildalongwithnewlockinregulations)isexpectedtobe35%lowerthan
ifonlythedefinitionofdependentchildhadbeenchanged.

Overallimpactofamendments
TheoverallcostsofthenewRegulationstotheGovernmentofCanadaareexpectedtobeveryminimal.
Communicationandoperationalmeasuresareexpectedtoamounttoacostofapproximately$62,000.
TheseregulatoryamendmentswillincreaseCanadaseconomicpotentialbyenhancingtheeconomic
integrationofimmigrantsoverall.TheywillensurethatdependentchildrenwhocometoCanadaarethosewith
bettereconomicintegrationpotential.Theywillalsocreatemorespaceinthelevelsplanforimmigrants
selectedfortheireconomicpotential.

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ThenewRegulationswillalsoimproveprocessingefficienciesinprocessingimmigrationapplications,
allowingvisaofficesmoretimetoassessotherimmigrationapplicationsratherthanassessingthefulltime
studentstatusofolderchildren(aprocessthatisvulnerabletofraud).

Implementation,enforcementandservicestandards
TheseRegulationscomeintoforceonAugust1,2014.

Newdefinitionofdependentchild
Forallapplicantswhosubmittedapermanentresidentapplicationpriortothecomingintoforcedate,the
existingdefinitionofadependentchildwillcontinuetoapply.
Forapplicantswhosubmitanysponsorshipapplicationand/orpermanentresidentapplicationonorafterthis
date,thenewdefinitionofadependentchildwillapply,exceptthosewhobenefitfromthetransitional
provision(seetheDescriptionsection).
Onceallapplicantscoveredbythesetransitionalprovisionshavecompletedtheirimmigrationprocess(i.e.
oncetheirpermanentresidentapplicationhasbeenprocessed),theseprovisionswillnolongerapply.

Agelockinprovisions
Thenewlockinprovisionsareongoing.Theywillapplytoallapplicationsforpermanentresidencereceived
byCIConorafterthecomingintoforceoftheseamendments,exceptthoseapplicationsforpermanent
residencewhichwillbenefitfromanyofthetransitionalprovisionsdescribedbelow.

Communications
Acommunicationstrategyisbeingdevelopedtoinformthepublic,stakeholdersandotherkeyaudiencesof
thesechanges.Anewsreleaseandbackgroundersareproposedandwouldbeissuedpubliclyandpostedon
CICsWebsite.Webcontent,includingaWebnoticeandnoticeboxeswithlinkstonewforms,kitsand
guides,willbecreatedandacomplementarysocialmediacampaignwillbedevelopedtomaximize
disseminationofthisinformation.

Contact
CarolineRiverinBeaulieu
ThisWebpagehasbeenarchivedontheWeb.
AssistantDirector
SocialPolicyandPrograms
CitizenshipandImmigrationCanada
365LaurierAvenueW,8thFloor
Ottawa,Ontario
K1A1L1
Email:Caroline.RiverinBeaulieu@cic.gc.ca
Footnotea
S.C.2008,c.3,s.2
Footnoteb
S.C.2001,c.27
Footnotec
S.C.2013,c.16,s.4
Footnoted
S.C.2013,c.16,par.37(2)(b)
Footnotee
S.C.2012,c.31,s.312
Footnotef
S.C.2001,c.27
Footnote1
SOR/2002227
Footnote2
Source:LongitudinalImmigrationDatabase(IMDB),managedbyStatisticsCanada,whichcombineslinked
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immigrationandtaxrecords.AnalysiswasconductedbyCIContheincidenceofemploymentearningsandthe
amountofemploymentearningsofimmigrantswhoimmigratedtoCanadaasdependentchildren,byage
groupings.Forexample,byage30,dependantsthatarrivedin1988atages15to18earnedroughly20%
morethandependantsthatarrivedatages19to21.
Footnote3
InadditiontostatisticalanalysisusingtheIMDB,CICalsoreviewedpublishedgovernmentandacademic
research,including:Schaafsma,Joseph,andArthurSweetman(2001).ImmigrantEarnings:Ageat
ImmigrationMatters,CanadianJournalofEconomics,November2001,v.34,iss.4,pp.106699Friedberg,
R.(1993)andTheLaborMarketAssimilationofImmigrantsintheUnitedStates:TheRoleofAgeatArrival,
mimeo,BrownUniversity.
Footnote4
Schaafsma,Joseph,andArthurSweetman(2001).ImmigrantEarnings:AgeatImmigrationMatters,
CanadianJournalofEconomics,November2001,v.34,iss.4,pp.106699.
Footnote5
Ibid.Boudarbat,Brahim,andMaudeBoulet(2010).Undiplmepostsecondairecanadien:untremplinvers
desemploisdequalitpourlesimmigrants,InstituteforResearchonPublicPolicy.
Footnote6
Hiebert,D.(2006)SkilledImmigrationinCanada:Context,PatternsandOutcomes.InBirrell,Hawthorneand
Richardson,EvaluationoftheGeneralSkilledMigrationCategories.CommonwealthofAustraliaShellenberg
andMaheux(2007).ImmigrantsPerspectivesontheirfirstFourYearsinCanada:HighlightsfromThree
WavesoftheLongitudinalSurveyofImmigrantstoCanada.CanadianSocialTrends.(Spec.ed.)Anisef,P.
Sweet,R.andFrempong,G.(2004).FieldofStudy(FOS)andLabourMarketOutcomesofImmigrantand
RacialMinorityUniversityGraduatesinCanada.
Footnote7
PicotandHou(2011).SeekingSuccessinCanadaandtheUnitedStates:TheDeterminantsofLabourMarket
OutcomesamongtheChildrenofImmigrants.
Footnote8
Source:LongitudinalImmigrationDatabase
Footnote9
Basedonoperationaldata(averagenumber/proportionofdependentchildren19andaboveapprovedperyear
byagebracket/categoryfortheperiod20052010).
Footnote10
Ibid.

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Datemodified: 20140618

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