# ﻿Portal Frame

Design Of Portal Frame

h

L

• O. W. of the steel structure which include ( purlins, ratters, bracings) Ws = (20 - 35) kg/m" "depend on span ~ L ".

• Weight of steel cover

We: = (5 - 8) kg/m ' for single layer.

= (12 - 18) kg/nr' for double layer.

Wd = ( (We / cos a) + W s ) x s

• LL. = 60 - 66.67 tan a "for inaccessible roofs" = 200 - 300 tan a "for accessible roofs"

Wq_=LL xS

11?4

Portal Frame

W",md = ( C, x K x q ) x S

K == 1. 0 for h :s 10 m == 1. 1 for h :s 20 m

q == 70 kg/nr' in Cairo

W

:2

Pressure side

o Vertical surface" surface I" Ce = +D.8

WI = 0.8 x l.0 x 70 x S

w

Pressure side

Suction side

o Inclined Surface" surface 2"

C, = depends on inclination of surface

For tan a < 0.4 - C, = -0.6

For tan a > 0.8 - C, = +D.8

For 0.8 < tan a < 0.4 - C, = we have 2 values

For slopes 5: 1 to 20: 1 tan a < 0.4 C, = -0.6 W2 = -0.6 x 1.0 x 70 x S

Suction side

o Vertical surface" surface 3 H C, = -0.5

W3 = -0.5 x 1.0 x 70 x S

~O.8

tan (1

o Inclined Surface " surface 4" C, = -0.5

W4 = -0.5 x 1.0 x 70 x S

We solve the frame as work method.

" in case of using computer program take lcol = ( 1.5 - 2.5 ) Igirder"

>I< In case of neglecting Wind Loads we can calculate approximate value of RM.

M-ve=WrxL2/( 13-15)

. .

M -ve

M +ve = ( 0.55 - 0.60) x M-ve

Ncol = Wr x L 12

Case (A) D.L. + L.L.

4114

Portal Frame

Wind etTect

Case of wind neglected

Case of wind may be critical

For all sections 1,2&3

Taking wind load will decrease the moment

So neglect the wind effect

For sections 1&2

Taking wind load will decrease the moment

So neglect the wind effect

For sections 3&4

Taking wind load will increase the moment

So we must study the effect of that mcrease

MA=MD+ML

M8 = MD + ML + Mw

Case A CaseB

If (MB - MA ) I MA < 20% neglect wind

Design on MA case A

)1/4

Portal Frame

Desi1!,D of rafter

'" We will divide the rafter in 3 sections, M2 max +ve M3 max+-ve

Mh at end of haunch

M

* The design of rafter is based on M: .we will use haunch

to safeguard section M3.

'" The rafter is subjected to both M N

but we can neglect N as it is very small.

1- Choice of Section:

M F

= <

IS"' - bcx

.r

Assume tb = 1.536 t/cm ' " compact section " and get the S, required = _Af 2 cm '

. 1.536

and from the tables we choose the appropriate IPE

Check

Check for compact Section

1380 ArCb / ( t; d)

" Cb = 1.3 II

Sec 2-2: Max +ve

Luact == a "at positive moment zone.compression is on upper flange purlins are laterally supporting the upper flange"

Luact = a < Lumax so Fbcx == ( 1.4 ifnon compact 1.536 if compact sec ). > Lumax so F bcx == Fltb

f)/?4

Portal Frame

Sec 5-5: End of the haunch

To get the position of sec where Mh = M2

( position of the end of the haunch) , we have to calculate the M-ve at any point on the rafter.

From the figure by taking a section at distance X from column

I Mx == X (h + X tan a) + WI X2 / 2 - Y x X

x tan a

a

x

h

I to get Xh put M, == M2

2 to get the point of Zero Shear" beginning of the +ve moment zone" X,

put Mx zero Y

Luact == X, "at negative moment zone, compression is on lower flange "

X, < Lumax so sec 5-5 is safe as sec 2-2

> Lumax so use knee bracing to decrease

and so Fbcx == ( 14 if non compact 1.536 if compact sec ).

L 80X80X8

L 60X60X6

PL 10MM

Sec 3-3: Max -ve

I, == tw X (2h)3 I 12 + 2 ( bf X tr)( h - tr / 2 )2 Sx == I, / Y = I, I h

Fbcx = ( 1.4 if non compact

1.536 if compact sec)

Purlin

y

h

x

h

71?4

Portal Frame

Desi,n of column

Choose the critical section 1 " without wind" or 4 " with wind"

l-Choice of Section:

'j . AI 3

Assume fb = 1.2 t/crn" and get the Sx required =-~-:'.. cm

. 1.2

and from the tables we choose the appropriate IPE .

2-Check

finalv get t~a Fe, tt)X , Fbcx and A, and check + /bX_ A) S; 1.00 as

_. •.. ~ ~cr

previously described in design of rolled columns.

RI?4

Portal Frame

Side and End &rits

Both side and end girts are used to mount the side or end cladding, the difference between the two is that the side girts are supported on the main column and the end girts are supported on the end gables column.

I t S , t S , ( s , I' I
I I

SI

S1

S1

Design Procedure:

OVvTI weight (15 - 20) kg/m.

Weight of the steel sheets We = (5-8) kg/m ' for single layer.

In this case the wind load will be a main load so it will be a case A

W",ind = ( Ce x K x q ) x a

The straining actions.

• Wx = due to wind load only

Wx = W wind Vlnd load c(> ¥----fttlfl- +I-t---¥

"'r

Ce= 0.8

K= 1.0 for h S; 10 m

= 1. 1 for h S; 20 m q = 70 kg/m ' in Calf 0

W xS2 My =.~~~~-

8

• Wy = due to dead loads only Wy= wx a r o.w

;1.[ =WyxS2

s: Y 1:'"

8

Such that S is:

The span of side girtd = spacing between main frames columns. The span of end girts = spacing between end gables columns.

x

Side Dr End Girt

~

Dend Lond

9//4

Portal Frame

And a is:

The spacing between side or end girts.

3- Choice of Section:

As the channels are non compact sections so F hex = 1.4 tfcm2

Assume S, = 7 Sy for hot rolled sec. or S, = 6 S, for cold formed sec ..

. ~ . '. . _ lif x + (60r7)Af y 3

By solving the first equation we get the S, required --~~l.4~-·~~c- em

And from the tables we choose the appropriate channel.

4- Check

AI, Aiy , {' =-~~+--<} 16 S S - ba

r y

N.B.:

In case of not satisfied we increase the channel section or use tie rod to reduce My

101?4

Portal Frame

End Gable Column

The end gable column is the supporting element of the end girts, its statical system is hinged base and roller connection with the rafter as shown in figure, so there is no normal force transmitted from the rafter to the end gable.

/
£nO CJr-t ::==-_/ <c.> ~~
.........
l
I I
£nO QQbI.-

, I ( f " , Design Procedure:

1. O\\:TI weight (40 - 60) kg/m"

11. Weight of the steel sheets We = (5-8) kg/m ' for single layer. 111. Weight of the end girts Wg = (10 - 20) kg/m "".

L In this case the wind load will be a mam load so it will be a case A

11. W wind = (C, x K x q) x S I

Ce= 0.8

K = 1. 0 for h s 10 m = l.1 for h s 20 m q = 70 kg/rrr' in Cairo

4- The straining actions:

'.tinct Loo.ct ~ '.t

a. Wx = due to wind load only Wx= Wwind

11//4

Hz Brac:Jng

End

Portal Frame

N=WcX(SI x hj f o.w. x b +w, x r number of girts j x S.

Such that

SI = The span of end girts == spacing between end gables columns. h = The end gable height.

5- Choice of Section:

Al

fb =S~x.- ::; r:

<

Assume fb = 1.2 t/crrr' and get the Sx required = ':/; cm3 and from the tables we choose the appropriate IPE .

6- Check

3- Ibm = Iby = Iuact::::: the bigger of ( distance between end girts or height of wall) .

4- 1 bout = lbx = h

5- Check for compact Section

6- LUact distance between end girts

Calculate Lumax ==

1380 x F xd

v

8- And finalv get t~a Fe, tbx ,Fbcx and AI and check L.a. + fbx X AI S 1.00

-' , F F

c hex

as previously described in design of rolled columns, Purlin!

I

Rafter _-

_--_-

Angle

1?/?4

Example :

Portal Frame

It is required for the shown industrial building to :-

24m

42m

a. Draw with a suitable scale a complete layout for the main system "2 hinged steel frame" of clear height 8 m .

c. Design the Col, Rafter, Side girts & end gable column.

lil?4

A ) The general layout.

I ! I II

I f'.------+-----"'i

k ~ ~

1 4.0 m T 4.0 m 7]

Vertical Bracing

2.0m

H

"
f' .:~ V ~ t>< V t""" 1}P!:
i-. [X I I II
-. Ii'
V / l\.,,1 I l'-. Ii
.1 " i II
I
I 1
I I !
I
I I I
I .:~ V ~, V I~ txV r , VI;
~
- [X I/t><~, [X
,~ I I
N .;/ 1/ I~I;
"'T' ~ r~ V
I I
I i
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I I
t- V r-. / r-, / ~ R:~
tx jl
I [X >< II
.:/ -, V r-. V r-, V II
JI
-, L- l-

1 1

l 6.0m

1¥----- 24.0 m ---...,j/

Plan

14/24

2.0m

10:1 H

~

1

8.0m

1.0 m

Elevation

l
-,
p:.- ~ "-
I I
I
I !II I
, . I
I 8
I I
~il I I~
r..,_ I
~; II I~
'/J ...::,. .-- 10'.1

~

.O m

L _ ___.,l

~ 1 1

r/ 6_.0_m ~l

24.0 m 1

End Gable Section

15/24

Portal Frame

tan a = 0.1

a 5.71°

• W = 15 kg/nr'

s ~

• We = 5 kg/rrr'

Wd = «We / cos a) + Ws) x S = «5/ cos 5.71) + 25) x 6 = 180 kg/m

• LL. = 60 - 66.67 tan a = 60 - 66.67 x 0.1 = 53.33 kg/rrr' WL = LL. x S = 53.33 x 6 = 320 kg/m

K= 1.0 for h S 10m = L 1 for h :s 20 m

q = 70 kg/m ' in Cairo

Pressure side

o Vertical surface" surface I" W

C, = +0.8

WI = 0.8 x La x 70 x 6 = 340 kg/m

o Inclined Surface " surface 2" tan a = 0.1 < 0.4 C, = -0.6

W2 = -0.6 x La x 70 x 6 = -250 kg/m

Suction side

o Vertical surface" surface 3" c, = -0.5

W3 = -0.5 x La x 70 x 6 = - 200 kg/m

o Inclined Surface" surface 4" Ce = -0.5

W4 -0.5 x La x 70 x 6 = -200 kg/m

WT = We! + W L = 0.3 2 + O. 18 = 0.5 tim

W

W

1 f)/)4

Original system

1

Case (A) D.L. L.L.

Modified system

1

t

6 ton

i

I

6 ton

Case (A) D.L. L.L.

9 mt 36 mt

9.2 mt

Pressure Suction

side : side I

I

Case (8) W.L.

.....-4.32 ton

t

3.53 ton

Case (8) W.L.

+

1.84 ton

2.72 mt

3.2 mt

1.6 mt

17/24

Portal Frame

From case A .( Dead + Live Only)

b] 0 = 2 ( 36 x 12 / 2 x -( 8 + 2/3 x 1.2 ) + ( 2/3 x 9 x 12 ) x -( 8/2 + 9.2/2 » = -5040

bll = 2 ( 8 x 8 / 2 x 2/3 x 8 + 8 x 12 x ( 8/2 + 9.2/2 ) + 1. 2 x 12/2 x (8 + 2/3 x I 2 » = 21 19.25

bl0+Xj Xbll =0 X, = 2.378

From case B .( Wind Load)

blO = 2/3 x 2.72 x 8 x 4 - 23.2 x 8/2 x 2/3 x 8

+ 2/3 x 4.5 x12 x 8.6 - 22.56 x 12/2 x 8.4 - 0.64 x 12 x 2 x 8.6 + 2/3 x 3.6 x 12 x 8.6 - 5.75 x 1212 x 8.4

+ 2/3 x 8 x 1.6 x 4 - 6.4 x 8/2 x 2/3 x 8 = -1540.4

bll == 2 ( 8 x 8 j 2 x 2/3 x 8 + 8 x 12 x ( 8/2 + 9.2/2) + 1.2 x 1212 x (8 + 2/3 x 1.2 » = 211925

010 + Xi X b1 I = 0 X, = 0.726

Final Moment

6.06 mt

0.16 mt

Case (A) D.L. + L.L.

Case of wind neglected

Design of rafter:

M2 = 13 mt

N = neglected

Assume f= 1.536 tlcm2 S, = 13 x 100/ 1.536 = 850 em"

Choose LP.E 360

181?4

Portal Frame

Check:

Dwl tw = ( 36 - 4 x 1.27) 10.8 = 38.6 < 82

C/tr=8.511.27=6.7< 10.9

Lumax = 20 bf I ;j Fy = 20 x 17 I ;j2.4 = 219

Sec 2-2: M+ve

Luact = a = 200 cm < Lumax = 219

Sec is compact

F bcx = 1.536 t I cm2

0.5

Sec 5-5: End of the haunch

I Mx = X ( h + X tan a ) + W T X2 I 2 - Y x X I

1\ i I I " t

x tan a

M, = 2.5 (8 + X x 0.1 ) + 0.5 X2/2 - 9 x X

= 0.25 X2 - 5.75 X + 20

20/8 = 2.5-"<--...- ...

1 to get Xh put M, = M2

13 = 0.25 Xh2 - 5.75 Xh + 20

Xh = 1.29 take length of haunch = 1.5 m

6

2 to get the point of Zero Shear" beginning of the -ve moment zone " X, put M, = zero

0= 0.25 Xo2 - 5.75 X, + 20 x,« 4.27 III

Luact = 4.27 m > Lumax so use knee bracing

y

and so Fbcx = 1.536 t/crrr'

Sec 3-3: Max -ve

I, = tw X (2h)3 I 12 + 2 ( br x tf)( h tf /2 )2

I, = 0.8 X (72)3 / 12 + 2 ( 17 x 1.27 )( 36 - l.27 /2)2 = 78887 cm4

Sx = I, / y = 78887 / 36 = 2191.6 cnr' Fbcx = 1.536 tlcm2

x

1.27

19/14

Portal Frame

Design of column

Choice of lee 1 - 1 :

M, = 20mt

N= 6 ton

Assume f= 1.2 t/cm2 S, = 20 x 100/1.2 = 1666.6 cm''

Choose LP.E 500

Check

Lbm = K x 8

GA = 10 hinged base

GB = (Ie 1 L, ) I (Ig 1 Lg ) = (48200 J 8 ) I ( 17270 J 24) = 8.4 K = 2.90

=2.90x8=23.20m

Lbout = 4.0 m

)"m=Lbx/rx=2330J20.4= 113.7< 180 = Lby J r y = 400 J 4.3 1 = 92.8 < 180 = 113.7> 100

F = 7500 1(l137i = 0.58 t/crn'' Fed = 6/116 = .052 t/cnr'

Fbx = M, 1 Sx = 2000 11930 = 1.036 t 1 cnr'

Luact = 400 em

Lumax = 20 bf 10 Fy = 20 x 20 102.4 = 258.2 < 400

Section is non compact or slender

:= - N 1 A + M; 1 Sx = -.052 + 1.036 = .99

F2 -N/A-Mx/Sx=-.052-1.036=-1.09

If!=F\/F:; =-.9>-1

Dwl tw = ( 50 - 4 x l.6 ) 1l.02 = 42.7 < (190 / ((',iFy) x (2 + If! ))) = 111.5

C /tr= 10/1.6=6.25 < 14.8

Sec is non compact

?c)/)4

Portal Frame

a = M!!IIJalJ ~ig = - 10 / 20 = -.5 Cx= 1.75+ l.05 a+.3 a2= 13

Fltb=800AfCb/(Lud)=800x20x 1.6 x 1.3/(400x50)= 1.66> 1.4 Focx = 14 t / cm2

Applvin& interaction equation:

.09 + 1.0 x 1.036/1.4 = 0.83 < 1 "case A" safe.

10

71/)4

Portal Frame

Design Of end gable:

h = 8 + 12 x 0.1 9.2 m a. Dead Load:

1. Own weight 50 kg/rn'.

11. Weight of the steel sheets We = 6 kg/rrr'. 111. Weight of the end girts w g = 20 kg/m'.

1. In this case the wind load will be a main load so it will be a case A

II. Wwind= (Ce x K x q) X Sl

Ce=08

K = 1. 0 for h ~ 10 m q = 70 kg/m ' in Cairo

2 The straining actions:

..... lnd Loo.d c:::[:>

a. Wx = due to wind load only

Wx= W\VlIld = 0.8 x 1 x 70'x 6 = 0.336 Urn'

TV xh2

Afr = = 0.336 X 9.2218 = 3.55 mt

8

N= WeX (SJ X h) +o.w. x h +w, x (number of girts ) x SJ x

N = 6 x (6 x 9.2) + 50 x 9.2 + 20 x ( 5 ) x 6 = 1.4 ton

Choice of sec:

M, = 3.55 mt

N = 1.4 ton

Assume f= 1.2 t/cm ' S, = 3.55 x 100/1.2 = 296 crrr'

Choose LP.E 240

Check:

Lbm = 2.5 m "wall height"

Lbout = 9.2 m

/I/?4

ra

RO

Fe'= 1.4 6.5 X 10-5 (93)2 :::: 0.83 t/cm~

Fed 1.4/39.1 == .035 t/crrr'

Fca/Fc=.043<.151\,==1.0

Luact = 250cm

Lurnax 20 bf I ,J Fv 20x 12 ! v'24 == 154.9 < 250

Section is non compact or slender

(:1 == - N! A + M, I S, =-.035 + J09 == 1055

F:=-N/A-1'vfx/S, -.035-1

-1.125

==(24-4xO.98)/06238<(1901

y ) x (2 + If' ))) = 1 I 5 3

C 1 tr 6/0.98 == 6.125 < 14.8

Sec isnon compact

Fitb::::: 800 AfCb/( Lu d )= 800 x 12 x 0.98 x 1.131 (250 x 24) == 1.7> LA

'cpplvin;: interaction equation;

+ I

< I

:;:::

')1/)4

rame

or

Own weight 2.o..kglm.

Weight of the steel sheets We =:: 6 kg/m ' .

In this case the wind load will he a main had ;,0 it will be a case A

W wind =:: ( C, X K X q ) X a

Ce= 08

K:_:: 1.0 for h s:; 10m

q == 70 kg/m ' in Cairo

., L..

'111C straining actions:

W, due to wind load Wx=Wwind=0.8xlx70xl.584kg

II I

, I , !

x

Side !r End

Air

IV X S·

:::: 0084 X 62 18 = 0.378 rnt

Wy =:: We X a + o.w. =:: 6 x 15 + 20 = 29 kg/m Wy x ,S,2

A1 r =~.- __ .. 0.029:\ 62/8 == 0 1305 mt 8

Dend Land

3- Choice of Section:

fb zx: Af, r AI y s F

J, S, Sy bcx

At +7Al

Sx required =: -_.'-' __ .. _.c .. c... == (37.8 + 7 x 13,(5) / J.4 1,1

9' 15 ) . L.L.. cm

c

'f- Check

37.8/116 + 13.05/ 183 104 tJcm2 < 1.4 t/cm '

safe but waste so try C 140 and recheck

?4/M