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Tutorial 6: Specific Energy (2) Humps, Depressions & Contractions

Q1.

Channel contraction only


(a) Given

b1 = 1.2 m, Q = 1.1 m3/s, y1 = 0.85 m


At pier location, b2 = b1 0.3 = 0.9 m

rect ch,

V 1=

Q
1.1
=
=1.078 m/ s
A 1 1.2 x 0.85

V 2=

Q
1.1
1.222
=
=
A 2 0.9 y 2
y2
2

E1=0.85+

1.078
=0.909 m
2 x 9.81

For channel contraction only, Eq. is E1 = E2


2

1.222
y2
0.909= y 2+
2 x 9.81

By trial & error, y2 = 0.786 m


(The other solution 0.379 m (supercritical) is not feasible because it
cannot be less than yc at the pier).
Change in water elevation = y1 y2 = 0.85 0.786 = 0.064 m drop
(b) For minimum pier width, bmin such that ponding does not occur
upstream, Section 2 at the pier location must be at the critical flow
condition with E2 = E2c, q2 = q2max, and y2 = y2c, i.e.,

2
3
3 3 q 2max
E1=E 2c = y 2 c =
2
2
g

q2 max = g

3
3
2
2
E1 = 9.81 x 0.909 =1.478 m2 /s
3
3

min ch annel width is bmin =

Q
1.1
=
=0.744 m
q2 1.478

Q2.

Combined hump + contraction


Given rect ch, Q = 1.8 m3/s, b1 = 1.6 m, y1 = 0.9 m

(a)

Hump in Section 2 only: q1 = q2


Given z = 0.15 m,
q1 =

Q 1.8
=
=1.125 m2 / s
b 1 1.6

yc=

1.1252
=0.505 m
9.81

3
Ec = y c =0.758 m Ec for case(a)
2
2

1. 125
E1=0. 9+
=0.9 8 m
2
2 x 9.81 x 0.9
Governing Eq with hump:

E1=E 2+ z

E 2=E1 z=0.980.15=0.83 m> Ec hence , no choking at hump section .


To find y2
0.83= y 2+

1.1252
2 x 9.81 y 22

By trial & error, y2 = 0.698 m, the other supercritical depth solution is


not feasible because it cannot be less than yc

Q2(b) Contraction in Section 2 only:

q1 q2

Given Section 2 with b2 = 1.3 m


q 2=

Q 1.8
= =1.385 m2 / s
b 2 1.3

y 2 c=

1.3852
=0.58 m
9.81

3
E2 c = y 2 c =0.871 m E2 c for case(b)
2
Governing Eq with contraction:
E1=E 2=0.98> E2 c hence no choking at contracted section .
To find y2
1.3852
0.98= y 2+
2 x 9.81 y 22
By trial & error, y2 = 0.842 m, the other supercritical depth solution is
not feasible because it cannot be less than y2c

Q2(c) Hump & Contraction together in Section 2


Governing Eq with hump:

E1=E 2+ z

note:

q1 q2

From Part (a), E1 = 0.98, z = 0.15.


E2 = 0.98 0.15 = 0.83m < E2c (=0.871m)
It is not possible for flow energy to be less than the minimum,
therefore, choking occurs at Section 2 and the upstream depth at
Section 1 must increase, i.e., ponding occurs, to accommodate this
shortfall in energy.
Let the new energy at Section 1=E 1new upstream depth= y 1
Choking at Section 2means E2 =E2 c =0.871 m Part(b)
E1=E 2c + z

Governing Eq:

note:

q1 q2

E 1=0.871+0.15=1.021m
To find y1*

1.021= y 1 +

1. 125
2
2 x 9.81 ( y 1)

By trial & error, y 1=0.95 m , the other supercritical depth solution is


not feasible because it cannot be less than y1c

Q3.

Depression & contraction together in Section 2


Given rect ch with Q = 1.4 m3/s,
Section 1: b1 = 1.8 m, y1 = 0.75 m, q1 = Q/b1 = 1.4/1.8 = 0.778 m2/s
V 1=

Q
1.4
=
=1.037 m/s
A 1 1.8 x 0.75

1.0372
E1=0.75+
=0.805 m
2 x 9.81
Section 2: b2 = 1.2 m with a depression z = 0.06 m
q 2=

Q 1.4
2
=
=1.167 m / s
b 2 1.2

y 2 c=

1.1672
=0.518 m
9.81

3
E2 c = y 2 c =0.771 m
2
Governing Eq with depression & contraction:
E1=E 2 z

note:

q1 q2

E 2=E1 + z=0.805+ 0.06=0.8 65m> E 2c hence , no choking at depression section .


To find y2
2

0.865= y 2+

1.167
2
2 x 9.81 y 2

By trial & error, y2 = 0.737 m, the other supercritical depth (= 0.377m)


solution is not feasible because it cannot be less than y 2c
Change in water elevation = 0.75 (0.737 0.06) = 0.073 m drop