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Original Title: CV2015 - Tut 6 Soln - Specific Energy (2) - Humps, Depressions & Contractions

Uploaded by leemariosan

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Q1.

(a) Given

At pier location, b2 = b1 0.3 = 0.9 m

rect ch,

V 1=

Q

1.1

=

=1.078 m/ s

A 1 1.2 x 0.85

V 2=

Q

1.1

1.222

=

=

A 2 0.9 y 2

y2

2

E1=0.85+

1.078

=0.909 m

2 x 9.81

2

1.222

y2

0.909= y 2+

2 x 9.81

(The other solution 0.379 m (supercritical) is not feasible because it

cannot be less than yc at the pier).

Change in water elevation = y1 y2 = 0.85 0.786 = 0.064 m drop

(b) For minimum pier width, bmin such that ponding does not occur

upstream, Section 2 at the pier location must be at the critical flow

condition with E2 = E2c, q2 = q2max, and y2 = y2c, i.e.,

2

3

3 3 q 2max

E1=E 2c = y 2 c =

2

2

g

q2 max = g

3

3

2

2

E1 = 9.81 x 0.909 =1.478 m2 /s

3

3

Q

1.1

=

=0.744 m

q2 1.478

Q2.

Given rect ch, Q = 1.8 m3/s, b1 = 1.6 m, y1 = 0.9 m

(a)

Given z = 0.15 m,

q1 =

Q 1.8

=

=1.125 m2 / s

b 1 1.6

yc=

1.1252

=0.505 m

9.81

3

Ec = y c =0.758 m Ec for case(a)

2

2

1. 125

E1=0. 9+

=0.9 8 m

2

2 x 9.81 x 0.9

Governing Eq with hump:

E1=E 2+ z

To find y2

0.83= y 2+

1.1252

2 x 9.81 y 22

not feasible because it cannot be less than yc

q1 q2

q 2=

Q 1.8

= =1.385 m2 / s

b 2 1.3

y 2 c=

1.3852

=0.58 m

9.81

3

E2 c = y 2 c =0.871 m E2 c for case(b)

2

Governing Eq with contraction:

E1=E 2=0.98> E2 c hence no choking at contracted section .

To find y2

1.3852

0.98= y 2+

2 x 9.81 y 22

By trial & error, y2 = 0.842 m, the other supercritical depth solution is

not feasible because it cannot be less than y2c

Governing Eq with hump:

E1=E 2+ z

note:

q1 q2

E2 = 0.98 0.15 = 0.83m < E2c (=0.871m)

It is not possible for flow energy to be less than the minimum,

therefore, choking occurs at Section 2 and the upstream depth at

Section 1 must increase, i.e., ponding occurs, to accommodate this

shortfall in energy.

Let the new energy at Section 1=E 1new upstream depth= y 1

Choking at Section 2means E2 =E2 c =0.871 m Part(b)

E1=E 2c + z

Governing Eq:

note:

q1 q2

E 1=0.871+0.15=1.021m

To find y1*

1.021= y 1 +

1. 125

2

2 x 9.81 ( y 1)

not feasible because it cannot be less than y1c

Q3.

Given rect ch with Q = 1.4 m3/s,

Section 1: b1 = 1.8 m, y1 = 0.75 m, q1 = Q/b1 = 1.4/1.8 = 0.778 m2/s

V 1=

Q

1.4

=

=1.037 m/s

A 1 1.8 x 0.75

1.0372

E1=0.75+

=0.805 m

2 x 9.81

Section 2: b2 = 1.2 m with a depression z = 0.06 m

q 2=

Q 1.4

2

=

=1.167 m / s

b 2 1.2

y 2 c=

1.1672

=0.518 m

9.81

3

E2 c = y 2 c =0.771 m

2

Governing Eq with depression & contraction:

E1=E 2 z

note:

q1 q2

To find y2

2

0.865= y 2+

1.167

2

2 x 9.81 y 2

solution is not feasible because it cannot be less than y 2c

Change in water elevation = 0.75 (0.737 0.06) = 0.073 m drop

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