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PROCESS ENGINEERING

OF PADDY AND RICE SEPARATOR

T.Z. Fouda*

ABSTRACT

The performance of paddy and rice separator was theoretically and

experimentally investigated as a function of change in separator sieve

angle, paddy moisture content and feeding ratios. The separator

performance was evaluated in terms of separator productivity, crack

percentage, separator efficiency and energy requirements. The

theoretical analyses reveal that the optimum sieve speed of 0.5 m/sec.

(200 rpm) is recommended to prevent riding of material on the sieve

surface. The experimental results reveal that the separator

performance was in the optimum region under the following

conditions:

Sieve angle of 15 deg.

Paddy moisture content of 14%.

Feeding ratio of 0.80

INTRODUCTION

gricultural policy depends on the successful technology

through mechanizing the agricultural processes of

strategically crops .One of the most important economical

crops is rice as it participates in the international income added to the

local consumption in feeding and industrial aspects. So, increasing

yield by means of up to date technology through the different stages of

rice production is an important question to be answered. One of these

stages is rice milling. Major operations carried out in a modern rice

mill are cleaning, husking, separation of paddy and rice, whitening

and grading. Separation of paddy and rice on the oscillating type

separator takes place due to the difference in specific gravity and

surface characteristics of paddy and rice. The separating machine

separates the product of the husking operation into three parts: brown

rice, paddy and a mixture of the two. Brown rice is fed to the

whitening machine, paddy is sent back for husking and the mixture is

returned to the separator.

* Assoc. Prof. of Agric. Eng., Fac. of Agric. Tanta Un.

935

dimensions of sieve, the speed of crankshaft of screening unit, ideal

distribution of the holes on the sieve sheet. These information are very

important in designing and developing the specific machines suitable

for Egypt. Ahmed (1988) mentioned that the slope of the separating

sieve is a controlling factor of the effectiveness of separation. This

effectiveness improves significantly as the sieve is also a controlling

factor in determining the maximum possible feed rates to the

winnowing machine. As the sieve slope increases, the maximum

possible feed rates, provided the other factors are kept the same, is

greatly reduced. He also found that the maximum values of efficiency

of separation is quite different depending on the number of

oscillations per minute used. Ahmed et al. (1993) developed a

winnowing machine. This machine was designed in such a way to

change the parameters affecting the separation effectiveness such as

the sieve oscillation, amplitude, sieve angle and feed rate for using a

threshed wheat crop by the locally made stationary thresher.

They added that, the separation effectiveness of 97% was obtained at

sieve oscillations of 500 cycle/min, sieve angle of 2 deg. and feed rate

of 30kg/h.cm. at grain/straw ratio of 1:3.

Amin (2003) studied some engineering parameters affecting cleaning

and separating efficiency such as type of motions (vibrating or rotary

speeds ), cells shape ( rectangular, square and circle ), position of

rectangular cell (parallel or perpendicular with speed direction), sieves

inclination and sieving time were considered for each machines type

(vibratory and rotary machines). He found that the efficiency

increased by increasing sieving time, oscillating and rotary speed.

Awady et al. (2003) developed and tested a separating and cleaning

machine to winnowing rice crop for better efficiency and reduced

losses. The cleaning machine consists of frame, grain hopper,

oscillating dual-screen assembly, a centrifugal blower and electric

motor. The eccentric and support linkages of screen assembly cause it

to oscillate, moving the grain over the flat screen. During the

operation, grain is loaded onto the hopper and fed into the oscillating

screen through the bottom opening and regulated by the slide gate.

936

The upper screen separates the impurities that are bigger than the

grain, and the lower screen separates those that are smaller and dust.

El-Sahrigi et al., (2004) designed and constructed a separating and

cleaning unit able to various types of medicinal and aromatic seeds

and their associated foreign matter by making simple adjustments

according to the type of seeds, its physical properties and associated

impurities. They also tested the performance of a cleaning unit under

the following main factors: the frequency of the sieve unit, feed rate,

air velocity and slope of the sieve unit. The maximum seed cleanliness

and separation effectiveness were 99.01 and 89.75% respectively and

obtained at frequency of 10.50HZ, feed rate of 300kg/h, slope of

13deg. And air velocity of 3.2m/s.

This research will cover theoretical and experimental analyses of

some engineering and operational parameters affecting the

performance of paddy and rice separator for the purpose of

maximizing separator efficiency and minimizing energy requirements.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The main experiments were carried out at Zagazig Milling Company,

Sharkia province to study the effect of some engineering and

operating parameters on the performance of paddy and rice separator.

- The used crop

Rice Giza 172 ( short grain ) variety was used

physical and mechanical properties of paddy and brown rice are

tabulated in table(1)

Table (1): physical and mechanical properties of paddy and brown rice

Coefficient

of friction

Friction

angle,

degree()

Repose

angle,

deg.

Mass of

1000

kernels g

thickness

mm

width

length

Rice

Paddy

7.70 3.22 2.45 24.90

40-45

48

1.11

Brown

5.57 2.92 2.25 21.40

33- 38

40

0.84

- The used separator

The new SATAKE paddy separator Ps 120E was used with the

following specifications:

Misr J. Ag. Eng., April 2009

937

: short grains 6.0 7.2 ton/h

- Required power : 0.75 kW

SATAKE new paddy separator is shown in fig.1.

- The used instruments

- Repose angle meter was used for measuring the angle between the

base and the slope of the grains.

- Digital instrument was used for measuring the friction angle of the

grains on metal sheet surface with an accuracy of 0.01 degree.

- Electric digital balance was used for measuring the mass of grains

samples with an accuracy of 0.1mg.

-Digital power meter was used to measure the required power for

operating the separator.

1

2

5

4

6

7 8 9

3-Divider plate 4-Switch valve

5-Inclination switch 6-Outlet 7-Brown rice 8-Mixture 9-Paddy

Fig. 1: paddy and rice separator

- Separator adjustment

A vibrated sieve is used to remove paddy from brown rice. Agitation

of the separating sieve results in displacement of the paddy and rice

over its surface. The paddy and rice should be so agitated that

938

distributed over the sieve surface and moved towards the delivery end

of the sieve. The sieve is agitated by multiple system linkage

kinematics characteristics of linear motion of the driving link and the

crank-connecting rod mechanism for small values of r/L (crank shaft

length / connecting rod length) are given by the following ( klenin et

al, 1985):

X= r (1-cos t)

.

X .= r sin t

..

X = 2r cos t

Where X Instantaneous displacement ,cm

.

..

Angular velocity, rad/s

r crank shaft length, cm

The following forces acting paddy and rice lying on a sieve:

1- W : Force due to the weight of the paddy and rice directed

downward.

2- Fi : Inertia force acting in a direction opposite to that of the mass

acceleration force. The magnitude of the force Fi is obtained as

follows:

..

Fi =m X = m 2r cos t

Where m- mass of paddy and rice

3- Ff : Friction force between the paddy and rice and the sieve surface

acting in a direction opposite to motion direction.

4- R : Reaction force of the working surface on the rice acting in a

direction normal to the surface.

The sieve is set horizontal or inclined to the horizontal plane, the

angle of inclination selected from the condition

: The friction angle between the mixture and the sieve

surface .

According to the condition given above, the material will not slide

over the sieve when it is stationary. When the sieve is agitated at a

939

material relative to the sieve surface.

The possible types of motion of the material are only sliding motion

over the sieve towards the delivery end, and in the reverse direction or

loss of all contact between the material and the sieve surface.

-Motion of material over the sieve surface at the delivery end from

A to B

Motion at the delivery end is possible when the resultant of all forces

acting the material is greater than the friction force (fig.2) that is :

W sin + F1. cos Ff

Ff = R tan = R

When Ff : the friction force

: friction angle

: coefficient of friction

R : normal force

To determine force R projecting all the forces in a direction normal to

the sieve.

R = W cos - Fi sin

Then motion of the seed at the exit may be expressed by the following

inequality:

W sin + Fi cos W cos - Fi sin

or mg sin + m 2 r cos mg cos - m 2 r sin

1 =

g ( cos sin

r (cos + sin )

rad/s

60 g ( cos sin )

rpm

2 r (cos + sin )

Sliding motion of the material up and down the sieve surface from

B to A

Fig. 3 show the movement of material from B to A is possible when:

Fi cos - W sin Ff

Where R = W cos + F1 sin

Then the motion of material in this cos e may be expressed by the

following inequality :

Fi cos - W sin W cos + Fi sin

m 2r cos - mg sin mg cos + m 2 r sin

or

N1 =

2 =

g( cos + sin

r (cos sin

,rad/s

940

N2 =

60 g ( cos + sin )

2 r (cos sin )

,rpm

The motion of material in this case may be expressed by the following

inequality :

W sin + Fi cos Ff

Ff = 0

But in this case R = 0

Fi cos - W sin

m 2 r cos - mg sin

3 =

N3 =

g sin

, rad / s

r cos

60

2

g sin

, rpm

r cos

Ff

Fi

B

Fig. 2 : Motion of material over the sieve surface at the delivery end

from A to B

A

R

Fi

Ff

941

Fig. 3 : Sliding motion of the material up and down the sieve surface

from B to A

It follows from these equations that the mass of material moves a long

the sieve to ward the exit (N > N1 ) and to the opposite direction (N >

N2 )

Sieving and separating are more successful under the following

conditions:

N3 > N > N2 and N2 > N1

Where N : the optimum sieve speed

Under the above conditions and by using the previous equations the

separator was adjusted as follows:

- Angle of sieve with the horizontal is determined to be less than the

friction angle between the material and the sieve surface

40 deg.

- Optimum sieve speed was calculated to be as follows:

N = 200 rpm = ( 3.33 HZ ) corresponding to an linear sieve speed of

0.5 m/s

- Experimental procedures

Experiments were carried out to study the effect of the following

parameters on the performance of paddy and rice separator:

- Four different sieve angles with the horizontal (10, 12, 15 and 20

deg.)

-Four different paddy moisture contents ( 10, 12, 14 and 16% ).

- Five different feeding ratios (0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80, and 0.90 ).

The feeding rate ratios was calculated as follows:

Q

Feeding rate ratio =

Q max

Qmax: the maximum feeding rate(7200 kg/h.)

Measurements

Separator productivity:

Separator productivity was calculated as follows:

Q

Separator productivity (Mg/h) =

t

Misr J. Ag. Eng., April 2009

942

t: time consumed in separating operation, h.

Crack percentage:

crack percentage was calculated as follows:

C

Crack percentage, % = 100

T

Where C: mass of cracked in brown rice sample, g.

T: mass of the total sample, g.

Separator efficiency :

The paddy and rice separator efficiency was measured using the

following equation

( Modi 1972)

s =

x b ( x s x p )( x b x s )(1 x p )

x s (1 x s )( x b x p ) 2

brown rice outlet of the separator;

xp - Weight of brown rice fraction in the collection from the paddy

outlet of the separator;

xs - Weight of brown rice fraction in the sum of the collection from

the brown rice outlet and paddy outlet of the separator.

Energy requirements:

Energy requirements was calculated using the following equation:

Required power (W)

Energy requirements, W.h/Mg =

Separator productivity (Mg/h)

The required power was measured using the digital power meter

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The obtained results will be discussed under the following items

- Factors affecting separator productivity.

Separator productivity is significantly affected by sieve angle, paddy

moisture content and feeding ratio.

Relating to the effect of sieve angle on separator productivity, results

in fig.4 show that increasing sieve angle from 10 to 15 degrees,

measured for various feeding ratios of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9,

increased separator productivity by 16.02, 16.29, 37.01, 38.34 and

29.78 % at constant paddy moisture content of 14%. Any further

943

productivity was decreased by 3.84, 7.07, 24.53, 24.47 and 17.20%

under the same previous conditions. The increase in productivity by

increasing sieve angle from 10 to 15 deg. Is attributed to the uniform

sliding of brown rice towards brown rice out let. While the decrease in

productivity by increasing sieve angle from 15 to 20deg. Is attributed

the fast sliding of brown rice towards paddy entrance.

Regarding the effect of paddy moisture content on separator

productivity, obtained data in fig.5 show that increasing moisture

content from 10 to 16%, measured at various separator ratios of 0.5,

0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9, decreased separator productivity by 11.76, 13.53,

13.41, 4.53 and 3.15% at constant sieve angle of 15 degree. This is

due to the heavy weight of high moisture content material which

causes brown rice to fall into the out let of paddy and mixture.

As to the effect of feeding ratio on separator productivity, results in

figs. 4 and 5 show that increasing feeding ratio from 0.5 to 0.9

increased separator productivity by 68.54% at constant paddy

moisture content of 14% and constant sieve angle of 15 degree. This

can be explained by the fact that when feeding ratio increased,

material covers the surface of the sieve uniformly which gives smooth

movement of materials towards their outlets.

944

0.6

0.7

0.8

18

20

0.9

7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

8

10

12

14

16

22

feeding ratios (constant moisture content 14 %)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

8

10

12

14

16

18

Moisture content,%.

at different feeding ratios (sieve angle, 15 deg.)

-Factors affecting separator crack percentage.

Representative crack percentage values versus both sieve angle and

paddy moisture content are given through various feeding ratios in

figs. 6 and 7. Concerning the effect of sieve angle on separator crack

Misr J. Ag. Eng., April 2009

945

to 15 degrees, measured for various feeding ratios of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8

and 0.9, decreased separator crack percentage by 37.5, 47.12, 36.45,

28.12 and 31.21 % at constant paddy moisture content of 14%. Any

further increase in sieve angle from 15 up to 20 degrees separator

crack percentage was increased by 18.36, 25.80, 22.78 , 13.20, and

7.69% under the same previous conditions. Any increases or decrease

in sieve angle more or less than 15 deg. Tends to increase crack

percentage due to the non uniform movement of materials on the

surface of sieves.

Considering the effect of paddy moisture content on separator crack

percentage, obtained data in fig.7 show that increasing moisture

content from 10 to 16%, measured at various separator ratios of 0.5,

0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9, decreased separator crack percentage by 21.66,

26.76, 15.55, 11.60 and 20.00% at constant sieve angle of 15 degree.

The decrease in brown rice moisture content tends to increase crack

percentage because dry grains are more sensitive to impact with each

other.

As to the effect of feeding ratio on separator crack percentage, results

in figs. 6 and 7 show that increasing feeding ratio from 0.5 to 0.9

increased separator crack percentage by 62.96% at constant paddy

moisture content of 14% and constant sieve angle of 15 degree. This is

due to the high density of materials on the sieve surface that increases

pressure and impact forces between grains.

- Factors affecting separator efficiency.

The most critical factors affecting separator efficiency are sieve angle,

paddy moisture content and feeding ratio in figs. 8 and 9

With regard to the effect of sieve angle on separator efficiency, results

in fig. 8 show that increasing sieve angle from 10 to 15 degrees,

measured for various feeding ratios of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9,

increased separator efficiency by 16.01, 16.27, 37.01, 38.33 and 29.78

% at constant paddy moisture content of 14%. Any further increase in

sieve angle from 15 up to 20 degrees, separator efficiency was

decreased by 3.84, 7.02, 24.53, 24.47 and 17.20% under the same

previous conditions. Higher or lower values of sieve angle more or

946

Crack percentage

0.6

0.7

0.9

0.9

20

16

12

8

4

0

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Sieve angle,deg.

feeding ratios (constant moisture content 14 %)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Crack percentage

20

16

12

8

4

0

10

12

14

Moisture content,%

16

18

different feeding ratios (sieve angle, 15 deg.)

947

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

18

20

22

Separator efficiency, %

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

8

10

12

14

16

feeding ratios (constant moisture content 14 %)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Separatin efficiency, %

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

8

10

12

14

16

18

Moisture content,%.

different feeding ratios (sieve angle, 15 deg.)

less than 15deg. decrease separator efficiency because of the decrease

in separator productivity in both cases.

Mentioning to the effect of paddy moisture content on separator

efficiency, obtained data in fig.9 show that increasing moisture

Misr J. Ag. Eng., April 2009

948

0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9, decreased separator efficiency by 11.76, 13.54,

13.41, 4.52 and 3.15% at constant sieve angle of 15 degree. This

attributed to the decrease in separator productivity by decreasing

paddy moisture content.

As to the effect of feeding ratio on separator efficiency, results in figs.

8 and 9 show that increasing feeding ratio from 0.5 to 0.9 increased

separator efficiency by 44.08% at constant paddy moisture content of

14% and constant sieve angle of 15 degree. Increasing feeding ratio

increased separator productivity which in turn increased separator

efficiency.

- Factors affecting separator energy requirements.

Separator energy requirements is more sensitive to different factors

such as: sieve angle, paddy moisture content and feeding ratio.

Relating to the effect of sieve angle on separator energy requirements,

results in fig. 10 show that increasing sieve angle from 10 to 15

degrees, measured for various feeding ratios of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and

0.9 decreased separator energy requirements by 20.84, 20.06, 39.76,

43.70 and 37.17 % at constant paddy moisture content of 14%. Any

further increase in sieve angle from 15 up to 20 degrees, separator

energy requirements was un significantly increased by 1.34, 3.79,

8.65, 23.25 and 15.41% under the same previous conditions. Lower

values of sieve angle less than 15deg. increased energy due to the

slow movement of paddy on the sieve surface especially with high

feeding ratios while higher values of sieve angle more than 15deg.

also increased energy due to the decrease in separator productivity.

Regarding the effect of paddy moisture content on separator energy

requirements, obtained data in fig.11 show that increasing moisture

content from 10 to 16%, measured at various separator ratios of 0.5,

0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9, increased separator energy requirements by

17.81, 20.03, 17.21, 14.57 and 13.99% at constant sieve angle of 15

degree. Increasing paddy moisture content, increased energy because

of the elastic conditions of high moisture content material that lead to

irregular motion.

949

results in figs. 1o and 11 show that increasing feeding ratio from 0.5

to 0.9 increased separator energy requirements by 64.87% at constant

Feeding ratio, 0.50

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

20

22

400

360

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

8

10

12

14

16

18

Slope angle,deg.

feeding ratios (constant moisture content 14 %)

Feeding ratio, 0.50

400

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

360

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

8

10

12

14

16

18

Moisture content,%.

at different feeding ratios (sieve angle, 15 deg.)

950

The increase in feeding ratio, leads to an increase in material mass on

sieve surface which in turn tends to increase energy.

CONCLUSION

Optimize paddy and rice separator variables is of great importance to

minimize both crack and energy and maximize performance

efficiency.

The theoretical and experimental results reveal that for obtaining high

grade rice production, the following parameters must be adjusted as

follows:

- Sieve speed of 0.5m/s (200rpm)

- Sieve angle of 15 deg.

-Paddy moisture content of 14%

-Feeding ratio of 0.8 .

REFERENCES

Ahmed, S.F. (1988) Effect of control and management on the

performance of grain sieve cleaners. Com. Sci. Dev. Res. 21

(254):98-106.

Ahmed, S.F.; M.M. Abbou El-Kheir and I. M. Abd El-Tawwab(1993).

Development of an apparatus suitable for separating wheat

products from stationary threshers. Misr J. Ag.Eng., 10 (1):6276.

Amin, E.E.(2003). Efect of some physical and mechanical properties

on grading efficiency. Misr J. Ag. Eng.,20(4): 451-470.

Awady, M.N.; F. Yehia; M.T. Ebaid and E.M. Arif (2003).

Development and theory of rice cleaner for reduced impurities

and losses. Misr J. Ag. Eng., 20 (4): 53-68.

El-Raie, A.E. (1987). Propereties of shelled corn related to mechanical

separation. Misr J. Ag. Eng., 4(1): 36-52.

El-Sahrigi, A.F.; S.F. Ahmed; M.A.Helmy; H.M.Sorour and

S.S.Hanna (2004). Construction and development of a cleaning

951

Ag. Eng., 21 (4): 53-66.

Klenin,N. F. Popov and V.A. Sakon (1985). Agricultural machines.

Theory of operation, computation of controlling parameters

and the conditions of operation. Amerind publishing Co.

PVT.Ltd., New Delhi.

Modi, B.S.(1972). Factors affecting the performance of apaddy

separator. Unpnb. M. tech. Thesis, Dept. Agric. Eng. Indian

Institute of technology, Kharagpur.

*

. .

)

( / ) (.HZ

% %

* - -

952

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