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Misr J. Ag. Eng.

, 26(2): 935- 952

PROCESS ENGINEERING

ENGINEERING STUDIES ON THE PERFORMANCE


OF PADDY AND RICE SEPARATOR
T.Z. Fouda*
ABSTRACT
The performance of paddy and rice separator was theoretically and
experimentally investigated as a function of change in separator sieve
angle, paddy moisture content and feeding ratios. The separator
performance was evaluated in terms of separator productivity, crack
percentage, separator efficiency and energy requirements. The
theoretical analyses reveal that the optimum sieve speed of 0.5 m/sec.
(200 rpm) is recommended to prevent riding of material on the sieve
surface. The experimental results reveal that the separator
performance was in the optimum region under the following
conditions:
Sieve angle of 15 deg.
Paddy moisture content of 14%.
Feeding ratio of 0.80
INTRODUCTION
gricultural policy depends on the successful technology
through mechanizing the agricultural processes of
strategically crops .One of the most important economical
crops is rice as it participates in the international income added to the
local consumption in feeding and industrial aspects. So, increasing
yield by means of up to date technology through the different stages of
rice production is an important question to be answered. One of these
stages is rice milling. Major operations carried out in a modern rice
mill are cleaning, husking, separation of paddy and rice, whitening
and grading. Separation of paddy and rice on the oscillating type
separator takes place due to the difference in specific gravity and
surface characteristics of paddy and rice. The separating machine
separates the product of the husking operation into three parts: brown
rice, paddy and a mixture of the two. Brown rice is fed to the
whitening machine, paddy is sent back for husking and the mixture is
returned to the separator.
* Assoc. Prof. of Agric. Eng., Fac. of Agric. Tanta Un.

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El-Raie (1987) studied the technical parameters of flat sieve such as


dimensions of sieve, the speed of crankshaft of screening unit, ideal
distribution of the holes on the sieve sheet. These information are very
important in designing and developing the specific machines suitable
for Egypt. Ahmed (1988) mentioned that the slope of the separating
sieve is a controlling factor of the effectiveness of separation. This
effectiveness improves significantly as the sieve is also a controlling
factor in determining the maximum possible feed rates to the
winnowing machine. As the sieve slope increases, the maximum
possible feed rates, provided the other factors are kept the same, is
greatly reduced. He also found that the maximum values of efficiency
of separation is quite different depending on the number of
oscillations per minute used. Ahmed et al. (1993) developed a
winnowing machine. This machine was designed in such a way to
change the parameters affecting the separation effectiveness such as
the sieve oscillation, amplitude, sieve angle and feed rate for using a
threshed wheat crop by the locally made stationary thresher.
They added that, the separation effectiveness of 97% was obtained at
sieve oscillations of 500 cycle/min, sieve angle of 2 deg. and feed rate
of 30kg/h.cm. at grain/straw ratio of 1:3.
Amin (2003) studied some engineering parameters affecting cleaning
and separating efficiency such as type of motions (vibrating or rotary
speeds ), cells shape ( rectangular, square and circle ), position of
rectangular cell (parallel or perpendicular with speed direction), sieves
inclination and sieving time were considered for each machines type
(vibratory and rotary machines). He found that the efficiency
increased by increasing sieving time, oscillating and rotary speed.
Awady et al. (2003) developed and tested a separating and cleaning
machine to winnowing rice crop for better efficiency and reduced
losses. The cleaning machine consists of frame, grain hopper,
oscillating dual-screen assembly, a centrifugal blower and electric
motor. The eccentric and support linkages of screen assembly cause it
to oscillate, moving the grain over the flat screen. During the
operation, grain is loaded onto the hopper and fed into the oscillating
screen through the bottom opening and regulated by the slide gate.

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The upper screen separates the impurities that are bigger than the
grain, and the lower screen separates those that are smaller and dust.
El-Sahrigi et al., (2004) designed and constructed a separating and
cleaning unit able to various types of medicinal and aromatic seeds
and their associated foreign matter by making simple adjustments
according to the type of seeds, its physical properties and associated
impurities. They also tested the performance of a cleaning unit under
the following main factors: the frequency of the sieve unit, feed rate,
air velocity and slope of the sieve unit. The maximum seed cleanliness
and separation effectiveness were 99.01 and 89.75% respectively and
obtained at frequency of 10.50HZ, feed rate of 300kg/h, slope of
13deg. And air velocity of 3.2m/s.
This research will cover theoretical and experimental analyses of
some engineering and operational parameters affecting the
performance of paddy and rice separator for the purpose of
maximizing separator efficiency and minimizing energy requirements.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The main experiments were carried out at Zagazig Milling Company,
Sharkia province to study the effect of some engineering and
operating parameters on the performance of paddy and rice separator.
- The used crop
Rice Giza 172 ( short grain ) variety was used
physical and mechanical properties of paddy and brown rice are
tabulated in table(1)
Table (1): physical and mechanical properties of paddy and brown rice
Coefficient
of friction

Friction
angle,
degree()

Repose
angle,
deg.

Mass of
1000
kernels g

thickness
mm

width

length

Rice

Paddy
7.70 3.22 2.45 24.90
40-45
48
1.11
Brown
5.57 2.92 2.25 21.40
33- 38
40
0.84
- The used separator
The new SATAKE paddy separator Ps 120E was used with the
following specifications:
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- out put capacity : long grains 5.2 5.6 ton/h


: short grains 6.0 7.2 ton/h
- Required power : 0.75 kW
SATAKE new paddy separator is shown in fig.1.
- The used instruments
- Repose angle meter was used for measuring the angle between the
base and the slope of the grains.
- Digital instrument was used for measuring the friction angle of the
grains on metal sheet surface with an accuracy of 0.01 degree.
- Electric digital balance was used for measuring the mass of grains
samples with an accuracy of 0.1mg.
-Digital power meter was used to measure the required power for
operating the separator.
1
2

5
4
6

7 8 9

1-Shutter 2-Distributor box


3-Divider plate 4-Switch valve
5-Inclination switch 6-Outlet 7-Brown rice 8-Mixture 9-Paddy
Fig. 1: paddy and rice separator
- Separator adjustment
A vibrated sieve is used to remove paddy from brown rice. Agitation
of the separating sieve results in displacement of the paddy and rice
over its surface. The paddy and rice should be so agitated that

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separation is optimal. The paddy and rice should be uniformly


distributed over the sieve surface and moved towards the delivery end
of the sieve. The sieve is agitated by multiple system linkage
kinematics characteristics of linear motion of the driving link and the
crank-connecting rod mechanism for small values of r/L (crank shaft
length / connecting rod length) are given by the following ( klenin et
al, 1985):
X= r (1-cos t)
.

X .= r sin t
..

X = 2r cos t
Where X Instantaneous displacement ,cm
.

X Motion velocity, cm/s


..

X Acceleration of motion, cm/s2


Angular velocity, rad/s
r crank shaft length, cm
The following forces acting paddy and rice lying on a sieve:
1- W : Force due to the weight of the paddy and rice directed
downward.
2- Fi : Inertia force acting in a direction opposite to that of the mass
acceleration force. The magnitude of the force Fi is obtained as
follows:
..

Fi =m X = m 2r cos t
Where m- mass of paddy and rice
3- Ff : Friction force between the paddy and rice and the sieve surface
acting in a direction opposite to motion direction.
4- R : Reaction force of the working surface on the rice acting in a
direction normal to the surface.
The sieve is set horizontal or inclined to the horizontal plane, the
angle of inclination selected from the condition

where : Angle of sieve with the horizontal


: The friction angle between the mixture and the sieve
surface .
According to the condition given above, the material will not slide
over the sieve when it is stationary. When the sieve is agitated at a

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939

particular frequency and amplitude, a motion is imported to the


material relative to the sieve surface.
The possible types of motion of the material are only sliding motion
over the sieve towards the delivery end, and in the reverse direction or
loss of all contact between the material and the sieve surface.
-Motion of material over the sieve surface at the delivery end from
A to B
Motion at the delivery end is possible when the resultant of all forces
acting the material is greater than the friction force (fig.2) that is :
W sin + F1. cos Ff
Ff = R tan = R
When Ff : the friction force
: friction angle
: coefficient of friction
R : normal force
To determine force R projecting all the forces in a direction normal to
the sieve.
R = W cos - Fi sin
Then motion of the seed at the exit may be expressed by the following
inequality:
W sin + Fi cos W cos - Fi sin
or mg sin + m 2 r cos mg cos - m 2 r sin
1 =

g ( cos sin
r (cos + sin )

rad/s

60 g ( cos sin )
rpm
2 r (cos + sin )
Sliding motion of the material up and down the sieve surface from
B to A
Fig. 3 show the movement of material from B to A is possible when:
Fi cos - W sin Ff
Where R = W cos + F1 sin
Then the motion of material in this cos e may be expressed by the
following inequality :
Fi cos - W sin W cos + Fi sin
m 2r cos - mg sin mg cos + m 2 r sin

or

N1 =

2 =

g( cos + sin
r (cos sin

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,rad/s

940

N2 =

60 g ( cos + sin )
2 r (cos sin )

,rpm

Riding of material on the sieve surface


The motion of material in this case may be expressed by the following
inequality :
W sin + Fi cos Ff
Ff = 0
But in this case R = 0
Fi cos - W sin
m 2 r cos - mg sin

3 =
N3 =

g sin
, rad / s
r cos
60
2

g sin
, rpm
r cos

Ff

Fi
B

Fig. 2 : Motion of material over the sieve surface at the delivery end
from A to B

A
R
Fi
Ff

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941

Fig. 3 : Sliding motion of the material up and down the sieve surface
from B to A
It follows from these equations that the mass of material moves a long
the sieve to ward the exit (N > N1 ) and to the opposite direction (N >
N2 )
Sieving and separating are more successful under the following
conditions:
N3 > N > N2 and N2 > N1
Where N : the optimum sieve speed
Under the above conditions and by using the previous equations the
separator was adjusted as follows:
- Angle of sieve with the horizontal is determined to be less than the
friction angle between the material and the sieve surface
40 deg.
- Optimum sieve speed was calculated to be as follows:
N = 200 rpm = ( 3.33 HZ ) corresponding to an linear sieve speed of
0.5 m/s
- Experimental procedures
Experiments were carried out to study the effect of the following
parameters on the performance of paddy and rice separator:
- Four different sieve angles with the horizontal (10, 12, 15 and 20
deg.)
-Four different paddy moisture contents ( 10, 12, 14 and 16% ).
- Five different feeding ratios (0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80, and 0.90 ).
The feeding rate ratios was calculated as follows:
Q
Feeding rate ratio =
Q max

Where Q : the actual feeding rate


Qmax: the maximum feeding rate(7200 kg/h.)
Measurements
Separator productivity:
Separator productivity was calculated as follows:
Q
Separator productivity (Mg/h) =
t
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Where Q: mass of brown rice sample, Mg.


t: time consumed in separating operation, h.
Crack percentage:
crack percentage was calculated as follows:
C
Crack percentage, % = 100
T
Where C: mass of cracked in brown rice sample, g.
T: mass of the total sample, g.
Separator efficiency :
The paddy and rice separator efficiency was measured using the
following equation
( Modi 1972)
s =

x b ( x s x p )( x b x s )(1 x p )
x s (1 x s )( x b x p ) 2

Where xb - Weight of brown rice fraction in the collection from the


brown rice outlet of the separator;
xp - Weight of brown rice fraction in the collection from the paddy
outlet of the separator;
xs - Weight of brown rice fraction in the sum of the collection from
the brown rice outlet and paddy outlet of the separator.
Energy requirements:
Energy requirements was calculated using the following equation:
Required power (W)
Energy requirements, W.h/Mg =
Separator productivity (Mg/h)
The required power was measured using the digital power meter
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The obtained results will be discussed under the following items
- Factors affecting separator productivity.
Separator productivity is significantly affected by sieve angle, paddy
moisture content and feeding ratio.
Relating to the effect of sieve angle on separator productivity, results
in fig.4 show that increasing sieve angle from 10 to 15 degrees,
measured for various feeding ratios of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9,
increased separator productivity by 16.02, 16.29, 37.01, 38.34 and
29.78 % at constant paddy moisture content of 14%. Any further

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increase in sieve angle from 15 up to 20 degrees, separator


productivity was decreased by 3.84, 7.07, 24.53, 24.47 and 17.20%
under the same previous conditions. The increase in productivity by
increasing sieve angle from 10 to 15 deg. Is attributed to the uniform
sliding of brown rice towards brown rice out let. While the decrease in
productivity by increasing sieve angle from 15 to 20deg. Is attributed
the fast sliding of brown rice towards paddy entrance.
Regarding the effect of paddy moisture content on separator
productivity, obtained data in fig.5 show that increasing moisture
content from 10 to 16%, measured at various separator ratios of 0.5,
0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9, decreased separator productivity by 11.76, 13.53,
13.41, 4.53 and 3.15% at constant sieve angle of 15 degree. This is
due to the heavy weight of high moisture content material which
causes brown rice to fall into the out let of paddy and mixture.
As to the effect of feeding ratio on separator productivity, results in
figs. 4 and 5 show that increasing feeding ratio from 0.5 to 0.9
increased separator productivity by 68.54% at constant paddy
moisture content of 14% and constant sieve angle of 15 degree. This
can be explained by the fact that when feeding ratio increased,
material covers the surface of the sieve uniformly which gives smooth
movement of materials towards their outlets.

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Separator productivity, kg/h

Feeding ratio, 0.50

0.6

0.7

0.8

18

20

0.9

7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
8

10

12

14

16

22

Sieve angle, deg.

Fig. 4: Effect of sieve angle on the separator productivity at different


feeding ratios (constant moisture content 14 %)

Separatin productivity, kg/h.

Feeding ratio, 0.50

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
8

10

12

14

16

18

Moisture content,%.

Fig. 5: Effect of paddy moisture content on the separator productivity


at different feeding ratios (sieve angle, 15 deg.)
-Factors affecting separator crack percentage.
Representative crack percentage values versus both sieve angle and
paddy moisture content are given through various feeding ratios in
figs. 6 and 7. Concerning the effect of sieve angle on separator crack
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945

percentage, results in fig. 6 show that increasing sieve angle from 10


to 15 degrees, measured for various feeding ratios of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8
and 0.9, decreased separator crack percentage by 37.5, 47.12, 36.45,
28.12 and 31.21 % at constant paddy moisture content of 14%. Any
further increase in sieve angle from 15 up to 20 degrees separator
crack percentage was increased by 18.36, 25.80, 22.78 , 13.20, and
7.69% under the same previous conditions. Any increases or decrease
in sieve angle more or less than 15 deg. Tends to increase crack
percentage due to the non uniform movement of materials on the
surface of sieves.
Considering the effect of paddy moisture content on separator crack
percentage, obtained data in fig.7 show that increasing moisture
content from 10 to 16%, measured at various separator ratios of 0.5,
0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9, decreased separator crack percentage by 21.66,
26.76, 15.55, 11.60 and 20.00% at constant sieve angle of 15 degree.
The decrease in brown rice moisture content tends to increase crack
percentage because dry grains are more sensitive to impact with each
other.
As to the effect of feeding ratio on separator crack percentage, results
in figs. 6 and 7 show that increasing feeding ratio from 0.5 to 0.9
increased separator crack percentage by 62.96% at constant paddy
moisture content of 14% and constant sieve angle of 15 degree. This is
due to the high density of materials on the sieve surface that increases
pressure and impact forces between grains.
- Factors affecting separator efficiency.
The most critical factors affecting separator efficiency are sieve angle,
paddy moisture content and feeding ratio in figs. 8 and 9
With regard to the effect of sieve angle on separator efficiency, results
in fig. 8 show that increasing sieve angle from 10 to 15 degrees,
measured for various feeding ratios of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9,
increased separator efficiency by 16.01, 16.27, 37.01, 38.33 and 29.78
% at constant paddy moisture content of 14%. Any further increase in
sieve angle from 15 up to 20 degrees, separator efficiency was
decreased by 3.84, 7.02, 24.53, 24.47 and 17.20% under the same
previous conditions. Higher or lower values of sieve angle more or

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946

Crack percentage

Feeding ratio, 0.50

0.6

0.7

0.9

0.9

20
16
12
8
4
0
8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Sieve angle,deg.

Fig. 6: Effect of sieve angle on the crack percentage at different


feeding ratios (constant moisture content 14 %)

Feeding ratio, 0.50

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Crack percentage

20
16
12
8
4
0

10

12
14
Moisture content,%

16

18

Fig. 7: Effect of paddy moisture content on the crack percentage at


different feeding ratios (sieve angle, 15 deg.)

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947

Feeding ratio 0.50

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

18

20

22

Separator efficiency, %

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
8

10

12

14

16

Sieve angle, deg.

Fig. 8: Effect of sieve angle on the separating efficiency at different


feeding ratios (constant moisture content 14 %)

Feeding ratio, 0.50

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Separatin efficiency, %

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
8

10

12

14

16

18

Moisture content,%.

Fig. 9: Effect of paddy moisture content on the separating efficiency at


different feeding ratios (sieve angle, 15 deg.)
less than 15deg. decrease separator efficiency because of the decrease
in separator productivity in both cases.
Mentioning to the effect of paddy moisture content on separator
efficiency, obtained data in fig.9 show that increasing moisture
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content from 10 to 16%, measured at various separator ratios of 0.5,


0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9, decreased separator efficiency by 11.76, 13.54,
13.41, 4.52 and 3.15% at constant sieve angle of 15 degree. This
attributed to the decrease in separator productivity by decreasing
paddy moisture content.
As to the effect of feeding ratio on separator efficiency, results in figs.
8 and 9 show that increasing feeding ratio from 0.5 to 0.9 increased
separator efficiency by 44.08% at constant paddy moisture content of
14% and constant sieve angle of 15 degree. Increasing feeding ratio
increased separator productivity which in turn increased separator
efficiency.
- Factors affecting separator energy requirements.
Separator energy requirements is more sensitive to different factors
such as: sieve angle, paddy moisture content and feeding ratio.
Relating to the effect of sieve angle on separator energy requirements,
results in fig. 10 show that increasing sieve angle from 10 to 15
degrees, measured for various feeding ratios of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and
0.9 decreased separator energy requirements by 20.84, 20.06, 39.76,
43.70 and 37.17 % at constant paddy moisture content of 14%. Any
further increase in sieve angle from 15 up to 20 degrees, separator
energy requirements was un significantly increased by 1.34, 3.79,
8.65, 23.25 and 15.41% under the same previous conditions. Lower
values of sieve angle less than 15deg. increased energy due to the
slow movement of paddy on the sieve surface especially with high
feeding ratios while higher values of sieve angle more than 15deg.
also increased energy due to the decrease in separator productivity.
Regarding the effect of paddy moisture content on separator energy
requirements, obtained data in fig.11 show that increasing moisture
content from 10 to 16%, measured at various separator ratios of 0.5,
0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9, increased separator energy requirements by
17.81, 20.03, 17.21, 14.57 and 13.99% at constant sieve angle of 15
degree. Increasing paddy moisture content, increased energy because
of the elastic conditions of high moisture content material that lead to
irregular motion.

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Energy requerments, W.h/ton.

As to the effect of feeding ratio on separator energy requirements,


results in figs. 1o and 11 show that increasing feeding ratio from 0.5
to 0.9 increased separator energy requirements by 64.87% at constant
Feeding ratio, 0.50

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

20

22

400
360
320
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
8

10

12

14

16

18

Slope angle,deg.

Energy requerments, W.h/ton

Fig. 10: Effect of sieve angle on the energy requirements at different


feeding ratios (constant moisture content 14 %)
Feeding ratio, 0.50

400

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

360
320
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
8

10

12

14

16

18

Moisture content,%.

Fig. 11: Effect of paddy moisture content on the energy requirements


at different feeding ratios (sieve angle, 15 deg.)

Misr J. Ag. Eng., April 2009

950

paddy moisture content of 14% and constant sieve angle of 15 degree.


The increase in feeding ratio, leads to an increase in material mass on
sieve surface which in turn tends to increase energy.
CONCLUSION
Optimize paddy and rice separator variables is of great importance to
minimize both crack and energy and maximize performance
efficiency.
The theoretical and experimental results reveal that for obtaining high
grade rice production, the following parameters must be adjusted as
follows:
- Sieve speed of 0.5m/s (200rpm)
- Sieve angle of 15 deg.
-Paddy moisture content of 14%
-Feeding ratio of 0.8 .
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El-Sahrigi, A.F.; S.F. Ahmed; M.A.Helmy; H.M.Sorour and
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unit suitable for medicinal and aromatic seed crops. Misr J.


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Klenin,N. F. Popov and V.A. Sakon (1985). Agricultural machines.
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