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of] /fHon] c;dfgtfsf] ?k hfltk|yfnfO{ sfg'gL
?kn] j}w agfPsf] lyof] . k~rfotL Joj:yfdf cfpFbf
;+;f/ kl/jt{g x'Fb} uO/x]sf] lyof] . g]kfnn] klg
cfw'lgs s'/f cjnDag ug'{kg]{ eof] . otf ef/t klg
:jtGq eO;s]sf] lyof] . Tof] cfw'lgs lzIffsf] Tof]
hfu/0f g]kfndf klg lj:tf/} ;'? eof] . To;kl5sf]
gofF ;Gbe{df klg k'/fgf] /fHo;Qf sAhf ug]{
ju{df lglxt /x\of] . s]xL kl/jt{g x'Fb} uP . lj;+
@)$^ sf] kl/jt{gnfO{ s]xL xb;Dd dxTjk"0f{ ?kdf
dfGg'k5{ . /fHonfO{ )$^ ;Dd h'g 9+un] JofVof
ul/of], To;df 7"nf] a|]s ePsf] xf] . Ps efiff, Ps
wd{sf] ;§f ax'efifL, ax';f+:s[lts / ax'wfld{s /fHosf]
cjwf/0ff alnof];Fu cfof] . To;sf/0f hgtfsf] rfxgf
/ cfsf+Iff;Fu} cfPsf] kl/jt{gn] Tof] zf;sju{ klg
lj:tf/} kl/jt{g x'g jfWo x'g' / /fHo;Qfdf s]xL
kl/jt{g cfpg' :jfefljs} xf] . zf;sn] grfx]tf klg
hgrfxgfn] jfWo kfb}{ cfpF5 . of] ;+;f/sf] d'n'ssf]
kl/jt{g;Fu} cfpg] ljrf/wf/fsf] pkh klg xf] .
dfa'xfª M of] ax; ;'g]/ tkfO{+x?sf] k|ltlqmof
s]xL 5 ls <
ls/0f a/fd' M of] PsfTds /fHok|0ffnLsf]
aLrdf /x]/ g]kfn c;kmntflt/ uPsf] ;fFrf] xf] .
o;n] s] cg'ej u/fof] eg] /fHo;Qfsf] zlQm hf];Fu
s]Gb|Ls[t 5, To;sf] ljsNkdf p7]sf] cfGbf]ngn]
zlQmnfO{ ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ug]{ elgPsf] 5, Pshgf, Pp6f
;+:yfdf /x]sf] zlQm c?df ljefhg ug]{ elgPsf] 5,
t/ xfdLaLr b]lvPsf] cfGbf]ng To;df lglxt :jfYf{df
/x]/ s]xL bn / ;+3–;+:yf;Dd ;Demf}tf x'G5, tNnf]
txsf h'g kmf]xf]/df a;]sf afl;Gbf;Dd k'Ug g;s]sf]
k'li6 ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . To;sf/0f /fHo xfd|f] xf] eGg]

;+3Lo ax;
ckgTjsf] efjgfdf ljsf; eO/x]sf] kfpFbg} f} . xfdLn]
/fHo xfd|f] xf], d]/f] xf] egL bfaL ug]{ cj:yf /fHon]
lgdf{0f ug{;s]sf] 5}g . /fHosf] ;+/rgf, lgsfo,
Joj:yfn] gful/snfO{ d]/f] b]z xf], d]/f] klg st{Jo 5
eGg] cg'ej u/fpg;s]sf] 5}g .
z}n]Gb| rf}w/L M zfxj+zsf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxb]lv
g} /fHolj:tf/df ef}uf]lns PsLs/0f t u/], t/ oxfFsf]
ljljwtf ;d'bfo / wd{nfO{ Joj:yfkg ug{ g;s]sf]
sf/0f efjgfTds Pstf x'g ;s]g . h'g zfxj+z
cGTo x'g'sf sf/0fdWo] Pp6f k|d'v sf/0f aGof] .
;a} ;d'bfo / wd{nfO{ ;d]6\g g;s]sf] sf/0fn] cGTo
ePsf] xf] . k[YjL hoGtL dgfpg] ;Gbe{df s;}n] rf;f]
gb]vfPsf]n] zfxj+zLo /fhtGqk|ltsf] ljt[i0ffnfO{ k'li6
u5{ .
dfa'xfª M /fHoJoj:yf hgpQ/bfoL x'g g;Sg',
PsfTds zf;g Joj:yfdf ljleGg g]tfx?sf] e"ldsf,
/fHo;~rfngsf] cfwf/, k4ltnfO{ x]bf{ s] lgrf]8df
k'U5f}+ < g]t[Tjn] ;xL ?kdf g]t[Tj k|bfg ug{ g;s]sf]n]
c;kmn /fHoJoj:yf x'gk'u]sf] xf] ls cyjf g]t[Tjdf
/x]sf] rl/qut ;}4flGts / bfz{lgs kIfx?df sdL–
sdhf]/L 5 <
sdnf x]dr'/L M /fHo;Qf ;+rfng ug]{
/f0ffzf;s eP . zfx zf;sx?n] Vffln gd'gfsf]
?kdf /fHo;Qf ;~rfng ug]{ u/] . /f0ff / zfxx?sf]
aLrdf h'g lsl;dsf] ;Qfsf] nflu cGt{åGå eof], t/
To;n] hgtfnfO{ k"0f{?kdf pk]Iff u¥of] . g]kfnsf]
;Gbe{df /f0ff / zfxafx]s klg zf;g ;~rfng
ug]{ Pp6f hflt tyf ju{ clxn] klg 5 . To;n]
Oltxf;sfnb]lv zf]if0f ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ;fFrf] cy{df
eGg] xf] eg] s]xL afx'gx?, h;n] /fhgLlts ;Qf
pgLx?sf] xftdf lnP/ cflbsfnb]lv g} lxGb' wd{nfO{
cfwf/ agfP/ zf;g ub}{ cfO/x]sf 5g\ .
dfa'xfª M ls/0fhLn] eGg'eP h:t} oxf“ ax; x'G5,
5nkmn x'G5, cfGbf]ng x'G5, ;+3if{ x'G5 / ;Demf}tf klg
x'G5 . t/ cfwf/e"t :t/df /fHoJoj:yf k'lu/x]sf] 5}g
xf] < s] lj;+ @))& sf] qmflGt klg /fhfnfO{ /f0ffx?af6
d'Qm u/fpg] dfqsf] cfGbf]ng lyof] < lj;+ )$^,
@)^@÷)^# sf] cfGbf]ng klg /fhgLlts bnnfO{ dfq
eof] elgG5 lg <
sdnf x]dr'/L M jf:tjdf @))& ;fnsf]
qmflGt jf cfGbf]ng /fhfnfO{ /f0ffaf6 d'Qm u/fpg]
cfGbf]ngdfq} lyof] . hgtfnfO{ h'g?kdf cfzf afFl8of]
/ pkof]u ul/of], To;cg';f/ pgLx?n] hgtfnfO{
jf:tljs ?kdf clwsf/;DkGg u/fpg vf]hs
] f] b]lv“bg} .
Oltxf; x]bf{ jf:tjdf ))& ;fnsf] ;z:q qmflGtdf
Pp6f g]t[TjbfoL e"ldsf v]Ng] oxfFsf cflbjf;L
hghfltx? lyP . ha ;+3if{ ;zQm ?kdf cufl8
a9\g yfNof], clg s]Gb|df v'/fkftL u/]/ ;Qf cfk\mgf]
xftdf lnP/ ;~rfng ug]{ Pp6f ju{nfO{ cfz+sf eof],
lsgeg] Tof] ju{ aGb's lnP/ ;+3if{df uPsf] lyPg .

Tof] cfGbf]ngn] ;kmntf xfl;n u¥of]{, eg] st} xfd|f]
;f]r cg'?ksf] /fHoJoj:yf k|fKt ug{ g;Sg] xf] ls
eGg] cfz+sf, Pp6f 8/ k}bf ePsf] b]lvG5 .
dfa'xfª M Pp6f hflt, ;d'bfon] /fHoJoj:yfnfO{
sAhf ug]{ / ;~rfng ug]{ p;sf] cfzo, dgzfosf]
lg/Gt/tf clxn];Dd 5 eGg] 5 lg oxf“sf] /fo s] 5 <
8f= d'Qml;x nfdf M k4lt / k|j[ltut ?kdf
lxhf]b]lvs} xfd|f] k|j[lt eg]sf] s]Gb|df k'Ug], ;Qfdf hfg]
/ zlQm k|of]u u/]/ JolQmut kmfObf p7fpg] vfnsf]
b]lvof] . cfw'lgs g]kfnsf] sfnv08sf] ;'?jft b]lv
g} IfqL, 7s'/Lx?n] g]t[Tj u/]/ To;kl5 afx'gx?
;Nnfxsf/ ePsf] clxn];Dd lg/Gt/ xfdLn] b]lv/x]sf
5f}+ . t/ To:tf] lsg eof] eGg] ;DaGwdf Pp6f jfSo
eGg ;lsG5, ;fdGtL Joj:yf ePsf] x'gfn] s]Gb|sf]
d'6'df klg h/f] x'G5 . p;n] cfk\mgf] ;QfnfO{ ;j]{;jf{
agfO/fVgsf lglDt k|0ffnLnfO{ nIoljxLg agfO/x]sf]
x'G5 . pbfx/0fsf lglDt zlQm k|bz{g ug{sf lglDt
PsnfO{ x6fof], csf]{nfO{ /fVof], km]l/ PsnfO{ x6fof],
csf]{nfO{ /fVof] . To;n] /fhgLlts eljio s] x'g] xf]
eGg] gkfPkl5 df}sfdf ;a}n] e|i6frf/ u5{g\, cfkm"nfO{
;'/lIft /fVg rfxG5g\ . Tof] ;fdGtL Joj:yfsf]
;fdGtL k4ltsf] ljz]iftf / rl/q xf] . Tof] rl/qn]
ubf{ g]t[Tjdf k'Ug]lalQs} ;a} kmfObf p7fpg] u/]sf]
b]lvG5 . Tof] hfltk|yf ha Pp6f /fHosf] k4lt aGof]
/ afx'g, IfqL h] ug{sf nflu klg sfg'gL ?kn] v'Nnf
eof] . ToxL k|0ffnLn] /fHonfO{ of] c;kmn 7fp“df
NofOk'¥ofPsf] 5 .
dfa'xfª M 8f= nfdfhL, xfdLn] 5nkmn
ul//x“bf ljleGg kqklqsf / ldl8ofdf ef/tLo
ljb]zdGqL cfPsf] s'/f / ;]gfWoIf cfpg] s'/f ;'lgG5 .
xfdLn] k4lt, /fhf–dxf/fhf, g]t[Tjdf /x]sf hft ljz]if
afx'g IfqL, 7s'/L, ;Gof;Lsf] s'/f ul//x“bf of] PsfTds
Joj:yf c;kmn x'g'df cGt/f{li6«o zlQmx?sf] e"ldsf s]
kfpg'x'G5 <
8f= d'Qml;x nfdf M afx\o /fi6«x?sf] e"ldsf
PsfTds /fHo :yfkgf ug'{df klg lyof] . / PsfTds
/fHoJoj:yf x6fP/ hgrfxgfnfO{ ;dy{g ug{ klg
lyof] . ef/tn] cf}krfl/s / cflwsfl/s ?kn] g]kfnsf]
hgtfsf] h'g cfsf+Iff / rfxgf 5 To;nfO{ xfd|f]
;dy{g 5 eg]s} xf] . cGo cGt/fli6«o ;d'bfon] klg
;dy{g u/]s} xf] . g]kfn clxn] cGt/f{li6«o ;d'bfosf]
Pp6f ;b:o eO;s]sf] lx;fan] k|ToIf x:tIf]k ug{
;Sb}g . d]/f] ljrf/df, cGTf/f{li6«o d"No / dfGotfx?nfO{
qm; ug]{ vfnsf] s"6gLlt x'“bf klg xF'b}g .
ToxfF s"6gLltsf s'/fx? 5g\ . t/ ca s"6gLlts
;DaGwdf Pscfk;df cf–cfk\mgf] ;dy{g vf]Hg] s'/f xf] . t/
dnfO{ nfU5, xfd|f] cfk\mgf] c;kmntfnfO{ c?df bf]if
lbP/ klG5g vf]Hg' ;DejtM ldNb}g xf]nf .
dfa'xfª M sdnfhL, /fHoJoj:yfdf ljleGg
;'wf/sf pkfox? cfjlws ljsf; sfo{qmd, ljleGg

z}n]Gb| rf}w/L
k[YjLgf/fo0f
zfxb]lv g}
/fHolj:tf/df
ef}uf]lns
PsLs/0f t
u/], t/ oxf“sf]
ljljw ;d'bfo /
wd{nfO{
Joj:yfkg ug{
g;Sg' zfxj+z
cGTo x'g'sf]
sf/0fdWo] Pp6f
k|d'v sf/0f
aGof] .

;+3Lo g]kfn

%

lsg ;+3Lotf

k[YjLdfg u'?ª
g]kfnsf]
PsLs/0f /
PsLs[t
/fHoJoj:yfsf]
z'?jft kf6f] g}
hfltjfbL
/x\of] . of]
/fHoJoj:yf
Psn hftLo
k|e'Tjsf]
cfwf/df z'?
ePsf]n] To;nfO{
lg/Gt/tf lbg]
qmddf zf;g
;Qfsf] 5]p5fpdf
/x]sf c? hflt
ljz]ifn] klg
kmfObf p7fO/x]sf]
b]lvG5 .

^

;+3Lo g]kfn

k~rjifL{o ljsf; sfo{qmd nufot ckgfOP .
To;}u/L blntk|lt x'g] 5'jf5"t k|yf x6fpg] ;'wf/sf
pkfox? ckgfOP . PsfTds /fHoJoj:yfdf oL pkfox?
k|of]hgxLg ePh:tf] b]lvG5 . s'g} ;sf/fTds k|efj
k/]sf] b]lv“b}g . o;n] of] /fHoJoj:yfnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg
cyjf c;kmn kfg{df s] e"ldsf 5 h:tf] nfU5 <
sdnf x]dr'/L M h'g lsl;dsf s]xL ;'wf/
sf sfo{qmdx? /fHon] lnP/ cfof], Tof] afWofTds
kl/l:yltaf6 l;h{gf ePsf] cj:yf xf] . hgtfdf
/fhgLlts r]tgf hfu[t x'Fb} uof], a9\b} uof], To;kl5
h'g lsl;dsf] PsfTds zf;g Joj:yf lyof], h;n]
hgtfdfly bdg, zf]if0f ul//x]sf] lyof], To;sf]
lj?4df cfjfh p7\g yfln;s]kl5 tL cfjfhx?nfO{
bdg ug{sf nflu jf:tjdf s]xL ;'wf/fTds sfo{qmdx?
NofOPsf x'g\ . o;df s'g} b'O{dt 5}g . t/ tL
;'wf/fTds sfo{qmdx? hgkIfLo / hgtfsf] lxtsfnflu
eGbf klg cfk\mgf] zf;g;Qf l6sfpgsf nflu NofOPsf]
xf] . To;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogdf Wofg lbOPg .
To;}n] sfo{qmdx? sfuhdf Hlt;'s} /fd|f b]lvP klg
tL ;kmn x'g] cj:yf lyPgg\ . ;fob Tof] ;kmn
u/fpg] ;f]r eOlbPsf] eP cfh;Dd hgtfnfO{ of]
cj:yfdf /fVg] lyPgg\ . k|efjsf/L ePsf] eP 7"nf]
kl/jt{g cfp“Yof] xf]nf, t/ cfpg ;s]g .
k[YjLdfg u'?ª M g]kfnsf] PsLs/0f / PsLs[t
/fHoJoj:yfsf] ;'?jft kf6f] g} hfltjfbL /x\of] .
of] /fHoJoj:yf Psn hftLo k|e'Tjsf] cfwf/df ;'?
ePsf]n] To;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] qmddf zf;g;Qfsf]
5]p5fpdf /x]sf c? hfltljz]ifn] klg kmfObf
p7fO/x]sf] b]lvG5 .
dfa'xfª M /fHoJoj:yfsf] cfwf/e"t l;4fGt
cyjf hu g} unt eof] eGg] xf] <
k[YjLdfg u'?ª M hu g} unt lyof] . hu g}
unt ePsf]n] ubf{ Tof] unt k|j[ltaf6 kmfObf lng
s]xL hflt ju{n] zf;s ju{sf] glhs /x]/ ljleGg
;dosf] sfnv08df cfk\mgf] :jfy{k"lt{ ul/cfPsf]
b]lvG5 . Tof] hftLo ?kdf ljz'4 ?kdf Tof] hfltut
:jfy{k"lt{sf lglDt ul/Psf cEof;x? x'g\ h:tf] dnfO{
nfU5 . lsgeg] PsLs/0f ;Fu;Fu} PsLs/0f ;"qfwf/
elgg] hfltljz]ifn] c? hfltsf] efiff, ;+:s[lt,
wd{, ;+:sf/dfly ;f]em} k|xf/ ug]{ / Wj:t ug]{ sfd
ul/of] . d u'?ª ;d'bfosf] JolQm, uf]vf{ lhNnfsf]
afl;Gbf / PsLs/0fsf] ;'?jft klg ToxL 7fp“af6
ePsf]n] PsLs/0fsf] ;'?jftd} xfd|f] ;d'bfo jf
hfltnfO{ n8fs' b:tfsf] ?kdf k|of]u ul/of] . ;]gfsf]
klg lglZrt Pp6f kb;Dd dfq hfg] lsl;dsf] k|aGw
ldnfOof] . du/ / u'?ª ;d'bfosf n8fs'x?nfO{
lg/Gt/tf lbg]qmddf clxn];Dd la|l6;, ef/t /
l;Ëfk'/;Dd k7fPsf] b]lvG5 . lg/Gt/tfsf] of] Pp6f
gd'gf xf] . To;sf/0fn] Pp6f ;]gfkltsf] cwLgdf
/x]/ cl3 a9\g]qmddf ;]gfkltn] h] eGof] To;}cg';f/

cfk"mnfO{ 3'nldn u/fP/ n}hfg'kg]{ afWofTds
l:ylt l;h{gf ul/of], h;sf] sf/0f cfk\mgf] efiff,
;+:sf/, wd{;d]t ;]gfkltsf] efiff, ;+:s[lt wd{k|lt
;dfof]hg tyf ljno ug'{kg]{ lsl;dsf] afWofTds
cj:yf klg gLltut ?kdf g} ul/Psf] b]lvG5 .
dfa'xfª M P]ltxfl;s sfnb]lv g} Pp6f
/fHoJoj:yfnfO{ lgdf{0f u/]/ nUg] s'/fdf uNtL tyf
sdL–sdhf]/L ePsf] 5, ca of] ;+3Lo /fHok|0ffnLdf
hf“bfv]l/ of] s'/f ;'lN6G5 t <
k[YjLdfg u'?ª M lglZrt ?kdf ;+3Lo /fHok|0ffnL
Pp6f ljsNk xf] . t/ ;+3Lotfsf] gfddf ;+3Lotf
dfq} eof] eg] ;'N6“b}g . s]Gb|n] w]/}h;f] clwsf/
cfk"mdf lglxt ug]{ / Oltxf;sf] sfnv08b]lv dsf{,
kL8f, zf]if0f / cGofodf k/]sf] ;d'bfo ljz]ifnfO{ Wofg
lbOPg eg] / Tof] cg'?ksf] ;+3Lotfsf] afF8kmfF8df
ljrf/ k'¥ofOPg eg] ;+3Lotf klg ;+3Lotfdf dfq
;Lldt x'g]5 .
dfa'xfª M 8f= nfdfhL, ;a} vfnsf ;d:ofx?nfO{
;Daf]wg ug]{ pkfo ;+3Lo /fHok|0ffNfL g} xf] eGg] cfwf/
s;/L / s] sf/0fn] xf] eGg] nfUb5 < ;+3Lotf lj/f]wL
cfjfh klg ;'lgG5 lg <
8f= d'Qml;+x nfdf M klxnf] s'/f, ;+3Lotfk|lt
7"nf] hgrfxgf / cfsf+Iff 5 . g]kfnL hgtfn] s'g}
klg lsl;dsf] s]Gb|Lo zf;0fnfO{ :jLsf/ ug{ ;Sg]
l:ylt 5}g . ;+3Lotfdf zlQmsf] afF8kmfF8 :yfgLo
:t/ / k|fGtLo ?kdf ;+j}wflgs Uof/]G6L;lxt
/xG5 . ;+j}wflgs Uof/]G6L;lxt zlQmsf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0f
x'G5 . hgtfdf zlQm hfG5 / s]Gb|df zlQm /xFb}g,
s]Gb|df zlQm /x\of] eg] hlxn] klg b'?kof]u x'g]
cj:yf x'g;S5 . s]Gb|df clwsf/ w]/} /x] hgtfsf]
clwsf/ k]ml/ vf]l;g ;Sg] x'gfn] ca s'g} klg
xfntdf zlQm s]Gb|Ls[t x'g'xF'b}g . bf];|f], g]kfndf
cfk\mgf] hftLo klxrfg, efiff, wd{, ;+:s[lt / dfGotfsf]
cfjfh p7]sf] 5, To;nfO{ ;+3Lotfn] ?kdf ;Daf]wg
ug{ ;Sb5 . To;}n] g]kfn o:tf] l:yltdf 5 ls of]
klxrfgsf] ;jfn, eflifs clwsf/, ;f+:s[lts clwsf/
sf ;jfnnfO{ ;Daf]wg gu/L cl3 a9\g ;Sb}g .
csf]{, nf]stGqsf] dfGotfsf] k|d'v vDaf
;dfgtf xf] . ca ;dfgtfnfO{ tNnf] ;d'bfo;Dd
n}hfgsf lglDt zlQmsf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] sfo{qmd
nfg ;Sg'k5{ . ;+3Lotf lj/f]wLsf] cfjfh cfO/xFbf
d]/f] ljrf/df tLg y/Lsf ;d"x x]g{ ;S5f}+ . klxnf],
k'/fgf] s]Gb|Lo ;Qfaf6 kmfObf lnO/x]sf ju{,
;d"x / kl/jf/ hf] s]Gb|Lo ;Qfdf g} eO/x]sf] x]g{
rfxG5g\ . lsgls ;+3Lotf eP/ hgtfdf clwsf/
uof] eg] cfk\mgf] h'g uf}/j 5, Tof] x/fpg] eof] . Tof]
ju{n] ;+3Lotfsf] lj/f]w ug'{ :jfefljs} 5 . bf];|f], Ps
lsl;dsf] e|d / eo 5 ls ;+3Lotfn] b]z 6'qmG5, oxfF
hftLo ;b\efjx? vNalnG5 . jf:tjdf ;+3Lotfn]
b]z 6'qmg] cyjf hftLo ;b\efj vNanfpg] x}g, a?

;+3Lo ax;

;a} hflt, ;d"xx?sf] cf–cfk\mgf] klxrfg, clwsf/nfO{
;'/lIft ub{5 / ToxfF ;dfgtf sfod x'G5 . To;kl5
aNn ;b\efj k}bf x'G5 . Pp6f hfltdfq} zf;g ;Qfdf
xflnd'xfnL eO/xg] xf] eg] ToxfF ;b\efj x'b}g, ToxfF
emu8f x'G5, To:tf] lsl;dsf] zf;g Joj:yf xfdLn]
ef]lu;Sof}+ . t];|f], PsfTds lx;fan] Pp6} efiff g]kfnL,
Pp6} /fi6« g]kfn eGg] lsl;dsf] k'/ftg ;f]+r em§
x]bf{ ;bfzok"0f{ g} 5, To;}n] xfdL ;a} Ps x'g'k5{
eGg] lsl;dsf] wf/0ffn] klg s]xL bnx? ;+3Lotf
x'g'xF'b}g eGb} cfO/x]sf 5g\ . t/ dnfO{ nfU5, of]
la:tf/} lrl/b} hfG5, cfdhgtfsf] rfxgf ;+3Lotf
xf] . of] ;kmn x'G5, ;kmn x'g'k5{ eGg] nfUb5 .
dfa'xfª M sdnfhL, Psflt/ /fhgLlts b[li6sf]0f
/ ljleGg ;d"xx?af6 ;+3Lotfn] b]z 6'qmG5, ;+3Lotfn]
xfdL sxL“ klg hfg ;Sb}gf}+ eGg] vfnsf ;+3Lotf lj/f]wL
wf/0ff cfO/x]sf 5g\ . oBlk dlxnfx?n] ef]u]sf] pk]Iff
/ n}l·s lje]b, blntn] ef]u]sf ;fdflhs pk]Iffsf]
w/ftnaf6 x]g]{ xf] eg] s] ;f“lRrs} ;+3Lotfn] xfdLn]
kmfObf xfl;n ug{'sf] ;§f a]kmfObf u5{ xf] < ;+3Lotfaf6
xfdL dha't x'g'kg]{ ;}G4flGts tyf Jofjxfl/s cfwf/x?
s] x'g ;S5g\ <
sdnf x]dr'/L M ;+3Lotfsf] ;kmn kIfnfO{
n'sfP/ unt k|rf/–k|;f/ eO/x]sf] 5 . To;n] b]z
6'qmG5, ;b\efj vNanfpF5 eGg] Tof] unt k|rf/
k|;f/n] oyfl:yltjfbLnfO{ kmfObf k'Uof] . ;DkGg
ju{n] cfk\mgf] :jfy{, s]Gb|Ls[t / PsfTds /fHoJoj:yfaf6
:jfy{k"lt{ ug{ kfPsf] 5 . Tof] ju{n] clwsf/ /
zlQmsf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0fkl5 vfOkfO{ cfPsf] / xflnd'xfnL
ul//x]sf] Tof] 36\g] x'gfn] Tof] e|d l;h{gf ug{ vf]lhPsf]
xf] . jf:tjdf, g]kfnh:tf] ax'eflifs, ax'wfld{s,
ax';f+:s[lts b]zdf ;+3Lotfn] ;a} hflt, lnË, wd{,
j0f{sf] aLrdf ;b\efj km}nfpg] sfd ug]{ ;Defjgf
w]/} 5 . lsgeg] hxfF x/]s JolQmn] ;Ddflgt eP/

cfk"mnfO{ k|:t't ug]{ cj;/ kfp“5, ToxfF g} Pscsf{k|lt
;b\efj a9\g] lglZrt x'G5 . To;}n], ;+3Lotfn] /fi6«
6'qmfpg] e|ddfq} xf] .
dfa'xfª M ;sf/fTds ¿kdf ;f]Rg]x¿n]
k|efjsf/L sfd ug{ sdL eO/x]sf] 5 xf] < s] nfU5
oxf“nfO{ <
sdnf x]dr'/L M lglZrt ?kdf xf] . ;+3Lotfsf]
cfjZostf hf] pTkL8gdf afFr]sf] 5, h;dfly zf;g
ul/of], Tof] ju{, ;d'bfonfO{ xf] . clxn];Dd h'g ju{n]
zf;g Joj:yf ub}{ cfPsf] 5, Tof] ju{nfO{ ;+3Lotfn]
kmfObf 5|}g . Oltxf;b]lv pTkLl8t ;d'bfo ;+3Lotfsf]
kIfdf hlt jsfnt ug'{kb{Yof], To;df s]xL sdL ePsf]
xf] ls eGg] d}n] dx;'; u/]sf] 5' .
dfa'xfª M ;+3Lotf kIfkftLsf] kx'“r cem klg
/fHoJoj:yfsf] ;|f]t;fwg / clwsf/df 5}g, To;n]
ubf{ ;+3Lotfsf] kIfdf sfd ug{ ;lsPsf] 5}g eGg
vf]Hg'ePsf] xf] <
sdnf x]dr'/L M clxn];Dd klg /fHosf]
;+oGqdf ltg} ;DkGg ju{sf] ks8 5 . o:tf] cj:
yfdf pgLx?n] ;+3Lotfsf] kIfdf k|rf/–k|;f/ ug]{
;Defjgf sd /xG5 . h'g ju{ / ;d'bfonfO{ ;+3Lotf
rflxPsf] 5, To;sf] ks8 5}g . Tof] ;d'bfon] cfk\mgf]
tl/sfn] ;+3Lotfsf] k|rf/–k|;f/ ug'{kg]{, ;+3Lotfsf]
kIfdf jsfnt ug'{kg]{df s]xL sdL ePsf] :jLsfg}{k5{ .
dnfO{ s] nfU5 eg] g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df blntx?sf] klg
u}/ ef}uf]lns ;+3Lotfsf] cfjZostf 5 eGg] dx;'';
u/]sf] 5' . blntx? cfk}+m g} Tof] ;Gbe{df clns
;r]t gePsf] xf] ls eGg] nfU5 .
dfa'xfª M PsfTds zf;g Joj:yfaf6 ;+3Lo
zf;g Joj:yfdf hf“bf a9L hgkIfLo, hglxt}ifL, hgtfsf]
kx'“r x'g] zf;g Joj:yf eg]/ kl/sNkgf ul//x]sf
5f}+ . tkfFO{sf] ljrf/df d'l:nd ;d'bfox?sf] wfld{s,
;f+:s[lts, ;fdflhs, xs, clwsf/ ;+3Lo zf;g

;+3Lotfsf]
;kmn kIfnfO{
n'sfP/ unt
k|rf/–k|;f/
eO/x]sf]
5 . To;n] b]z
6'qmG5, ;b\efj
vNanfp“5 eGg]
Tof] unt k|rf/
k|;f/n]
oyfl:yltjfbLnfO{
kmfObf k'Uof] .

sdnf x]dr'/L
;+3Lo g]kfn

&

lsg ;+3Lotf

gh?n x;g
pk]lIft
;d'bfonfO{
ljsf; lbgsf]
nflu ;Qfdf
;dfj]z ug{sf
nflu ge} h'g
;d'bfoaf6
cfk\mgf] k|ltlglw
Nofp“5, h;n]
bnsf] :jfy{sf]
nflu sfd u/f];\
/ :jfy{cg'?k
bnsf] Ozf/fdf
rnfpg kfOof];\
eGg] ;f]+rn]
NofOG5 .

*

;+3Lo g]kfn

Joj:yfn] s:tf] ;+/rgf lb“bF ;'lglZrt x'G5 xf]nf <
gh?n x;g M PsfTds /fHoJoj:yfn]
;'wf/fTds eg]/ ;'wf/sf nflu ul/Psf] sfd lyPg .
s]an /fh;+:yf l6sfpgsf nflu ul/Psf pkfox?
dfq lyof] . To;}n] ;kmn x'g ;s]g . ToxL vfnsf]
;f]+r clxn]sf /fhgLlts bnx?df b]lv/x]sf
5f}+ . pk]lIft d'l:nd ;d'bfo xf] eg]/ PsfTds zf;g
Joj:yfn] klg k|ltlglw u/fPs} lyof] . To;a]nf klg
dGqL, c~rnfwLz;Dd agfPsf] lyof] . Tof] k|ltlglw
d'l:nd ;dfh / ju{sf lxtdf sfd ug]{ lyPg, s]an
Tof] ;dfhnfO{ lgoGq0f hdfpgsf nflu lgo'Qm ul/
Psf] lyof] . To;/L g} cfh klg k|To]s bndf ToxL
;f]+r b]V5f}+ . pk]lIft ;d'bfonfO{ ljsf; lbgsf nflu
;Qfdf ;dfj]z ug{sf nflu geO h'g ;d'bfoaf6
cfk\mgf] k|ltlglw NofpF5, h;n] bnsf] :jfy{sf nflu
sfd u/f];\ / :jfy{cg'?k bnsf] O;f/fdf rnfpg
kfOof];\ eGg] ;f]rn] NofOG5 . To:tf] vfnsf]
;+:sf/ tf]l8g'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M s]Gb|Ls[t zf;gJoj:yfn] lglZrt ;d'bfo
/ If]qnfO{ cfk\mgf] lgoGq0fdf /fVgsf lglDt Tof] ;d'bfo
/ If]qsf] JolQmnfO{ clwstd pkof]u ug{ k|ltlglwTj
u/fOGYof] . ca ;+3Lo zf;g Joj:yfdf hf“bf Tof]
cj:yf g/xgsf nflu tFkfO{+sf] ljrf/df s:tf] ;+oGq
a9L pko'Qm x'G5 xf]nf <
gh?n x;g M clxn] ;+3Lotf s:tf] x'g'k5{
eGg]df cfk;df dtljefhg 5 . csf]{, ;+3Lotfn]
gsf/fTds s'/fx?nfO{ s;/L lgd"{n kf5{ /
;sf/fTds kIfx?nfO{ s:f/L :yflkt u5{ eGg] s'/f
:ki6 ?kdf cfpg'k5{, t/ cfpg ;s]g . To;df
hgtfsf] bf]if 5}g . Psflt/ hgtfn] a'lem/x]sf] 5}g eg]
csf]l{ t/ a'emfpg]x? klg cfkm} :ki6 5}gg\ . d]/f] ljrf/df
;+3Lotfn] d'VotM kfFr s'/fnfO{ ;'lglZrt ug'{k5{ M
!_ b]zsf] cv08tf @_ ;Ddfghgs ;fdflhs ;'/Iff
#_ Goflos ;dfj]zL $_ zflGt / %_ ljsf; .
dfa'xfª M 8f= nfdfhL, x/]s g]kfnLx?;“u /fHok|lt
cfsf+Iff 5, g]tfk|lt cfu|x / cg'/f]w 5 . /fd|f] / xfd|f]
zf;g k4lt xf];\ eGg] cfzf 5, tFkfO{+ eGg'xf];,\ casf]
;+3Lo zf;gk|0ffnL ltd|f] 3/df klg cfOk'Uof] eg]/ ;dfGo
dfG5]nfO{ eGbf kTofpg] cy{ s] x'g;S5 <
8f= d'Qml;x nfdf M ;+3Lotfsf] Pp6f d'Vo
l;4fGt g} zff;gnfO{ hgtf;Dd k'¥ofpg] xf] .
;+3Lotfdf s]Gb|df eGbf glhs} g]tf x'g] eP, ;+3df
k|fGt x'g] eP, ;+3n] cfk}mn] cfk\mg} gLlt–lgod, ;+ljwfg
agfpg ;S5g\ . k|fGt jf k|b]zleq h'g efiff af]lnG5,
tL cfk\mg} efiffx?df ;/sf/ rnfpg, lzIff rnfpg
;Sg] eP . k|fGtleq /x]sf g]tfx?nfO{ kf/bzL{ / pQ/
bfoL agfpgsf lglDt hgtfx?nfO{ clns ;lhnf] x'g]
eof] . ToxfFsf gLltlgod agfpgsf] lglDt ;a} ju{,
blnt, dlxnf cflbjf;L hghflt cNk;+Vos ;d"x
nufotnfO{ clns ;lhnf] x'g] eof] . s]Gb|Ls[t zf;g
Joj:yf hlt 6f9f / hgtfsf] kx'FreGbf aflx/ x'G5,

To;sf] 7Ls ljk/Lt ;+3Lotfdf hgtfn] g]tfnfO{
hgpQ/bfoL agfpgsf lglDt To:tf] vfnsf] ;+oGq
pTkGg x'G5 .
dfa'xfª M PsfTds zf;g Joj:yfdf k|of]u
ul/Psf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0fdf JolQm, g]tf, sd{rf/Lsf] e|i6
dgf]lj1fgn] ubf{ lalu|Psf] xf] . cflbjf;L hghflt,
blnt, d'l:nd, dw];L klxrfgsf d2fx? NofP/ ;dfhnfO{
ljv08g ug]{ sfd eof] . ;+3Lotfn] d'n's 6'qmgsf nflu
a9L e"ldsf lgjf{x u5{ eGg] ts{ ;'lgG5 lg, tFkfO{+nfO{
s] nfU5 <
8f= d'Qml;x nfdf M PsfTds zf;g;Qfdf
klg ljs]Gb|Ls/0f x'G5, t/ l;4fGt t ljs]Gb|Ls/0f
;+j}wflgs ?kdf Uof/]06L x'b}g . s]Gb|n] rfx]sf] a]nfdf
cfk\mgf] clwsf/ cfk}+m lng ;Sb5, t/ ;+3Lotfdf
:yfgLo :t/df lbPsf] clwsf/nfO{ s]Gb|n] rfxFb}df
lkmtf{ lng kfpFb}g . To;}n], ;}4flGts leGgtf xfdLn]
a'e\mg'kg]{ x'G5 . csf]{ s'/f, hgtfnfO{ ;fj{ef}d agfpg]
xf] eg] s]Gb|nfO{ zlQmzfnL agfO/xg'kg]{ cfjZos
5}g . hgtfnfO{ zlQm lbg' g} nf]stflGqs dfGotf
d'tflas xf] . To;f] u/]df a? ljv08g x'Fb}g, nf]stGq
km:6fp“5, ;b\efj km}lnG5 . hgtf ;fj{ef}d s]Gb|Lo
k|0ffnLdf klg x'g;S5 eGg] s'/fdf Tolt ;xdt x'g
;ls“b}g . ;+3Lotf / s]Gb|Ls/0fsf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0faLr
km/s 5, ;+3Lotfdf hgtfnfO{ lbOg] clwsf/sf nflu
;+j}wflgs Uof/]G6L x'G5 / Tof] g} dxTjk"0f{ xf] .
;+3Lotf k]ml/ cfk+}mdf uhasf] km'q's–km'q's
rn]/ 7Ls kfg]{ xf]Og, To;df c? ljleGg ;+oGqx?df
;dfj]zL x'g'k¥of], nf]stGqdf ;a}sf] ;dfg clwsf/
;'lglZrt x'g'k¥of] . lgod agfpg] k|lqmofdf ;xeflutf
x'g'k¥of] . clwsf/ k|fGt, :yfgLo :t/df lbPkl5
Tof] ;Dej x'G5 . s]Gb|Lo :t/df ;a} clwsf/ x'Fbf
hgtfaf6 zf;g 6f9f /x\of] . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df
Oltxf;af6 ckmfk l;4 eO;s]sf]n] xfdLn] gofF
hgcfsf+Iff cg'?k hfg'kg]{ b]lvG5 .
dfa'xfª M ;+3Lo zf;g k|0ffnL cfp“b}5 eg]/
cflbjf;L hghflt, dw];L, blnt / s]xL ;d'bfox?
cToGt pT;flxt ePsf 5g\ eg] Psy/L dfG5]x? Psbd
xtf]T;fxL cyjf cfz+sf / 8/qf;n] u|l;t b]lvG5g\ .
;+3Lotf pT;fxL / cft+lst x'g'kg]{ ljifo xf] ls s] xf] <
sdnf x]dr'/L M d]/f] ljrf/df of] b'j} xf]Og h:tf]
nfU5 . cflbjf;L, dlxnf, blnt, cNk;ª\Vos h'g
;d'bfox? 5g\, tL ;d'bfox?sf] /fhgLlts clwsf/
;'lglZrt x'g] jftfj/0f eof] / pgLx?n] ;+3Lotfsf]
pkof]u ;xL 9+un] ug{;s] eg] jf:tjdf ;+3Lotfn]
;fy{s kl/0ffd lbG5 . xf]Og eg] Pp6f hflt, Pp6f
ju{nfO{ k|f]T;fxg lbg] lx;fan] ;+3Lotfdf uOof] eg]
km]l/ k'gM csf]{ ;d'bfo clwsf/;DkGg ;d'bfoaf6
kLl8t x'g] cj:yf l;h{gf x'g;S5 . Psn] csf]{nfO{
ul/g] lgif]wsf] cEof; ul/g'x'Gg .

;+3Lo ax;
;+ljwfg;ef cGtu{t /fHo k'g;{+/rgf tyf /fHozlQm af“8kmf“8
;ldltn] g]kfnsf] ;+3Los/0fsf] 9fFrf;lxtsf] cfkm\gf] k|ltj]bg
;+ljwfg;efdf a'emfO;s]sf] 5 . clxn] ljleGg ;+3Lo OsfO, /fHozlQm
af“8kmf“8 / ;du|df ;+3Lotf af/]df ;+ljwfg;efleq / ;txdf ax;
rln/x]sf] 5 . ljz]ifu/L k|:tfljt !$ k|b]z tyf ljleGg OsfOx? af/]df
/fli6«o ax;sf] ljifo ag]sf] 5 . o;df lnDa'jfg k|b]zdfly s]lGb|t
ul/Psf] 5 .
k|:tfljt !$ k|b]zdWo] lnDa'jfg Pp6f k|b]z xf] . lnDa'jfg k|b]zdf
;ft lhNnf cGtu{tsf @ ;o !& uflj;sf e"–efu ;d]l6Psf 5g\ .
t;y{, lnDa'jfg s] xf] < / o;sf ljleGg cfofd / kIfaf/]sf] ax; oxfF
k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . k|:tfljt lnDa'jfgsf] ;Defjgf / cf}lrTodflysf]
ax;df ;ef;bx¿ s]zj a'9fyf]sL -g]sf_, x]d e08f/L -Pdfcf]jfbL_, ch'{g
lnDa' -cWoIf, ls/ft ofSy'ª r'Dn'ª_, 5lj ;DafxfDk]m -;+3Lo lnDa'jfg
/fHo kl/ifb_, vu|]Gb| dflvd -;+3Lo nf]stflGqs /fli6«o d~r_, xs{/fh
rf]ªafª -/fhgLlt1_, 8Da/ t]Da] -;dfhzf:qL_, efg' lg/f}nf -clwjQmf_,
lg/axfb'/ ;'Aaf -o'jfljBfyL{_, s0f{ jg]d -lnDa'jfg cfGbf]ngsdL{_ /
-jljtf e§/fO{ -ljBfyL{_ nufot;Fu ePsf] ax;sf] ;Dkflbt c+z M ;+

lnDa'jfg k|bz
]
afns'i0f dfa'xfª M dfggLo s]zj a'9fyf]sLhL,
@)#*÷#( ;fnlt/ k"j{sf] /fhgLlts j[Qdf rlr{t
x'g'x'GYof] . d}n] hf]8\g vf]h]sf] ljifo s] eGbf Toxf“sf]
/fhgLlt / PsfTds zf;g jf s]Gb|Lo /fhgLlt
aLrsf] a]d]nn] ubf{ lhNnf jf gu/ k~rfotnfO{
lj36g u/]sf] lyof] . /fHo k'gM;+/rgfsf]
s'/f ul//x“bf lxhf]sf] Tof] zf;g Joj:yfsf] t'ngfdf
cfhsf] /fhgLlts ;+3Lo zf;g k|0ffnLdf s]
b]Vg'x'G5 <
s]zj a'9fyf]sL M /fHo k'gM;+/rgfsf] ljifo
;+ljwfg;efdf cToGt} ;dj]bgzLn ljifoleq
k/]sf] 5 . of] lg0f{o cfpg] k':tfsf nflu
ul/g] lg0f{o x'g\ . o;nfO{ xNsf 9+un] ;f]Rg'x'Gg
eGg] nfU5 . efjgfdf au]/ eGbf oyfy{k/s gx'g
;S5 . To;}n] uxg ljifodf cWoogaf6} af]Nbf
wd{ x'G5 . s;};Fu cfu|x, k"jf{u|x /flvg'x'Gg .
xfdLn] Pp6f nfdf] cGt/fndf @ ;o $) jif{
nfdf] Oltxf; af]s]sf] lje]baf6 d'lQm kfpFb}5f}+ .
h;n] g]kfn PsLs/0f u¥of], p;s} ;GtfgnfO{ g}
xfdLn] labf ul/;lsPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df
PsLs/0f ug]{ k[YjLgf/fo0fb]lv ;'? eO{ 1fg]Gb|sf]

kfnfdf cfpFbf ;dfKt ePsf] cj:yf 5 / gofF
;'?jft yfn]sf 5f}+ .
dfa'xfª M cln a9L efjgfTds x'g'eP
h:tf] nfUof] . tkfO{+sf] /fhgLlts hLjgsf] ;Gbe{df
hf]8\bf tTsfnLg ;dodf ePsf] s]Gb|Ls[t PsfTds
zf;g k|0ffnL x'Fbf / If]qLo /fhgLlt emfkfdf
lqmofzLn x'“bf h'g a]d]n lyof], To;a]nfsf]
/fhgLlts k|0ffnL lj;+ultk"0f{ 7fGg'x'G5 eg]
To:tf] lj;+ultnfO{ casf] ;+3Lo zf;g k|0ffnLn]
s;/L ;fGble{s agfP/ hfg ;S5 <
a'9fyf]sL M lxhf] s]Gb|n] Ps9+uLo
tl/sfn] lg0f{o uYof]{ / To;sf] ljb|f]x ubf{ bl08t
klg xf]OGYof] . casf] ;+/rgf To:tf] x'g ;Sb}g,
lglZrt xf] . t/ klg lgdf{0f x'g] s]Gb| / k|fGtx?
aLrdf sfg'gL ?kn] sxLF g sxLF, s]xL g s]xL d]n
vfg] 7fpF x'g ;Sg'k¥of] . ;dembf/Lsf] cfwf/af6
g]kfn Psl9Ssf /fVg ;Sg] vfnsf] sfg'gx?
lgdf{0f x'g'k¥of] .
dfa'xfª M e08f/LhL, /fHo k'gM;+/rgf ubf{
g]kfnnfO{ Psl9Ssf agfpg] /fhgLlts ;f]+r cfPsf]
5 . s;/L Psl9Ssf agfpFb} x'g'x'G5 <

lxhf] s]Gb|n]
Ps9+uLo
tl/sfn] lg0f{o
uYof]{ / To;sf]
ljb|f]x ubf{
bl08t klg
xf]OGYof] .
casf] ;+/rgf
To:tf] x'g
;Sb}g, lglZrt
xf] .

;+3Lo g]kfn

(

lnDa'jfg k|b]z

ch{'g lnDa'
pTkL8gsf]
cGTosf nflu
;aeGbf
/fd|f] Joj:yf
k|0ffnL eg]s}
:jfoQ;lxtsf]
;+3Lotf xf] .

x]d e08f/L M g]kfnsf] j:t'ut
cfwf/df x]bf{ PsLs/0fsf] ;doeGbf cl3b]lv
;fdGtL Psflwsf/ ;'? eof] . vf;u/L lxGb'
wd{sf] gfddf dNnsfnLg ;dob]lv k[YjLgf/fo0f
zfxkl5sf] ;do;Dddf cfpFbf pRrtd ?k lnof] .
k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxb]lv clxn];Ddsf] Oltxf;nfO{
;+Zn];g u¥of}+ eg] g]kfndf hAa/ ?kdf hftLo,
juL{o, If]qLo, n}ª\lus, eflifs, ;fdflhs
pTkL8gx? 5g\ . oL ljljw vfn] pTkL8gnfO{
cGTo ug]{ bfloTj of] ;+ljwfg;efnfO{ 5 .
;+ljwfg;efn] /fHo k'gM;+/rgf ubf{ ;a} vfnsf
pTkL8gnfO{ cGTo ug]{u/L k'gM;+/rgf ul/g'k5{ .
h;n] d'n'snfO{ Psl9Ssf agfpF5 .
ch'{g lnDa' M pTkL8gsf] cGTosf nflu
;aeGbf /fd|f] Joj:yf k|0ffnL eg]s} :jfoQ;lxtsf]
;+3Lotf xf] . ;a}vfn] pTkL8gnfO{ Jojl:yt ug]{
pko'Qm dfWod ;+3Lotfleqsf] ;+/rgfn] dfq
Jojl:yt ug{ ;S5 .
;ef;bHo"x?n]
5lj ;DafxfDkm] M
ljifoj:t'dfly v'n]/ s'/f /fVg'ePg, s]xL

Psflt/ hgtfsf] h'g rfxgf 5,
To;nfO{ k'gM;+/rgfdfkm{t ltgLx?sf]
clwsf/nfO{ Uof/]G6L ug]{ h'g
/fhgLlts k|lqmofx? 5, Tof] k|lqmofdf
g} Kjfn k/]sf] b]lvG5 .
5lj ;DafxfDk]m

!)

;+3Lo g]kfn

s'/f c8\lsPsf] 5 h:tf] nfUof] . dfcf]jfbL
;fyLx?n] /fv]sf] pTkL8gsf] s'/f ;l6s
5 . tyflk pxfFx?sf] kf6L{ Jojxf/df
?kfGt/0f ug]{ k|lqmofx?df 7"nf] cGof]n eO/fv]sf]
b]lvG5 . Psflt/ hgtfsf] h'g rfxgf 5, To;nfO{
k'gM;+/rgfdfkm{t ltgLx?sf] clwsf/nfO{ Uof/]G6L
ug]{ h'g /fhgLlts k|lqmofx? 5, Tof] k|lqmofdf
g} Kjfn k/]sf] b]lvG5 . csf]{lt/ /fhgLlts
g]t[Tj cfkm}+n] af]n]sf] s'/f klg sfof{Gjogsf]
txdf cNdln/x]sf] cj:yf 5 . of] l;gfl/cf]n]
hgtfnfO{ lbUe|ldt kfl//x]sf] b]V5' .
vu]Gb| dflvd M l;ª\uf] g]kfnsf] clxn]sf]
;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu ;+3Lotfsf] csf]{ ljsNk
5}g . h'g clxn] !$ k|fGtsf] k|:tfj cfPsf]
5, To;df xfdL cfdgful/sn] ;sf/fTds ?kdf
lng'k5{ eGg] nfU5 . ca k|b]zsf] l;dfgfx?sf]
dfq} ax; k|f/De x'g'k5{ . k|:tfljt !$ k|b]zsf]
;+3Lo 9fFrf cfO;s]kl5 o;sf] lj?4df
;+ljwfg;efdf ;d]t cfjfhx? p7] . o;sf]
abnfdf ^ k|b]z Nofpg k]ml/ /fHosf] k'g;+/rgf
ul/g'x'Gg . /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf ug'{ eg]sf] cfufdL
x'g;Sg] ljb|fx] nfO{ /f]Sgsf nflu xf] . lnDa'jfg
gfdfª\sg / k|:tfljt gu/]df /fhgLlts ljb|fx] af6
d'Qm x'g ;Sb}g . To;}n] clxn] k|:tfljt
/fHosf] k'gM;+/rgfnfO{ ;sf/fTdsaf6 cufl8 nfg
;Sg'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M s]zj a'9fyf]sLhL, g]kfnL
sfª\u|];n] !$ k|fGt / ^ k|fGtsf] l;dfª\sg /
gfdfª\sg;lxt b'j}nfO{ ;+ljwfg;ef;Dd n}hfp“ eGg]
cfu|x lyof], t/ b'O{j6f ljsNkx?;lxtsf] k|ltj]bg
lnP/ hf“bf ;+ljwfg;efdf 5nkmn ug{ c;xhtf
x'Gg / < sfª\u|];sf] !$ j6f k|fGtsf] ljkIfdf /fox?

;+3Lo ax;
cfO/x]sf] 5 tkfFO{+ s] eGg'xG5 <
s]zj a'9fyf]sL M xfdLn] s'g} klg Pp6f
k|fGt agfpFbf pm cfk}+m pleg;Sg] cfly{s ;antf
slt 5 < To;leq ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/x?,
pBf]uwGbf, eG;f/, cfk\mg} v'§fdf pleg;Sg] k|fGt
jf k|b]z aGg ;S5 ls ;Sb}g eGg] s'/f k|an
?kdf x]l/g'k5{ eGg] nfU5 . clxn]sf] !$ j6f
gS;fdf kxf8–kxf8df dfq} vDa'jfg, lnDa'jfgnfO{
lbP/ ToxfF s'g} pBf]uwGbf, snsf/vfgfsf]
;Defjgf 5}g, eG;f/, gfsf 5}g eg] s;/L Jojl:
yt x'g;S5 . ef]ln dw]; k|fGtn] s'g} k|sf/sf]
c;xh c;xdlt sfod u¥of] eg] lgsf; gx'g]
u/L lg:;fl;g] lx;fan] h'g 9+un] clxn] k|b]z
agfOPsf] 5, of] sfnfGt/df uP/ of] km:6fpg
;Sg] l:ylt x'Fb}g . To;}n] ef/t / rLg b'j}
d'n's;Fu lgsf; x'g'k¥of] / pBf]uwGbf, k|fs[lts
;|f]t;fwg, gbLgfnf / vfgL;d]t klg ePsf] k|fGt
pleg ;S5 . / ^ k|fGtdf :ki6 ?kdf xfdL
;a}sf] rfxgf;Fu glhs 5 eGg] nfU5 .
dfa'xfª M e08f/LhL, k|:tfljt lnDa'jfg
k|fs[lts ;|f]t;fwg, kx'“r, lgsf;ljxLg xf] <
x]d e08f/L M dfggLo s]zjhLn] eGg'ePsf]
h:t} klxnf] cfwf/ cfly{s jf cfly{s ;DefJotfnfO{
agfpg'k5{ eGg] s'/f clxn]sf] /fHo k'gM;+/rgfsf]
d"n efjgf;Fu d]n vfFb}g . cfly{s t ef]ln
/fHon] Joj:yfkg ug]{ xf] . lnDa'jfgsf] ;Gbe{df
cfPsf] l;dfgf;Fu c;xdt /fVg ;lsPnf
To;sf] P]ltxfl;s e"ldx? aflx/ k/]sf x'g;S5g\,
k|fljlws s'/fx?nfO{ ldnfpg ;lsG5 . w/fgb]lv
/fhdfu{ jl/kl/sf] If]qx? hf] kxf8af6 em/]/
a;]sfnfO{ dw];df xflnlbof] eg] slt Jofjxfl/
s / 3'nldn x'g;Snfg\, of] 5nkmnsf] ljifo
x'g;S5, t/ lnDa'jfg h'g lxhf]sf] pTkL8g 5
To;nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ vf]lhPsf]n] j}1flgs 5 eGg]
nfU5 . lnDa'jfg k|fs[lts ;|f]t;fwg / kx'FrljxLg
5 eGg] nfUb}g .
ch'{g lnDa' M /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf ubf{ ;a}
k|b]zsf l;dfgfx? cGt/f{li6«o l;dfgf;Fu hf]l8g
cfjZos 5 . t/ To;f] ePg eg] ;+3Lo OsfOx?
l6Sg g} ;Sb}gg\, cfly{s cj:yf vtd x'G5
eGg] s'/fx? ;+3Lotfsf] l:kl/6;Fu cln d]n
vfFb}g ls eGg] nfU5 . cGt/f{li6«o ;DaGw /fVg]
clwsf/x? ;+3Lo ;/sf/df g} /flvPsf]
5 . k|fGt jf k|b]zx?n] klg cGt/f{li6«o ;DaGw
a9fpg ;S5 . g]kfn clxn] l;ª\u} Pp6} xF'bf
klg l;dfgf rf/}lt/ hf]l8Psf] cj:yf 5 . tyflk
eg]h:tf] Jofkf/ ug{;s]sf 5}gf} . xfdLn] pTkfbg
u/]sf] / xfd|f] cfly{s ;DefJotfnfO{ k|a4{g ug]{ /
cGt/f{li6«o ;DaGw t s]Gb| ;/sf/n] g} ljsf;

ug'{k5{ .
dfa'xfª M ;+3Los/0fn] ljleGg If]qLo,
k|fb]lzs cfGtl/s Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ ;+3Lotfsf]
d"Vo Wo]o xf] . PsfTds zf;g Joj:yf
x'“bfh:t} cGt/f{li6«o ;DaGw ;+3Lo ;/sf/n] g} :
yflkt u5{ eGg] ljifo nufotsf s'/fx? p7]
oxf“x?nfO{ s] nfU5 <
xs{/fh rf]ª\afª M ;+3Lotf;Fu d]n
gvfg] / ;sf/fTds egfO cfPg ls eGg]
nfUof] . lsgls k|b]z / k|fGt aGbf cfly{s
Joj:yf yfDg ;S5 ls ;Sb}g eGg] eGbf klg
ToxfFsf] ;DalGwt hgtf pTkL8gaf6 d'lQm
kfpF5 ls kfpFb}g eGg] s'/fnfO{ Wofg lbg'k5{ .
k|:tfljt k|b]zsf] ;fFw–l;dfgf kl/dfh{g / Jojl:yt
ug'{k5{ . t/ k|:tfljt ;+3Lo ;+/rgfx?leq
vfgL, hnjfo', pBf]uwGbf nufot hgtfn] yfDg
;Sg]–g;Sg] ljifo cWoog ug]{ eGg] s'/f
;+3Lotf;Fu d]n vfg] s'/f xf]Og .
efg' lg/f}nf M hgdfg;df ljleGg k|Zgx?
aflx/ b]vfkl//fv]sf 5g\ . d'n's ;+3Lotfdf
uof] eg] ef]ln b]z 6'lqmG5 eGg] s]xL /fhgLlts
bnsf] cfjfh klg cfPsf] 5 eg] csf]{tk{m d'n's
;+3Lotfdf k|j]z ul/;s]sf] 5 . clxn] oxfF
lnDa'jfg :jfoQ k|b]zsf ljleGg kIfaf/] 5nkmn
eO/x]sf] 5 . dfggLo x]d e08f/Ln] ;+3Lo
/fHosf] cjwf/0ffaf6 pTkL8g ePsf] hfltx?sf]
d'lQm / Gofo x'G5 eGg] s'/f p7fpg'eof] .
ef]ln lnDa'jfgsf] /fHo v8f x'Fbf Tof] /fHoleq
/x]sf cGo hfltx?sf] l:ylt s] x'g] < / Pp6f
hfltnfO{ dfq ljz]if clwsf/sf] ?kdf ;/sf/
;~rfng ug{ lbOof] eg] ToxfF klg cGofo x'g] xf]
ls < To;}n] dfggLo a'9fyf]sLn] eg]e}+m ;a}hgf
ldlnh'nL ;Nnfx u/]/ Pp6f ;+3sf] :yfkgf
ug'{k5{ eGg] nfU5 .
dfa'xfª M ch'{ghL, lnDa'jfgsf] ljifo;“u}
;fdflhs, P]ltxfl;s, ;f+:s[lts, eflifs pTkL8gdf
k/]sf] Pp6f hfltnfO{ ljz]if lnDa'jfg agfO“b}
/ aGb}5, To;/L aGbf lnDa' pTkLl8t hfltsf]

xs{/fh rf]ª\afª
k|b]z / k|fGt
aGbf cfly{s
Joj:yf
yfDg ;S5
ls ;Sb}g
eGg] eGbf
klg Toxf“sf]
;DalGwt hgtf
pTkL8gaf6
d'lQm kfp“5 ls
kfp“b}g eGg]
s'/fnfO{ Wofg
lbg'k5{ .

d'n's ;+3Lotfdf uof] eg] ef]ln b]z
6'lqmG5 eGg] s]xL /fhgLlts bnsf]
cfjfh klg cfPsf] 5 eg] csf]{tk{m
d'n's ;+3Lotfdf k|j]z
ul/;s]sf] 5 .
efg' lg/f}nf
;+3Lo g]kfn

!!

lnDa'jfg k|b]z

df= x]d e08f/L
klxrfg
pTkL8gsf]
d'lQm;“u hf]l8G5
eg] ;fdYo{
cfly{s Joj:
yfkgsf] kf6f];“u
hf]l8G5 . oL
b'j} klxrfg
/ ;fdYo{sf]
cfwf/df k|ltj]bg
cfPsf] 5 .

t e/0fkf]if0f eP/ cfpnf, t/ c? hfltx?sf]
e/0fkf]if0f gx'g;S5 jf emg} pTkL8g x'g;Sg]
cfz+sf klg JoQm eof] lg, s] xf] of] <
ch'{g lnDa' M pTkLl8t hfltnfO{ ljutdf
ul/Psf] pTkL8gnfO{ ;Rofpg tyf kL8faf6
d'Qm u/]/ clxn]sf] jftfj/0fdf ;Ifd agfpgsf
nflu nf]stflGqs k|lqmofcg';f/ ;xdltdf s]xL
cu|flwsf/ / ljz]ifflwsf/ lbg'k5{ . t/ ha{h:tL
xfdLn] clwsf/ kfpg}k5{ eGg] s'/f cnf]stflGqs
x'g;S5 . ;}4flGts ?kdf cu|flwsf/sf]
s'/f cfpg'df ljutdf ePsf] pTkL8gnfO{ clxn]sf]
Gofok"0f{ ;dfh lgdf{0f ug]{ cleofgdf pTkLl8t
;d'bfonfO{ Ifltk"lt{;lxt cl3 a9f}+ eGg] dg;fon]
cfPsf] eGg] nfU5 . To;}n] ca /fhgLlt bn
;dfj]zL, ;dfg'kflts aGg'k5{ eGg] s'/f o;n]
b]vfpF5 . bnx?n] ;DalGwt pTkLl8t ;d'bfosf
hgtfx?nfO{ sfo{stf{sf] ?kdf ljsl;t ub}{
g]tfsf] ?kdf ljsf; ug{sf] nflu klg sfg'gL /
;+j}wflgs ?kdf lhDd]jf/L lng] lbzflt/ pGd'v
u/fpF5 eGg] nfU5 .
dfa'xfª M e08f/LhL, ;+j}wflgs k|lqmofdf
/fHo k'gM;+/rgf / /fHozlQm af“8kmf“8 ;ldltn]
k|ltj]bgdfk{mt ;'emfPsf ljifoj:t'dfly lj1x?sf]
cfof]u agfP/ hfg'k5{ eGg] /fhgLlts bnsf
zLif{:y g]tf nufotsf] /fox? cfO/x]sf] 5 . t/
;+ljwfg;ef /fHo k'gM;+/rgf ;ldltn] k|lqmofaf6
k|ltj]bg a'emfO;s]sf] 5, ca /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf
;ef;bx?n] agfPsf] x'G5 ls cfof]un] agfPsf]
x'G5 <
x]d e08f/L M klxnf] s'/f, /fHo k'gM
;+/rgf ;ldltn] tof/ u/]sf] ;+3Lo OsfO lgdf{0f
ug]{ cfwf/x?sf] ;}4flGts wf/0ffdf /fli6«o
hgdf]rf{afx]s s'g} klg bnsf] ljdlt jf leGg
dt 5}g . klxrfg / ;fdYo{sf] cfwf/x? :ki6
5 . klxrfg pTkL8gsf] d'lQm;Fu hf]l8G5 eg]
;fdYo{ cfly{s Joj:yfkgsf] kf6f];Fu hf]l8G5 .
oL b'j} klxrfg / ;fdYo{sf] cfwf/df k|ltj]bg cfPsf]
5 . To;}n] c;xdlt k|ltj]bgdf cfPsf] ;}4flGts

;+3Lotfsf] lj/f]wdf d ljNs'n xf]Og .
d]/f] egfO s]dfq xf] eg], /fHo ;fgf]
/ cfly{s k"jf{wf/ gx'“bf ef]lnsf] lbgdf
s]Gb|;“u dfu]/ rNg'kg]{ cj:yf gxf];\
eGg]dfq} xf] .
df= s]zj a'9fyf]sL

!@

;+3Lo g]kfn

kf6f]df xf] ls gS;fª\sgdf xf], c;xdt /fVg]
bnaf6 Tof] :ki6 cfPsf] 5}g . :ki6 cfpg'k5{ .
bf];|f] s'/f, /fHo k'gM;+/rgf cfof]usf] s'/f cfPsf]
5, of] 8/nfUbf] egfO xf] eGg] nfU5 . lsgls
g]kfnL sfª\u|];sf] ;+;bLo bndf /fHo k'gM;+/rgf
cfof]u agfpg'k5{ eg]/ /fdrGb| kf}8]nhLn] k|:tfj
/fVg'eof] / kf; klg ug'{eof] / To;sf] ef]lnkN6
pRr:t/Lo /fhgLlts ;+oGqsf] a}7sdf emngfy
vgfnhLn] k|:tfj /fVg'eof] / /fdrGb| kf}8]nhLn]
;dy{g ug'{eof] / k|r08hLn] xfdL kf6L{leq 5nkmn
u5f}{+ eGg'eof], o;/L ;+oGqdf ljifo k|j]z ePsf]
xf] . /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf gu/Lsg ;+ljwfg hf/L
ug]{ s'/f b]znfO{ cgGtsfn;Dd u[xo'4df k'gM
kmF;fpg] if8oGqdfq} xf] . To;f] ul/of] eg] ;+ljwfg
lgdf{0f, zflGt k|lqmofnfO{ lgisif{df k'¥ofpg] s'/f
cf}lrToxLg x'G5 .
dfa'xfª M a'9fyf]sLhL, Psflt/ ;+j}wflgs
k|lqmofcg';f/ ;ldltn] tof/ kf/]sf] k|ltj]bg
;+j}wflgs ;ldlt x'“b} ;+ljwfg;efdf 5nkmn /
ax;kZrft ;ef;bx?n] ;'emfPsf] ljifonfO{ ;d]6]/
;+ljwfg lgdf{0f x'g] k|lqmof 5 . csf]{lt/, zLif{:y
g]tfx?n] eGg] u/]sf] cfof]usf] k|lqmof klg xf]nf .
t/ o;/L uof}+ eg] d'n's u[xo'4df hfg] afx]s c?
pkfo gx'g;S5 eGg] s'/f cfof] lg, s] eGg'x'G5 <
s]zj a'9fyf]sL M klxnf], /fHo k'gM ;+/rgf
Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ ;jfn ePsf]n] lj1x?sf] ;xof]u
lng' plrt g} xf] . ;+ljwfg;efleq ;a} lj1
gx'g ;S5g\ . pgLx?sf] ;xof]u lnP/ cufl8
a9\bf /fd|} x'G5 eg] cfklQ dfGg' x'Fb}g . bf];|f],
csf]{ s'/f ;+3Lotfsf] lj/f]wdf d ljNs'n xf]Og .
d]/f] egfO s]dfq xf] eg], /fHo ;fgf] / cfly{s
k"jf{wf/ gx'Fbf ef]lnsf] lbgdf s]Gb|;Fu dfu]/
rNg'kg]{ cj:yf gxf];\ eGg]dfq} xf] . sfª\u|];n]
k|:tfj u/]sf] 5j6f k|b]z ;a} lx;fan] 7Ls eGg]
nfU5 . xfdL s] rfxG5f}+ eg], ;a} ;an k|b]z agf];\
/ htftt} hfltx?sf] ldl>t a;f]af; ePsfn] ;a}
ldlnh'nL alnof] / ;an /fHo agfpg ;S5f}+ eGg]
nfU5 . d]/f] s'g} hft / gfd;Fu lj/f]w 5}g, dfq
nf]stflGqs k|lqmofaf6 rn]sf] Pp6f /fHo agfpg'
;Dk"0f{ k"j]{nLsf nflu lxtdf 5 .
8Da/ t]Da] M d lnDa'jfg k|flKtsf] Pp6f
cleofgstf{ x'F . oxfF p7]sf s'/fdf JolQmut
?kdf vf;} ljdlQ 5}g . k|:tfljt !$ k|b]zsf]
cjwf/0ff 7Ls 5 . b'O6f k|fGt jf k|b]zsf] l;dfgf
lgwf{/0f ubf{ ;DalGwt k|b]zsf hgtfsf /fo s]
5 / ;DalGwt If]qsf ;ef;bx?sf] wf/0ff s]
5 < eGg] ljrf/nfO{ ldnfP/ l;dfgfsf] lgwf{/0f
ul/g'kb{5 . ;fdYo{nfO{ Vofn u/]/ oxL lnDa'jfgsf]
lgwf{/0f ul/of] eg] of] ;Ifd / ;kmn klg x'G5 . clxn]

;+3Lo ax;
k|:tfljt k|bz
] x? ;fdYo{ / klxrfgsf b[li6sf]0fn]
klg ;Ifd g} 5 . l;dfª\sg / gS;fª\sg ldnfP/
uof] eg] 7Ls} x'G5 eGg] nfU5 .
lg/axfb'/ ;'\Aaf M a'9fyf]sLHo"n] Psl9Ssf
eP/ /fi6« lgdf{0fdf nfUg'k5{ eGg'eof] .
s'/f ;xL xf] . / k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] klg To;}
eg]sf lyP . t/ /fi6« cufl8 t a9]g . cfly{s
s'/f ubf{, tLg jifL{o cGtl/d of]hgf, ax'p2]ZoLo
k~r]Zj/ of]hgf nufot ;/sf/ sfof{Gjog ug{
cft'/ b]lvG5 . hals /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf,
gofF ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmofsf] a]nf of] ljifo
p7\g' cfk}mdf c:jfefljs xf] . ljutsf] PsfTds
/fHok|0ffnLn] ;a} hgtfnfO{ ;dfg ?kn] clwsf/
lbg g;s]sf] huhfx]/} 5 . t/ c?0fk"j{sf gf}j6f
lhNnf lnDa'jfg x'gk' 5{ eGg] dfu lyof] . oBlk,
kfFrj6f lhNnfdf ;Lldt kfl/of] . h'g k'm6fpg]
/ zf;g ug]{ k|j[lQn] lg/Gt/tf kfof] . o;df
d x]d e08f/LHo"nfO{ g} k|ltk|Zg ug{ rfxG5' .
ljhok'/ k|b]zsf] rrf{df cfPsf] lyof], o;df s]
eGg'x'G5 <
dfa'xfª M ;+3Lo ;/sf/n] k|fs[lts ;|f]t
;fwgdfly a9L clwsf/ /fv]sf] b]lvG5 . k|fb]lzs
;/sf/sf] If]qflwsf/sf s'/fx? sd /flvg' sltsf]
Gofof]lrt 5 < /fHozlQmsf] af“8kmf“8sf] ljifodf
tkfO{+nfO{ s] nflu/x]sf] 5 <
x]d e08f/L M lg/hLsf] ;jfndf nDa'jfgdf clxn]
;ft j6f lhNnfsf e"efunfO{ ;d]6] /] k|:tfj ul/Psf] 5 .
lhNnfsf ;+/rgfnfO{ 6'qm\ ofpg gldNg] lsl;dn] lnDa'jfg
k|:tfj ul/Psf] xf] . hxfF;Dd ljhok'/sf] ;jfn 5, of]
ax;df NofOPsf] dfq} xf] . kf6L{sf] cflwsfl/s wf/0ff
xf]Og . cGtl/d ;/sf/n] 7"nf7"nf ;GwL;Demf}tf, kl/of]hgf
sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|jl[ Q unt xf] . clxn]sf] k|dv
' lhDd]jf/L
zflGt k|lqmof lgisif{df k'¥ofpg] / gofF ;+ljwfg hf/L ug]{ g}
xf] . h'g;'s} vfnsf ;lGw–;Demf}tf ubf{ ef]ln
aGg] k|bz] ;Fu k"j:{ jLs[lt lnP/ dfq} ;+3n] ug{
;S5 . 7"nf7"nf kl/of]hgf, 8\ofd nufotsf s'/fx?
k|bz] sf clwsf/leq klg x'gk' 5{ . hgtfn] To:tf
ljifosf af/]df lg0f{o ug{ kfpg'k5{ .
ch{'g lnDa' M clxn] /fHosf] gfdfª\sg /
l;dfª\sgdf a9L s]Gb|Lt eP/ 5nkmn ul//x]sf
5f}+ . /fHo lgdf{0fsf ;}4flGts cfwf/x? /fd|f
nfUbfnfUb} klg k|fljlws kIf -l;dfgf, gfd_
tndfly ePsf x'g;S5g\ . dxTjk"0f{ s'/f eg]sf]
/fHozlQmsf] afF8kmfF8 xf] . o;df uDeL/ ?kn]
5nkmn x'g'k5{ . cjlzi6 clwsf/x? s]Gb|sf]
clwsf/df dfq /flvPsf] 5 . s]Gb| / k|b]z b'j}sf]
;dembf/Ldf k|of]u ug]{u/L /flvg'k5{ . Tof] k|b]z
clwsf/;DkGg / :jfoQ eP–gePsf] s'/f To;n]
kfPsf] clwsf/n] k|:6\ofpF5 . ;+3sf] d"nsfg'gsf]

s'/f pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . / k|b]z / :jfoQ If]qsf]
cfk\mg} ljwfg jf sfg'g d"n sfg'g;Fu gaflemg]u/L
agfpg kfpg] clwsf/sf] af/]df :ki6 5}g . Tof]
s'/fx? :ki6 ?kdf cfpg'kYof]{ . ljZjljBfnosf]
;Gbe{df klg s]Gb| / k|fGtn] :yfkgf ug]{ /
Jojl:yt ug]{ ljifodf km/s s] xf] t eGg] s'/f
yk kl/eflift ug{'kg]{ b]lvG5 .
dfa'xfª M dfggLo a'9fyf]sLhL, /fHo ;Ifd
agfpg c;fdfGo cj:yfaf6 hfg'eGbf ;fdfGo /
ldn]/ hfp“m eGg] cfu|xx? cfof] . s]Gb| / k|b]zsf]
;femf ;"rLdf cjlzi6 clwsf/ eof] eg] Tof]
clwsf/nfO{ ;+3n] k|of]u u/]sf] cEof; b]lvG5 .
;+3Lo /fHoJoj:yf eP/ klg ef]ln k|b]zx? ;DkGg
ePgg\ eg] oxL 36gfx? bf]xf]l/g] ;Defjgf x'G5 .
To;}n] /fhgLlts / cfly{s clwsf/, ;|f]t;fwgsf]
clwsf/af/] :ki6 x'g'k5{ h:tf ljifox? p7] lg, s]
eGg'x'G5 <
s]zj a'9fyf]sL M of] Tolt w]/} ax; ul//
xg'kg]{ d b]lVbg . k|fGt jf k|b]z eGg]lalQs}
p;n] /fhgLlts clwsf/ s]Gb|nfO{ eGbf a9L
lbg'k5{ . cfly{s s'/fnfO{ klg p;n] ;Fu} lnP/
uPg eg] a]sf/sf] k|fGt aG5 . /fhgLlts /
cfly{s clwsf/ ;DkGg eO{ ;an ?kn] pleg
;Sg] x'g'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M ;+3Lo ;/sf/n] ljQLo clwsf/
-cGtMz'Ns, s/, cfos/, ;]jfs/, ko{6gs/ cflb_
a9L /fVg] ;Defjgf b]lvG5 . o;f] ePdf k|fb]lzs
;/sf/ /fhgLlts / cfly{s ?kn] s;/L pleg
;Snf < tkfO{+x? t hgtfsf] k|ltlglw, k|fb]lzs
;/sf/nfO{ s] ubf{ ;an x'g;S5 < ;f]Rg'ePsf]
5 ls <
a'9fyf]sL M d cy{zf:qsf] ljBfyL{
xf]Og . tyflk dnfO{ s] nfU5 eg] l5d]sL /fi6«
ef/tnfO{ dfq} x]¥of}+ eg] klg ljleGg s/ k|fGtn]
lnO/fv]s} 5 . / p;n] cfk\mgf] 9+un] To;nfO{ Joj:
yfkg u/]sf] klg b]lvG5 . xfdLn] ;+3Lo zf;g
Joj:yf cEof; u/]sf 5}gf}+ . cEof; ub}{ hfFbf
l;Sg] s'/f klg xf] . ;a} s'/f clxn] n]Vb}df

ljutsf] PsfTds /fHo k|0ffnLn] ;a}
hgtfnfO{ ;dfg ?kn] clwsf/ lbg
g;s]sf] huhfx]/} 5 . t/, c?0fk"j{sf
gf} j6f lhNnfnfO{ lnDa'jfg x'gk' 5{ eGg]
dfu lyof] . oBlk, kf�r j6f lhNnfdf
;Lldt kfl/of] .

8Da/ t]Da]
clxn] k|:tfljt
k|bz
] x? ;fdYo{
/ klxrfgsf
b[li6sf]0fn] klg
;Ifd g}
5 . l;dfª\sg
/ gS;fª\sg
ldnfP/ uof] eg]
7Ls} x'G5 eGg]
nfU5 .

lg/axfb'/ ;'Aaf
;+3Lo g]kfn

!#

lnDa'jfg k|b]z

q'l6/lxt x'G5 eGg] s'/f d dflGbg . To;}n]
ef]lnsf] lbgdf c;/ kfg]{ ljifodf k|j]z ubf{
ljrf/ k'¥ofpg'k5{ . kl5 k]ml/ c;kmn ePsf]
/fd|f] x'Fb}g .
dfa'xfª M /fHo k'gM;+{/rgfsf] k|ltj]bgdf
;+3 -s]Gb|_, k|b]z / :yfgLo u/L tLg txsf
lgsfosf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . ;/sf/ eGg]lalQs}
Joj:yflksf, sfo{kflnsf / Gofokflnsfsf]
Joj:yf x'g'k5{ . ;+3Lo, k|fb]lzs / :yfgLo ;/sf/sf]
:j?k s:tf] x'g;S5 < k|ltj]bgdf ;'NemfPsf] 9f“rf
pko'Qm 5 ls 5}g <
vu]Gb| dflvd M rf}wj6f k|fGtdWo] lnDa'jfg
Pp6f k|fGt xf] / o;sf] j}wflgs ax; k|f/De
ePsf] 5 . /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf ubf{ gfdfª\sg
dxTjk"0f{ s'/f x'G5 . bf];|f], l;dfª\sg x'G5 .
To;kl5 cfly{s ;DefJotfsf] s'/fx? ug{ ;lsG5
/ k|fGtnfO{ s;/L ;'b[9 agfpg] eGg]tk{m ax;
hfg'k5{ . clxn];Ddsf] ;+/rgf cJojl:yt lyof] .
k|zf;lgs ;'udtf lyPg . gful/stf, /fxbfgL

clxn];Ddsf] ;+/rgf cJojl:yt
lyof] . k|zf;lgs ;'udtf lyPg .
gful/stf, /fxbfgL lgsfNbf 3G6f}
lx“8]/ hfg'kg]{ cj:yf lyof] . :yfgLo
txnfO{ clwsf/;DkGg, ljsl;t
ul/of] eg] hgtfsf] kx'“r a9\5 .
vu]Gb| dflvd

!$

;+3Lo g]kfn

lgsfNbf 3G6f} lxF8]/ hfg'kg]{ cj:yf lyof] .
:yfgLo txnfO{ clwsf/;DkGg, ljsl;t
ul/of] eg] hgtfsf] kx'Fr a9\5 . o;n] ubf{ /fHo
;/sf/k|lt ckgTj j[l4 eO{ cfly{s ;fdYo{tf,
;antf, ;DefJotf / cfTdlge{/tf a9]/ hfG5 .
dfa'xfª M ch{'ghL, :yfgLo ;/sf/ jf
lgsfodf hf“bfv]l/ Tof] s;/L ;Ifd / Jojl:yt
x'g;S5 <
ch{'g lnDa' M ljz]if ;+/rgf cGtu{tsf :yfgLo
lgsfox? x]bf{ clxn]sf] ljsl;t ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf]
cjwf/0ffcg';f/ :yfgLo ;/sf/nfO{ dha't agfpg,
cfly{s ;|f]t;fwg kl/rfngdflysf] kx'Fr j[l4 ug]{
lsl;dsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . Tof] /fd|}h:tf]
nfU5 . To;nfO{ Jofjxfl/s cEof;df Nofpg
;lsof] eg] jf:tljs ;d'bfon] nfe p7fpg
;S5g\ . ;"rLs[t clwsf/nfO{ sfof{Gjogdf
Nofpg ;lsof] eg] k|fGt ljsf;sf nflu cf–
cfk\mgf] If]qaf6 e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ ;Sg] l:ylt
b]lvG5 .
dfa'xfª M e08f/LhL, ;+3Lotfsf] cEof;
u/]sf d'n'sx?df k/:k/ ;xsfo{, ;xof]ufTds
/ ;+of]hgsf/Lsf] e"ldsf ;+3n] a9L v]n]sf]
b]lvG5 . ;+3Los/0fsf tLg lgsfo jf ;/sf/
;+3 -s]Gb|_, k|b]z / :yfgLo lgsfon] s]–s] ug]{
eGg] ljifo k|ltj]bgdf cGof]n b]lvG5 . ;+3, k|b]zn]
ljlwljwfg agfpg] / :yfgLo ;/sf/n] sfof{Gjog
ug]{ xf] < sfo{qmdx? dflysfn] dflyb]lv agfpg] /
tnsfn] tnb]lv dfly;Dd s'b\g'kg]{ lxhf]s} h:tf]
;+/rgfTds l:ylt cfp“b}g eGg] s] 5 <
e08f/L M klxnf]k6s xfdL ;+3Lotfdf hfFb5
} f}F .
k|:tfljt u/]sf clwsf/x?nfO{ x]bf{ / Tof]cg'?k
hfFbf uf]ndfn x'g] l:ylt klg 5 . tyflk, alnof]
;}4flGts cfwf/ eg] lbPsf] 5 . :yfgLo lgsfo,
ufpF–gu/nfO{ clwsf/;DkGg agfpg'k5{ . lsgeg]
ha;Dd tNnf]:t/sf hgtf zlQmzfnL x'Fb}gg\,
ta;Dd To;n] ;fy{s kl/0ffd kfpFb}g .
dfa'xfª M clwsf/;DkGg t agfpg] t/
clwsf/ sfof{Gjogsf] dfkb08 agfpgnfO{ ufp“
tyf tNnf]:t/df lj1x? t kfOFb}gg\ lg < h'g
cGt/f{li6«o dfkb08 / d"No–dfGotfsf] 1fg klg
ePsf] x'g'k5{ . xfdL clwsf/jfbL eP/ clwsf/
;DkGgsf s'/f t u5f}+ . t/ xfdL;“u Ifdtf ePsf /
bIf hgzlQm 5g\ t < Totflt/ Vofn u/]sf 5f}+ <
e08f/L M s'/f 7Ls / ;To xf] . :yfgLo,
k|fGt jf k|b]z / ;+3 -s]Gb|_n] s'g–s'g ljifodf
sfg'g agfpg kfpg] eGg] k|ltj]bgdf :ki6
ul/Psf] 5}g . clnslt To;n] låljwf agfPsf]
5 . k|:tfljt u/]sf ;a} ljifon] ;+3Lotf
;+:yfut x'G5 eGg] klg 5}g . ;+3LotfnfO{

;+3Lo ax;

;+:yfut ug{ ;a} vfnsf] hgzlQm / ;+oGq
x'g cfjZos 5 . ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLosf]
aLrdf x'g] ljjflbt ljifo ldnfpg ;a} ;+j}wflgs
cbfntdfk{mt xn ug{ ;lsG5 . ljjfbf:kb If]qsf]
hgtfsf] /fo / hgdt lnP/ s'g k|b]z jf If]qdf
a:g rfxG5g\, To;/L xn u¥of] eg] Tof] j}1flgs
x'G5 eGg] nfU5 .
dfa'xfª M a'9fyf]sLhL, :yfgLo ;/sf/nfO{
s:tf] agfpg] af/]df ;femf b[li6sf]0f cfpgk5{ ls
kb}{g <
a'9fyf]sL M cfh;Dd s]Gb|n] a9L clwsf/
/ zlQm /fv]sf] lyof] . ToxL cj:yf ca /xg'
x'Fb}g . s]Gb|af6 s]xL clwsf/ lhNnfnfO{, lhNnfn]
To;}u/L :yfgLonfO{ lbg] kl/kf6Lsf] cGTo
x'g'k5{ . xfd|f] kf6L{n] Gofof]lrt clwsf/
ufpF:t/;Dd k'¥ofpg'k5{ eGg] cfjfh /fv]sf]
5 . / of] cfjZos klg xf] . tNnf] :t/nfO{ alnof]
agfpg clwsf/ ;DkGg agfpg}k5{ . clwsf/x?
tNnf]eGbf tNnf] txdf k'¥ofpg'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M clwsf/sf] ;Gbe{df, :yfgLo
;/sf/nfO{ sfof{Gjogsf] clwsf/ lb“bf k|b]z tyf
;+3sf] lg0f{onfO{ kv]{/ a:g' t k/]g lg < :yfgLo
;/sf/, k|fb]lzs ;/sf/ / ;+3Lo ;/sf/sf]
b[li6sf]0f s] xf] eGg] s'/fx?df c:ki6tf b]lvG5
lg < ls of] 5nkmn / ax;sf] ljifodfq} xf] <
x]d e08f/L M k|Zg hfoh 5, clwsf/
:ki6 ?kdf cfpg;s]sf 5}gg\ . tyflk

sfof{Gjog ubf{ s]xL klg gkfpg] l:ylt eg]
xf]Og . sfg'gL ?kn] lhNnf, gu/ / ufpFnfO{
clwsf/ lbg g;lsg] cj:yf ef]ln ;+3n] lgdf{0f
ug{ ;Sg] cj:yf 5}g . clwsf/x? ufpF:t/df
sfof{Gjog ubf{ sfdn] sfd l;sfpFb} hfG5 eGg]
nfU5 . To;}n] k|ltj]bgdf gLltut s'/f alnof]
agfpg vf]lhPsf] 5 . ef]lnsf] lbgdf dflyNnf]
txn] tNnf] txnfO{ clwsf/ lbg g/f]sf];\ eGg] g}
d'Vo s'/f xf] .

cfh;Dd s]Gb|n]
a9L clwsf/ /
zlQm /fv]sf]
lyof] . ToxL
cj:yf ca /xg'
x'“b}g . s]Gb|af6
s]xL clwsf/
lhNnfnfO{,
lhNnfn] To;}u/L
:yfgLonfO{ lbg]
kl/kf6Lsf] cGTo
x'g'k5{ .

;+3Lo g]kfn

!%

;+3Lo ax;

ls/ft k|bz
]
;+

ljwfg;efdf /fHo k'g;{+/rgf tyf /fHozlQm afF8kmfF8 ;ldltn] k|:tfj
u/]sf] !$ k|b]zdWo] ls/ft k|b]z Pp6f xf] . k|:tfljt ls/ft k|b]zdf
;ft lhNnf cGtu{tsf @ ;o #% uflj;sf e"–efu ;d]l6Psf 5g\ . t;y{
ls/ft k|b]zsf] ;DefJotf / o;nfO{ s;/L Jojl:yt / j:t'ut agfpg] cyjf of]
k|b]z x'g'x'Fb}g of x'g'k5{ eGg] h:tf ljleGg ljrf/x¿nfO{ ;d]6\g vf]lhPsf] 5 .
k|:tfljt k|b]zsf] ljleGg ljifodflysf] 5nkmndf ;ef;b kbd /fO{
-Pdfcf]jfbL_, rGb|ljqmd /fO{ -dxf;lrj, ls/ft /fO{ ofof]Svf_, 6]saxfb'/
yfkf -s]Gb|Lo ;b:o, v; IfqL Pstf ;dfh_, k|sfz /fO{ -dfgjzf:qL_,
/fds'df/ vDa' -cWoIf, vDa'jfg /fli6«o df]rf{_, lbjz /fO{ -;lrj, ls/ft
/fO{ ofof]Svf_, gu]Gb| vfDn] -pkfWoIf, vDa'jfg /fli6«o df]rf{_, /ljg /fO{
-cWoIf, ls/ft /fO{ ljBfyL{ ;+3_ /d]z bhL{ -pk;efklt, :jljo', lqljlj_,
k"0f{ vDa' -s]Gb|Lo ;b:o, vDa'jfg /fli6«o df]rf{_ / b]ljsf /fO{ -pkfWoIf,
cflbjf;L–hghflt ljBfyL{ dxf;+3_ nufot;Fu ePsf] ax;sf] ;Dkflbt
c+z M ;+

clxn] d"ne"t
¿kdf klxrfgsf]
cfwf/af6
k|b]zx¿ lgdf{0f
ePsf 5g\ .
To;/L ls/ft
k|b]z klg hftLo
/ ;d'bfosf]
cfwf/df ag]]sf]
k|b]z xf] .

df= kbd /fO{

!^

;+3Lo g]kfn

afns[i0f dfa'xfª M dfggLo kbdhL, ;+3Los/
0fsf] ;Gbe{df !$ k|b]zx¿sf] gS;f, gfdfª\sg, cj:
yfx¿sf af/]df ;+ljwfg;ef / hgdfg;df ax; /
5nkmn eO/x]sf] 5, oLdWo] ls/ft k|b]z s] xf] <
kbd /fO{ M /fHo k'g;{+/rgf ;ldltn] k];
u/]sf] !$ j6f k|b]zx¿sf] k|d'v cfwf/ klxrfg
dfg]sf] 5, Tof] eg]sf] hftLo cfwf/ g} xf] .
klxrfg / ;fdYo{sf klg cfwf/x¿ 5g\ . clxn]
d"ne"t ¿kdf klxrfgsf] cfwf/af6 k|b]zx¿ lgdf{0f
ePsf 5g\ . To;/L ls/ft k|b]z klg hftLo /
;d'bfosf] cfwf/df ag]]sf] k|b]z xf] .

dfa'xfª M d'7\7Le/ hftLo g]tfx¿n] Tof]
If]qsf] lgGt/ /fhgLlts g]tf x'gnfO{ o;f] u/]sf x'g\
eGg] cf/f]k ;'lgG5 lg <
kbd M ljleGg c8\snafhL x'g;S5g\,
To;sf] k5fl8 bu'/]/ ;fWo nfUb}g . d"ne"t ¿kdf
Tof] ;d'bfosf] ;Djf]wg klxnf] s'/f xf] . ;}4flGts
lx;fan] Tof] ;d'bfosf] klxrfgsf lglDt /fHosf]
lgdf{0f ul/Psf] xf] eGg] dnfO{ nfU5 .
dfa'xfª M 6]saxfb'/hL, v; IfqL ;d'bfox¿
hftLo /fHo ePkl5 cft+lst x'g] cj:yf cfp“5
eGg] ljleGg ldl8of / ljåfg JolQmx¿sf] n]vdf

ls/ft k|b]z
b]Vg ;lsG5 . oxf“n] s;/L x]l//xg'ePsf] 5 <
6]saxfb'/ yfkf M of] !$ k|fGtLo vfsf
cfO;s]kl5 ;du| IfqLx¿ ls/ft, lnDa'jfg, g]jfM,
td'jfg /fHo k|:tfj ePsf]df cft+lst 5}gg\, v';L
5g\ . afx'g;Fu hf]l8P/ cfPsf IfqLx¿ afx'gn]
lbPsf] h'7f s'/f vfFb} cfPsf s]xL IfqLx¿nfO{
ca lxhf]sf] x}l;ot g/xg] xf] ls eGg] nfu]sf]
x'g;S5, To;}n] cft+lst ePsf x'g;S5g\ .
klxrfgsf] cfwf/df vfsf tof/ ul/Psf] elgP
tfklg o;df afx'gjfbL lrGtg a9L xfjL ePsf]
b]lvG5 / afx'gjfbLx¿s} xftdf sdf08 5 eGg]
nfU5 . v;x¿sf] nfdf] Oltxf;nfO{ st} pNn]v
u/]sf] b]lvPg .
dfa'xfª M v; IfqLsf] klxrfg of] !$ k|b]zdf
cfPg eGg] xf] < cfp“bf s;/L cfpg'kYof]{ <
6]saxfb'/ M xf], xfd|f] cfPg . dWo /
;'b/" klZrdf~rn If]q v;fg eg]/} cfpg'kYof]{ .
t/ s0ff{nLdfq eg]/ eGg'ePg, To;df klg
6'qm\ofP/ vKt8, h8fg eg]/ cfof], h'g j}1flgs
/ oyfy{k/s 5}g .
dfa'xfª M rGb|ljqmdhL, ;+3Los/0f afx'g,
IfqL / 7s'/L lj/f]wL k|lqmofsf] ¿kdf sltko
dfG5]n] a'lem/fv]sf] cj:yf klg 5 . vf;u/L
ls/ft /fO{ ;d'bfon] ‘ls/ft k|b]z’ s'g} hfltljz]ifsf]
;dy{g jf lj/f]wdf dfu]sf] xf] < of] cfz+sfnfO{
s;/L d]6\g] xf]nf <
rGb|ljqmd /fO{ M of] !$ k|b]zsf] vfsf
Pp6f klxrfgsf] / csf]{ ;fdYo{sf] cfwf/df b'O{
sf]0faf6 cfPsf] 5 . o;sf] ¿kkIf 7Ls 5, t/
l;dfª\sgaf/] 5nkmn x'g'k5{ . ;fdYo{sf] ljifodf
5nkmn k'u]g ls eGg] nfu]sf] 5 . !$ k|b]z
hflt, efiff, If]q, ax'ntf / ljljwtfsf] cfwf/df
g} ePsf] xf] . t/ oltv]/ hftLo :jfoQtfsf]
cfjfh p7fpg] / hftLo :jfoQtf gkfpg]sf]
aLrdf Psvfn] z+sf–pkz+sfsf] b/f/ 5 . Psflt/
hftLo :jfoQtf dfUg]x¿n] a'emfpg;s]sf 5}gg\
eg] csf]{lt/ hftLo pTkL8gdf k/]sf] ;d'bfon]
d'lQm kfO/x]sf] s'/fnfO{ ga'lemsg xr'jfsf] e/df
lj/f]w klg ul//x]sf] 5 .
dfa'xfª M k|sfzhL, k|b]z lgdf{0fdf
klxrfgnfO{ ljrf/ k'¥ofpg] sfd ePsf] b]lvG5 .
t/ ;fdYo{nfO{ s] ubf{ Wofg k'UYof] xf]nf <
k|sfz /fO{ M ;a}eGbf klxnf] s'/f ;fdYo{nfO{
s;/L kl/efiff u/]sf 5f}+ eGg] a'em'g'k5{ . lxhf]
PsfTds /fHok|0ffnL ePsf] cj:yfdf h'g If]q–
k|b]zx¿ k5fl8 k/], To;}sf] cfwf/df x'Fb}g .
klxrfgnfO{ klg cd"t{ agfpg vf]lhPsf] 5 .
k|bz
] lgdf{0f u/]/ vfln s]Gb|sf] zlQm x:tfGt/0fdfq
ug{ vf]lhPsf] xf] ls ;fFRr} :jfoQ agfpg vf]h]sf]

xf] . clxn]sf] ;Gbe{df Tof] ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{h:tf]
nfU5 .
/fds'df/ vDa' M s]nfO{ ;f/ / s]nfO{
¿k eGg] < Tof] pxfFn] g} k|:6\ofpg] / ljZn]if0f
ug]{ s'/f xf] . /fi6«–/fHosf] cfwf/ljgf k|b]zx¿
lgdf{0f ePsf 5g\ . To;}n] k|b]zx¿ xr'jfsf] e/df
NofOPsf] 5 .
dfa'xfª M klxrfg / ;fdYo{sf] cfwf/df
k|b]zx¿ cfPsf 5g\, /fi6«–/fHo To;df kb}{g <
/fds'df/ vDa' M uNtL ToxL xf] .
;fdYo{ / klxrfg eg]/ hfg] g} xf]Og lg .
klxrfg s]nfO{ eGg] < To;sf/0f /fi6«–/fHo
agfpg] cfwf/ eflifs, If]qLo cfwf/df /fHosf]
k'g;{+/rgf ul/g'k5{ . clxn] gf}6+sLsf] ¿kdf
!$ k|b]z NofP/ ljjfbdfly ljjfb ylkPsf]
5 . o;n] s'g} klg k|sf/sf] tfls{s ;+3Lo ;+/
rgfdf nfg]jfnf 5}g . ;j{k|yd /fHo k'g;{+/rgf
ul/g] cfwf/ to ul/g'k5{ / cfwf/ to u/]kZrft\
sltj6f aGg] eGg] s'/f cfkm}+ sf]l/P/ hfg]5 .
cGo afFsL /x]sf ;fgfltgf l;dfgfsf s'/fnfO{
ldnfP/ cl3 hfg ;S5f}+ .
dfa'xfª M klxrfg / ;fdYo{s} cfwf/df
;+3Lo OsfO lgdf{0f x'g ;Sb}g . xr'jfsf] tfnn]
!$ k|b]zx¿ cfof], /fi6«–/fHosf] cfwf/df ;+3Lo
OsfOx¿ agfpg'k5{ eGg] s'/f p7\of] lg <
kbd M hxfF;Dd klxrfgsf] s'/f 5,
klxrfg;Fu hftLo ;d'bfo, hflt;Fu hf]l8Psf]
efiff, ;+:s[lt, e"uf]n / P]ltxfl;s lgGt/tf
hf]l8G5 eGg] nfU5 . /fi6«–/fHo aGgsf nflu
klg klxrfg t x'g}k¥of] . k|:tfljt !$ k|b]z ;a}
ldn]sf] 5 eGg] xf]Og, k|fljlws s'/fx¿ ldn]sf
5}gg\ .
/d]z bhL{ M ls/ft cfGtl/s /fli6«otf /
klxrfg b'j} xf] . /fHosf] k'g;{+/rgfsf] k|d'v
cfwf/ P]ltxfl;s klxrfg g} xf] / o;nfO{
:yflkt u/fpg'k5{ . ljleGg vfn] lje]b, bdg,
zf]if0f, cGofo, cTofrf/ / pTkL8gaf6 pGd'v
u/fpg] ;d[4 g]kfn lgdf{0f ug{ of] cfwf/ x'g'k5{ .
ls/ftsf] 5'§} ef}uf]lns If]q, P]ltxfl;stf, ;+:
s[lt 5, To;}n] :yflkt ug{ h?/L 5 . oBlk
o;df s]xL sdLx¿ 5g\ . t/ ;fk]lIft ¿kdf
x]bf{ of] vfsf k|ultzLn g} 5 . cfh;Dd
ePsf] pTkL8g cGTo u5{–ub}{g eGg] s'/f
/fHo k'gM;+/rgf;Fu hf]l8g'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M rGb|ljqmdhL, ls/ft Pp6f
/fHosf] OsfO agfpg vf]lhPsf] xf] ls hftLos/0f
ug{ vf]lhPsf] eGg] cfz+sf klg cfPsf] 5 lg <
rGb|ljqmd /fO{ M :jfefljs ¿kdf oltv]/
gofF ljifoj:t' ePsf]n] o;nfO{ cfz+sfsf] ¿kdf

6]saxfb'/ yfkf
afx'gn] lbPsf]
h'7f]k'/f] vf“b}
cfPsf s]xL
IfqLx¿nfO{ ca
lxhf]sf] x}l;ot
g/xg] xf] ls
eGg] nfu]sf]
x'g;S5, To;}n]
cft+lst ePsf
x'g;S5g\ .

;+3Lo g]kfn

!&

ls/ft k|b]z

gu]Gb| vfDn]
/fHo
k'gM;+/rgf
;ldltn]
lnDa'jfg eg]/
5'6\ofof] . t/
ls/ft /fO{jfg jf
ls/ft vDa'jfg
eg]/ lsg ug{
;s]g .

x]l/Psf] x'g;S5 . hftLo :jfoQ /fHosf] dfu
/fVg]x¿n] a'emfpg g;s]sf] tyf cfZj:t agfpg
g;s]sf] xf] eGg] dnfO{ nfU5 . To;}n] c¿nfO{
cfZj:t agfpg ;Sg'k¥of] . ls/ft :jfoQ
/fHoleq ;a}sf] clwsf/ k|Tofe"lt ug{ ;Dej
5 .
dfa'xfª M ls/ft /fHoleq ;a}sf] clwsf/
;'lglZrt x'g] s'/f s;/L cfZj:t agfpg'x'G5 <
rGb|ljqmd M hftLo :jfoQ /fHo h'g
hfltsf] :jfoQ /fHo xf], Tof] zf;s x'g], Tof]leq
/xg] cGo ;d'bfo zfl;t x'g] eGg] h'g vfnsf]
Psvfn] e|d 5 / a'emL–a'emL ckJofVof ul/Psf]
5, Tof]k|lt ;r]t x'g h?/L 5 . ca s'g} klg
hflt zf;s x'g] / c¿ zfl;t x'g] cj:yfsf]
cGTo x'g'k5{ eGg] xf] .
dfa'xfª M hflt pTkL8gaf6 d'lQm vf]h]sf]
5, d'lQm x'Fbf zf;s x'g] cfsf+Iff, zf;s aGbf
hfltjfb xfjL x'g] cfz+sf klg b]lvG5 lg <
k"0f{ vDa' M oxfFsf] ax;n] ;a} s'/fsf]
;dfwfg u5{ h:tf] dnfO{ nfUb}g . ls/ft hflt
xf]Og, /fO{dfq ls/ft xf]Og . ls/ftleq w]/}
hfltx¿ 5g\ . s'g} hfltsf] gfddf :jfoQtf k|fKt
x'Fbf hfltjfb xfjL x'G5 h:tf] dnfO{ nfUb}g .
dfa'xfª M k|sfz /fO{hL, dfgjzf:qLsf]
b[li6sf]0fdf ls/ft hflt xf] jf xf]Og <
k|sfz /fO{ M ls/ftnfO{ hflt g} eg]/ eGg
ldNb}g . ls/ft ;du|df Pp6f …/fi6«Ú / /fli6«otf
xf] . ToxfFleq w]/} ;d"x ;dflxt 5g\ . Oltxf;n]
klg jf:tjdf ToxL g} b]vfpF5 . ls/ft gfdsf
sf/0fn] ;d:of xf] eGg] t d eGg ;lSbg .
t/ ls/ft /fi6« g} xf], To;df s'g} z+sf ug'{kg]{
cj:yf 5 h:tf] dnfO{ nfUb}g .
g/]Gb| vfDn] M ls/ft Pp6f a[xt j+z
xf] . ls/ftleq /fO{, lnDa', u'?ª, tfdfª, du/,
bg'jf/, ;'g'jf/ nufot k5{g\ . /fHo k'g;{+/rgf
;ldltn] lnDa'jfg eg]/ 5'6\ofof] . t/ ls/ft
/fO{jfg jf ls/ft vDa'jfg eg]/ lsg ug{ ;s]g
eGg] d]/f] u'gf;f] 5 .
dfa'xfª M kbdhL, a[xt ls/ft /fi6« jf

ls/ft hflt xf]Og, /fO{dfq ls/ft
xf]Og . ls/ftleq w]/} hfltx¿ 5g\ .
s'g} hfltsf] gfddf :jfoQtf k|fKt
x'�bf hfltjfb xfjL x'G5 h:tf] dnfO{
nfUb}g .
k"0f{ vDa"

!*

;+3Lo g]kfn

ls/ft vDa'leq ;a}nfO{ lrQ a'emfP/ a;fpg'kg]{
cfu|x klg hgtfdf /x]5, o;nfO{ s;/L ;N6fpg]
xf]nf <
kbd M ls/ft lnDa', ls/ft /fO{, ls/ft vDa'
aGg'kg]{ Pp6f cjwf/0ff x'g;S5 . ls/ftleqsf]
hltdf hftLo, eflifs / ;f+:s[lts ;d'bfox¿
5g\, To;sf] 5'§f5'§} klxrfgsf] ¿kdf k|b]z /
ljz]if ;+/rgfn] ;d]6\g]u/L cfPsf] eP ;aeGbf
a]; x'GYof] . tyflk Pp6f l;+uf] /fli6«otfsf] cfwf/
df ls/ftleqsf] lnDa'afg, vDa'jfg / ;'g'jf/
nufot agfpFbf Tof] a9L j}1flgs x'g]5 .
ls/ft hflt xf]Og eGg] k|;ª\udf vDa' klg
hflt xf]Og, lsgeg] vDa'leq klg km/s–km/s
efiff, ;+:s[ltx¿ 5g\ . To;}n] ls/ft / vDa'sf]
ax;eGbf klg ;du|df ;a}nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{
vfnsf] x'g'k5{ .
h;/L ls/ft eGbf hflt xf]Og elgG5
lg, vDa' klg hflt xf]Og, /fO{ t kb
eOxfNof] . vDa'leq w]/} efiff / ;+:s[lt 5g\,
To;}n] vDa'leqsf ljleGg eflifs ;d'bfox¿n]
cfkm\gf] 5'6\6} ;"rLs/0f x'g'kg]{ / cfkm\g} :jfoQ
/fHo x'g'kg]{ dfu ul//x]sf 5g\ . To;}n] ;du|tfdf
/fli6«otfsf] cfwf/df ls/ft agfpFbf / ToxfFleq
/x]sf eflifs / hftLo P]ltxfl;s ;d'bfox¿nfO{
;Daf]wg ubf{ ;aeGbf j}1flgs x'G5 eGg] dfGotfdf
o;sf] k|:tfj ul/Psf] xf] eGg] nfU5 .
dfa'xfª M kbdhL, /fHosf] gfd s]
/fVg] < /fHosf] ;Ldf sxf“;Dd x'g] < To;df
sf]–sf] kg]{–gkg]{df a9L 5nkmn / ax; ePsf]
b]lvG5 . /fHozlQm af“8kmf“8df hlt ug'{kg]{ xf], Tolt
b]lv“b}g . t/ ;+3Lotfsf] ;a}eGbf r'/f] s'/f] eg]sf]
clwsf/sf] ;+3 / k|b]zdf afF8kmfF8 / ljefhg
xf] . To;}n] /fHo k'g;{+/rgf ;ldltn] ;+3Lo, k|fb]lzs
/ :jfoQ Onfsf ;/sf/sf] ljleGg clwsf/x¿
k|:tfj u/]sf] 5 . ;+3 / k|b]z, k|b]z / Onfsf, k|b]z
/ :jfoQ If]qaLr clwsf/x¿ s]xL km/s / s]xL
;femf ;"rLdf /flvPsf 5g\ . oL k|:tfljt ljQLo
clwsf/nfO{ s;/L Joj:yfkg ug{ ;lsG5 < /
ls/ft k|b]zn] ;fdYo{tf s;/L xfl;n ug{ ;S5 <
clwsf/x¿ lrQa'em\g] vfnsf 5g\ <
kbd M k|b]zx¿sf] lgdf{0f ubf{ Pp6f
;fdYo{sf] cfwf/ /x]sf] 5 . ;fdYo{sf]
cfwf/df cfly{s cGt/;DaGw, k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf]
cj:yf / ;Defjgf elgPsf] 5 . klxrfgsf]
cfwf/df /fHodfq k|fKt u/]/ ePg, Tof] afFRg'k¥of] .
To;sf] ;d[l4s/0f, ljsf; / lgGt/tf x'gk' 5{ . /fHo
;+j}wflgs / sfg'gL lx;fan] k|fKt eO;s]kl5
k|fKt ug'{k"j{ k"jf{wf/x¿ s] to ePsf lyP
/ efjL s] agfpg ;lsG5 eGg] ljifodf

;+3Lo ax;
;f]lrg'k5{ . k|b]zleq /x]sf k|fs[lts ;|f]t;fwgnfO{
plrt Joj:yfkg ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . k|zf;lgs ;'udtf
x'g klg TolQs} h?/L 5 .
dfa'xfª M rGb|ljqmdhL, ls/ft k|b]zsf]
cfly{s ;DefJotf / ;Ifdtf ;'lglZrt ug{
;ldltaf6 Joj:yf ul/Psf]n] k'U5 ls k'Ub}g <
rGb|ljqmd /fO{ M /fHo lgdf{0f ubf{
/fhgLlts clwsf/;Fu;Fu} cfly{s clwsf/sf]
h'g s6f}tL;lxt cfPsf] 5, Tof] 7Ls 5}g .
/fHox¿ hltj6f aGg] elgP klg /fHo ;an x'g
cfly{s cj:yf alnof] x'g}k5{ . w]/} ;+3 /fHox¿
g]kfnh:tf] ;fgf] d'n'sdf ;Dej 5}g eGg] ts{
5 . xfnsf] Joj:yfh:t} tnaf6 s/x¿ p7fP/
j8fb]lv uflj;, uflj;b]lv lhNnf, lhNnfb]lv
c~rn, If]q x'Fb} s]Gb| ;/sf/sf] af:s]6df
/flvlbg] vfnsf] x'g'x'Fb}g . s]Gb|Lo ;/sf/n]
lglZrtdfq dflyaf6 lbg] xf]Og ls tnaf6 cfkm}
kl/rflnt x'g] vfnsf] x'g'k5{ . tnaf6 p7fP/
s]Gb|df xflnlbg'kg]{, clg s]Gb|n] ToxL Kofgndf
nufOlbP/ tn k7fpg] gLltk|lt 3f]/ cfklQ xf] .
;+3n] p7fP/ k|b]zx¿nfO{ lbg] xf]Og ls k|b]zx¿n]
p7fP/ cfly{s ;fdYo{tf tyf cfly{s pknlAw
xfl;n u/]kl5 slt rflxG5 cfjZostfcg';f/
;+3nfO{ lbg] vfnsf] x'g'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M 6]saxfb'/hL, s]Gb|n] ;a} cfly{s
clwsf/ xfl;n u/]/ cy{ hDdf ug]{ clg af“8\g]
lxhf]sf] PsfTds kl/kf6L xf] . ca ;+3Lo kl/
kf6Ldf k|b]zx¿n] ljleGg s/x¿ cfkm}+ p7fpg] clg
;+3nfO{ slt rflxG5, ;xdltn] cfjZostfcg';f/
lbg] ;+3Lo cfly{s ljQLo 9f“rf x'g'k5{ eGg] 5
lg <
6]saxfb'/ M ;]gf, d'b|f / k//fi6« gLltafx]s
afFsL ;a} clwsf/ k|b]z tyf /fi6«–/fHodf x'g'k5{
eGg] dfGotfsf] cfwf/df x'g'k5{ .
/fds'df/ M d'b|f, k//fi6« / /Iffafx]s ;Dk"0f{
clwsf/ k|fb]lzs /fHo ;/sf/df x'g'k5{ . o;sf]
dtnj h'g–h'g 7fpFaf6 s/ p7fpg ;lsG5,
cfly{s ;+sng ug{ ;lsG5, p7]sf]dWo] s]xL
s]Gb|df k7fpg] vfnsf] cfly{s gLlt x'g'k5{ .
7"n7"nf hnljB't / of]hgfx¿ ;+o'Qm ¿kdf ug'{kg]{
v08df 5'§} Joj:yf ug{ ;lsG5 .
kbd M cfly{s afF8kmfF8sf] ;Gbe{df a'emfOdf
sdhf]/L /x]sf] cyjf ljifoj:t'sf] ufDeLo{tfnfO{
ga'lemPsf] xf] ls eGg] nfUof] . klxnf] s'/f,
k|fb]lzs /fHo /fli6«otfsf] cfwf/df x'Fb}5 . clxn]
xfdLn] k|fKt ug]{ sf]0faf6 dfq ax; ul//x]sf
5f}+ . k|b]zn] ;+3nfO{ lbg'kg]{ klg x'G5 . :jfoQ,
;+/lIft, ljz]if If]qx¿n] klg ;a} yf]s xfd|f]dfq
x'g'k5{ eGbf Tof] dfGo x'G5 ls x'Fb}g, To;sf]

Vofn ug}{kg]{ x'G5 . bf];|f] s'/f, /fHo cyjf
k|b]zleq /x]sf] k|fs[lts ;|f]t;fwgx¿ k|b]zsf]
dfq x'G5 eg]sf] v08df Tof] ljjfbsf] ljifo
/xGg . k|fb]lzs :t/sf]] ;|f]t;fwgnfO{ k|b]zn]
kl/rfng ug{ ;Sb}g eg] To;nfO{ s]Gb|n] ug{
;S5 . k|b]zsf] kx'Fr x'g] vfnsf] k|b]zn] ug]{ /
lglZrt /f]oN6L s]Gb| jf ;+3nfO{ lbg ;lsG5,
To;}n] :ki6} 5 eGg] nfU5 .
dfa'xfª M /d]zhL, ljZjljBfno ;+3n] slt
/fVg] < k|b]zn] slt /fVg] < :yfgLo ljZjljBfno
slt /xg] < clwsf/sf] afF8kmfF8df ljZjljBfno,
pRrlzIff, k':tsfno, ;+u|xfno k|b]zdf /flvPsf]
5 eg] ;+3df s]Gb|Lo ljZjljBfno, k':tsfno
/flvPsf] 5 . ca ;+3Lo / k|fb]lzs txdf s;/L
Jojl:yt x'G5 <
/d]z bhL{ M lzIffsf] ljifodf ax; ug{ h?/L 5 .
ljBfno txsf] lzIff /fHo tyf ;+3sf] nufgLdf k|bz] sf]
Joj:yfkgdf ;~rfng ul/g'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M ;+3Lo ljQLo ;|f]taf6
ljZjljBfnodf nufgL ug]{ / k|b]zn] cfkm\gf] cfo
cfh{gaf6 k|fb]lzs ljZjljBfno lgdf{0f ug]{ eGg'sf]
cy{ clxn]sf] ;Gbe{df lqljljsf cf+lus SofDk;x¿
k|fb]lzs ljZjljBfno cGtu{t ¿kfGtl/t x'g]
eP . o;/L ljleGg k|b]zn] k7fPsf] cfly{s ;|f]taf6
s]Gb|Lo ljZjljBfno ;~rfng x'g] eof] xf]Og t <
/d]z M o; ljifodf kIf–ljkIfdf ax;
ug]{eGbf klg Pp6f a[xt vfnsf] …a|]G8 :6f]ld{ªÚ
x'g h?/L 5 . ljBfno txsf] lzIffdf
/fHosf] Jooef/ x'g'k5{, Tof] ;+3 tyf s]Gb|n]
ug'{k5{ . ljBfno txsf] lzIff eg]sf] pRr
dfWolds tx;Ddsf] lzIffnfO{ a'em\g'k5{ . Tof]eGbf
dfly ljZjljBfno txsf] lzIff ;dfg'kflts
Jooef/sf] l;4fGtdf rNg'k5{ . o;f] u/]sf]
v08df :yfgLo txdf ljZjljBfnox¿ aGg
;S5g\ . k"j{df dx]Gb| df]/ª SofDk;, kf]v/fdf
kLPg SofDk;h:tf SofDk;x¿ ljZjljBfnodf
:yflkt x'g;S5g\ . / :yfgLo cfjZostfdf

:yfgLo cfjZostfdf gof“
ljZjljBfnox¿ aGg ;S5g\ . Tof]
lsl;dsf] Joj:yfaf6 cufl8
a9\g ;lsof] eg] /fHonfO{ cfjZos
kg]{ hgzlQm pTkfbg ug{ ;lsG5 .
;|f]t;fwgsf] kl/rfng klg x'G5 .

rGb|ljqmd /fO{
;+3n] p7fP/
k|b]zx¿nfO{
lbg] xf]Og ls
k|b]zx¿n]
p7fP/ cfly{s
;fdYo{tf tyf
cfly{s pknlAw
xfl;n u/]kl5
cfjZostf
cg';f/ ;+3nfO{
lbg] vfnsf]
x'g'k5{ .

/d]z bhL{
;+3Lo g]kfn

!(

ls/ft k|b]z

lbjz /fO{
k|:tfljt !$
k|b]zn]
5'6\ofPsf]
l;dfª\sg,
gfdfª\sg /
klxrfgeGbf
klg ca ;|f]tsf]
n8fO“ ;'? x'G5
eGg] b]lv/x]sf]
5' .

gofF ljZjljBfnox¿ aGg ;S5g\ . Tof] lsl;dsf]
Joj:yfaf6 cufl8 a9\g ;lsof] eg] /fHonfO{
cfjZos kg]{ hgzlQm pTkfbg ug{ ;lsG5 .
;|f]t;fwgsf] kl/rfng klg x'G5 .
dfa'xfª M oxf“ 5nkmn ePsf lzIff, k|fb]lzs
/fHo tyf dlxnfsf] ljifodf s]xL ljrf/ 5 ls <
b]ljsf /fO{ M oltv]/ dlxnfs} ljifodf dfq
;Lldt x'g'x'Fb}g h:tf] nfU5 . xfdL ls/ftLn]
p7fpFb} cfPsf] hflt, efiff / If]qsf] cfwf/df
/fHosf] ;+/rgf x'g'k5{ eGg] ;Gbe{df k|:tfljt
!$ k|b]zdf k"0f{tf b]lvFb}g . tyflk :jfutof]Uo
g} 5 . l;dfª\sg / /]vfª\sg ldnfpg'kg]{
b]lvG5 . To;}n] hf]8 Totflt/ x'g'k5{ eGg]
xf] . /fHo k|flKt cyjf d"t{¿k cfO;s]kl5 dlxnf,
ljBfyL{, dhb'/, ls;fg cflb s'/fx¿df hfg'k5{
eGg] dnfO{ nfU5 .
lbjz /fO{ M k|:tfljt !$ k|b]zn] 5'6\ofPsf]
l;dfª\sg, gfdfª\sg / klxrfgeGbf klg ca
;|f]tsf] n8fOF ;'? x'G5 eGg] b]lv/x]sf] 5' .
lsgeg] h'g ;fdYo{ / zlQmsf] s'/f 5, Tof]
/fHo slt ;an / ;d[4 x'g] eGg] s'/fdf
To;sf] cfly{s:t/n] a9L lgwf{/0f u5{, klxrfgn]
xf]Og . ;fdYo{ / zlQmsf] ;Gbe{df s]Gb|, k|b]z /
:jfoQ If]qn] slt–slt lng] eGg] ljifodf :ki6
x'g h?/L b]lvG5 . 7"n7"nf kl/of]hgfx¿ ;+3
/ k|b]zsf] ;xdltdf x'g'k5{ . ;|f]tsf] kl/rfng,
k|of]u, pkef]u / cfosf] ljt/0f ;dfg'kflts
9+un] x'g'k5{ . ;u/dfyf, c?0f, sf]zL cflbaf6
k|fKt /f]oN6L ;a} s]Gb|n] dfq nfg] xf] eg] k|b]zx¿
;an aGg ;Sb}gg\ . s'g} klg 7"n7"nf kl/of]hgf,
ljsf; lgdf{0fdf k|b]zx¿ xsbf/, eflubf/,
;fem]bf/ ePgg\ eg] ;fGble{s x'Fb}g . sfddf
;fem]bf/L x''G5 eg] To;sf] nfesf] afF8kmfF8df klg
;fem]bf/L x'g}k5{ eGg] xf] .
dfa'xfª M ;+3Lotf eg]sf] s;n] s] lbG5,
sf]af6 s] kfp“5 eGbf klg cfkm";“u ePsf] IfdtfnfO{
clej[l4 ug]{ To;sf] cfwf/e"t l;4fGt xf] .
ls/ft k|b]zdf kg]{ sf]zL, c?0f gbLaf6 kmfObf
s;/L p7fpg] eg]/ ;f]Rg'sf] ;§f ;u/dfyfsf]

k|:tfljt !$ k|b]zdf k"0f{tf
b]lv“b}g . tyflk :jfutof]Uo g} 5 .
l;dfª\sg / /]vfª\sg ldnfpg'kg]{
b]lvG5. To;}n] hf]8 Totflt/ x'g'k5{
eGg] xf] .
b]ljsf /fO{

@)

;+3Lo g]kfn

cfDbfgL, emfkfsf] df6f], /f/f tfnsf] cfDbfgL
cflbdf xft nDsfp“bf c¿n] klg nDsfp“5g\ .
cfkm";“u ePsf] ;|f]tsf] s'/f ug'{k/]g < To;}n] k|b]z
;an aGg] clwsf/ /fHozlQm af“8kmf“8n] ;'lglZrt
u¥of] ls u/]g <
lbjz M g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns / w/ftnLo
jf:tljstfnfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] ;a} /fHox¿ k|fs[lts
;|f]t / cfly{s ;fwgsf] lx;fan] ;dfg x'g]
b]lvFb}g . ljljwtf 5, s'g} k|b]z lga{n / s'g}
;an x'g;S5g\ . t/ k|b]zsf] gfddf k|b]z agfP/
t x'Fb}g, Go"gtd ¿kdf cfly{s ¿kn] wfGg / ;d[4
aGg ;S5 ls ;Sb}g, To;df Wofg k'¥ofpg}k5{ .
s'g} 7fpFdf clwstd ;|f]tx¿ kfOg], s;}n] cfkm}
l6Sg / rnfpg} g;Sg]u/L /fHo tyf k|b]z aGg]
l:ylt agfP/ To;nfO{ cfTd;dk{0f u/fpg] vfnsf]
agfOof] eg] t Tof] IfDo x'Fb}g . To;}n] l;dfª\sg
ubf{ ;|f]t;fwg / cfly{s lx;fan] ;d[4 aGg]

vfnsf] k|b]zx¿ agfpg'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M dfggLo kbdhL, ;ldltdf
!$÷!@ ÷^÷& /fHo tyf k|bz] x¿sf] k|:tfj cfPsf]
lyof] . k|b]zx¿ olt g} agfpg'k5{ ls ;bfsf] nflu
k|:tfljt u/]adf]lhd x'g'k5{, s] ;f]+r 5 < ef]ln
cfkm\gf] Ifdtf / cg's"ntf–k|lts"ntfdf Pp6f–b'O6f
klg aGg ;S5 < ;+ljwfgsf] k|fjwfg s] 5 <
kbd M ef]ln ;+3 cyjf k|b]zx¿sf] ;+Vof
36a9 x'g;Sg] Joj:yf d:of}bfdf ul/Psf]
5 . lsgls ;do ultzLn 5 . clxn]sf] xfd|f]
r]tgfn] h'g cfzf / ck]Iff /flvPsf] 5, ToxL
s'/f ef]lnsf] lkF9Ln] gdfGg ;S5 . To;sf] :t/,
a'emfO{, ef}lts kl/j]z, /fhgLlts kl/j]z, o'usf]
kl/jt{g;Fu;Fu} csf]{ dfu ug'{kg]{ x'g;S5 . To;}n]
clxn] g} of] x'G5, olt g} agfpg] / kl5;Dd
/lx/xg] eGg] 9+uaf6 /fHo ag] xfdL ?9LjfbL
x'G5f}+ . s}of}+ k':tf;Ddsf lglDt kl/jt{gsf] 9f]sf
aGb g} ug'{ x'Fb}g . To;}n] d:of}bfdf x]/km]/ ug{
;lsg] pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .

;+3Lo ax;

dfa'xfª M ;+3Lo zf;g k4ltdf k|fb]lzs
/fHox¿sf] cf–cfkm\g} ;+ljwfg x'G5 . ;+3Lo ;+ljwfg
d"n x'G5 . ljleGg d'n's ef/t, :jLh/NofG8 /
hd{gL cflbdf ;+3 -s]Gb|_ / k|b]z -k|fGt_ df o:tf]
Joj:yfsf] cEof; ul/Psf] 5 . ;+3sf] Pp6fdfq
;+ljwfg / k|b]zx¿rflx“ sfg'gx¿ agfP/ rnfpg]
xf] < :ki6 ¿kdf cfPsf] 5}g lg < ls/ft, lnDa'jfg
nufot k|b]zx¿nfO{ ;+ljwfg h?/L 5}g < k|fb]lzs
;+ljwfg x'g'kg]{ eP lsg h?/L 5 <
/fds'df/ vDa' M Pp6f k|fb]lzs ;/sf/n]
/fhgLlts ;Qf cEof; ug]{ x'gfn] p;sf] cfkm\gf]
;+ljwfg ag]g eg] s'g} cf}lrTo /xFb}g . Pp6f
;+3Lo ;+ljwfgdfq} aGg] / To;s} cfwf/df rNg'kg]{
eP oqf] ax; lsg < o:tf]df /fi6«klt zf;g
hlt a]nf klg nfu" x'g;Sg] x'G5 . cem xfdLn]
t k|yfhGo sfg'gsf] klg ;+ljwfgleq k|of]hg
tyf Joj:yfkg x'g'k5{ eg]sf 5f}+ . k|fb]lzs
ljwfg ePdf k|yfhGo sfg'gx¿ lgdf{0f ug{ ;xh
x'G5, cGoyf ;+3Lo ;+ljwfgn] d'n'snfO{ Ps5q
x]l/lbg ;S5 / To;n] ;+:s[lt, k|yfhlgs jf
j:t'ut cj:yfsf] P]g–sfg'g agfpg lbFb}g .
To;}n] k|b]zsf] klg cfkm\gf] ;+ljwfg rflxG5 .
dfa'xfª M k|sfzhL, ls/ft k|b]zsf] ;+ljwfg
h?/L 5 of ;+3Lo ;+ljwfgn] g} k'U5 <
k|sfz M jf:tjdf xfdL ;+3fTds /fHo tyf
;+3Lotfsf] cjwf/0ffdf hfg] / :jfoQtf lbg] xf]
eg] ToxfFleq k|b]zx¿sf] cfkm\gf] ;+ljwfg cfjZos
x'G5 . olb xf]Og, ;a} s]Gb|Lo ;+ljwfg cGtu{t
rn]/ hfg] xf] eg] To;n] ef]ln ;d:of pTkGg u5{ .
clxn];Dd cflbjf;L–hghfltn] ef]Ug'k/]sf] df/
PsfTds /fHok|0ffnL ePsf]n] lxhf]sf] k|yfhGo
sfg'gnfO{ lj:yflkt ul/of] / ;a} PsfTds ¿kdf
Pp6} sfg'g nfu" ul/of] . h;sf] sf/0f g]kfnL
afx]s ;a} efiff, wd{, ;+:s[lt lj:yflkt eP .
clxn]sf] cj:yfdf klg lxhf]s} h:tf] s'/f ug]{ /
:ki6 ¿kdf /fHonfO{ 5'6\6} ;+ljwfg tyf sfg'g
agfpg] clwsf/ lbOPg eg] /fHosf] cl:tTj
ef]ln gfd]6 eP/ hfg ;S5 . j}1flgs, ultzLn,

yk36 ug{ ;lsg] cflb s'/f u/] klg ToxL
;+ljwfgdf rnv]n ug]{ 7fpF /flvof] eg] To;n]
;xL dfu{k|z:t ug{ ;Sb}g .
rGb|ljqmd M :jfoQ /fHox¿ ;+3s}
;+ljwfg cGtu{t ;~rflnt x'g] xf] eg] of]
ljs]Gb|Ls/0fdfq x'G5 . lxhf]sf] % ljsf; !$
c~rn h:tf]dfq} x'G5 . 5'§} ;+ljwfgdfq} xf]Og, 5'§}
em08f klg x'g'k5{ . hd{gL, :jLh/NofG8df k|To]s
:jfoQ OsfOx¿sf em08fx¿ 5g\ . clxn] k|:tfljt
u/]sf] !$ j6f /fHosf] cf–cfkm\gf em08fx¿ ePsf]
;+ljwfg x'g'k5{ . lsgls p;sf] cl:tTjaf]w /
k|ltljlDat x'g] vfnsf] ;+3–/fHo rflxG5 . lxhf]
pTkL8gdf k/]sf] ;d'bfonfO{ rfF8} dfly p7fpgsf
nflu clwsf/;lxtsf] :jfoQ /fHosf] ljsNk
5}g . k|yfhGo sfg'gnfO{ k"0f{¿kdf :jfoQtf
/fHox¿leq nfu" ug{ glbg] xf] eg] PsfTds
lxGb' /fHo ;+/rgfsf] b[li6sf]0faf6} rn]sf]
eof] lg Û oxfF clxn] klg wfld{s lje]b 5 .
lzj/flqdf @@ tf]ksf] ;nfdL r9fOg'sf ;fy} nfvf}+
?k}ofF /fi6«sf] 9's'6Laf6 vr{ ul/G5 eg] /fO{x¿sf]
;fs]nf, pFBf}nL–pFef}nL, lnDj'x¿sf] Rofa|'ª, u'?ª,
z]kf{, tfdfªsf] Nxf];f/df klg To;/L g} vr{ ug{
;Sg'k¥of] lg Û /fHosf] cfkm\gf] wd{, hflt x'Fb}g,
Tof] b]zdf a:g] hflt, ;d'bfosf] efiff, ;+:s[lt /
wd{ kf] x'G5 . To;}n] k|fb]lzs /fHox¿sf] ;+/rgf
;+:s[lt lgdf{0f / ljsf;sf nflu xf] .
dfa'xfª M dfggLo kbdhL, k|ltj]bgdf
k|b]zx¿sf] ;+ljwfg Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5}g . s'g
sfg'gn] Tof] ;+ljwfgsf] cfjZstf k"lt{ u5{ <
kbd /fO{ M k|b]z -k|fGt_ x¿ ;+3s} dftxt
/x]sf c+ux¿ x'g\ . ;+3df ;+ljwfg ag]kl5 ;+3s}
dftxtaf6 /xg]u/L k|b]zx¿df Joj:yflksf c+u
x'G5 / k|b]zx¿nfO{ ;xh x'G5 eGg] xf] . sfg'gL
lx;fan] cyjf ;+ljwfg adf]lhd g} k|b]zsf]
Joj:yflksf rn]sf] x'G5 . ;+3sf] ;+ljwfg /
k|b]zsf] Joj:yflksfaLrsf] ;dfof]hgsf] lx;fan]
rfln/fv]sf] x'G5 .

clxn];Dd cflbjf;L–hghfltn]
ef]Ug'k/]sf] df/ PsfTds /fHok|0ffnL
ePsf]n] lxhf]sf] k|yfhGo sfg'gnfO{
lj:yflkt ul/of] / ;a} PsfTds
¿kdf Pp6} sfg'g nfu" ul/of] .
h;sf] sf/0f g]kfnL afx]s ;a} efiff,
wd{, ;+:s[lt lj:yflkt eP .

/fds'df/ vDa'
Pp6f k|fb]lzs
;/sf/n]
/fhgLlts ;Qf
cEof; ug]{
x'gfn] p;sf]
cfkm\gf] ;+ljwfg
ag]g eg] s'g}
cf}lrTo
/x“b}g .
k|fb]lzs ljwfg
ePdf k|yfhGo
sfg'gx¿
lgdf{0f ug{
;xh x'G5 .

k|sfz /fO{
;+3Lo g]kfn

@!

;'gsf]zL k|b]z

;'gsf]zL k|bz
]
g]

kfn hftLo, eflifs / ;fdflhs–;f+:s[lts ljljwtfk"0f{
5 . g]kfnsf] ;+3Lo OsfO lgdf{0f ug]{ qmddf ;+ljwfg;ef
/fHo k'gM;+/rgf tyf /fHozlQm afF8kmfF8 ;ldltaf6 ljljwtfk"0f{
;+3Lo OsfOx¿sf] k|:tfj ePsf 5g\, ;Fu;Fu} k|:tfljt ;+3Lo
OsfOaf/] hgdfg; tyf ljleGg ;~rf/dfWodx¿df Jofks ax;
tyf 5nkmn x'g'sf ;fy} /fhgLlts bnx¿leq klg o;n] Pp6f
tftf] ax; NofPsf] 5 . k|:tfljt !$ k|b]zdWo] ;'gsf]zL Ps
xf] . ;'gsf]zL k|b]zdf % lhNnf cGtu{tsf ! ;o ^$
uflj;sf e"–efu ;d]l6Psf] 5 . t;y{ ;'gsf]zL s] xf] <
o;sf P]ltxfl;s, /fhgLlts, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, cfly{s
nufotsf ljifox¿df oxfF s]lGb|t ul/Psf] 5 . ;'gsf]zL k|b]zsf]
ljleGg kIf tyf cfofdaf/]sf] ax;df ;+ljwfg;efsf ;ef;bx¿
tf/fgf/fo0f >]i7 / b]jL v8\sf -Pdfcf]jfbL_, zflGt lh/]n
-Pdfn]_, 6xn yfdL -kqsf/_, cd/ yfkf du/ -o'jfljBfyL{_
/ljGb| ;'/]n -ljBfyL{_ / gf/fo0f ;'g'jf/ -o'jf_ nufot ;/f]sf/
jfnf JolQmTjx¿;Fu ul/Psf] ax;sf] ;Dkflbg c+z M ;+

@@

;+3Lo g]kfn

;+3Lo ax;

afns[i0f dfa'xfª M ;+ljwfg;efdf
/fHo k'gM;+/rgf tyf /fHozlQm af“8kmf“8
;ldltn] k|:tfj u/]sf] ;'gsf]zL k|fb]lzs
OsfOsf] af/]df s] /fo 5 <
zflGt lh/]n M ;+ljwfg;ef /fHo
k'gM;+/rgf ;ldltn] NofPsf] k|:tfljt
;'gsf]zL k|b]zsf] e"uf]ndf /x]sf ;a}
ls/ftL ;d"xx¿n] ax; ub}{ cfPsf]
…6]l/6f]/LÚ Tof] ls/ftLx¿sf] P]ltxfl;s
k[i7e"ld;Fu ;DalGwt e"ld xf] eg]/
klxNo}b]lv bfaL ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . To;
If]qdf a;f]af; ug]{ ls/ftLx¿sf] cf–cfkm\gf
;f]r / dfGotf x'Fbfx'Fb} klg ljeQm geO{ Pp6}
ls/ftL xf}+, cfkm\g} e"ld / Oltxf; 5,
To;sf/0f o; If]qdf /x]sf !)÷!@
ls/ftLx¿ ldn]/ jNnf] ls/ft k|b]z x'g'kb{5
eGg] s'/fdf Psdt 5g\ . ls/ftLx¿sf]
P]ltxfl;s e"ld ePsf] sf/0fn] jNnf] ls/ft
g} x'g'kb{5 . ;'gsf]zL k|b]zsf] gfds/0f
unt 5, Tof] ls/ftLx¿sf] e"ld xf] .
dfa'xfª M /fHo k'gM;+/rgf tyf
/fHozlQm af“8kmf“8 ;ldltn] ;+3Lo /fHo
lgdf{0f ug]{ cfwf/x¿ klxrfg / ;fdYo{
cGtu{t ljleGg cfwf/x¿ ls6fg u/]sf]
lyof] . of] ;'gsf]zL /fHo s] cfwf/df
gfds/0f ul/of] cyjf agfOof], hals of]
jNnf] ls/ft /fHosf] ¿kdf x'g'k5{ eGg]
cfu|x klg /x]5 lg <
tf/fgf/fo0f >]i7 M klxnf] s'/f t x/]s
gofF lrhsf] lgdf{0fqmddf :jefj}n] To;sf]
;sf/fTds / gsf/fTds kIf ;Fu;Fu}
cfpF5 . PsfTds / s]Gb|Ls[t /fHo;Qf
lj36g u/]/ ;+3Lo /fHo lgdf{0f ug]{ ;xdlt
/fhgLlts bnx¿df eO;s]kl5 clxn]
/fHo k'gM;+/rgf ;ldltn] h'g lsl;dsf]
vfsf NofPsf] 5 . ;+ljwfg;ef cGtu{t !!
j6f ljifout ;ldltx¿dWo] ;+ljwfg;efsf]
a}7sdf ;aeGbf a9L udf{udL{ ax; ePsf]]
of] ;ldltsf] vfsfdfly g} xf] . o;n]
;+ljwfg;efleq / aflx/ 7"n} xnrn k}bf

u/]sf] 5 / k|efj kf/]sf] 5 .
lglZrt ¿kdf of] e"uf]nnfO{ s]xL
;docl3 tfD;flnª /fHoleq kl/eflift
ul/Psf] lyof] / tfD;flnª /fHo cGtu{t
/flvPsf] lyof] . ;du| b]zsf] e"uf]n
h;/L hflt, efiff, If]q, ;fldKotf,
k|fs[lts ;Dkbfh:tf ljljw kIfx¿nfO{
dWogh/ ubf{ of] Pp6f To:tf] e"uf]n
lgl:sof] / ;'gsf]zL / gf/fo0fL /fVg}kg]{
eof] . d"ntM gf/fo0fL / ;'gsf]zLsf] af/]df
a9L ax; klg 5, lsgeg] o;nfO{ s'g} klg
/fhgLlts bnx¿n] cfkm\gf] 3f]if0ffkqdf
/fv]]sf lyPgg\ .
dfa'xfª M hg;f+lVos lx;fan]
;'gsf]zLdf afx'g–IfqLsf] ax'ntf 5 ls <
tf/fgf/fo0f M of] k|b]zsf] tYofÍ
cfPsf] cj:yf 5}g . To;}n] hghflt /
cfo{g v;x¿sf] ax'ntf 7\ofSs} olt g} 5
egL eGg ;lsFb}g . kfFrj6f lhNnfx¿sf]
s]xL e"efux¿ lnP/ of] k|b]z gfds/0f /
l;dfª\sg ePsf] 5 . o;sf] 5nkmn /
k|lqmof cufl8 a9\b} hfnf, t}klg ;a}lt/
af6 of] o:tf] e"uf]n lgl:sof], h;nfO{
Pp6f gfd g/fvL ;'v} kfOPg . To;}n]
;'gsf]zL / gf/fo0fL ldl>t k|0ffnLsf
cfwf/df gfd /flvof] .
dfa'xfª M c¿ s] cj:yfn] ;'gsf]zL
/fHo k|:tfj ul/of] xf]nf < cyjf
of] ;'gsf]zL k|b]z k|:tfj ePsf]df s]
wf/0ff 5 <
b]jL v8\sf M /fHo ljefhgsf]
cfwf/ ljz]if u/]/ klxrfg / ;fdYo{nfO{
s]Gb|ljGb'df /fv]/ x]bf{ ;'gsf]zL k|b]z …jNnf]
ls/ftÚ elgg] ls/ftLx¿sf] ax'ntf ePsf]
If]q xf]Og / …tfD;flnªÚ elgg] tfdfªx¿sf]
ax'n If]q klg xf]Og . hg;+Vofsf] lx;fan]
Tof] b]lvFb}g, P]ltxfl;stfsf] lx;fan]
klxnf]rf]6L k};f 5kfPsf] bf]nvfsf g]jf/
x¿n] xf] / g]jf/x¿sf] bfaL klg /x]sf] 5 .
v; ax'n If]q x'FbfxF'b} klg Pp6f klxrfg

df= tf/fgf/fo0f >]i7
d"ntM gf/fo0fL
/ ;'gsf]zLsf]
af/]df a9L
ax; klg
5, lsgeg]
o;nfO{ s'g}
klg /fhgLlts
bnx¿n] cfkm\gf]
3f]if0ffkqdf
/fv]]sf
lyPgg\ .

;+3Lo g]kfn

@#

;'gsf]zL k|b]z

6xn yfdL
PstGqLo
PsfTds
/fHoJoj:yfaf6
d'lQm k|fKt x'“b}g
eg]/ ;+3Lotfsf]
dfu p7fO/x]sf]
cj:yfdf h'g
;'gsf]zL
/fHonfO{
/ftf/ft NofOof] .
To; e"uf]ndf
/x]sf zf]lift–
kLl8t hflt–
hghfltx¿sf]
efjgfdf rf]6
k'¥ofpg] sfd
eof], Tof] Psbd
unt 5 .

@$

;+3Lo g]kfn

eg]sf] ;'gsf]zL xf] . o;df tfdfsf]zL
;d]6\bf cem pko'Qm xf]nf . bf]nvfdf
dfq !* j6f hflt–hghfltx¿ 5g\ . olt
w]/} hfltx¿sf] a;f]af; ePsf] of] v;
ax'n ;'gsf]zL–tfdfsf]zL If]q …;'gsf]zLÚ
x'Fbf cfklQ 5}g . ;'gsf]zLsf] gfd ljz]if
u/]/ klxrfg eof], To;nfO{ cfwf/ agfP/
;a} ldn]/ ;d[4 agfcf}+ eGg] lehgsf ;fy
Tof] cfof] .
dfa'xfª M k|:tfljt ;+3Lo OsfOx¿ hflt,
efiff, ;+:s[lt;“u;“u} gbL, ef}uf]lnstfsf
lx;fan] cfPsf] 5, dfggLox¿sf] egfOdf
tkfO{+sf] ljrf/ s] 5 <
6xn yfdL M d pxfFx¿sf] ljrf/;Fu s]xL
xb;Dd ;xdt 5' . klxrfg / ;fdYo{sf
cfwf/df !$ k|b]zsf] u7g ul/of] . t/
k|:tfljt ;'gsf]zL k|b]z oL b'j} cfwf/n]
;d]6\b}g . P]ltxfl;s cfwf/nfO{ dfGg] /
klxrfgsf] s'/f ug]{ xf] eg] Oltxf;df cfk\mgf]
/fHosf] dfu u/]sf] cflbjf;L–hghfltn]
xf] . s'g} klg /fhgLlts bnn] eGbf cufj}
;+3Lotf, nf]stGq, u0ftGqsf s'/f ug]{ oL
;d"x x'g\ . @ ;o $) jif{;Ddsf] Oltxf;df
/fhtGqn] zf]if0f u¥of] . PstGqLo
PsfTds /fHoJoj:yfaf6 d'lQm k|fKt xF'b}g
eg]/ ;+3Lotfsf] dfu p7fO/x]sf] cj:yfdf
h'g ;'gsf]zL /fHonfO{ /ftf/ft NofOof] .
To; e"uf]ndf /x]sf zf]lift–kLl8t hflt–
hghfltx¿sf] efjgfdf rf]6 k'¥ofpg] sfd
eof], Tof] Psbd unt 5 .
dfa'xfª M s] gfds/0f ubf{ ;xh x'GYof]
xf]nf <
6xn yfdL M To; If]qsf ls/ftLx¿n]
h'g …jNnf] ls/ftÚ dfu ul//x]sf 5g\ .
P]ltxfl;s cfwf/ x]g]{ xf] eg] …jNnf] ls/ftÚ
x'g;SYof] .
dfa'xfª M /fHo k'gM;+/rgf ;ldltn]
:jfoQ, ;+/lIft / ljz]if If]q k|:tfljt
u/]sf] 5 . of] ;'gsf]zL k|fb]lzs /fHoleq
ls/ft hfltx¿df klg lh/]n, ;'/]n /

yfdL :jfoQ If]qx¿ u7g ubf{ Toxf“ /x]sf]
cflbjf;L–hghfltsf] ljljwtf k|ltljlDat
ug]{ cfsf+Iff b]lvG5 lg, Tof] Jojl:yt x'g
;Sb}g <
zflGt lh/]n M Tof] vfnsf] :jfoQ
If]q kfpFb}df ;Gt'li6 x'g] eP lxhf]b]lv
g} xfdL lsg n8\Yof}+, af/Daf/ cfjfh
lsg p7fpFYof}+ < ;'gsf]zL k|b]zdf
k|:tfljt @# j6f :jfoQ If]qdWo] lh/]n
/ yfdLdfq} k/]sf] 5, t/ xfo', ;'g'jf/,
afDa'n], y'n'ª, ;'/]n cflb nufotsf
cGo y'k|} hfltx¿ 5g\ . hftLo, eflifs,
;f+:s[lts ;d'bfout klxrfgsf cfwf/
x¿ x'Fbfx'Fb} 5'6\6} e"uf]n lg:s]/ ;'gsf]zL
/flvPsf] xf]Og . Tof] if8oGqk"j{s cfPsf]
xf], lsgls To; e"uf]nsf clwsf+z
hgtf jNnf] ls/ft x'gk' 5{ eGg]df ;xdt
5g\ . of] e"ldnfO{ ;'gsf]zL k|bz
] gfds/0f
u/]/ xfd|f] klxrfg ;dfKt kfg]{ sf]l;;
ul/Psf] 5, Tof] unt 5 .
dfa'xfª M jNnf] ls/ft gfdsf]
;DaGw To; If]qsf cflbjf;L–hghfltsf]
P]ltxfl;s–;f+:s[lts ;Dkbf;“u hf]l8Psf]
5 . To;}n] ;'gsf]zL gbLsf] gfd /fVg'eGbf
dfgjLo P]ltxfl;s ;Dkbf jNnf] ls/ft /fVbf
;xh x'G5 eGg] cfjfh p7\of] lg <
tf/fgf/fo0f
>]i7 M /fHo
k'gM;+/rgf ;ldltn] NofPsf] vfsf clxn]sf]
kl/j]zcg'¿k o;sf] d"n l:kl/6 7Ls 5 .
t/ klg l;dfª\sg;DaGwL k|fljlws ljifo
gldn]sf] s'/f ;To xf] . To;}n] s'g} klg
clwsf/ dfu ubf{ j:t'ut w/ftnnfO{
s]Gb|df /fv]/ ug'{k5{ . Tof] e"uf]n tfdfª,
lh/]n, yfdL, g]jf/ nufotn] cf–cfkm\g}
9+un] bfaL ul//x]sf] cj:yf 5 . o;n] s]
b]vfpF5 eg] ;a}n] bfaL ubf{ y'k|} :jfoQ
k|b]zx¿ lgdf{0f ug{ ;Dej 5 ls 5}g,
ljrf/ k'¥ofpg}kg]{ x'G5 .
dfa'xfª M ;d:ofx¿ ofjt b]lvG5g\ . s;/L
ldnfpg] xf]nf < dfggLo ;ef;bn] h;/L

;+3Lo ax;

eP klg ldnfP/ d]/f] cfsf+Iff k"/f ul/b]p
dfq eGg] ls o;f] ubf{ ldN5 eg]/ gLlt klg
k|:tfj ug]{ <
] df
gf/fo0f ;'g'jf/ M d ;'gsf]zL k|bz
k/]sf] 5' . o; If]qdf ;'gj' f/x¿sf] P]ltxfl;s
af;:yfg x'bF fxFb' } tfD;flnª, g]jfM, ;'gsf]zLh:tf
gfds/0f kf6L{ut kmfObf / lxtsf] nfludfq
ug{ vf]lhPsf] h:tf] nfU5 . P]ltxfl;stf
x]g]{ xf] eg] ls/ft x'g'kb{5 . olb hflt x'Gg
eg] xfd|f] P]ltxfl;s gfdx¿ /fVg ;lsG5 .
c¿ k|b]z hftLo cfwf/df /fVg ldNg], o;
If]qdf ;'gsf]zL k|b]z lsg t <
/ljGb| ;'/]n M ;'gsf]zLnfO{ ls/ft
k|b]z eGbf km/s gknf{ / s]xL lalu|g] klg
b]lvFb}g .
b]jL v8\sf M xfdL ljrf/ dGygsf]
r/0fdf 5f}+ . of] g} clGtd xf] eg]/ ljrf/df
lasf]{ nufpg' x'Fb}g . ;du|df ;f+:s[lts
klxrfg cfkm}+df Tof] Pp6f P]ltxfl;s
w/f]x/ xf], To;nfO{ ;+/If0f / ;Ddfg ug}k{ 5{ .
/fHosf ;+/rgfx¿ P]ltxfl;s klxrfgsf
cfwf/df lgdf{0f ug'{k5{ eGg] l;4fGtdf
;xdt / k|lta4 5f}+ . tyflk ;f+:s[lts
;+/If0fdfq}n] cfTdlge{/ cy{tGq ljsf;
ub}{ cfw'lgs g]kfndf hfg ;Dej 5}g .
To;}n] cfly{s ljsf;sf] kf6f]nfO{ hLjg:
t/ psf:gdf hf]8 lbP/ hfg'kb{5 .
dfa'xfª M cd/hL, tkfO{+ du/ftsf]
du/ ;'gsf]zLdf kg'{eof], of] ax;df oxf“sf]
k|ltlqmof s] 5 <
cd/ yfkf du/ M klxnf] t cflbjf;L–
hghfltx¿sf] klxrfgnfO{ ljeQm ug]{
vfnsf] ;'gsf]zL k|b]z cfPsf] 5, o;n]
;sf/fTdseGbf gsf/fTds ;Gb]z a9L
lbG5 . bf];|f], l;Gw'nL dxfef/t If]qaf6
k|efljt If]q klg xf] . l;Gw'nLjf;Ln]
;'gsf]zL k|b]z eGbf cfkm\gf] klxrfg
af]ln/fv]sf] 5 eGg] dx;'; ub}{g . ;'gsf]zL
gbL au]sf] e"efueGbf dflyNnf] bf]nvf,
/fd]5fk If]q tyf l;Gw'nLs} ;'gsf]zL

5]p5fpsf] ;+:s[lt / clwsf+z e"efux¿sf]
;+:s[ltaLr of] Dofr vfFb}g . l;Gw'nLsf]
s]xL efudfq ;'gsf]zL k|b]zdf /flvP tfklg
o;n] l;Gw'nLjf;Lsf] k|ltlglwTj ug{ ;S5
h:tf] nfUb}g .
xfd|f] dxfef/t If]q xf] . dxfef/t
eGbf hlt v';L / cfk\mgf]kg emlNsG5, c¿
eGbf emlNsFb}g . l;Gw'nLsf] clwsf+z e"efu
dxfef/t If]qeGbf tn a? bg'jf/ / dfemL
hfltx¿sf] P]ltxfl;stf;Fu ;DalGwt 5 .
clxn] ;+:s[lt w]/} ld>0f eO;s]sf] cj:yf
5 . l;Gw'nLdf s;}n] klg P]ltxfl;stfsf
cfwf/df bfaL ug]{ cj:yf 5}g . ;du|
¿kdf If]qLo lx;fan] g} l;Gw'nLnfO{
dxfef/t If]q;Fu ufF;]/ 5'6\ofpg;s]sf]
v08df ;a}n] xfd|f] eGg] dx;'; ug{
;Sg]5g\ .
l;Gw'nfLnfO{ dWo–dxfef/t k|b]z eGg
;lsG5 . t/ /fd]5fk, bf]nvf, cf]vn9'ªu\ f
If]qx¿ ls/ft k|efljt If]q g} xf], To;
If]qdf ;'g'jf/, lh/]n, yfdL, dfemL nufot
;d'bfos} a9L a:tLx¿ b]lvG5g\ . ;'gsf]zL
k|b]zdf h'g–h'g lhNnfsf e"efux¿ ;dfj]z
ul/of], Tof] Tolt j}1flgs / Jofjxfl/s
b]lvGg . dxfef/t If]qeGbf tnlt/sf]
l;Gw'nLjf;LnfO{ ;'gsf]zL eGbf efjgfTds
;DaGw xf]nf h:tf] nfUb}g .
tf/fgf/fo0f >]i7 M Psflt/ sltkon]
hftLo /fHosf] ljkIfdf cfkm"nfO{
pEofpg'ePsf] 5 . csf]{lt/ hftLo
cfwf/df /fHo rflxof] eGg] cfjfh klg

gf/fo0f ;'g'jf/
c¿ k|b]z hftLo
cfwf/df /fVg
ldNg], o; If]qdf
;'gsf]zL k|b]z
lsg t <

;'gsf]zLnfO{ ls/ft k|b]z eGbf km/s
gknf{ / s]xL lalu|g] klg b]lv“b}g .
/ljGb| ;'/]n
;+3Lo g]kfn

@%

;'gsf]zL k|b]z

df= b]jL v8\sf
ljz]ifu/L
k|fs[lts
;|f]t;fwgdf
:yfgLo
hgtfsf]
cu|flwsf/
x'g'k5{ .
k|fs[lts
;|f]t;fwgdf
:yfgLo
;d'bfosf]
cu|flwsf/
ljutb]lv p7fO“b}
cfP tfklg clxn]
cln sdhf]/
¿kdf p7\g]
u/]sf] 5 .

@^

;+3Lo g]kfn

5 . of] cfkm}+df cGt/lj/f]w 5 . hftLo
/fHosf] ljkIfdf x'g] xf] eg] ;'gsf]zL
hftLo cfwf/df /x]sf] /fHo xf]Og .
g]kfnsf] hftLo agf]6 w]/}lt/ 5l/P/
/x]sf] l:yltsf] 5 . ljleGg ;d'bfoaLr
b]lvPsf] ljjfbnfO{ xn t ug}{k¥of] .
;+ljwfg;efdf NofOPsf] vfsf ax; /
5nkmnsf nflu cufl8 a9]sf] 5, of] g}
clGtd 6'ª\uf] xf]Og . o;nfO{ ldnfpg
g;lsg] eGg] 5}g, ldnfpg ;lsG5 . oxfF
ls/ft, lh/]n, ;'g'jf/sf] k|Zg cfPsf] 5 .
vfsfdf :ki6;Fu ljz]if ;+/rgf n]lvPsf]
5 . ljz]if ;+/rgf cGtu{t :jfoQ If]q,
ljz]if If]q / ;+/lIft If]q eg]/ /flvPsf]
5 . ls/ftsf ;fyLx¿n] ls/ftdf kg{'kYof]{
jf 5'§} rflxof] eg]/ cfkm\gf] :jfoQ If]q
dfUg' cGoyf xf]Og . :jfoQ If]q, ;+/lIft
If]q / ljz]if If]q cGtu{t ;a} hfthfltsf]
dg a'emfP/ hfg'k5{ . s;}sf] xs–clwsf/
s'l07t x'G5 eGg] dnfO{ nfUb}g .
zflGt lh/]n M :jfoQ, ljz]if,
;+/lIft If]q cToGt} cfjZos s'/f xf] .
du/ft, tfD;flnª k|b]zleq c¿ hfltx¿sf]
hxfF ;3g a:tL 5, ToxfF :jfoQ, ljz]if
If]q x'g}k5{ . lxhf]b]lv k5fl8 kfl/Psf
cflbjf;L–hghflt ;d'bfox¿nfO{ g} Jojl:
yt ug{sf nflu hftLo gfds/0f ug]{ h'g
;}4flGts cfwf/df ;xdlt aGof], o;/L
klxrfgsf] cfwf/ alg;s]kl5 cGo If]qdf
du/ft, tfD;flnª, td'jfg, g]jfM x'g] t/
;'gsf]zLdf lsg hftLo cfwf/df gx'g] <
uf}/Lz+s/, sflngrf]sh:tf lxdfnsf]
gfdaf6 k|b]z agfpFbf cln a9L ckgTj
efjgf x'G5 ls eGg] wf/0ff cfPsf] x'g;S5 . tyflk
lgrf]8 tyf lgisif{ s] x'g;S5 eg] o;
…6]l/6f]/LÚdf nueu ^ ;o jif{ cl3b]lvsf]
P]ltxfl;s e"efu 5, oxfF ls/ftLx¿n]
k};f 5fk]sf] ls/ftL 5fk / ef}uf]lns
gfds/0f;d]t ePsf] cj:yf 5 . o:tf]
7fpFdf jNnf] ls/ft k|b]z x'Fbf s] eof] <

dfa'xfª M b]jLhL, k|;ª\u abnf}+ .
;+3Lotfsf] r'/f] ljifo /fHozlQm af“8kmf“8
xf] . ;+3, k|b]z / Onfsfsf] clwsf/
Pscsf{aLr w]/} cf]e/Nofk ePsf] cj:yf
5 . pbfx/0fsf nflu k|fs[lts ;|f]taf6 k|fKt
/f]oN6L ;+3 / k|b]z b'j}df 5 . o:Tff ljifo
s;/L ldnfpg ;lsG5 <
b]jL v8\sf M ljz]ifu/L k|fs[lts
;|f]t;fwgdf :yfgLo hgtfsf] cu|flwsf/
x'g'k5{ . k|fs[lts ;|f]t;fwgdf :yfgLo
;d'bfosf] cu|flwsf/ ljutb]lv p7fOFb}
cfP tfklg clxn] cln sdhf]/ ¿kdf
p7\g] u/]sf] 5 . ldnfpg} g;lsg] eGg]
5}g . cWoog 6f]nLsf] cWoog k|ltj]bg
cfO;s]kl5 kf; ug]{ a]nfdf Vofn ug{
;lsG5 .
dfa'xfª M eG;f/, cGtMz'Ns, d"No
clej[l4, ;+:yfut cfos/ cflb / k|fs[lts
;|f]t;fwgaf6 cfpg] /f]oN6L slt–slt k|ltzt
;+3, k|b]z / Onfsfdf ljt/0f x'g] eg]/
ls6fg ul/Psf] 5}g . cGtMz'Ns ;fdfGotof
k|fb]lzs tyf :yfgLo OsfOdf x'G5, t/ oxf“
;+3Lo ;/sf/sf] ;"rLdf /flvPsf] 5 . ca
aGg] k|b]zn] cfkm\gf] cfly{s ;fdYo{tf s;/L
xfl;n ug]{ < k|fs[lts ;|f]t;fwgaf/] 5nkmn
ubf{ /f]oN6L, cfos/, cGtMz'Ns s/x¿sf]
af/]df oxf“x¿aLr 5nkmn ePsf] 5–5}g <
6xn yfdL M ljz]ifu/L hftLo
;+3–;+:yfx¿df k|d'v ¿kdf p7\g] ljifo
klxrfg / /fHosf] s'/f g} xf] . Tof] leqsf]
s'/f ;|f]t;fwg xf] eGg] dnfO{ nfU5 .
dfa'xfª M klxrfg / /fHo t efjgfTds
s'/f xf] . ;+3Lo zf;g Joj:yfdf ;+3sf]
OsfOn] cfly{s, /fhgLlts / ;fdflhs
¿kn] pleg] Ifdtf /fVb}g eg] Tof] ;+3Lo
OsfO cl:tTjdf /xnf / <
6xn yfdL M h'g ;d'bfox¿n]
/fHo / clwsf/sf] dfu ul//x]sf 5g\, tL
;d'bfo;Fu 3lge"t ¿kdf 5nkmn ePsf]
5}g, of] kIfdf sdhf]/L 5 . csf]{, cfO{Pncf]

;+3Lo ax;

!^( n] k|Tofe"t u/]sf] vf;u/L /fhgLlts
cu|flwsf/ ca aGg] ;+ljwfgdf ;dfj]z
ug{ ;lsof] eg] w]/} xb;Dd cflbjf;Lsf]
clwsf/ ;'lglZrt x'G5 .
k|fs[lts ;|f]t;fwgdf :yfgLo tx
cyjf :yfgLo ;/sf/s} a9L :jfldTj
x'g'k5{ / To; If]qsf] s/ p7fpg] clwsf/
s]Gb|nfO{ eGbf /fHo jf k|fGtLo ;/sf/nfO{
eP /fHo rnfpg ;lhnf] x'G5 . clxn]sf]
cj:yfdf cfly{s cj:yf Psbd sdhf]/
ePsf /fHox¿ klg b]v]sf 5f}+ . k|fs[lts
;|f]t;fwg, :yfgLo ;|f]tx¿, vlgh kbfy{
cflb Joj:yfkgsf] clwsf/ :yfgLo:t/
nfO{ lbOg'sf ;fy} s]Gb|n] x:tIf]k u/]g eg]
/fHo ;~rfng ug{ ;lhnf] x'G5 . lxhf]sf]
h:t} s]Gb| ;/sf/n] dfq} p7fpg], /fVg] /
p;sf] lgoGq0fdf x'g] xf] eg] k|fb]lzs tyf
k|fGtLo /fHo rnfpg uf¥xf] x'G5 .
dfa'xfª M oxf“ ljifo p7\of], h'g
cflbjf;L–hghfltsf]
clwsf/;DaGwL
dxf;lGw cfO{Pncf] !^( /fHokIf ePsf]
5 . /fHokIf x'g'sf] cy{ g]kfndf cflbjf;L–
hghfltx¿ cTolws ;+Vofdf ePsfn]
dxf;lGwsf] kIfdf ;dy{g hgfP To;af6
cflbjf;L–hghfltx¿ nfeflDjt x'G5g\ eGg]
dg;fo xf]nf . of] dxf;lGw !^( ljifout
;ldltdf s;/L Jojl:yt ePsf] kfpg'xG' 5 <
b]jL v8\sf M hxfF;Dd dnfO{ nfU5,
dxf;lGw cfO{Pncf] !^( dfq geO{ cGo
cGt/f{li6«o sfg'g dxf;lGwsf ljifonfO{
;dfj]z ug]{ ;Gbe{df /fd|} Wofg lbOPsf]
cg'e"lt 5 .
dfa'xfª M k|ltj]bgdf @#÷@$ j6f
:jfoQ If]qx¿ k|:tfljt ul/Psf] 5 .
ljz]if ;+/rgf cGtu{t :yfkgf x'g] :jfoQ
If]qsf] clwsf/sf] ;"rLdf k|x/L, ;xsf/L
;+:yf, PkmPd /]l8of] Joj:yfkg, dfWolds
ljBfno, :jf:Yo;]jf, :jfoQ lgjf{lrt
kl/ifb, ;DklQ, Jofj;flos, 3/hUuf
/lhi6«];g, s[lif cfos/, k|fs[lts ;|f]taf6

k|fKt /f]oN6L, ;8s, ljB't cfof]hgf, gful/
stf, hUuf clen]vLs/0f, vfgL cGj]z0f
/ Joj:yfkg, efiff–;+:s[lt–lnlk / wd{sf]
;+/If0f ug]{ nufotsf] clwsf/ Joj:yf
ul/Psf] 5 . :jfoQ If]qx¿ sltko oxf“x¿sf]
hflt;“u ;DalGwt 5g\ . k|:tfljt yfdL,
;'g'jf/, lh/]n :jfoQ If]qx¿ k|fb]lzs
;/sf/hlQs} ;Ifd geOsg t of] clwsf/
;Dkfbg–Joj:yfkg ug{ t uf¥xf] b]lvG5 lg <
6xn yfdL M uf¥xf] xf]Og, a? :jfoQ
If]qnfO{ tL clwsf/x¿ lbOof] eg] alnof]
/ cfly{s ¿kn] ;Ifd x'G5g\ . 5nkmns}
qmddf tf/fgf/fo0fhLaf6 ;'xfpFlbnf] gfd
geP/ ;'gsf]zL /flvof] eGg] s'/f cfof],
To;/L cfpg'sf] k5fl8 ToxfFsf cflbjf;L–
hghfltx¿nfO{ km'6fpg] tyf kmf6f] Nofpg]
sfd ePsf] 5 . yfdL hgtf g} sltko
;'gsf]zL / sltko tfD;flnªdf afFl8Psf
5g\ . o;n] emg\ ;d:of cfpg ;S5 .
olb ToxfF jNnf] ls/ft lbOof] eg] ;a}
ls/ftLx¿ Ps7fpFdf Pp6} /fHoleq k5{g\
/ ljz]if :jfoQ If]q lbFbf klg ;lhnf]
x'G5 . l;ª\uf] hfltnfO{ ;s];Dd gkm'6fOsg
Pp6f k|bz
] df kfg'k{ 5{ eGg] d]/f] cfu|x xf] .
cd/ yfkf du/ M cflbjf;L–
hghfltx¿sf] ljsf; / kx'Fr lgdf{0fsf
nflu k|:tfj ul/Psf clwsf/ ;Dkfbg /
Joj:yfkg ug{ ;lsG5 . Tof] cfjZos
klg xf] .
zflGt lh/]n M ;ldltsf] k|ltj]bg
cfPkl5 ePsf clwsf/x¿sf] af/]df
vf;} ax; ePg . gfds/0fdf a9L ax;
eof] . clwsf/x¿ s]Gb|, k|b]z / :yfgLo
txdf p:t}–p:t} b]lvG5 . clwsf/, s/ /
/f]oN6L cflb Onfsf tyf :yfgLo txsf]
:yfgLon], k|fGt tyf k|fb]lzs txsf]
k|b]zn] / ;+3 tyf s]Gb|Lo txsf] s]Gb|n]
g} Joj:yfkg ug'{k5{ eGg] nfU5 . ;"rLsf
clwsf/x¿ ;Dkfbg ug}{ g;Sg] eGg] l:ylt
x'Fb} xf]Og .

cd/ yfkf du/
cflbjf;L–
hghfltx¿sf]
ljsf; / kx'“r
lgdf{0fsf nflu
k|:tfj
ul/Psf
clwsf/
;Dkfbg /
Joj:yfkg ug{
;lsG5 . Tof]
cfjZos klg
xf] .

;+3Lo g]kfn

@&

;'gsf]zL k|b]z

df= zflGt lh/]n
k|fs[lts
;|f]t;fwg
;ldltn] k|fs[lts
;|f]t;fwgaf/]] s]xL
s'/fx¿ NofPsf]
5 . t/ d"t{
b]lv“b}g .
cfO{Pncf] !^(
sf ljifonfO{
;+j}wflgs Joj:
yf ul/g'k5{ .
df}lns xsdf
;d]l6g'k5{ .

@*

;+3Lo g]kfn

dfa'xfª M pbfx/0fsf nflu lh/L
If]qdf hnljB't cfof]hgf ;~rfng eof] .
lglZrt k|ltzt /f]oN6L cfof]hgfn] lt¥of] .
slt k|ltzt lh/]n :jfoQ If]qn] /fVg], slt
k|ltzt clxn]s} k|:tfljt ;'gsf]zL /fHon]
kfpg] / slt k|ltzt ;+3Lo ;/sf/df hfg]
af/]df ax; ePsf] 5}g <
zflGt lh/]n M ulx/fOdf o;af/]
5nkmn ePsf] 5}g . 6Ss–6Ssdfq}
/flvPsf] 5 . k|fKt /f]oN6L s;/L afF8kmfF8
ug]{ eGg] ljifodf u[xsfo{ sd b]lvG5 .
k|fs[lts ;|f]t;fwg ;ldltn] k|fs[lts
;|f]t;fwgaf/]] s]xL s'/fx¿ NofPsf] 5 .
t/ d"t{ b]lvFb}g . cfO{Pncf] !^( sf
ljifonfO{ ;+j}wflgs Joj:yf ul/g'k5{ .
df}lns xsdf ;d]l6g'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M dxf;lGw !^( sf ljifox¿
df}lns clwsf/df cIf/zM ;d]l6g'kYof]{,
;d]l6Psf] 5}g . To;/L gn]lv“bf klg
cflbjf;L–hghflt ;ef;bx¿n] c;xdltsf]
ljrf/ tyf km/s dt bh{ u/]sf] b]lv“b}g
lg . Tof] t 7"nf] sdhf]/L xf]Og / <
zflGt lh/]n M df}lns clwsf/ tyf
lgb]{zs l;4fGt ;ldltdf cfO{Pncf]
!^( ;Fu ;DalGwt clwsf/ s]xL cfPsf]
h:tf] nfU5 . cfO{Pncf] !^( / k|fs[lts
;|f]t;fwgdflysf] clwsf/ t csf]{ b]zsf]
dfG5] cfP/ Tof] b]zsf] cflbjf;LnfO{
zf]if0f u/]sf] 5, cfkm\gf] cwLg:y
kf/]sf] 5 eg]dfq nfu" x'G5, g]kfndf Tof]
cj:yf 5}g eg]/ e|dfTds / ljifofGt/
ax; ug]{ ;ef;bx¿ klg 5g\ . tyflk
/fHon] cg'df]bg ul/;s]sf]n] dxf;lGw
cfO{Pncf] !^( ;Fu ;DalGwt clwsf/x¿
cflbjf;L hgtfn] kfpg'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M tf/fgf/fo0fhL, :jtGq
d'n'sdf a;f]af; ug]{ cflbjf;L–hghfltx¿sf]
xs–clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{ ag]sf] cGt/f{li6«o
>d ;+u7gsf] dxf;lGw !^( x:tfIf/ u/]kl5
;DalGwt d'n'ssf] cfGtl/s sfg'g;/x

nfu" x'G5 . ;+ljwfg;efdf oL o:tf ljleGg
ljifodf zflGt lh/]nn] eGg'eP h:t}
ulx/fOdf 5nkmn gePs} xf] < s] gldn]/
o:tf] eO/x]sf] 5 <
tf/fgf/fo0f >]i7 M ax; x'Fb} gePsf]
xf]Og, hlt x'g'kg]{ xf], Tolt x'g g;s]sf]
;fFrf] xf] . :jfoQ k|b]zx¿df ljwflosL,
sfo{sf/L, Goflos clwsf/;Fu;Fu} lgjf{rg
kl/ifb;Ddsf] clwsf/ lglb{i6 ul/Psf]
5 . :jfoQ If]qdf klg lgjf{lrt kl/ifb
;'lglZrt ul/Psf] 5 . oxfF 5nkmndf
…km'6fp / /fh u/Úsf] gLlt cjnDag ug{
vf]lhPsf] xf] ls eGg] z+sf /xg uPsf]
5 . /fd]5fks} e"uf]nnfO{ x]bf{ dflylt/
z]kf{, tnlt/ ls/ft, tfdfsf]zLsf] If]qlt/
tfdfªn] cfkm\gf] bfaL u/]sf] l:ylt 5 .
Pscsf{ ;d'bfoaLr ljjfb b]lvG5 . tyflk
ldn]/ cufl8 hfg'sf] ljsNk 5}g .
dfa'xfª M ;a}sf] cfsf+Iff ;Daf]wg
ePdfq /fHo ;d[4 / ;kmn x'g;S5 . lsgeg]
;+3Lotf bfaLdfq geP/ ;Demf}tf klg xf] .
To;}n] ljz]if :jfoQ If]qx¿sf] r:dfaf6 x]bf{
/fhgLlts, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, ef}lts,
cfly{s k|flKtsf] cfsf+IffnfO{ dfggLox¿n]
lnlka4 ul/lbPsf] clwsf/n] ;Daf]wg u5{
ls ub}{g <
tf/fgf/fo0f >]i7 M d t clwsf/
oltdfq xf]Og, cem a9\tf rflxG5
/ /flvg'k5{ eG5', lsgeg] k|fs[lts
;|f]t;Dkbfdfly ToxfFsf] hghfltx¿sf]
cu|flwsf/sf] s'/f 5 . h'g;'s} ;ldltn]
NofPsf] k|ltj]bg ;+ljwfg;efdf 5nkmn
x'Fbf ljifoj:t' /fVg kfOG5 . clxn] gldn]sf]
s'/f Toltv]/ klg ldnfpg ;lsG5 .
To:t}, dxf;lGw cfO{Pncf] !^(
/fHokIfn] k|lta4tf hgfO;s]sf] cj:yf xf] .
cflbjf;Lsf] /fhgLlts cu|flwsf/;DaGwL
k|:tfj nfFbfv]l/ cu|flwsf/ x'g'x'Fb}g eGg]
hdft klg 7"n} lyof] . cu|flwsf/ ;6\6f
klxnf] clwsf/ eg]/ /flvPsf] 5 .

;+3Lo ax;

tfD;flnª k|bz
]
;+

ljwfg;ef /fHo k'gM;+/rgf tyf /fHozlQm afF8kmfF8 ;ldltn] !$
k|b]zsf] k|:tfj u/]sf] 5 . k|b]z lgdf{0fsf k|d'v cfwf/ klxrfg /
;fdfYo{ cGtu{t ljz]iftM k|:tfljt !$ k|b]zdWo] tfD;flnª klxrfgsf] cfwf/
df k|:tfj ul/Psf] Ps k|b]z xf] . k|:tfljt k|b]zdf !) lhNnfsf # ;o !(
uflj;sf e"–efu ;d]l6Psf 5g\ . o;df tfD;flnª k|b]zsf] ljljw kIfaf/]
ax; ul/Psf] 5 . To; If]qsf ljleGg hflt–hghflt JolQmx¿sf ljrf/
x¿nfO{ o;df ;d]6\g] k|oTg ul/Psf] 5 . o;df ;+ljwfg;efsf ;ef;bx¿
ljdnf ;'j]bL -Pdfcf]jfbL_, sdnf yfkf -g]kfnL sf+u|];_, uf]laGb r]kfª
-g]skf Pdfn]_ / tfD;flnª If]qsf ljleGg /fhgLlts tyf ;fdflhs
cu'jfx¿ ljhol;+x bg'jf/ -;+u7g ;lrj, g]kfn cflbjf;L hghflt
dxf;+3_, wgk|;fb tfdfª -cWoIf, tfdfª 3]b'ª_, wgaxfb'/ dfemL -cWoIf,
g]kfn dfemL pTyfg ;+3_, lsGhf] x\of]Ndf] nfdf -pkfWoIf, x\of]Ndf] ;dfh_,
a'4l5l/ª df]Qmfg -tfdfª;flnª cfGbf]ngsdL{_ / gj/fh uf}td -;/f]sf/
jfnf_ sf ljrf/x¿sf] ;Dkflbt c+z M ;+
afns[i0f dfa'xfª M a'4l5l/ªhL, k|:tfljt
tfD;flnª /fHonfO{ s;/L x]l//xg'ePsf] 5 <
a'4l5l/ª df]Qmfg M k|:tfljt tfD;flnª
tfdfª …g];g :6]6Úsf ¿kdf NofOPsf] h:tf]dfq
b]lvG5 . of] ;a}sf] cfFvfdf 5f/f] xfn]/ s]xLsf]
…OG6«]:6Ú k"/f ug]{ vfnsf] dfq xf], h;sf] …OG6«]:6Ú
eg]sf] e|d xf] . uf]vf{nLsf] lj:tf/sf] gfddf
lxhf] cflbjf;Lx¿sf] Oltxf;nfO{ tf]8df]8 u/]sf
lyP . clxn]sf] nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] o'udf klg
cflbjf;Lsf] Oltxf;sf kL8fx¿nfO{ cg'ej ug{ t

stf xf] stf emg\ kL8f yKg] lx;fan] of] k|b]z
cfPsf] 5 . To;}n] cflbjf;Lsf] gh/af6 of] s'g}
klg lx;fadf c;fGble{s x'g cfpF5 .
dfa'xfª M tkfO{sf] ljrf/df ;fGble{s s]
x'g;S5 <
a'4l5l/ª M tfdfª …g];gÚ e"ld;Fu ;DaGw
/fVg] ;+:s[ltsf] If]qsf] s'/f xf] . tfdfªsf] …
cf]l/lhgÚ yftynf]x¿ ;a} k|:tfljt tfD;flnª
If]qeGbf aflx/ 5 . z}n'ªh:tf If]qx¿ h'g …
cf]l/lhgÚsf] kf}/fl0fstf;Fu ;Dk"0f{ ¿kdf ufFl;Psf

;+3Lo g]kfn

@(

tfD;flnª k|b]z

a'4l5l/ª df]Qmfg
uf]vf{nLsf]
lj:tf/sf]
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cflbjf;Lx¿sf]
Oltxf;nfO{
tf]8df]8 u/]sf
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klg cflbjf;Lsf]
Oltxf;sf
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stf xf] stf emg\
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5.

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;+3Lo g]kfn

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To;}n] tL P]ltxfl;s e"ldx¿;lxtsf] tfD;flnª g}
;fGble{stf xf] .
wgk|;fb tfdfª M k|:tfljt !$ k|b]zn]
ljleGg 9+un] tfD;flnªnfO{ vl08t ug]{
sfo{ u/]sf] 5 . tfdfª hflt nufot oxfFsf
cflbjf;Lx¿sf] P]ltxfl;s e"ldnfO{ k"0f{tM vl08t
ul/g] sfo{ ePsf] 5 . P]ltxfl;s cfwf/df
/fHo lgdf{0f eGb} P]ltxfl;s e"ldnfO{ g} vl08t
ul/of] . To;}n] cflbjf;L hfltsf] P]ltxfl;s e"ld,
;f+:s[lts cv08tf / ax'ntfsf] lg/Gt/tfnfO{
vl08t gu/]df ;du|tf cfpg ;SYof] .
dfa'xfª M tfdfª hfltsf] ax'ntf agfpgnfO{
To;f] ul/Psf] eGg] egfO 5 lg <
wgk|;fb M To:tf] b]lvFb}g . tfdfª hg;+Vof
nueu ( nfv 5 . tfD;flnªsf] z]kf{ -dfly_,
g]jf -aLr_, ;'gsf]zL -k"j{_ / gf/fo0fL -blIf0f_
k|b]zdf tfdfªx¿sf] P]ltxfl;s e"ldnfO{ 6'qm\ofpg]
sfd eof] . o;f] ubf{ ( nfv hgtfdWo] $ nfv
hg;+Vof aflx/ kfl/Psf] 5 . To;sf/0f e"–efu,
hg;+Vof / clwsf/ ;a} lx;fan] vl08t ul/Psf]
b]lvG5 .
dfa'xfª M wgaxfb'/ dfemLhL, tkfO{+ dfemL
hfltsf] cu'jf x'g'x'G5, tfD;flnª k|b]zaf/]
dfemLx¿sf] egfO s] 5 <
wgaxfb'/ dfemL M ;aeGbf a9L dWodf~rndf
h'g cf7 xhf/eGbf a9L dfemLsf] hg;+Vof 5 .
nueu ^* j6f lhNnf / ( ;o ** uflj;df
5l/Psf 5f}+ . /fhf 1fg]Gb|sf] zf;g cGTokl5
/fHo;Qf g]kfnL hgtfsf] xftdf cfof] . ca zf;g
hgtfsf] x'g'k5{ eGg] vfnsf] ;f]rsf] ljsf; klg
eof] . t/ Tof] af6f]df cem} d'n's hfg;s]sf]
5}g . clxn] h'g ;ft÷cf7j6f hfltsf] gfddf
k|b]zx¿ t cfof], t/ b'MvnfUbf] s'/f ;–;fgf
;d'bfox¿;Fu klg ;Nnfx, ;'emfj lng'k5{

/fhf 1fg]Gb|sf] zf;g cGTokl5
/fHo;Qf g]kfnL hgtfsf] xftdf
cfof] . ca zf;g hgtfsf] x'g'k5{ eGg]
vfnsf] ;f]rsf] ljsf; klg eof] . t/
Tof] af6f]df cem} d'n's hfg;s]sf]
5}g .

eGg] vfnsf] s'/fx¿ slxNo} cfPgg\ . dfemL
5l/P/ /x]sf] cflbjf;L xf] . k|:tfljt /fHox¿n]
-tfD;flnª / ;'gsf]zL_ k|b]zdf /flvFbf cem a9L
vl08t eof] .
dfa'xfª M sdnf yfkfhL, zf;gdf cem
vl08t u/]/ nfg] ;f]rsf] lg/Gt/tf:j¿k k|b]zx¿
agfOof] eGg] dfemLhLsf] egfO s:tf] nfUof] <
sdnf yfkf M xfdL
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/Lltl/jfh,
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xf}+ . To;}n] d dfemLhLsf] egfO;Fu ;xdt 5' .
xfdL emg\ vl08t eof}+ . xfd|f] klxrfg eg]sf] s]
xf] < xfd|f] klxrfgsf 7Ls–a]7Ls s] x'g\ <
/fi6«n] hfltnfO{ lrgfpF5, gls hfltn] /fi6«sf]
lrgf/L u5{ .
d of] hfltTj ¿kdf /fi6«sf] k|fb]lzs
ljefhgsf] kIfdf 5}g . lxdfn, kxf8, t/fO{ xfd|f]
b]z . dw];L, t/fO{jf;Ln] d kxf8L x'F, d lxdfnL x'F
eGg ju{sf ;fy kfpg'k5{ / Pp6f lxdfnLn] t/fO{
d]/f] xf], d t/fO{jf;L klg x'F eG7fGg'k5{ .
ljdnf ;'j]bL M g]kfn ax'eflifs, ax'wfld{s,
ax';f+:s[lts d'n's xf] . oxfFsf ljleGg wd{,
;+:s[lt / efiffsf] ;+/If0f / ;dfg clwsf/sf]
k|Tofe"lt ul/g'kg]{ xf], t/ Tof] vfnsf] k|Tofe"lt
ug{ ;lsPg . lsgls PsfTds /fHo g]kfnn]
g]kfnL hgtfsf] efjgfnfO{ ;xL k|sf/n] k|ltlglwTj
/ ;Daf]wg ug{ ;s]g . / Tof] c;kmn eof] .
To;sf/0f lglZrt ¿kdf /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgfrflxF
g]kfnL hgtfsf] clgjfo{ rfxgfsf] ljifo cfsf+Iffsf]
ljifo aGof] . To; cy{df g]kfn ;+3Lo d'n'sdf
;+3fTds 9fFrfdf rflxF k|j]z u/]sf] 5 . To;n]
g]kfnL hgtfsf] efjgfnfO{ k|ltlglwTj u/]sf]
5 eGg] dnfO{ nfU5 . tfD;flnªsf] ;Gbe{df
rflxF hf] oxfFsf] klxrfg / ;fdYo{ Pp6f cfwf/
agfOPsf] 5, klxrfg / ;fdYo{sf] cjwf/0ffaf6
x]bf{v]l/ tfD;flnª k|b]zleq ( a6f lhNnfx¿Dff
tfdfª ax'ntf kfOPsf] 5 . eflifs, ;f+:s[lts,
P]ltxfl;s lg/Gt/tf cflbsf lx;fan] tfD;flnª
7Ls 5 .
dfa'xfª M sdnfhL, ;+3Lotfsf cfwf/x¿
to ubf{ lxdfn, kxf8, t/fO{ ;du| /fi6« ;a} xfd|f] xf]
eGg] cfwf/ to ePg / klxrfg, ;fdYo{, ef}uf]lns
jf k|zf;lgs ;'udtfdfqsf] to eof] . s] oL
cfwf/df g]kfnL sf+u|];sf] c;xdlt lyof] / ToxL
/fo cfPsf] xf] <

;+3Lo ax;
sdnf yfkf M ;+3Lotfsf] ;jfndf ;a}
bnx¿n] cf–cfkm\g} k|sf/sf ts{ /fv]sf 5g\ .
;+3Lotfsf] cfwf/x¿df ;}4flGts ;xdlt ePs} xf] .
t/ To;}sf] cfwf/df ag]sf k|b]zaf/] l6sfl6Kk0fL
5nkmn x'g' /fd|f] xf] . oBlk of] clGtd ;j{;Ddt
klg xf]Og . k|b]zx¿sf] lgdf{0f ;fdYo{ /
klxrfgsf] cfwf/af6 x'Fbf cem a9L j}1flgs x'G5
eGg] xfd|f] 7x/ xf] . tyflk k|b]zsf] l;dfª\sg /
gfdfª\sgsf ;jfndf ldnfpg}kg]{ ljifoj:t'x¿
5g\ .
dfa'xfª M ljhohL, k|:tfljt tfD;flnªdfly
s] ljrf/ 5 < / g]kfn cflbjf;L–hghflt dxf;+3
;lrjfno ;b:osf] gftfn] k|:tfljt !$ j6f k|fb]lzs
;+/rgfx¿nfO{ dxf;+3n] s;/L x]l//x]sf] 5 <
ljhol;+x bg'jf/ M g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df
klxnf]k6s klxrfgnfO{ ;Daf]wg u/]/ hftLotf /
;f+:s[lts cfwf/df !$ k|b]zx¿ /fHo k'gM;+/rgf
;ldltdf d:of}bf k|:tfj ul/Psf] 5 . To;nfO{
dxf;+3sf] k"0f{ ;dy{g 5 . To;df y'k}| c;Gt'li6sf
s'/fx¿ klg 5g\ . cNk;+Vos hfltx¿sf] clwsf/
s] s:tf] x'G5 < e"ldsf s] / sxfF x'G5 < eGg]
;jfndf df}g b]lvG5 . df}g b]lvPsf ljifodf k|:6
x'g'k5{ eGg] dxf;+3sf] egfO xf] .
/fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf ;ldltn] tof/ kf/]sf]
vfsfdf cNk;+Vos cflbjf;L–hfthfltx¿ dfemL,
bg'jf/, ;'g'jf/ nufotsf] gfddf ljif]z :jfoQ
If]qx¿sf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . To;dWo] ;'gsf]zL
If]qdf Pp6fdfq :jfoQ If]qsf] cjwf/0ff NofOPsf]
5 . hals tfD;flnª If]q l;Gw'kfNrf]s, sfe]|,
g'jfsf]6df bg'jf/x¿ 5g\ . To;}n] bg'jf/x¿sf]
h'g 7fpFdf ax'ntf / a;f]af; 5, To:tf] 7fpFdf
klg :jfoQ If]q x'g'k5{ . o:tf ljifox¿af/] of]
vfsfn] k|:6 kf/]sf] 5}g .
dfa'xfª M uf]ljGb r]kfªhL, tkfO{+ r]kfª
cflbjf;L–hghfltsf] k|ltlglw ;ef;b klg
ePsf]n] k|:tfljt k|b]z, :jfoQ If]qaf/] cflbjf;L–
hghfltleqsf] ;+VofTds lx;fan] ;fgf] ;d'bfosf]
wf/0ff s] 5 < !$ j6f k|fb]lzs k|:tfjsf ;fy;fy}
:jfoQ, ;+/lIft / ljz]if If]qx¿ klg k|:tfljt
ul/Psf] 5 lg <
uf]ljGb r]kfª M tfD;flnª If]qsf] af/]df s'/f
ul//xFbf d JolQmut ¿kdf hftLo cfwf/df ag]sf]
/fHosf] lj/f]w ug]{ dfG5] xf]Og, hftLo cfwf/df
kfpg'k5{ eGg] kIfdf cl8u 5' . t/ tfD;flnª Tof]
hftLotfsf] cfwf/df geO{ xr'jfsf] ¿kdf cfPsf]
b]lvG5 .

yftynf]sf] cfwf/nfO{ x]bf{ wflbªs}
tfdfªx¿ 5'6]sf] b]lvG5 . clxn] k|:tfljt
ePsf /fHox¿ s]xL zlQmsf] ¿kdf :yflkt x'g]
cfwf/x¿ 5g\ . tNnf] :yfgLo ;/sf/df cfpg'kg]{
hlt :jfoQtfsf s'/fx¿ cfPsf] klg b]lvPg .
tfD;flnªleq a:g] Psbd nf]kf]Gd'v cNk;+Vos
hfltx¿sf] clwsf/ ls6fgLsf ;fy df}lns xsdf
;'lglZrt ul/g'kg]]{ lyof] . t/ sfg'gn] Joj:yf
u/]cg';f/ eg]/ kG5fpg] vfnsf] eof] .
hgu0fgf -@)%*_ cg';f/ xfdL r]kfªx¿
%@ xhf/ @ ;o #$ 5f}+ . ToxfFsf] cNk;+Vos /
nf]kf]Gd'v hfltx¿dWo] Ps r]kfªnfO{ lxhf] wflbª,
dsjfgk'/, uf]/vf / lrtjgdf /fv]em}+ hg;f+lVos
¿kn] km'6fpg] sfd ePsf] 5 . lsgls clxn] klg
wflbª / uf]/vfsf] cfwf, lrtjg / dsjfgk'/sf]
tLgj6f uflj;sf r]kfªx¿nfO{ gf/fo0L k|b]zdf
xflnlbPsf] 5 eg] c¿ ;'gsf]zL / tfD;flnªdf
xflnPsf] 5, h;n] ubf{ hfltsf] hg;+VofnfO{
ljeflht u/fP/ /fHox¿ lgdf{0f ubf{ cNk;+Vos
hfltx¿ emg\ nf]kf]Gd'v cj:yfdf /xG5g\ . o:tf]
cj:yfdf s;/L /fhgLlts cu|flwsf/sf] cEof;
x'G5 < of] Pp6f lrGtf / 5nkmnsf] ljifo xf] .
dfa'xfª M df}lns clwsf/sf] s'/f
ug'e
{ of] . tkfO{+ cfkm}+ r]kfª cNk;+Vos ;d'bfosf]
x'“bfx'“b} cNk;+Vossf] clwsf/ nufotsf ljifodf
km/s dt bh{ u/]sf] t b]lvGg lg < c¿n] agfOlbg'kg]{
ls cfkm"n] g} cfkm\gf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug]{ <
uf]ljGb r]kfª M xf]Og, d}n] af/Daf/
d:of}bfdflysf] 5nkmnqmddf of] p7fpg] u/]sf]
5' . xfdLn] eg]sf] / p7fpFb} cfPsf] s'/fdf
;ef;bsf] x}l;otn] d}n] ;+ljwfg;efdf /fv]sf]
5' . t/ d}n] Pp6f km/s dt / lgj]bgsf] ¿kdf
k]; ul/g .
dfa'xfª M tkfO{+ /x]sf] cNk;+Vos l;dfGts[t
;ldltsf] k|ltj]bgdf oxf“n] /fv]sf clwsf/x¿

df= uf]ljGb r]kfª
tfD;flnªleq
a:g] Psbd
nf]kf]Gd'v
cNk;+Vos
hfltx¿sf]
clwsf/
ls6fgLsf ;fy
df}lns xsdf
;'lglZrt
ul/g'kg]]{ lyof] .
t/ sfg'gn]
Joj:yf
u/]cg';f/ eg]/
kG5fpg] vfnsf]
eof] .

To;df y'k}| c;Gt'li6sf s'/fx¿
klg 5g\ . cNk;+Vos hfltx¿sf]
clwsf/ s] s:tf] x'G5 < e"ldsf s]
/ sxf“ x'G5 < eGg] ;jfndf df}g
b]lvG5 . df}g b]lvPsf ljifodf
k|:6 x'g'k5{ .
ljhol;+x bg'jf/
;+3Lo g]kfn

#!

tfD;flnª k|b]z

lsGhf] x\of]Ndf] nfdf
d
cNk;+Vos
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k"0f{¿kdf cfPsf] 5 <
uf]ljGb r]kfª M k"0f{¿kdf 5 eg]/ d bfaf
ulb{gF . clxn] klg Tof] ljifosf] 5nkmnsf]
sfo{df xfdLn] p7fO/x]sf 5f}F . cNk;+Vossf w]/}
clwsf/x¿ PsLs[t eP/ cfPsf 5g\ . t/ klg
;ldltn] NofPsf] vfsf x]bf{ xfdL cNk;+Vosx¿
r]kfª, dfemL, lh/]n, bg'jf/ nufotnfO{ Pp6}
k|b]zdf g/fv]/ km/s–km/sdf xflnlbP/ ljeflht
u/fpg] sfd ul/of] .
dfa'xfª M /fHozlQm af“8kmf“8 ;DaGwdf ljz]if
;+/rgf cGtu{t :yfkgf x'g] :jfoQtf clwsf/sf] ;"rLdf
k|x/L, ;xsf/L ;+:yf, lzIff, PkmPd /]l8of],
k|fylds :jf:Yo;]jf, :
jfoQ lgjf{rg kl/ifb,
;DklQ,
Jofj;flos,
3/hUuf /lhi6]«;g s/,
k|fs[lts ;|ft] af6 k|fKt
/f]oN6L, ;8s, ljB't of]hgf,
gful/stf, hUuf clen]v,
vfgL, efiff, ;+:s[lt /
wd{sf] ;+/If0f, k|fs[lts
;|f]t;fwgsf] pkof]u pNn]v
ul/Psf] 5 . k|:tfljt @#
:jfoQ If]qdWo] r]kfª klg
k|:tfj ul/Psf] 5 . r]kfª
:jfoQ If]qn] oL clwsf/
a9L
ePsf]
h:tf]
nfUb}g < ls tkfO{+x¿sf]
hfgsf/Lljgf g} cfPsf]
xf] < of] slxn] ax;df cfpg] s'/f xf] <
uf]ljGb r]kfª M of] ljif]z ;+/rgf cGtu{t
ljleGg clwsf/x¿ :jfoQ If]qnfO{ lbg] s'/f
oyfy{k/s g} 5 . cflbjf;L–hghflt cfGbf]ng,
tfD;flnª k|flKtsf] cfGbf]ngsf] qmddf tfdfªx¿sf]
aLrdf r]kfª bf];|f] hfltsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] 5 . To;}n]

k|b]zsf] gfd tfD;flnª, td'jfg, g]jfM
h] /fv] klg s'g} 7"nf] s'/f] xf]Og .
t/ hgtfsf aLrdf tfD;flnª eg]sf]
tfdfªn] /fHo ug]{ xf] eGg] Dof;]h
uO/x]sf] 5 .
gj/fh uf}td

#@

;+3Lo g]kfn

o;nfO{ gh/cGbfh ul/g'x'Gg . d}n] ;+ljwfg;efdf
af]Ng] qmddf klg of] /fv]sf] 5' . clxn] r]kfªnfO{
gf/fo0fL, tfD;flnª / ;'gsf]zLdf xfln;s]kl5
ls tt\tt\ If]qdf r]kfªsf] :jfoQ If]q x'g'k¥of]
cyjf xfdLn] eGb} cfPsf] Pp6f r]kfª ;jfoQ
k|b]z x'g'k¥of] . cNk;+Vos HffltnfO{ 6'qm\ofpg]
sfd x'g'ePg . cNk;+VosnfO{ 6'qm\ofP/ xf]Og,
Pp6} 7fpFdf /fv]/ /fHo lgdf{0f ubf{ pQd x'G5 .
dfa'xfª M lsGhf] x\of]Ndf] nfdfhL,
k|:tfljt @# :jfoQ If]qdWo] x\of]Ndf] klg cfPsf]
5 . plNnlvt clwsf/x¿af/] hfgsf/L lyof] <
gof“ ;+ljwfgdf ;dfj]z ePdf olt w]/} clwsf/x¿

kfOg'sf ;fy} rnfpg'kg]{ /x]5 eg]/ yfxf lyof] <
tkfO{+sf] ljrf/df plNnlvt clwsf/x¿ a9L jf
sd ePh:tf] nfUb}g <
lsGhf] x\of]Ndf] nfdf M clncln yfxf ePsf]
xf] . d]/f] ljrf/df clwsf/x¿ 7Ls} xf] h:tf]
nfU5 . d cNk;+Vos Xof]Ndf] hfltsf] k|ltlglw
ePsf]n] tL clwsf/x¿ cfjZos 5 eGg]
7fG5' . cfkm\gf] :jfoQ If]qdf Xof]Ndf]x¿n] g}
;'ljwf kfpg'k5{ eGg] dfGotf /x]sf] 5 .
dfa'xfª M gj/fhhL, of] tfD;flnªsf] ax;
tyf 5nkmn tkfO{+nfO{ s:tf] nflu/x]sf] 5 < ca
cfpg] lbgdf ;+3Lotfsf] ;'lglZrt s;/L x'G5 xf]nf <
gj/fh uf}td M klxnf] s'/f, ;+3 lgdf{0f ubf{
s]nfO{ cfwf/ agfof}+ eGg] k|d'v s'/f x'G5 . oxfF
5nkmndf ;xefuL ;a} k|:tfljt tfD;flnªleq
5f}+ . t/ s'g} klg hfltsf] s'g} klg 7fpFdf
ax'dt 5}g, ldl>t k|ltlglwTjsf] cj:yf 5 .

;+3Lo ax;
To;}n] Pp6f hfltsf] gfddf /fHo aGbf To;
e"uf]nleqsf c¿ hflt, cflbjf;L–hghfltnfO{
cem a9L lyrf]ldrf] / g/fd|f] cj:yf x'g;S5 .
:ofoQ If]qnfO{ h'g clwsf/x¿ pkef]u ug{
kfpg] eGg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5, Tof] cfly{s /
k|zf;lgs ¿kn] slt :jfefljs 5 < xfd|f]h:tf]
b]zn] y]Sg ;S5 < ;|f]t;fwgnfO{ x]bf{ lxdfno
If]qsf cflbjf;L ;d'bfon] p;sf] ;fgf] kl/lwleq
slt ;]gf /fVg ;S5 < p;sf] cfDbfgL slt
x'G5 < To:tf s'/fx¿sf] Vofn} gu/L cg'dfgsf]
e/df hfg] xf] eg] xfdL ;oeGbf a9L hflt–
hghflt ;d'bfo 5f}+, ;a}nfO{ /fHo ;Dej 5}g .
clwsf/x¿ a9L ePsf] eGbf klg of] vfnsf]
clwsf/x¿ lbg] xf] eg] cfh xfdL h'g ;lxi0f'tfdf
al;/x]sf 5f}+, ef]ln Tof] ;lxi0f'tfdf ;dfh
/lx/xg] cj:yf /xFb}g .
dfa'xfª M x\of]Ndf] :jfoQ If]qn] k|x/L kl/
rfng u¥of] eg] x\of]Ndf] / u}/Xof]Ndf] aLrdf n8fO“
x'G5 eGg] cy{ xf] <
gj/fh M n8fOFdfq xf]Og, ToxfF hftLo
¿kdf åGå l;h{gf x'G5 . Tof] c¿ b]zdf klg
b]lvPsf] 5 . o:tf] c;kmn cEof; ubf{ cfufdL
lbgdf k5'tfpg'eGbf clxNo} ;r]t x'g' /fd|f]
x'G5 . k|b]zsf] gfd tfD;flnª, td'jfg, g]jfM h]
/fv] klg s'g} 7"nf] s'/f] xf]Og . t/ hgtfsf
aLrdf tfD;flnª eg]sf] tfdfªn] /fHo ug]{ xf]
eGg] Dof;]h uO/x]sf] 5 .
dfa'xfª M a'4l5l/ªhL, cS;/ xfdL tfD;flnª
x'g] ls gx'g], gfd ldNof] ls ldn]g, If]q, l;dfgf
af/]df ax; ul/G5 . clwsf/sf] ljifodf vf;u/L
s'g ;+3Lo ;/sf/sf] < s'g k|fb]lzs ;/sf/sf] <
/ s'g :jfoQ If]q tyf :yfgLo ;/sf/sf] < of]
clwsf/ af“8kmf“8sf] af/]df s] nfU5 tkfO{+nfO{ <
a'4l5l/ª df]Qmfg M o;df b'O{j6f s'/f
x]g'{kg]{ x'G5 . Pp6f, clwsf/ t k|fKt x'g}k5{, Tof]
clwsf/nfO{ s'g} klg axfgfdf p;sf] ;fj{ef}ldstf
/ /fli6«o klxrfgnfO{ lgd"{n ug'{ eg]sf] km]l/ klg
d'n'sdf åGånfO{ ;dfKtlt/ gnfg] k|j[lQ g} xf] .
clwsf/ lg/k]If ¿kdf Pp6f ;d'bfosf] dfq} x'g]
eGg] s'/f] t km]l/ x'g ;Sb}g . s'g} klg ;d'bfon]
To:tf] d]/f]dfq} clwsf/ x'g] bfaL ub}{gg\ . clwsf/
cfkm}+df ;a}n] k|fKt ug{}kg]{ ljifo klg xf] . clxn]
afF8kmfF8 ul/Psf clwsf/x¿ cfkm}+df :jfutof]Uo
5 / g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts ljsf;sf] Oltxf;df
klxnf]rf]6L klxrfgnfO{ dggof]Uo eg]/ /flvof],
of] csf]{ :jfutof]Uo s'/f xf] . clxn] klxrfgnfO{

g} d'Vo cfwf/ agfOof] t eG5g\, t/ Tof] ¿kdf
dfq} xf], ;f/df ePsf] 5}g . t/ s]xL cu|ufdL
sfdx¿ ePsf 5g\ .
t/ xfd|f] k|d'v c;xdlt / /fHo
k'gM;+/rfgsf] k|lqmofdf xfdLn] b]v]sf sdhf]/Lx?
s] t eGbf /fHonfO{ k'gM;+/rgf ug{sf nflu
;+ljwfg;ef nufot ljif]z ?kdf k|fl1s / u}/k|fl1s
If]qaf6 hf] dfG5]x? a9L j:t'ut / efjgfTds
?kn] ;lqmo eO/fv]sf 5g\ . h;sf] cfjfhx?
:yflkt / ;'g'jfO x'G5 . o:tf] lqmofsnfkx?
ug]{ xfdLx?n] clxn]sf] e"d08nLo /fhgLltsf]
6«G] 8 stf uO/fv]sf] 5 eGg] s'/f a'em\ g ;s]gf}+ .
/fHo k'gM;+/rgfsf nflu a'e\mg}kg]{ / sdhf]/L
ug}{ gx'g] ljifo s] eGbf ha la|l6; -a]nfotL_
/fd|fHosf] cGTo eof], To;kZrft\sf] ;'?jftdf
a]nfot ;fd|fHoeGbf cufl8 g} /fHosf] ?kdf
:yflkt ePsf] d'n'sx?n] :jtGq ;+u|fd rnfP,
:jtGq cleofg rnfP . t/ :jtGqtf k|fKtkZrft\
tL :jtGq /fHox?n] km]l/ …cf]e/NoflkªÚ
u/]sf /fi6«x?sf] l;dfgfnfO{ lnP/, /fi6«x?sf]
cf]e/Noflkª P]ltxfl;s e"ld / If]qnfO{ lnP/
/fhgLts ljjfb, ts{, ljts{ / ;a} åGåx?
To;s]lGb|t ePsf] 5 .
To;sf] k|efj:j?k g]kfndf @)$^ kl5,
)$& sf] ;+ljwfg / slyt k|hftflGqs ;dfhsf]
lgdf{0fkl5 oxfFsf] /fhgLlts ts{–ljts{ / åGåx?
Joj:yfkg eof] elgPs} xf] lg, Tof] pknlAwaf6
v';LofnL dgfPs} xf] lg, t/ åGå ;dfKt ePsf]
5}g /}5 . ToxfF ce}m klg ljifox? w]/} leq n's]/
a;]sf cj:yfdf /}5 . tL s'/fx? dfcf]jfbLsf]
hgo'4dfkm{t cleJoQm eP / aflx/ NofP t/ clxn]
xfd|f] rf;f] s] xf] eg] hgo'4dfkm{t Tof] cleJoQm
x'Fbfv]l/ ;a} ju{sf] s'/fnfO{ lnP/ ePsf] lyPg .
of] j8f] dxTjk"0f{ ;a}n] cem ljz]if dfcfjfbLsf
;fyLx?n] j'em\g}kg]{ s'/f hgo'4bdfkm{t Tof]
cleJoQm x'Fbf juL{o d'lQmsf] vflt/dfq lyPg .
dfa'xfª M klxrfgsf] b[li6sf]0faf6 clxn]
h'g cfsf/ lbg vf]lhPsf] 5 To;df /x]sf ck'u
l;dfª\gdf /x]sf ;d:ofx? nufot ;a}nfO{ ldnfP/
nUg'kg]{ k|fljlws sfo{x? ce}+m af“sL xf]nf lg t <
a'4l5l/ª M lglZrt ?kn] afFsL 5 .
;+ljwfg;efsf] ;}4flGts p2]Zox? gePsf]n]
ubf{ s]xL sdL–sdhf]/Lx? eO/x]sf] 5 eGg]
s'/f cfO/x]sf] 5 . To;}n] klxnf l;4fGtx? to
ug'{k¥of] .
dfa'xfª M ljdnfhL, /fi6«df kxf8, t/fO{,

df= ljdnf ;'j]bL
/fHo
k'gM;+/rgf
;DaGwL
ljleGg ts{x?
cfO/x]sf
5g\ . Pp6f,
;+3Lotf g}
x'g'x'“b}g eGg]
oyfl:yltjfbL
tyf kZrufdL
sf]0faf6
ljifoj:t'x?
cfO/x]sf] 5 .
jf:tjdf o;n]
g]kfnL hgtfsf]
efjgfsf]
k|ltlglwTj ug{
;Sb}g .

;+3Lo g]kfn

##

tfD;flnª k|b]z

df= sdnf yfkf
j}1flgs,
cfwf/,
cfwf/lznf /
dfkb08
ljk/Lt
hftLotfsf]
cfwf/df
;+3Lotf af“8\g]
Pp6f cfwf/ s]
xf] < cfwf/sf]
klxrfglagf g}
xtf/df cfPsf]
5 . of] ;ldltn]
!$ j6f k|b]z
k]; ug'{ cufl8
g} Pdfcf]jfbLn]
3f]if0ff ub}{
lx“8\g'eof] lg .

#$

;+3Lo g]kfn

lxdfn, dfemL, bg'jf/, r]kfª ;a}nfO{ ;+ul7t
/ ldnfP/ Nofpg] tkfFO{+x?sf] sf“wdf lgs}
lhDd]jf/Lk"0f{ / hf]lvd sfd cfPsf] 5 . ;DalGwt
;d'bfox?;“u ;3g ?kdf 5nkmn ax; eP/ o:tf
cfsf/x? cfPsf] eP ;xh x'GYof] . of] a9L sfNklgs
ePsf]n] lj/f]w eof] eGg] cfz+sfx? cfPsf 5g\
lg < hftLo ljt08f dRrfpg o;f] ul/Psf] xf] eGg]
klg ;'lgG5 lg <
ljdnf ;'j]bL M /fHo k'gM;+/rgf ;DaGwL
ljleGg ts{x? cfO/x]sf 5g\ . Pp6f, ;+3Lotf
g} x'g'x'Fb}g eGg] oyfl:yltjfbL tyf kZrufdL
sf]0faf6 ljifoj:t'x? cfO/x]sf] 5 . jf:tjdf
o;n] g]kfnL hgtfsf] efjgfsf] k|ltlglwTj ug{
;Sb}g . / csf]{, cu|ufdL lgsf; eg]sf] g]kfnsf]
;+3Lo 9fFrf g} x'g;S5, ;+3fTds Joj:yf g}
x'g;S5 eGg] b[li6sf]0faf6 cfO/x]sf] 5 . To;sf]
;fy;fy} Pp6f hflt jf ;d'bfosf] clwsf/sf]
s'/f ubf{ To;leqsf c? hfltsf] clwsf/sf]
k|Zg s] x'G5 t < eGg] cfz+sfx? klg gcfPsf
xf]Ogg\ . xfdLn] o;nfO{ ;sf/fTds ?kn]
x]g{'k5{ . hgtfsf] dl:tisaf6 p7\g] Pp6f ;xh
k|Zgsf] ?kdf o;nfO{ lng ;S5f}+ .
;a}nfO{ ;a}sf] clwsf/ ;Daf]wg ug]{
;jfndf :jfoQ k|b]zx?leq /x]sf hft, hflt,
;d'bfox?dfq geO{ dlxnf, blntx?sf clwsf/
s;/L ;'lglZrt ug]{ eGg] ;jfn k|b]z, :jfoQ
If]q, ljz]if ;+/rfgleq ;xh ;dfwfg 5 eGg]
nfU5 vf;u/L ljz]if ;+/rgf Joj:yf ul/Psf]
5 .
dfa'xfª M ljz]if ;+/rgf cGtu{t klg r]kfª
Pp6} ;+/rgfdf kfl/Pg eGg] s'/f eof] lg <
ljdnf M ljif]z ;+/rgfleq :jfoQ If]q,
;+/lIft If]q / ljz]if If]q u/L tLgj6f If]q
/flvPsf] 5 . o; ;+/rgfn] s'g}klg If]qleq
/x]sf ju{, ;d'bfo hfltn] cfk"m clwsf/af6
jl~rt ul/Psf] cg'e"lt ug{ ;Sb}g eGg] nfU5 .
dfa'xfª M dfggLo sdnf yfkfhL, g]kfnsf]
gS;f s]nfp“bf lxdfn, kxf8, t/fO{, efj/ k|b]z
/ ljleGg hfthfltsf] ;ld>0f b]V5f}+ . g]kfnL
sfª\u|];sf] r'gfjL 3f]if0ffkqdf ;+3Lo OsfOsf
cfwf/x? hfltsf] :j?k, efiff, ;+:s[lt, k|fs[lts
;|f]t / ;fwgsf] pknJwtf, k|zf;lgs kx'“r /
;'udtf nufotnfO{ lnOPsf] 5, t/ lxdfn, kxf8,
t/fO{ dw];nfO{ lg/Gt/ ?kdf ;+3Lo OsfOdf
kfg]{ s'/f 3f]if0ffkqdf 5}g . k'gM;+/rgfsf] df]8]n
Pdfcf]jfbLn] ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjd} k|:t't u¥of],

Pdfn]n] cf}krfl/s geP klg k|:t't u¥of] t/
sfª\u|];n] t k|:t't ug{ ;s]g eGg] cf/f]k nflu/x]sf]
5 lg < ;+3Lotf oxf“x?sf] efjgfTds ?kdfq xf]
ls < gq ;+3Lo u0ftGq g]kfnsf] j:t'ut df]8]n
s] xf] <
sdnf yfkf M g]kfnL sfª\u|]; /fi6«sf]
k|hftflGqs lhDd]jf/ kf6L{ xf] . Tof] x}l;otn]
klg xtf/ / xr'jfsf] e/df lg0f{o ug'{ /
;f]Rg' k|hftflGqs kf6L{nfO{ ;'xfpg] s'/f
xf]Og . j}1flgs, cfwf/, cfwf/lznf / dfkb08
ljk/Lt hftLotfsf] cfwf/df ;+3Lotf afF8\g]
cfwf/ s] xf] < cfwf/sf] klxrfglagf g} xtf/
df cfPsf] 5 . of] ;ldltn] !$ j6f k|b]z k];
ug'{ cufl8 g} Pdfcf]jfbLn] 3f]if0ff ub}{ lxF8\g'eof]
lg .
ljleGg hfthfltsf] gfddf ;+3Lotf
3f]if0ff ul/of] . t/ Tof] cgfjZos s'/f xf] .
lsgeg] g]kfndf klxrfg ePsf ! ;o # hflt,
hfthfltx? 5g\, ;a}sf] gfddf k|b]z afF8\bf of]
b]zsf] efUo, zf}efUo s] x'G5 < xfdLn] Pp6f
hftLTjsf] cfwf/df b]znfO{ ljeflht ub}{ hfFbf
;LdfGts[t, nf]kf]Gd'v, lk5l8Psf ju{x?sf]
klxrfg s;/L u/fpg] < To;sf/0f, xfd|f] p2]Zo /
/fi6«sf] cfjZostf eg]sf] ;Dk"0f{ hft, hflt, wd{,
;+:s[ltx?sf ;dfg clwsf/, pgLx?sf] klxrfg
/ ;fj{ef}d;Qfdflysf] clwsf/nfO{ ;'lglZrt ub}{
Pp6f l;+uf] /fi6«sf] eljio hf]ufP/ lgdf{0f ug{'k5{
eGg] d"n dGotf xf] .
dfa'xfª M dfemLhL, /fi6«sf] /fli6«o Pstf
/ uf}/jtf xfl;n ug{] s'/fdf dfemL cflbjf;Lsf]
b[li6sf]0f s] 5 < :jfoQ If]qsf clwsf/ ;"rLdf
plNnlvt clwsf/x? x]bf{ dfemLsf] clwsf/
;'lglZrt x'G5 h:tf] 5 ls clwsf/ a9L x'G5 <
wgaxfb'/ dfemL M dfggLoHo"x?sf]
s'/fnfO{ cltslt sf]6\ofOlbFbf k]ml/ pxfFx?sf]
gfsdf lemFuf a:nf eGg] 8/ nfU5 . g]kfn dfemL
;+3 ;'?b]lv g} /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf hfltsf]
cfwf/df x'g'k5{ eGg] kIfdf xf] . tyflk d]/f] egfO
tfD;f;flnªleq dfemLx?sf] xs–clwsf/ s] x'g]
Tof] 5\ofª\u} x'g'k5{ eGg] d'Vo s'/f xf] .
dfemLsf] clwsf/ Pp6f k'u]g h:tf] nfU5 .
ToxfF k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] s'/f clnslt cw'/f] 5 .
;aeGbf cK7\of/f] s'/f ToxLFg]/ 5 . lah'nL pTkfbg
ubf{ ;/sf/n] kmfObf lnG5 xf]nf, t/ dfemLx?sf]
;j{:j hfG5 . lah'nL pTkfbg sfo{qmd ;~rfng
;'? x'Fbf slt 3/ demLsf] af; p7\5 < eGg]
;f]R5', aQL lah'nL aN5 eGg] ;f]lRbg .

;+3Lo ax;
lah'nLaf6 pTkfbgaf6 k|fKt x'g] k};fsf]
nfesf] afF8kmfF8 ubf{ %) k|ltzt ;/sf/nfO{,
h'g If]qdf lah'nL pTkfbg ePsf] 5, To; If]qsf]
ljsf;sf nflu #* k|ltzt / h'g lhNnfdf pTkGg
ePsf] xf], Tof] lhNnfnfO{ !@ k|ltzt dnfO{ k6Ss}
lrQ ga'e\mg] s'/f oxLF xf] . ;/sf/, lhNnf / Tof]
If]qsf] s]–s] xflg, gf]S;fgL / ;Togfz x'G5 /
afF8kmfF8 ug]{, t/ dfemL ;d'bfosf] s]xL afFsL /
xFb}g, tfklg lsg dfemLnfO{ k};f g/fVg] < To;}n]
:jfoQ If]qnfO{ Tolt clwsf/n] k'u]g, yf]/} eof] .
dfemL b]zel/sf] kfgLdf 3f6 rnfpg], df5f dfg]{,
8'Ëf rnfP/ hLjg lgjf{x ug]{ ;d'bfo xf] . kfgLdf
clwsf/ /fVg] k|d'v ;d'bfo xfdL g} xf}+ .
dfa'xfª M ca tkfO{nfO{ 8'·f rnfpg] xf]Og
ls k|fs[lts ;|f]taf6 k|fKt /f]oN6L k};f rnfpg]
clwsf/ lbg cf“l6of] t <
wgaxfb'/ M k};f rnfpg] eg]/ xfdL Tof]
lklrs]df lsg l55f}{ . ;j{:j xfdL dfemLsf] lyof]
eg] Toltdf lrQ a'emfO{ 5}g .
dfa'xfª M wgk|;fbhL, k|b]zsf] gfd,
If]qsf] ljifodf oxf“sf] ;xdlt, c;xdlt
x'g;S5 . t/ k|fb]lzs ;/sf/sf] clwsf/ / ;+3Lo
;/sf/sf] clwsf/sf] ;"rLx? cfO/x]sf] 5 . k|fb]lzs
;/sf/ rnfpgsf lglDt oL clwsf/x? k|ofKt
x'G5 < ls ;+3Lo ;/sf/nfO{ clwsf/ a9L eof],
o;df tkfO{+nfO{ s] nfU5 <
wgk|;fb tfdfª M k|:t't !$ k|b]zsf]
vfsfn] tLg vfnsf wf/0ff k}bf u¥of]] . h;df
v08Ls/0f ug]{, oyfl:yltjfbnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg]
/ OsfOx?sf] cfwf/x?nfO{ vf]:g] sfd u¥of]] .
o;/L tfD;flnªnfO{ vl08t ubf{ o;;Fu ;DalGwt

clwsf+z ;|f]tx? aflx/ k/]sf] 5 . clwsf/x?
a9L ;+3 jf s]Gb|df s]lGb|t eP/ cfPsf] 5 . ;+3
-s]Gb|_ /fHon] k|b]znfO{ h'g;s} clwsf/ lbg;S5
/ /fhgLlts cu|flwsf/ lglZrt ;do;Dd dfq
tf]Sg ;lsG5 eGg] s'/f cflbjf;L hghfltsf]
nflu 8/nfUbf] s'/f xf] .
ljhol;+x bg'jf/ M Psflt/ ljif]z
:jfoQ If]q lbg] csf]{lt/ @) j6f eg]/ clwsf/
tf]lslbg] of] cfk}mdf lj/f]wfefif 5 . ljif]z
:jfoQ If]q lbO;s]kl5 ToxfFsf] hflt ;d'bfon]
cfk}m tf]Sg] xf], /fHon] tf]Sg] xf]Og . Tof] If]qleq
cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ kfpg'k5{, gq ljz]if
:jfoQ If]qsf] s'g} cf}lrTo x'Gg .
dfa'xfª M p;f]eP ljif]z :jfoQ If]q eg]/
;+ljwfgdf vfnL 5f]8L lbg] <
ljho M xf]Og, Tof] Ifqleq s]–s] clwsf/
kfpg] / lg0f{o ug]{ eGg] ;DjGwdf ToxL If]qleqsf]
;d'bfon] kfpg] clwsf/ xf] .
dfa'xfª M r]kfªhL, ljif]z ;+/rgf cGtu{t
oxf“x?n] @) j6f clwsf/x? n]Vg'eof] . ;a}n] lbPsf]
;'emfjnfO{ dgg u/]/ n]lvPsf] xf] < o;/L n]v]/
lbg] xf]Og, of] t xfd|f] cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ xf],
eGg] s'/f cfof] lg <
uf]ljGb r]kfª M hghflt dxf;+3n] cflbjf;L
hghfltsf ;jfnx?nfO{ a'Fbfut ?kdf agfP/
d:of}bf ;ldltnfO{ a'emfPsf] 5 . ;+3Lo
tf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] gofF ;+ljwfgdf ;a}
cflbjf;L hghfltsf ;jfnx? ;dfj]z x'G5
ls x'Fb}g eGg] s'/f d"ne"t ljifo xf] . To;}n]
cflbjf;L hghfltsf w]/} ;jfnx? cfPsf
5g\ .
dfa'xfª M lsGhf]hL, cflbjf;L hghfltn]
ljif]z If]q cGtu{t cfTdlg0f{osf]
clwsf/ pkef]u ug{ kfpg'k5{
eGg] ;'emfj ;+ljwfg;efdf
k'u]sf] /}5, / :jfoQ If]qsf]
clwsf/df w]/} xb;Dd cfPsf]
5 elgG5 lg, tkfFO{nfO{ s:tf]
nfU5 <
lsGhf]
x\of]Ndf]
nfdf
M
o;df
w]/}
s'/fx? cfPsf] h:tf] nfUof] .
t/ oL ljifox?df xfd|f] ;dfhdf
;a}nfO{ hfgsf/L ePsf] 5}g
h:tf] nfUb}g . of] clGtd g} xf]
eGg] klg nfUb}g . To;nfO{ cem}

wgk|;fb tfdfª
k|:t't !$
k|b]zsf] vfsfn]
tLg vfnsf
wf/0ff k}bf
u¥of]] . h;df
v08Ls/0f ug]{,
oyfl:yltjfbnfO{
lg/Gt/tf lbg]
/ OsfOx?sf]
cfwf/x?nfO{
vf]:g] sfd
u¥of]] .

;+3Lo g]kfn

#%

tfD;flnª k|b]z

cflbjf;Lsf]
;dfj]zLs/0f
u}/cflbjf;Lsf]
alxis/0fsf]
d"Nodf x'g
;Sb}g .
cflbjf;Ln]
clwsf/ kfp“bf
u}/cflbjf;Ln]
clwsf/
gkfpg] d"Nodf
cflbjf;Lsf]
clwsf/ kfPsf]
eg]/ v'l;ofnL
dgfpg ;Sg]
l:ylt 5}g . t/
u}/cflbjf;Lsf]
dl:tisdf ePsf]
8/ x6fpg}k5{ .

#^

;+3Lo g]kfn

yk36 ug{ ;lsG5 xf]nf . clwsf/ s'g}
a9L / s'g} sd eof] xf]nf, t/ klg o;df
5nkmn ug]{, hfgsf/L lbg] s'/f cem} 5g\
h:tf] nfU5 .
gj/fh uf}td M clwsf/af6 s;}nfO{ klg
al~rt agfpg'x'Gg . klxnf] s'/f, ^ ;o ! hgf
:ki6 eP/ hgtfnfO{ cfZj:t kfg{ ;Sg'k¥of] ls
oL Joj:yf ul/Psf clwsf/x?sf] cEof; ubf{
tkfO{+x?sf] ;DaGw /fd|f] x'G5, ;dfhdf ;lxi0f'tf
/lx/xG5 . bf];|f] s'/f, clwsf/ kfpgsf nflu
k'/fgf] ;+/rgfaf6 gofF ;+/rgfdf hfFb}5f}+ .
clwsf/nfO{ …l8ef]n';gÚ ub}{ hfFbf ;dfhsf]
;+/rgf elTsG5 ls elTsFb}g Vofn ug}{k5{ .
tfD;flnªleqsf tfdfª ;d'bfon] clwsf/sf] k|of]u
ug]{ t/ csf]{ /fHodf k/]sf] tfdfªn] clwsf/
k|of]u ug]{ ls gug]{ < tfD;flnª If]qleq /
x]sf c? hfltn] slt clwsf/ kfpg] < :jfoQ
If]qn] klg k|x/L agfpg kfpg] ePkl5 Tof] If]qn]
Jooef/nfO{ y]Ug ;S5 < ;+/rgf Tolts} aGb}g
/ xr'jfsf] e/df agfpg] klg xf]Og eGg] h:tf
ljifonfO{ ;Daf]wg ug}{k5{ .
dfa'xfª M a'4l5l/ªhL, sltko ;Gbe{df
c:ki6 jf ga'em]/ / sltko ;Gbe{df gsf/fTds
?kn] jf of] ;+/rgf c:jLsf/ ug]{ dg;fon] cfz+sf
5g]{ sfd JofKt ePsf] 5 . csf]{, of] ;+/rgf
cfjZostfeGbf a9L ePsf]n] y]Ug ;ls“b}g eGg] 5
lg, tkfO{+sf] j:t'ut ljZn]if0f s] 5 <
a'4l5l/ª M /fHonfO{ k'gM;+/rgf ug]{ gfddf
k'/fg} vfnsf] agfpg vf]lhPsf] cjZo xf]Og . k'/
fg} vfnsf] agfpg vf]Hg' Tof] cu|ufdL ;f]+r klg

ePg . t/ k|foMh;f] u}/cflbjf;L ;d'bfosf
;fyLx?df 8/ 5 . Tof] 8/nfO{ gLltdf Nofpg'k5{,
lsgeg] cflbjf;Lsf] ;dfj]zLs/0f u}/cflbjf;Lsf]
alxis/0fsf] d"Nodf x'g ;Sb}g . cflbjf;Ln]
clwsf/ kfpFbf u}/cflbjf;Ln] clwsf/ gkfpg]
d"Nodf cflbjf;Lsf] clwsf/ kfPsf] eg]/ vl';ofnL
dgfpg ;Sg] l:ylt 5}g t/ u}/cflbjf;Lsf]
dl:tisdf ePsf] 8/ x6fpg'k5{ .
lxhf] uf]vf{n] zf;g lnPkl5 /fi6« lgdf{0fsf]
qmddf h'g k|x/L / cfdL{x? agfP, Tof] k"0f{?kn]
Ps lsl;dsf] lxGb' bz{gaf6 agfOPsf] lyof] /
slyt j0ff{>d, ;gftg wd{ lgefpgnfO{ agfOPsf]
lyof] . Tof] a]nf xfdL cflbjf;L ;d'bfodfly
k/]sf] kL8fsf] abnf lnG5 ls eGg] xf]nf, Tof]
x'g]jfnf klg 5}g . lsgls xfdL cflbjf;L klg
cfw'lgs @! cf}+ ztfAbLsf ;Eo …OlG8lhlgc;
lkk'N;\Ú xf}+ . xfdL of] a|xdf08sf] klxnf] …g];gÚ
xf}+ / clxn]sf] Psbd ;Eo …OlG8lhlgc; lkk'N;\Ú
xf}+ . xfdLnfO{ lxhf] ul/Psf] h:tf] sbflk ub}g{ f}+ .
dfgjzf:qdf slxn]sfxL cfpg] …l8a]6Ú 5
lg …Snfg :6]6Ú …6«fOan :6]6Ú of] ;a asjf; xf]
h:tf] nfU5 . ;d'bfosf] cfk\mgf] ;fj{ef}d clwsf/
h'g tfD;flnª jf cGo s'g} If]qleq dfemL, bg'jf/
nufotsf] ;jfn 5, ca ;a} /fi6« xf], ;a}sf]
/fli6«o klxrfg 5 . dfemL, bg'jf/ nufot s'g}
klg ;d'bfonfO{ s'g} klg d"Nodf tfD;flnªleq
bf];|f]df /fVg ;lsFb}g . tfD;flnªleq hlt
tfdfª Pp6f ;fj{ef}d /fi6 xf], dfemL klg Tolt
g} clwsf/ /fVg] /fi6« xf] . To;df s'g}klg
xfntdf tndfly ug{ ;Sb}gf} . clwsf/x?sf]
;jfndf s]xL clwsf/x? afF8kmfF8 u/]sf] 5, Tof]
;sf/fTds s'/f xf] . t/ xfd|f] k|d'v rf;f] jf
ljjfbsf] ljifo of] !$ k|fGtn] xfdL tfdfªx?nfO{
vl08t ul/lbof] .
sdnf yfkf M klxnf] s'/f, b]z ;+3Lotfdf
uO;s]sf] 5, s;}n] oyfl:yltdf /xg] sNkgf
ug{ ;Sb}g . bf];|f] s'/f, oyfl:yltdf /xg] s;}sf]
sNkgfdf klg 5}g . t];|f] s'/f, hfthfltnfO{
ax'dt, cNkdtdf ljeflht u/]/ n8fOF
u/fpg] s;}n] b':k|oTg u5{ eg] Tof] b'ef{Uok"0f{
cj:yf x'G5 . To;sf/0f, ;+3Lotfdf hfbfF /fli6«o
v08tfnfO{ hf]ufP/ hfg] ls /fli6«o cv08tfnfO{
ljv08g u/]/ hfg] eGg] k|d'v k|Zg] xf] . of]
b]zsf] h'g ;+/rgf 5 / ;Dk"0f{ hfthfltx?n]
cfk\mgf] clwsf/x?sf] ;'lglZrt u/]/ ;+3Lotfdf
hfg] af6f]nfO{ ca s;}n] /f]Sg ;Sb}g .

;+3Lo ax;

ldlynf–ef]hk'/f–
sf]r–dw]; k|b]z
;+ljwfg;efsf] /fHo k'gM;+/rgf tyf /fHozlQm afF8kmfF8 ;ldltn] g]kfnsf] efjL ;+3Lo /fHoJoj:yfsf !$ k|b]z tyf @# :jfoQ
If]qsf OsfOx? cufl8 ;fl/;s]sf] 5 . oL k|b]z / If]qx?af/] hgdfg;df Jofks rf;f], 5nkmn, ?lr, c?lr, lj/f]w, ;dy{gsf
kIfx? ;fj{hlgs ePsf 5g\ . cfd g]kfnL hgdfg;df gofF ljifoj:t' ePsf] 5 . k|:tfljt !$ k|b]zdWo] ldlynf–ef]hk'/f–sf]r–
dw]; Ps xf] . o; k|b]zdf !@ lhNnf cGtu{tsf ( ;o $* uflj;sf e"–efu ldnfOPsf] 5 . Psflt/ dw];jfbL bnx¿ …;du|
dw]; Ps :jfoQ k|b]zÚsf] k|d'v dfu;lxt ;+ljwfg;efdf efu lng'sf ;fy} Tof] dfudf cl8u b]lvG5g\ eg] csf]{lt/ yf? nufot
t/fO{sf ;a} cflbjf;L hghfltx?sf] t/fO{–dw];df Ps k|b]z xf]Og, ax'k|b]z x'g'k5{ eGg] dfu oyfjt 5 . ;ldltn] t/fO{–dw];df
b'O{j6f k|b]zx¿ k:tfj u/]sf] 5 . t;y{ log} ljifoj:t'nfO{ s]lGb|t u/]/ o;df k|:tfljt ldlynf–ef]hk'/f–sf]r–dw]; k|b]zdfly ax;
ug{ vf]lhPsf] 5 . o; ax;df ;+ljwfg;efsf ;ef;bx¿ k|e' ;fx -Pdfcf]jfbL_, nfnafa' kl08t -Pdfn]_, cfTdf/fd ;fx -dw];L
hgclwsf/ kmf]/d_, lbg]z lqkf7L -sfg'gljb_ / Zofd d08n -cWoIf, ugufO{ ;dfh_ sf ljrf/x¿sf] ;Dkflbt c+z M ;+

;+3Lo g]kfn

#&

ldlynf–ef]hk'/f–sf]r–dw]; k|b]z

df= cfTdf/fd ;fx
;+3Lotf dw];
cfGbf]ngsf]
qmddf p7]sf]
k|d'v d'2f
xf] . dw];
cfGbf]ngnfO{
;Daf]wg ug]{
qmddf
cGtl/d
;+ljwfgdf
;dfj]z
kfPsf] xf] .
dw];Lx?sf]
klxrfg :yflkt
u/fpgnfO{
Pp6f :jfoQ
dw]; Ps k|b]z
cfjZos 5 .

#*

;+3Lo g]kfn

afns[i0f dfa'xfª M cfTdf/fdhL, dw];L
hgclwsf/ kmf]/dn] Jofks ?kdf Ps dw];sf] d'2f
p7fp“b} cfPsf] 5 . ldlynf–ef]hk'/f–sf]r–dw];
k|b]zdf s] wf/0ff 5 < tkfO{x?nfO{ g} lrQ a'emfpg
gfd olt nfdf] agfOPsf] rrf{ 5 lg <
cfTdf/fd ;fx M o;df kmf]/dn] lj/f]w
hgfO;s]sf] 5 . ;+3Lotf dw]; cfGbf]ngsf]
qmddf p7]sf] k|d'v d'2f xf] . dw]; cfGbf]ngnfO{
;Daf]wg ug]{ qmddf cGtl/d ;+ljwfgdf ;dfj]z
kfPsf] xf] . dw];Lx?sf] klxrfg :yflkt
u/fpgnfO{ Pp6f :jfoQ dw]; Ps k|b]z cfjZos
5 . :jfoQ dw]; Ps k|b]z g} dw];L hgtfsf]
rfxgf xf] .
dfa'xfªM dw]; eg]sf] s] xf] < o;n] :jfoQ
dw]; k|b]zsf] cfwf/ lb“b}g <
cfTdf/fd M emfkfb]lv lnP/ s~rgk'/
;Ddsf] Onfsf h'g r'/] k|b]zsf] k]+mbb]lv tnsf]
e"–efunfO{ dw]; a'e\mg ;lsG5 . To;df yf?, /
fhj+zL nufot t/fO{sf cflbjf;Lx?sf] ;xdltdf
Ps k|b]z agfPsf] v08df xfdLnfO{ dha't
agfpF5 .
dfa'xfªM Zofds'df/hL, ;a} kIfsf
;'emfjsf] cfwf/df s]nfP/ 5nkmnaf6 g} gfd
k|:tfj ePsf] h:tf] nfUb}g < k"jL{ t/fO{sf] cflbjf;L
hghfltdWo] ugufO{ ;d'bfosf] gftfn] tkfO{sf]
ljrf/ s] 5 lg <
Zofds'df/ d08n M :jfoQ k|b]z Ps
dw];df c;xdlt 5, lsgls /fHosf] gfd dw];
Ps k|b]z h'g 7fpFdf elgPsf] 5, Tof] cNk;+Vos
cflbjf;Lx?sf] hg;+Vof a;f]af; 7fpF xf] . Tof]
7fpFsf] k|b]zsf] gfd s] /fVg] eGg] s'/f To;
7fpFsf] cflbjf;L;Fu 5nkmn u/]/dfq gfdfª\sg
ubf{ /fd|f] x'GYof] .
5nkmn eP/ gcfPsf]n] xfdLn] sf]r
k|b]zsf] gfd cufl8 a9fO/x]sf] cj:yf xf] . emfkf,
df]/ª, ;'g;/L / ;Ktsf]zL;Dd sf]r k|b]zsf]
gfdn] ;xdlt ePsf] 5 .
dfa'xfª M nfnjxfb'/ kl08thL, ;+ljwfg;ef
;ldltaf6 kfl/t eP/ cfPsf] s'/f ;a}n] lj/f]wdfq}
u5|{g\ s] lj/f]wsf] nfludfq} cfPsf] xf] <
nfnafa' kl08t M ;ldltn] k|f/lDes ?kdf
k|:t't u/]sf] k'gM;+/rgfsf] vfsfdfly 5nkmn
rln/x]s} 5 . o;sf] ;dy{g / lj/f]w klg
rln/x]sf] 5 . cGtl/d ;+ljwfgdf k'gM;+/rgf
cfof]u agfP/ /fHosf] ;+/rgf s:tf] agfpg] eGg]
s'/f Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . /fhgLlts / k|fljlws

;dfwfg u/]/ lgisif{df k'Ug'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M /fHo k'gM;+/rgf tyf /fHozlQm
af“8kmf“8 ;ldltdf o;af/] Jofks 5nkmn eof] . !$
j6f k|fGt cfPkl5 km]l/ cfof]usf] s'/f cfof] . h'g
klxNo} cfpg'kg]{ xf]Og / <
nfnafa' kl08t M ;+ljwfgn] g} Joj:yf
u/]s} s] 5 eGbf /fHo k'gM;+/rgf cfof]u agfP/
To;dfkm{t /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf ug]{ Pp6f kf6f] 5
eg] csf]{ ;+ljwfg;efleq /fHo k'gM;+/rgf tyf
/fHo afF8kmfF8 ;ldlt 5 . ;+ljwfg;ef /fHo
k'gM;+/rgf tyf /fHozlQm afF8kmfF8 ;ldltåf/f
NofOPsf] 5 . /fHo k'gM;+/rgf cfof]u u7g
t eof], t/ To;n] k"0f{tf kfPg . cfof]u /
;ldlt ;dfgfGt/ xf]Og, k|fljlws ?kdf ljjflbt
ljifonfO{ ldnfpg lgisif{ vf]lhPsf] xf] .
dfa'xfªM k|e' ;fxhL, of] k|:tfljt !$ j6f
k|fGtnfO{ Pdfcf]jfbLn] dfq lhDd]jf/L lng'kg]{ xf] <
ldlynf–ef]hk'/f–sf]r–dw];sf] s'g nIosf] cfwf/
df k|:tfljt ul/of] <
k|e' ;fx M /fHo k'gM;+/rgf lsg ug]{ eGg]
k|Zg g} k|d'v xf] . s'g} ;+/rgf of lrhsf]
lgdf{0fsf] nIo t x'G5 . ;+3Lotf lsg cfjZos
k¥of] lxhf]sf /fHo ;+/rgf 5Fb} lyof] . csf]{,
;+/rgf agfpg clwsf+z hgtfn] cfjZos 7fGg'sf]
dtna g} cfh;Dd PsfTds / s]Gb|Ls[t Ps efiff,
Ps b]z, Ps wd{sf] eof], h;n] ubf{ b]z ;d[4
aGg ;s]g . ;dfhsf lje]b cGTo ePgg\ . lje]b
c;dfgtf x6fP/ zfGt, ;d[4 agfpg'k/]sf]n] g}
/fHosf] gofF ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ug'{k/]sf] xf] .
d'n'snfO{ zfGt / ;d[4 agfpg] p2]Zo;lxt
;+3Lotfsf] ax; ul//x]sf 5f}+ . /fHodf ePsf]
lje]bnfO{ x6fpFbf lje]bsf] ljifoj:t'nfO{
klxrfg ug{ h?/L 5 . To;}n] d'VotM juL{o,
hftLo -/fli6«o_, If]qLo, n}+lus vfnsf lje]b
5g\ . /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf ubf{ ;a} vfnsf lje]b
cGTo ug]{u/L x'g'k5{ . tyflk dlxnf, ls;fg,
dhb'/sf gfddf /fHo lgdf{0f ug{ t ;lsGg .
d'VotM /fli6«otfsf] d'Vo ;f/ cfly{s ;dfgtf /
;femf cfly{s hLjg xf] . pTkfbg / pkef]usf
ljlw ;du| cfly{s hLjgdf g} k5{ . hftLo
-/fli6«o_ / efiff ;+:s[ltsf] cfwf/df /fHo agfOof]
eg] ;fk]lIft ?kn] g]kfnnfO{ ;d[l4 agfpg d2t
u5{ . ldlynf–ef]hk'/f–sf]r–dw];sf] gfdfª\sgn]
PsfTds /fHosf] lje]bdf nfdf] ;do;Dd /x]sf]
cj:yfnfO{ ;Djf]wg ug{sf lglDt k|:tfj ul/Psf]
xf] eGg] nfU5 .

;+3Lo ax;
dfa'xfª M lbg]zhL, oxf“ ljleGg ;xdlt
/ c;xdltsf /fo / dtx? cfPsf 5g\ . o;}df
clNemP/ t ePg, ;xdltsf ;Defljt ;+/rgfx?
s] 5g\ <
lbg]z lqkf7L M ;+3Los/0fsf] k|lqmof,
k|b]zx?sf] gS;fª\sg, ljefhg of] Pp6f hl6n
k|lqmofdfq xf]Og, ax'cfoflds k|lqmof xf] . w]/}
ljifo / tTjx?nfO{ ljrf/ k'¥ofpg'kg]{ x'G5 .
o;nfO{ l;k{m /fhgLlts ?kn] dfq l5gf]kmfgf]
ubf{ Tof] Gofof]lrt / ljjfb/lxt gx'g ;S5 .
To;}n] cGtl/d ;+ljwfgn] klg /fHo k'gM;+/rgf
cfof]u aGg] ;Gbe{df :ki6 ?kdf Joj:yf u/]sf]
5, oBlk l9nf] eO;Sof] . ljleGg If]qsf lj1 /
k|fljlwsx?sf] ;Nnfx / ;'\emfjaf6 clGtd 6'ª\uf]
gnufP;Dd Tof] pko'Qm 9fFrf x'G5 h:tf] dnfO{
nfUb}g . /fHo k'gM;+/rgf cfof]udfk{mt 6'ª\uf]
nufpg] g} ;xdltsf] laGb' x'g'k5{ .
cfTdf/fd ;fx M /fHosf] gfdaf/] w}/}
ljjfb gu/f}+ . ;a}sf] cf–cfk\mgf] klxrfg
:yflkt x'g]u/L ;f]Rg ;lsG5 . ;DalGwt e"–efudf
a:g] dfG5]x? h'g lje]bdf kfl/Psf lyP
To;sf] cGTo s;/L x'G5 eGg] d'Vo
s'/f xf] . h'g /fHosf] l;dfª\sg, gfdfª\sg,
/fHozlQm afF8kmfF8 nufot k|fljlws ljifo
cGtl/d ;+ljwfgdf :ki6 ?kdf n]lvPsf] 5 .
k'gM;+/rgf ;ldltnfO{ OGk'6 ug]{u/L /fHo
k'gM;+/rgf cfof]usf] k|ltj]bg lng'kYof]{ . Tof]
ePg . clxn] Pp6f sfg'gL k|lqmof k'¥ofpg] dfq
xf], lsgls /fHo k'gM;+/rgfsf] k|lbj]bg ;fj{hlgs
eO;s]kl5 of] k|lqmof g} l9nf] eO;Sof] .
/fHo k'gM;+/rgf ;ldltn] ljif]z1x?nfO{
af]nfP/ 5nkmn u/fPs} xf] . To;}n] dw];L
hgclwsf/ kmf]/d hf] dw];–dw];L ;d'bfosf]
k|ltlglwTj ug]{ bn ePsf]n] lrGtfsf] ljifo s]
xf] eg] clxn] cfP/ cfof]unfO{ b]vfP/ h]7 !$
ut] ;+ljwfg hf/L gug]{ jf /fHo k'gM;+/rgfsf]
k|ltj]bg gcfPsf]n] ;+3LotfljxLg ;+ljwfg hf/L
ug]{ vfnsf] if8oGqsf] uGw cfpFb}5, of] xfdL s'g}
klg xfntdf dfGb}gf} .
k|e' ;fx M o; ljifodf d'VotM b'O6f kIf
5 . klxnf], ;+ljwfg;ef ;ldltx?n] d:of}bf tof/
ubf{ s] k|fljlwsx?;Fu k/fdz{ gu/]sf] xf] / <
;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmofnfO{ a'em krfP/ jf ga'e]m/
oL ofat s'/fx? cfPsf 5g\ eGg] nfU5 . cfd
hg;d'bfob]lv lnP/ lj1, ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;Fusf]
cGt/lqmofkZrft\ ;fk]lIft lgisif{;Dd k'u]sf]

xf] . To;}n] 3/ agfO;s]kl5 OlGhlgo/ Nofpg]
ls OlGhlgo/ klxnf NofP/ 3/ agfpg] eGg] d]/f]
k|Zg xf] . csf]{, /fHo k'gM;+/rgf cfof]usf] s'/f
d]/f] ljrf/df ;+3Lotf lj/f]wLx? hf] lxhf]b]lv
lyrf]ldrf] ub}{ cfP / g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ PsfTds
;+/rgfdf hah{:tL /fVb} cfP, pgLx?n] u/]sf]
if8oGq xf] eGg] nfU5 .
nfnafa' kl08t M clxn] 7"nf /fhgLlts
bnx? Pdfcf]jfbL, sfª\u|];, Pdfn] nufot
aLrdf cfof]usf] k"0f{tf;lxt Ps dlxgfsf] ;do
lbP/ sfd ug]{ Ps lsl;dn] ;xdlt eO;s]sf]
l:ylt 5 . /fHo k'gM;+/rgf cfof]u if8oGqsf]
uGw 7fGg] xf] eg] cfk"mb]lv g} if8oGq ;'? eof]
eg]/ dfGg'kg]{ x'G5 . To;}n] of] if8\oGq xf]Og,
a? /fHosf] k'gM;+/rgf / k|:tfljt k|b]zx?dfly
ljleGg vfnsf l6sfl6Kk0fLx? pl7/x]sf], sltko
7fpFdf ljb|f]x / c;Gt'li6sf :j/x? klg cfPsf]
cj:yfdf oL ;a}nfO{ ;dfwfg ug]{ pkfo xf] .
/fhgLlts / k|fljlws b'j} ?kdf ldnfP/ ;Dk"0f{
g]kfnLsf] lxtdf, g]kfnL hgtfsf] rfxgfnfO{
k"/f ug{ / ;xof]uL e"ldsfsf] lglDt cfof]usf]
cfjZostf 5 .
dfa'xfª M pxf“x?sf] cfz+sf lxhf] lgsfn]/
sf6\gkg]{ xltof/ yGSofP/ /flvof], ca sfd kmQ]
eO;s]kl5 lgsfn]/ sf6\g vf]H5, of] s] sf/0f xf] <
;ldltsf] k|ltj]bgdf cfPsf] gS;fª\sg jf k|:tfjsf]
d"Nofª\sg ug{ cfof]u u7g ug{ vf]lhPsf] xf] <
nfnafa' kl08t M sfd kmQ] ePsf]
5}g . of] k|f/lDes k|ltj]bg g} xf] . o;nfO{ /fHo
k'gM;+/rgf cfof]usf] ;'emfjn] klg k"0f{tf k|bfg
ug{ ;xof]u ug]{5 . k|:tfjnfO{ ;xof]u ug{ jf
k"/ssf] lglDt cfof]u u7gsf] cfjZostf xf] .
dfa'xfª M ZofdhL, tkfFO{n] xfdL;“u
k/fdz{ ePsf] 5}g eGg] s'/f ug{'eof], t/ cfof]u
lgdf{0f u/]/ k|fljlws, j}rfl/s, ;}4flGts /
;fdflhs ?kdf 5'6]sf s'/fx?nfO{ Jofks 5nkmn
u/fP/ cfof]un] k"/f ug]{ eGg] ds;b /}5 . oBlk
cfof]usf] sfo{ljlw / If]qflwsf/ ce}m ag]sf]
5}g . cfof]u ag]/ tkfFO{+x?;“u k/fdz{ unf{ /
Jofks 5nkmnkZrft\ cfsf/ b]nf eGg] cfzf ug{
;lsg] ;Defjgf 5 <
Zofd d08n M Tof] ;Defjgf d
b]lVbgF . of] cfof]usf] s'/f ;'?d} NofPsf] eP
x'GYof] . Tolta]nf g} ljleGg ;d'bfo, ljz]if1x?nfO{
/fv]/ k/fdz{ / ;Nnfx lnPsf] eP x'GYof] . t/
clxn] ;do 3ls{;s]kl5 cfof]usf] s'/f NofpFbf

df= nfnafa' kl08t
/fHo k'gM;+/rgf
cfof]u if8oGq
xf]Og, a?
/fHosf]
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/ k|:tfljt
k|b]zx?dfly
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pl7/x]sf],
sltko 7fp“df
ljb|f]x /
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cj:yfdf oL
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ug]{ pkfo xf] .

;+3Lo g]kfn

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ldlynf–ef]hk'/f–sf]r–dw]; k|b]z

df= k|e' ;fx
3/ agfO;s]kl5
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Nofpg] ls
OlGhlgo/
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sfd xf] ls eGg] nfUb5 . d'n'sdf ;+3LotfnfO{
;+:yfut gug]{ jf gNofpg]k|lt cfz+sf eO/fv]sf]
5 . ca k]ml/ if8oGq eO/x]sf] 5 ls jf jfx'gafb
k'gM xfjL x'g] xf] ls h:tf ljifoj:t'df ufpF–ufpF,
lrofk;n, rf]s cflbdf 5nkmn eO/xG5 .
dfa'xfª M k|;+u abnf}+, /fHozlQm
af“8kmF“8sf] ljifodf lxhf]sf] /fHoJoj:yf / efjL
/fHoJoj:yf aLrdf 7\ofSs} nfOg nfP/ xfdLn]
a'e\mg'kg]{ s'/f s] x'g;S5 <
lbg]z lqkf7L M /fHozlQmsf] afF8kmfF8
;DaGwL ;+3Lotfsf] df]8]ndf s] 5 eg] :yfgLo
txdf clwsf/nfO{ k|Tofe"t ug]{ / ;+3Lotfsf]
cfwf/e"t cfwf/ eg]s} ;Ifd k|fGtx? t/
k|efjsf/L s]Gb| xf] . ;/sf/sf] tLg txsf] of]
df]8]n g]kfnsf] nflu 7Ls 5 . lsgeg] alnof]
/ ;+j}wflgs Uof/]G6L ePsf] :yfgLo ;/sf/ x'g'
cfjZos 5 . ;+3Lo, k|fGtLo ;/sf/ hlt;'s}
zlQmzfnL eP klg To;n] :yfgLo ;/sf/nfO{
k|lt:yfkg ug{ kfpg' x'Fb}g .
:yfgLo
;/sf/
eGgfn]
clxn]sf]
gu/kflnsf, uflj;h:t} xf] . t/ To;sf] vfsf
tof/ ug{ afFsL g} 5, To;sf nflu Pp6f
lj1x?sf] sld;g x'g'kb{5 . h;n] sltj6f :
yfgLo ;/sf/ agfpg ;lsG5, sltj6f agfpFbf
cfly{s ?kn] ;Ifd x'g;S5, To;sf nflu sld;g
x'gk' b{5 . s]Gb|Lo, k|fGtLo / :yfgLo ;/sf/
sf] clwsf/x?sf] ;"rL ;+ljwfgdf :ki6 ?kdf
n]lvg'kb{5 .
dfa'xfª M k|e' ;fxhL, :yfgLo ;/sf/sf] kl/
sNkgf s;/L / s] ug'{ePsf] 5 <
k|e' ;fx M d"t{ ?kdf Pp6f cjwf/0ff t
;ldltn] ;f/]sf] 5, of] cfwf/e"t ?kdf 7Ls
5 . t/ :yfgLo lgsfo s:tf] x'G5 < eGg] lh1f;f
cfd ;d'bfodf 5 . :yfgLo ;/sf/ jf ;+oGq x'g]
;'lglZrt 5 . :yfgLo ;/sf/sf] gfds/0f ubf{
c~rn, lhNnf, gu/kflnsf, Onfsf, uflj; x'G5
ls x'Fb}g, of] rf;f]sf] ljifo 5 . d]/f] ljrf/df oL
;a} lxhf]sf ;f]+r / gLltcg'?k ag]sf lyP To;}n]
o;nfO{ k]mg{ h?/L 5 .
dfa'xfª M clxn] k|:tfj ul/Psf] :yfgLo
;/sf/af/] lxhf]sf] ;f]+r / ;+/rgfeGbf tflTjs
leGgtf s] 5 <
k|e' ;fx M d]/f] ljrf/df :yfgLo txdf
g} ljleGg vfnsf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s e]befj
sfod 5 . To;nfO{ cGTo ug]{ vfnsf] ;+/rgf

;+3Lo g]kfn

x'g'k5{ . dw];df ;a} z'4 dw];L dfG5]x? 5}gg\,
z'4 du/x? du/ftdf 5}gg\, z'4 ls/ftLx? ls/
ftdf 5}gg\ . o;sf] cy{ ldl>t jf l5;ld;sf]
cj:yf 5 . To;}n] ;a}sf] clwsf/x? ;'/lIft
ug]{ k|sf/sf] ;+/rgfx? Vff]Hg'k5{ . / ;+/rgfn]
g} cjwf/0ff tof/ kfg{ ;S5 . To;sf nflu
dfkb08x? agfpg h?/L 5 .
dfa'xfª M cfTdf/fdhL, dw];L hgclwsf/
kmf]/d nufot dw];jfbL bnx?sf] cfu|x dw]; Ps
:jfoQ k|b]zsf] 5 . To;sf] /fhwfgL lrtjg,
hgsk'/, gjnk/f;L, g]kfnuGh cflb sxf“ x'g]
ljifodf dtdtfGt/ klg b]lvG5 . To;}u/L To;
cGtu{t ljleGg c? ;+/rgfx? klg x'g] eP 7f];
?kdf s] x'g'k5{ / ;a} t/fO{jf;LnfO{ s;/L ;xhtf
/ k|zf;lgs ;'udtfdf cfZj:t kfg'{x'G5 <
cfTdf/fd ;fx M d'Vo r'gf}tL eg]sf] :yfgLo
;/sf/nfO{ ;an agfpg], :yfgLo hgtfsf] kx'Frdf
;/sf/nfO{ :yflkt ug]{ h:tf ofjt s'/fx?nfO{
;xh agfpg ;+3Lotfsf] kl/sNkgf ul/Psf]
xf] . To;}n] :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ ;an agfpg
nfluPsf] xf] . clxn]sf] c~rn, lhNnf, uflj;
g/fVg], lsgls of] PsfTdsjfbL vfnsf] 5 eg]/
/fHo k'gM;+/rgf ;ldltdf klg 5nkmn ePsf]
xf] . xfdLn] k"j{ emfkfb]lv klZrd s~rgk'/;Ddsf]
t/fO{ e"–efunfO{ Ps k|b]z elgPsf] xf] . To;leq
pk/fHox? sf]lrnf, ef]hk'/f cflb agfpg ;lsG5 .
To;f]ePdf k|zf;lgs ?kn] ;'ljwf ;a} hgtfn]
k|fKt ug{ ;S5g\ eGg] nfU5 .
ef}uf]lns ;'udtfsf] kmfObf / cj;/nfO{
x]/]/ Ps dw]; Ps k|b]zsf] ;+3Lo OsfO aGg
;S5 . oBlk clwsf/ k|of]u ug]{, pkef]u ug]{
;Gbe{df :yfgLo ;/sf/nfO{ dha't agfOG5 .
t/ ef]lnsf] ?kdf k"jf{w/ ;xh agfP/ Ps dw];
Ps k|b]zdf cfdgful/sx?nfO{ ultzLn agfpg
;xh ul/G5 . of] g} lje]b cGTosf] k|dv
' pkfo x'g
;S5 . lgjf{lrt k|ltlglwx? /fhgLlts k|lqmodf
efu lng /fhwfgL cfpg' t k5{ g} .
dfa'xfª M nfnaxfb'/ kl08thL, yf?x?n]
p7fPsf] Pp6f ts{ 5 lg, g]kfndf dw]; 5}g, dw];L
;d'bfo h:t} ugufO{, ;Gyfn 5 . ljleGg ts{ /
ljts{x? cfO/x]sf 5g\ . lje]b cflbjf;L hghflt,
dw];L, blnt nufot 7"nf] ;d'bfox?nfO{ k/]sf]
5 . t/fO{–dw]; If]qdf b'O{j6f k|b]zx? k|:tfljt
eP/ cfPsf 5g\ . tyflk ljjfb/lxt 5}g . tkfO{+sf]
ljrf/df s;/L cfp“bf Jofjxfl/s x'G5 <
nfnaxfb'/ kl08t M klxnf] s'/f, ;+3Lotf

;+3Lo ax;
lsg eGbfv]l/ ;+3Lotf Pp6f ;fwgdfq} xf] .
;a} s'/fsf] cr's cf}ifwL ;+3Lotfdfq xf] eg]/
a'e\mg' x'Fb}g eGg] dfGotf /fV5' . csf]{, dw];L,
hghflt, blnt, s0ff{nLjf;L ;a}n] ;+3Lotfsf]
d'2f p7fpg'sf] sf/0f s]Gb|Ls[t zf;g Joj:yfn]
xfdLdfly Gofo u/]g eGg] xf] . olb Ps dw]; Ps
k|b]z k"j{ emfkfb]lv klZrd s~rgk'/;Dd Pp6f
:j?k agfpg] xf] eg] k]ml/ :j?k s]Gb|Lotfs}
x'G5 . To;}n] Ps dw]; Ps k|b]z xf]Og, Ps
dw];df ax'k|b]z x'g'k5{ . t/fO{–dw];df ;Defljt
ax'k|b]zx? s;}n] kfFr s;}n] tLg eg]sf] l:ylt
klg 5 . t/ d clxn]sf] k|:tfljt b'O{ k|b]zsf]
kIfdf 5' . o;sf] l;dfgf af/]df 5nkmn x'g
;S5 . gfds/0fdf klg ;a}nfO{ ;d]6\g]u/L ;femf
gfd /fVg} g;lsg] xf]Og .
dfa'xfª M kl08thL, cfTdf/fdhLsf] egfOsf]
t's s] 5 eg] ef}uf]lns ;'udtfsf] cfwf/df dw];df
Pp6f k|b]z agfpg ;lsG5 / agfpg'k5{ eGg]
dfGotf / b[li6sf]0f cfof] . t/ lxhf]b]lv hftLo,
eflifs, ;f+:s[lts / If]qut ljljwtfnfO{ PsfTds
s]Gb|Ls[t zf;g Joj:yfn] a]jf:tf u¥of] / ef}uf]lns
;'udtf eP klg ef]ln aGg] Ps dw]; :jfoQ k|b]zn]
Tof] hftLo, ;fdflhs–;f+:s[lts ljljwtfnfO{
gh/cGbfh ug{ ;Sg] ;Defjgf ePsf]n] dw];df
ax'k|b]zsf] kIfdf tkfO{ x'g'ePsf] xf] <
nfnaxfb'/ kl08t M Tof] Pp6f ts{
xf] . csf]{, clxn] g]kfndf d]/f] dftxtdf ;a}
/xg'k5{ eGg] dfGotf af]Sg] / csf]{sf] cl:tTjnfO{
uf}g ?kdf dfq dfGg] vfnsf] Pp6f k|jlQ
b]lvPsf] 5 . d rfxG5', ToxfFsf yf?, ugufO{,
lj/ft, ldlynf nufot ;a}n] cfk\mgf] :jfldTj /
eljio b]Vg kfpg'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M ZofdhL, lj/f]wsf nflu
lj/f]weGbf klg ;a}sf] efjgfnfO{ ;d]6\g]u/L
s;/L ;xhLs/0f ug{ ;lsG5 xf]nf < c;xdlt;lxt
;+ljwfg hf/L ug]{ jf g]tfx? aflem/xg], hgtfsf]
eljio rf}k6 x'g] s] o;/L g} ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg
xf]nf <
Zofd d08n M ;xhLs/0fsf] nflu pkfo x'Fb}
gePsf] xf]Og . k|:tfljt !$ k|b]zaf/] bnx?sf]
cf–cfk\mg} ljrf/x? 5g\ . k"jL{ t/fO{sf cflbjf;L
hghfltx?sf] s] egfO 5 eg] h'g ldlynf,
ef]hk'/f, sf]r / dw]; eg]/ Pp6} agfOPsf] 5,
To;f] ug'{x'Gg . emfkf, df]/ª, ;'g;/LnfO{ Pp6f
k|b]z agfOg'k5{ . gfds/0fsf] ;Gbe{df ToxfFsf
d"n cflbjf;L hghfltx?;Fu 5nkmn u/]/

/fVg'k5{ . lsgls /fhj+zL, ugufO{ nufotnfO{
kxf8L If]q, klZrd t/fO{ g]kfnuGhdf kfpg
;lsGg . pgLx?sf] cfk\mg} /}yfg] k|j[lQ x'G5 .
Tof] P]ltxfl;stf / yftynf]sf] cfwf/df Wofg
k'¥ofpg'k5{ . To; If]qdf /fHosf] gfds/0f /fVbf
/ l;dfª\sg ldnfpFbf ToxfFsf d"n cflbjf;LnfO{
Vofn u/L cl3 a9]df ;d:of ;dfwfg x'G5 eGg]
dnfO{ nfU5 .
dfa'xfª M lbg]zhL, ;+/rgf, OsfO,
gfdfª\sgdf dfq} JofKt 5nkmn ePsf] kfOG5 . of]
/fHozlQm af“8kmf“8nfO{ s;/L 5nkmndf Nofpg]
xf]nf <
lbg]z lqkf7L M ;+3Lotf eg]sf] zlQm
afF8kmfF8sf] Joj:yfkg xf] . t/ xfd|f] ax; /
5nkmn ;+3Lo OsfOdf a9L eof] . To;df
klg gfdfª\sg / l;dfª\sgdf emg\ a9L eof],
h:tf] nfU5 . o;/L g} dtdtfGt/ /lx/x\of] eg]
;+ljwfg aGg] l:ylt Go"g x'G5 . To;}n] k|fljlws
cfof]u jf ;+oGq aGg'k5{ To;}sf] k|ltj]bgsf]
cfwf/df /fhgLltn] xn ub}{ hfg ;lhnf] klg
x'G5 . ;xhLs/0f ug]{ ;+oGq klg cfjZos 5 .
dfa'xfª M k|e' ;fxhL, zlQmsf] af“8kmF“8df
lsg xfdL sd 5nkmn ul//x]sf 5f}+ < hgtfsf]
kx'“rdf k'¥ofpg'kg]{ clwsf/sf] ljifodf sd 5nkmn,
;Ldf, cfsf/ / gfddf a9L 5nkmn ePsf] b]Vbf
/fHo k'gM;+/rgf / /fHozlQm af“8kmf“8sf] P]h]G8fdf
cln ljifofGt/ ePsf] h:tf] nfUb}g <
k|e' ;fx M ;dli6ut ?kdf x]bf{ t
/fHosf] ;+/rgfdf a9L / clwsf/sf] afF8kmfF8df
sd b]lvG5 . t/ xfdLnfO{ nfu]sf] s] xf] eg]
PsfTdssf] xn ;+3fTdsaf6 x'G5 / s]Gb|Ls[tsf]
xn zlQm ljlgof]hgaf6 x'G5 . To;}n] clxn] xfdL
o:tf] k'n agfpg vf]Hb}5f}+, h'g k'naf6 ;a} tg{
;s'g\ / elTsP/ s;} vf]nfdf v:g gk/f];\ .
;+/rgf j}1flgs x'g'k¥of] / ToxL cg'?k clwsf/
sf] afF8kmfF8 klg x'g'k5{ . ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ubf{
7"nf] t/ ToxfF clwsf/ lbg'kg]{ hlt lbOPg eg]
To;n] klg k|efjsf/L sfo{ ug{ ;Sb}g .
dfa'xfª M k|:tfljt ;+3Lo, k|fb]lzs, :yfgLo,
:jfoQ If]qsf clwsf/sf] ;"rLx? Jofks ?kdf
5nkmn eP/ cfPsf x'g\ ls cGo ;+3Lo d'n'sx?sf]
gSsn u/L g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df 7Ls} xf]nf eg]/
/fVg'ePsf] xf] <
k|e' ;fx M ;fk]lIft ?kdf of] ;ldltn]
5nkmnaf6} NofPsf] xf] eGg] nfU5 . tyflk of]
ax;df g} 5 . of] cfk}mdf clGtd xf]Og . hlt

Zofd d08n
k|:tfljt
!$ k|b]zaf/]
bnx?sf] cf–
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5g\ . h'g
ldlynf,
ef]hk'/f, sf]r
/ dw]; eg]/
Pp6} agfOPsf]
5, oxf“sf
d"n cflbjf;L
ghfltx?;“u
5nkmn u/]/
/fVg'k5{ .

;+3Lo g]kfn

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ldlynf–ef]hk'/f–sf]r–dw]; k|b]z

lbg]z lqkf7L
gS;fª\sg
cfk}mdf
;+j]bgzLn d'2f
klg xf] lsgls
sf] s'g k|b]zdf
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rf;f] /
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ljifo xf] . ;+3
/ k|b]zn] s]–s]
clwsf/ pkef]u
/ cEof; ug]{
/ :yfgLo
;/sf/n] s]–s]
clwsf/sf]
cEof; ug]{
s'/fdf xfd|f]
kmf]s; x'g
;s]g .

$@

5nkmn / ax; ub}{ ul/G5, Tolt g} kl/dfh{gsf]
dfu ub{5 . xfdLn] ;'?b]lv g} eg]sf] ;+/rgf
g]kfns} df}lnstfdf aGg'k5{, To;}df 6]s/] clwsf/sf]
afF8kmfF8 x'g'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M ;'emfPsf] k|ltj]bgx?nfO{ cfwf/
agfP/ j:t'ut, Jofjxfl/s / dte]bljxLg ;+ljwfg
n]Vg] lbgdf clwsf+z k|lta]bgx?df uf]nd6f]n ?kdf
w]/} s'/fx? cfPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgdf x'g] oxL
xf] eg]/ ls6]/ cfPsf] b]lv“b}g . To;}n] Ps t ;do
x]bf{ n]Vg g;lsg] b]lvG5 eg] csf]{ oxf“x?sf] ljrf/,
k|lta]bg x]bf{ klg ;+ljwfg ljjfb/lxt n]lvG5 eGg]
b]lv“b}g . To;}n] of] s] 5nkmn / ax;sf] nfludfq
cfPsf] xf] <
k|e' ;fx M klxnf] t lxhf]sf] /fHo
;+/rgfsf] …x\ofªcf]e/Ú oyfjt 5 . lxhf]sf] ;f]r+
/ ljrf/sf] sf/0f gofF s'/f :jLsfg{ ;d:of k/]sf]
5 . Tof] oyfl:yltjfbL ;f]+r k]mg{ h?/L 5 .
csf]{, lxhf]sf] zf;g Joj:yf, zlQmsf] afF8kmfF8,
;+/rgf 7Ls lyof] eGg] k|ltufdL ljrf/ / k|j[lQ
klg afws 5 . To;}n] of] 5nkmn / 3if{0fn]
;To ljrf/ hGdfpF5 eGg] nfU5, lsgls ;To t
Pp6} x'G5 .
dfa'xfª M cfTdf/fdhL, /fhgLlts?kn]
cfPsf gof“ zlQmx? / k'/fgf zlQmx? aLrdf
Ps lsl;dsf] dte]b 5 g}, t/ klg k'/fgf]
/fHo;QfnfO{ bf]ifdfq} lbP/ d'Qm tyf plDsg
vf]h]/ t ePg . hgtfn] vf]h]sf] lg:sg] af6f] s]
eg]/ vf]Hbf clnslt låljwf cfO/fv]sf] 5 . To;}n]
k|fb]lzs ;/sf/n] ;+3Lo ;/sf/n] eGbf pkef]u
ug{ kfpg] km/s clwsf/x? s] x'g\ <
cfTdf/fd ;fx M /fHozlQmdf sd 5nkmn
x'g'sf] dtna w]/} s'/fx? ldn]sf 5g\ . /fHo
;+/rgfsf] gfd, l;dfgfdf h:tf] dte]b / cGt/lj/f]w
5}g . tyflk ;+ljwfgdf nfesf] afF8kmfF8;DaGwL
:ki6 pNn]v gePsf] clwsf/ /fHo ;/sf/n]
kfpg'k5{ . s/, k|fs[lts ;|f]t;fwg cflbsf
clwsf/ /fHon] kfpg'k5{ .
dfa'xfª M PsfTds /fHo ;+/rgfsf] If]qaf6
lgjf{lrt eP/ ag]sf] ;+ljwfg;ef g} ;d:ofo'Qm
lyof] ls s] xf] < of] PsfTds zf;g Joj:yfsf]
j}wflgstfaf6 l;sf/ ePs} xf] t <
lbg]z lqkf7L M dnfO{ nfU5, gS;fª\sgsf]
s'/f /fHo k'gM;+/rgf ;ldltn] ldnfPsf] eP x'GYof]
/ To;af6 ;du| ljZn]if0f cfpFYof] . To;f] gx'Fbf
;+ljwfg;efn] a9L u[xsfo{ ug'{kg]{ eof] . gS;fª\
sg cfk}mdf ;+j]bgzLn d'2f klg xf] . lsgls

;+3Lo g]kfn

sf] s'g k|b]zdf /xg] cfk}mdf rf;f] / ;/f]sf/sf]
ljifo xf] . ;+3Lo / k|b]zn] s]–s] clwsf/ pkef]u
/ cEof; ug]{ / :yfgLo ;/sf/n] s]–s] clwsf/
sf] cEof; ug]{ s'/fdf xfd|f] kmf]s; x'g ;s]g .
To;}n] of] ;du| k|lqmof Psf+sL b]lvof] . k|b]z
-k|fGt_ nfO{ s;/L zlQmzfnL / ;+3 -s]Gb|_ nfO{
s;/L k|efjsf/L agfpg] eGg] s'/f :jzf;g /
;fe]mbf/Lsf cfwf/df rNg'k5{ . cjlzi6 clwsf/,
s/, k|fs[lts ;|f]t;fwg nufot cfk}mdf a[xt
ljifo x'g\ . oL d'2fx?df ;+ljwfg;ef / aflx/ h'g
dfqfdf 5nkmn x'g'kYof]{, Tof] x'g ;s]g . clwsf/
sf] ;"rL x]l/of] eg] ef]ln ;d:of Nofpg ;Sg]
b]lvG5, lsgls ToxfF ljjflbt tl/sfn] clwsf/
x? ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLodf Joj:yf ul/Psf
5g\ . To;df ldlxg 9+un] sfd ePsf] b]lvFb}g .
dfa'xfª M oxf“x¿sf] ljrf/df h]7 !$ ut]
;+ljwfg cfp“5 jf cfp“b}g of cfPg eg] s] x'G5 <
Zofd d08n M h]7 !$ ut] cfpF5 eGg]df d
cfzfjfbL 5' . cfPg eg] 5nkmnsf] k|lqmofaf6
cfpF5, gcfO{ x'Fb}g .
nfnafa' kl08t M h]7 !$ ut] ;+ljwfg
cfpg}k5{ . tyflk ;do ;fFu'l/b} uPsf] 5 . t/
;dfKt eO;s]sf] 5}g . ;a}sf] k|of; d'tflas
!$ ut] ;+ljwfg Nofpgtk{m nflu/x]sf 5f}+ .
d'n's ;+ljwfgljxLg /xg ;Sb}g . ;+ljwfg;efn]
g} ;+ljwfg agfpg] ePsf]n] yf]/} ;dosf] lglDt
ljsNk klg ;f]Rg'k5{ .
k|e' ;fx M olb g]kfnL hgtf / b]zk|lt
dfof 5 eg] h]7 !$ ;Dd ;+ljwfg lbg'k5{ . gofF
;+ljwfg / /fHo k'gM;+/rgf;lxtsf] kl/jt{g hf]
lxhf]b]lv pTkL8g / zf]if0fdf kb}{ cfPsf hgtfsf
nflu rflxPsf] xf] . hgtfn] lhTb} cfPsf 5g\
/ lhTg'k5{ . To;}n] h]7 !$ df klg hgtfsf]
ljho x'G5 .
cfTdf/fd ;fx M o;df b'O6f s'/f 5 .
Pp6f, ;+ljwfg lbg] ls ;+ljwfg agfpg] . olb
;+ljwfg lbg] xf] eg] tLg bnsf] ;+oGq ag]sf]
5, To;n] lbg ;S5 . To;/L lbg] xf] eg]
s'g} cf}lrTo 5}g . t/ ;+ljwfg agfpg] xf] eg]
k|lqmofut 9+un] agfpg'k5{ . h;df hgtfsf]
k"0f{ ;xeflutf x'g'k5{ . ;+ljwfgsf] d:of}bf lnP/
hgtf;Fu k'Ug'k5{ . To;kl5 k|ToIf / ck|ToIf
lnPsf] /fo ljrf/nfO{ ;d]6]/ agfpg'k5{ . of]
;f/f k|lqmofsf] nflu ;do 5}g, of] ;Dej 5}g .

ljrf/

h]7 !$ cl3 / kl5 M
;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] cj:yf
afns[i0f dfa'xfª
;+ljwfgk|lt cfz dl/;s]sf g]kfnLsf] dg j}zfvL d'gf kmqm]em}+ knfpnf / ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fdf ;3fpnf .
…gqÚ gof“ g]kfn eg]sf] t dfwj g]kfn kf] /}5 eg]/ hgtf Psflt/ lx“8] eg] ufx|f] knf{ .

;+

ljwfg ;dodf g} hf/L x'g'kb{5,
h]7 !$ leqdfÙ h;/L eP klg
aGg'kb{5 eGg] cfu|x, cg'/f]w jf va/
bf/L ;“u;“u} p7\g] ;jfn …gq s]Ú <
eGg] k|Zg lghjfkm 5 . …gq lr;} kfgLn]
g'xfpF5' a"9LÚ eGg] g]kfnL sxfjtsf] rl/
qfy{ ynfk/]sf jof]j[4 g]tf s[i0fk|;fb
e§/fO{n] …@)$& ;fnsf] ;+ljwfg g}Ú
elg;s] . sfd/]8åo emngfy / k|r08,
;'zLnbf, pk]Gb| cflb klg ynfkg{
nfu]sf x'g\ t < ljrf/0fLo ag]sf]
5 . cGoyf hgtfsf] ;+ljwfg
n]Vg] / hf/L ug]{ dfu{k|z:t
pgLx?n] ug}{ kb{5 . bh{gf}F b}lgsL
kqklqsfdf cfPsf ljZn]if0f /
xhf/f}F JolQmx?n] rf]s–rf]sdf JoQm
u/]sf ljrf/x?s} eËfnf]df Pp6f leGg
lhls/ /fVg vf]lhPsf] 5 ls h]7
!$ df ;+ljwfg hf/L x'g g;s] s'g
pkfo ckgfP/ ;+ljwfg agfpg] < eGg]
;Gbe{df .
cGtl/d ;+ljwfgsf] efu &
wf/f ^$ df ;+ljwfg;efsf] cjlw
…;+ljwfg;efn] k|:tfj kfl/t u/L cufj}
lj36g u/]sf]df afx]s==== klxnf] a}7s
a;]sf] ldltn] @ jif{sf] x'g]5Ú elgPsf]
5, …t/ ;+s6sfnLg l:yltsf] 3f]if0ff
ePsf] sf/0fn] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug]{
sfd k"/f x'g g;s]df ;+ljwfg;efn]
k|:tfj kfl/t u/L yk ^ dlxgf;Dd a9fpg
;Sg]5 .Ú To;/L g} wf/f *@ df
…;+ljwfg;efåf/f kfl/t ;+ljwfgcg'?k
Joj:yflksf–;+;bsf]
lgjf{rg
geP;Ddsf nflu Joj:yflksf–;+;bsf]

sfdsf/afxL
;+ljwfgdf
Joj:yf
ePadf]lhd x'g]5Ú elgPsf] 5 eg] wf/f *#
df, …o; efudf -efu &_ cGoq h'g;'s}
s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;+ljwfg;ef
sfod /x]sf] cjlwe/ ;f] ;efn]
Joj:yflksf–;+;bsf] sfd;d]t ug]{5====.Ú
leGg–leGg ljifo, cj:yf / ;+s6 6fg{
ul/Psf pk/f]Qm Joj:yfn] cfhsf]
;+s6nfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{g . lsgls
of] ;d:of g]tfx?sf] ;QflnK;f, cf–
cfkm\gf Ph]G8f / Joj:yfksLo cIfdtfaf6
pTkGg ;d:of x'g\ .
;+j}wflgs
Joj:yf k|efljt x'g ;+ljwfg;efsf]
lj36g ePsf] 5}g / ug}{kg]{ plrt
sf/0f ljBdfg 5}g . ;+s6sfnLg
l:yltsf sf/0f ;+ljwfg n]vgsf] sfd
k"/f gePsf] xf]Og . ;+ljwfg;ef
åf/f ;+ljwfg kfl/t eO{ tbcg'?k
Joj:yflksf–;+;bsf] lgjf{rg cjlw;Dd
;+ljwfg;efn] Joj:yflksf ;+;bsf]
sfd ug'{k/]sf] xf]Og . cem ;a}eGbf
dxTjk"0f{ s'/f] eg]sf] t wf/f *# sf]
egfO / efu & sf cGo wf/fx?n]
h];'s} eg] tfklg ;+ljwfg;ef sfod
/x]sf] cjlwe/ ;+ljwfg;efn] ;+;bsf]
sfd ug]{5 eg]sf] 5 . h'g cjlw wf/f
^$ cg'?k h]7 !$ ut] ;dfKt x'bF 5
} .
ljutdf emG8} ^ dlxgfeGbf clws
;+ljwfg;efsf] sfo{sIf cj?4 eof]
-;+ljwfg;ef cj?4_, t}klg ;efWoIfn]
cToGt ;/n efiffdf a8f] cfTdljZjf;sf
;fy eg] ls ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsfo{x?
;'rf? 5g\, ;+ljwfg ;dod} hf/L
x'g]5 . ;+ljwfg;efsf] 9f]sf tfNrf nfP/

;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] sfo{ ePsf] lyof]
t < ;efWoIfn] eg], …eO/x]5Ú . a'em\gn
] fO{
yfxf lyof], pgL g]tfx?n] afem]/ km6fPsf]
;+ljwfg;efsf] 6fnf]x?df /km\km' eb}{
lyP . pgn] yk s] s'/f eGgyfn] eg]
;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf sltko lqmofsnfk
sf6\g'kb{5 . b'O{ jif{sf] cjlwdf ^ ;o
! ;ef;bnfO{ r/fP/ g]kfnL hgtfsf]
;+ljwfg n]Vg, n]vfpg bfloTj kfPsf
;efWoIfn] ;+ljwfg n]vfpg] sfd u/]g5g\ .
;DejtM pgL ;+ljwfgsf] d:of}bf leqL
?kdf n]vfpFb}5g\ ls s'gL ;dod}
;+ljwfg hf/L x'g]df pgL ljZj:t 5g\,
s]jn g]tf gldn]sf] dfq pgsf] lrGtf
5 . pk]lIft / cNk;+Vos blnt ;d'bfoaf6
ef/tLo ;+ljwfg;efsf cWoIf ag]sf
afaf;fx]j 8f= cDa]8s/n] ef/tsf]
P]ltxfl;s ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug{ u/]sf]
of]ubfg ;f/f ef/tLox?dfem :d/0fLo
/x\of] . hghflt ;dfhaf6 P]ltxfl;s
;+ljwfg;efsf] cWoIf ag]sf ;efWoIf
;'jf;
g]Dafª
pQm
dxTjk"0f{
cj;/af6 Ro't eP . of] pgsf] /fhgLlts
tyf Jofj;flos sfo{s'zntfljxLgtfsf]
;"rs klg xf] . @ jif{sf] pgsf] sfo{sfn
;dLIff ug{'kb{5 . lgZro g} bnsf]
e"ldsf ;+;bLo /fhgLltdf /xG5, t/
;+ljwfg;efdf ;efs} e"ldsf lyof] . t/
lj8Dagf, ;efWoIfn] ;+;bLo tj/af6
sfo{;Dkfbg u/] of] pgsf] uDeL/ uNtL
lyof] .
bnx?aLr hGdFb} ;xdlt lyPg, 5}g
/ x'bF g} . s'/f] s]dfq xf] eg] g]kfnsf]
;+ljwfg s] x'g] < eGg] ljifodf hgtfsf]
;+3Lo g]kfn

$#

h] cfb]z bnx?n] k|fKt u/], tL–tL
ljifox?df pgLx?sf k|ltlglw ^ ;o !
;ef;bx?aLr Jofks dGygkl5 ljrf/
sf] ljlgdo u/L ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug'{ /
cf–cfkm\gf ljrf/ JoQm ug]{, ts{ljts{,
n]gb]gkZrft x'g] ;xdlt / ;Demf}tfaf6
;+ljwfg aGg' ck]lIft dfu{ lyof] . To;sf
nflu pko'Qm sfo{ljlw;lxt ;do /
lqmofsnfk th'{df ug'{ / To;nfO{
s8fOsf ;fy sfof{Gjog ug'–{ u/fpg'kg]{
lyof] . t/ lj8Dagf, ;/sf/ s;sf]
x'g] eGg] dfdnfn] ;+ljwfg agfpg] sfd
SjfKk} lgNof] .
Pdfcf]jfbLsf] hg;]gf ;+ljwfg
lgdf{0fk"j{ g} 7]ufg gnufO{ ;+ljwfg
lgdf{0f ug{ gx'g] 7DofOdf g]sf /
Pdfn]sf g]tfx? /x] . Pdfcf]jfbL
To;/L ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f jf hf/L ug]{ kIfdf
5}g . cfhsf] åGå g} …hg;]gf;lxtsf]
Pdfcf]jfbL;“u ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] 6]a'ndf
a:g] jf ;]gfljxLg PdfcfjfbL;“uÚ .
/fHosf] e/0fkf]if0f / /]vb]vsf] ;]gf
Pdfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjdf g} < To;f] eP
/fHosf] ;]gfsf] g]t[Tj Pdfcf]jfbLsf]
geO{ u}/dfcf]jfbLsf] x'g'kb{5 eGg]
cfu|xsf ;fy s6\jfn k|s/0f /
To;kl5sf] ;Dk"0f{ /fhgLlts 36gf jf
kl/36gf 36\g yfn] . ;+ljwfg;efsf]
Ph]G8f af]Sg] Pdfcf]jfbLnfO{ ToxL
e8\vfnf]df kf/]/ ;dfKt kfg{ ;lsG5 eGg]
cjwf/0ffdf s]xL ;"qwf/ lg:s] . g]kfnsf]
;+ljwfg;ef Pdfcf]jfbLnfO{ ;dfKt
kfg{ jf p;n] ;dfKt kfg{] geO{ k"/}
g]kfnsf] /fHo k'gM;+/rgf ;+3Los/0fsf]
dfWodaf6 abNg] ;femf c7f]6 b]vfpg]
bfFth:tf] dfq aGof] . of] ;Gbe{df
ljut !) jif{ cToGt ljifd kl/l:yltdf
hah{:t n8]sf b'j} ;]gfnfO{ …xfdL
s;sf ;]gf xf}F <Ú eGg] j}rfl/s tyf
;f+:s[lts k|Zgsf] JofVof;lxtsf] pQ/
lbg clxn] g} ;Dej 5}g . Tof] ;+ljwfg
kfl/t eO{ ;]gf;DaGwL ;+j}wflgs
Joj:yf, To;sf] sfo{d"ns kl/efiff,
JofVof / lgb]{lzsf ag]kl5 dfq ;Dej
x'g] s'/f] xf] . oxfF g]tfx? g} nf]stflGqs
eO;s]sf 5}gg\, lxhf]sf] …zfxL;]gfÚ
/ …hg;]gfÚ nf]stflGqs agfpg] of
aGg] eGg] s'/f] g} jflxoft xf] . of]
låljwfdf a? lxhf]sf] b/af/ jl/kl/sf

$$

;+3Lo g]kfn

sf]6/Lx?n] zfxL;]gfnfO{ cfkm\gf] s'lT;t
dg;fodf nufpg] b'M;fx; ul//x]5g\
eg] cfk/flws tyf cGo ljleGg rfxfgf
/ efjgf af]s]sfn] hg;]gfnfO{ k|efljt
ug{ vf]lh/x]5g\ . cyf{t\ b'j} ;]gfsf]
k'gMlgdf{0fb]lv ;dfof]hg ;+ljwfg
kfl/t x'gk"j{ Jofjxfl/s ?kdf cK7\of/f]dfq
geO{ ;}4flGts ?kd} ug{ g;lsg] s'/f
x'g\ .
cfd g]kfnLsf] ckgTj xfl;n
x'g] ;+ljwfg s:tf] x'G5 < s;/L
agfpg] < lrGtg–dgg t stf xf]
stf, Tof] t ;+ljwfg;ef ;lrjfnosf
;lrj, ;x;lrj, pk;lrj, ;'Aaf,
vl/bf/b]lv 6fOlki6;Ddsf] sfd eof]
eg]/ :jod\ ;ef;bx?n] elg/x]sf]
cj:yfdf ;+ljwfg xfd|f] geO{ c?sf]
aGb}5, ;ef;b xfdL ;f5L km8\
s] lsgf/fdfq xf}F eGg] ;ef;bsf]
;+Vof klg sd 5}g . ;+ljwfg;efdf
/fhgLlts 5"t / c5"tsf] cj:yf, bn
/ bnx? aLrsf] e]befjb]lv, hfthflt
aLrsf], If]q, wd{ ;Dk|bfo;Ddsf] cj:yf
clxn] klg prgLrsf] …xfO/fls{snÚ
w/ftndf oyfjt 5 . of] c;dfgtf
ef]ln aGg] ;+ljwfg :jLsf/ / c:jLsf/sf]
dfks aGg] ;Defjgf ;ef;bx?sf]
cleJolQmx?af6} a'em\g ;lsG5 .
;a} s'/f]df Psflt/ 9Ë gk'u]sf] /
gk'¥ofPsf] b]lvG5 eg] csf{]lt/ lglxt
:jfy{n] l3;fl//x]sf] cj:yf 5 . /
;a}sf] lbg Ps};fy l;l4g] ;+s]t !$
h]7 @)^& n] ul//x]5 . h]7 !$ kl5
gof“ lbg ;'? ug{ lhDd]jf/ gful/s
;dfh, k|fl1s ;d'bfo, sd{rf/L, ;]gf,
k|x/L ;a}n] ljgf st{Josf] st{Jo kfng
ug]{ geO{ cfd;r]t gful/ssf] efiff
gaf]Ng] xf] eg] …cfFvfn] cg]s b]Vg'kg]{
/ sfgn] cg]s ;'Gg'kg]{Ú cj:yfdf
/fhgLlts g]tfx?n] gk'¥ofpnf eGg]
s] Uof/]G6L 5 . of] ljifd kl/l:yltdf
cfdhgtf;“u Ifdfofrgf u/L ^ ;o
! ;ef;bx?n] hgtfsf] ljZjf; k'gM
l;h{gf ug]{ a]nfdf d'7e]8 ;'? ePsf]
5 . hgtfsf k|ltlglwx? ;+ljwfg
agfpg geO{ ;Qf g5f]8\g] / 5f]8fpg]
/0fd}bfgdf 5g\ .
lgZro g} ;+ljwfg;efsf] ljsNk
c? s'g} lgsfo x'g ;Sb}g . t/ h]7

!$ kl5 ;Dk"0f{ ^ ;o ! ;ef;b ;fdfGo
gful/s;/x ;+ljwfgtM x'g]5g\ . ca
lrQa'em\bf] sf/0fx?;lxt hgtf;“u
ofrgf u/]/ afFsL 5–cf7 dlxgf
yk ;dosf] dfu u/]df cfdhgtfn]
d~h'/ u/L Jofks lj/f]w u/]gg\ eg]
;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] afFsL sfd l;Wofpg
;do yKg'kb{5 . ;do ;fWo xf]Og,
;fWo t hgtfsf] ;+ljwfg k|flKt xf] .
To;sf/0f cfdhgtfaf6 dfGotf k|fKt ug{
cGtl/d ;+ljwfgsf] efjgf k|lts"n
gx'g]u/L yk ;dosf] JofVof u/L
;+ljwfg;efn] g} Joj:yf ug'{kb{5 .
To;sf] nflu Pp6} pkfo eg]sf] h]7 !$
b]lv yk ;do …gf] si6 PS;\6]G;gÚdfq
xf] . yk ;dosf nflu ;ef;bn] tan
lng x'bF g} , sfd u/]sf] lbgsf] eQfafx]s .
sfdrnfp ;/sf/sf] u7g x'gk' b{5 .
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knf{ .

hangmu2003@yahoo.com

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