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Chapter 7

Identities
a
Law of Sines: AAS, SAS, ASA

c
sinA = sinB = sinC

Law of Cosines: SSA, SSS, (AAA cannot be solved)

a = b + c 2(ab)cosA

b = a + c 2(ac)cosB
c = a + b 2(ab)cosC
1
Finding the area of a triangle:
2

K=1
2

1 =
(bc)sinA
2

(ab)sinC =
(ac)sinB
sin = 1cos

tan
=
1
1
sinX = cscX ------> cscX = sinX
cos
=
1
1
2
cosX = secX ------> secX = cosX
sinX/2 =
1
1
tanX = cotX ------ > cotX = tanX

Reciprocal Identities:
Cofunction Identities:

Pythagorean Identities:

1cosX
1+cos
2
2
11 cosX
2

sinX + cosX = 1 csc cot = 1


1 + tanX = secX sec tan = 1

1 + cotX = cscX

sinX = 1 cosX

or

tanX = secX 1
cotX = cscX 1
2 Odd/Even
2 2
Identities:

2

= = cosX
sin[
X]
angle
cosX Half
=1
sinX 90
cos[
X] = sinX
Identities:

tan[
X] = cotX
cot[
X] = tanX

sin(X) = sinX

cos(X) = cosX

csc(X) = cscX
sin
tanX =
cos
X

sec(X) = secX
cos
cotX =
sin
X

Double Agent Identities:

sin2X = 2sinX cosX

cos2X = (cosX) (sinX)


sec[
X]==tanX
cscX
tan(X)
csc[
X] = secX
cot(X) = cotX

cosX = (1 sinX)

sinX sinY = [cos(XY) cos(X+Y)]


cos(X+Y)]

Ex:cosX
Converting
to
=
Radians:
180
120 = 120
=

cosX cosY = [cos(XY) +


3

sinX CosY = [sin(X+Y) + sin(XY)]


sin(XY)]

cosX sinY = [sin(X+Y)

X+
4
X-Y
sinX2 sinY = 2cos(
)
2
sin(

X+
X-Y
X-Y
2
cosX + cosY = 2cos(
)cos(
)
cosX cosY = 2sin(
)
2
2
2
sin(
)
(U=X, V=Y)
Ex:Converting to
Sum & Difference
(3/4)
sin(U + V) = (sinU cosV) + (cosU sinV)
cos(U + V) = (cosU Degrees:
cosV)
(sinU sinV)
3 180 = 135
X+
sinX + sinY = 2sin(
2
)
X+

X-Y
)cos(

sin(U V) = (sinU cosV) (cosU sinV)


cosV) + (sinU sinV)
1 - tanU

2tanX
tan2X =
1-tanX

sinX1
Product to
Sum
Identities:
2

cos(U V) = (cosU
1 + tanU tanV

Chapter 6

Complementary Angles: Must add to /2 (Ex:


Supplementary Angles: Must add to

3/8 + X = /2, X = 2/16 = /8)

(Ex:

3/8 + X = ,
Y

Arc length:

sin= y
cos= X 30
Si

n
Co 3/
s
2
Ta 3/
n
3
r
Si
n
Co
s
Ta
n

Arc length of AB = M<(AB)


2r
2r
Y = (r)sin
X=
(r)sin
X+Y
Y
r
45 60
(cos,
2/ 3/
sin)
2
2
2/

2
1
3

0/360
Tan

=
0
Y/x
1

90

18
0
0

27
0
-1

-1

Un
d

un
d

B
r

X = 5/8)
Finding all 6 trig
functions: Soh
Cah Toa

S
A
X
r=

X
DMS Notation Example: 89
59 60
60/60 = 1

Angular speed
= s
r

Unit
Circle
Q

(59+1)= 60/60 = 1
(89+1) = 90
Conterminal Angles: Ex:
Q

-360+51=-309
360+51=411
-720+51 = -669
Ex: SSS
-

Ex: SSA

25.55 = 20.92
+18.12 765.98
758.14
2(20.9218.12)cosA

652.803 = 765.981 (758.141)cosA


a=9.1 + 18.3 - 2(9.1- 18.3)cos(56.039)
-113.178 =758.14
-758.141cosA =
0.149284

Chapter 5
25.55
20.92 +F18.12
=
If a- function
is one-to-one
-2(14.26)cosB
then it can be written as F.
39.8
=
b
Qa
Q
A one-to-one cannot have a
sin
sin
line horizontally intersect the
a=
c
graph of a function more
27
=
38
than once.
The Domain of a one-to-one
sin39.8 sinB
B
function F is the Range of

the inverse F. The same


sinB = sin39.8 38 = .900895
can be applied to the Range
27
of F = the Domain of the
B = sinB = 64.3
B = (180 - 64.3 = 115.7)
Law of sine Ex:

b=
38

C = 180 - 104.1 = 75.9Obtaining formula for an


inverse: 1. Replace f(x)
with y = 24.5
2.
c = 27 sin(75.9) = 40.9095
C = 180 - (115.7 + 39.8)
Interchange x with y
Sin(39.
C = 180 - (B
3. Solve for y
4. Replace
x with F(x)
c =
c
=
27
B= 64.3
C= 75.9 c=
40.9
(F o F)(x) = F(F(x)) =
Sin24.5
sub each x that is
B=115.7 C=24.5 c= 17.49 x
Exponential Functions &
27 sin24.5
Graphs:
y= a,
c = = 17.4919
sin39.8
or F(x) = a, a > 0,
(39.8 + 64.3) = 104.1

Compound interest formula: A


N
= P(1 + r )
Translation or shift: F(x)= x
F(x) = (x + a) + b a= Horizontal
shift (x-value) b = Vertical shift (yStretching: F(x)= x
A < 0 A=>causes
a flip
F(x)= Ax
0 = causes
over
x-axis
and
a stretch
F(x)= -Ax

y= a
0<a
<1

y=
(0,
1)

a
x

a1
Has to be
continuous, one-to-one,
Domain: (-, ), Range:
Reflection is not an
F(x) = 3x - 5
y=
3x - 5
x+
5 = 3y
x+5
Vertical asymptote:
3
= y
x + 5