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Aircraft Design

AERO BOARD PREP


LF Banal

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Coverage
Aircraft design process overview
Aircraft configuration
Analysis

Pertinent regulation
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Overview of Aircraft Design


What is aircraft design? What are the processes involved? What is the
product of aircraft design? Where does it start and where does it end?

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

What is aircraft design?

L. Jenkinson and J. Marchman. Aircraft Design Projects for Engineering Students

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

What is aircraft design?

L. Jenkinson and J. Marchman. Aircraft Design Projects for Engineering Students

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

What is aircraft design?


Airplane design is the intellectual engineering process of
creating on paper (or on a computer screen) a flying
machine to
(1) meet certain specifications and requirements
established by potential users (or as perceived by the
manufacturer) and/or
(2) pioneer innovative, new ideas and technology.
John D. Anderson, Jr. Aircraft Performance and Design

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

What is the starting point of aircraft design?

Daniel P. Raymer. Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Requirements
1. Range.
2. Take-off distance.
3. Stalling velocity.
4. Endurance [usually important for reconnaissance airplanes; an overall dominating factor for
the new group of very high-altitude uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs) that are of great interest at
present].
5. Maximum velocity.
6. Rate of climb.
7. For dogfighting combat aircraft, maximum tum rate and sometimes minimum tum radius.
8. Maximum load factor.
9. Service ceiling.
10. Cost.
11. Reliability and maintainability.
12. Maximum size (so that the airplane will fit inside standard hangars and/or be able to fit in a
standard gate at airline terminals).
John D. Anderson, Jr. Aircraft Performance and Design

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Mission Specification

Jan D. Roskam. Airplane Design

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Mission Specification
Payload and type
Range and/or loiter requirements
Cruise speed and altitude
Field length for take-off and landing
Fuel reserves
Climb requirements
Maneuvering requirements
Certification base (experimental, FAR 23, FAR 25, military)
Jan D. Roskam. Airplane Design

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Phases of Aircraft Design

Daniel P. Raymer. Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Phases of Aircraft Design

John D. Anderson, Jr. Aircraft Performance and Design

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Suggested Approach

John D. Anderson, Jr. Aircraft Performance and Design

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Preliminary Design

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Preliminary Design

P. D. Sequence I
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Preliminary Design

P.D. Sequence II
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Trade Study

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Dream Airplanes by CW Miller

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Aircraft Configuration
Why do aircraft look like they do? What are the merits and drawbacks of
certain wing, empennage, fuselage, and landing gear configurations?

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Wing Design Considerations

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Wing Design Considerations

size (area)
aspect ratio
taper ratio
thickness ratio
sweep angle
dihedral angle
incidence angle
twist angle
airfoil(s)
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

high-wing, mid-wing, or low-wing


monoplane, biplane, or triplane
cantilever or strutted
tandem
compound or simple
delta, elliptical, etc.
high-lift device integration
other considerations:
fuel volume, lighting-strike

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Wing Geometry

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Wing Geometry

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Wing Geometry

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Wing Geometry

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Planform Shape

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Vertical Position

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High Wing
Places

fuselage closer to the ground;


loading/unloading; adapted by cargo aircraft

easier

Sufficient ground clearance for engine nacelle or

propeller; less landing gear height needed


Wing tips less likely to strike the ground
Usually less in weight
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

High Wing
A strutted wing usually presents less weight but

struts adds to drag.


Struts for a high wing, that is struts below the wing,

offer less drag compared to struts above the wing


Weight savings for placing wing box at the top; no

fuselage stiffening necessary; however, increased


frontal area adds to drag
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

High Wing
For a STOL aircraft, a high wing provides ground

clearance for the large flap necessary for high CL


Prevents floating (ground effect is reduced) which

makes it hard to land on desired spot


STOL aircraft are usually designed to operate in

unimproved fields; High wing places engines and


propellers away from rocks and debris
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

High Wing
Landing gear is installed to the fuselage rather than

the wing to reduce strut length


Fuselage needs stiffening; means more weight
External blisters (landing gear housing) might be

necessary; means added weight and drag

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

High Wing
Fairing where wing connects to the circular fuselage

is necessary
Flattened bottom will provide desired floor height

but means more weight

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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High Wing
fairing
flattening

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

High Wing
Better visibility towards the ground
Restricted visibility towards the rear
Obscures pilot vision in a turn

Blocks upward visibility in a climb

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Mid Wing
Least interference drag
To a degree, has the ground clearance advantage of

the high wing


Superior aerobatic maneuverability due to absence

of actual or simulated/effective dihedral which will


act in the wrong direction in inverted flight

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Mid Wing
Needs fuselage stiffening; means more weight
Carry-through structure will limit space for a

passenger or cargo aircraft; difficult to incorporate in


a fighter aircraft in which most of the fuselage is
occupied by the jet engines and inlet ducts

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Low Wing
Landing gear can be attached to (and retracted into)

the wing which is already strong with no stiffening


(and no external blisters) necessary
Allows for a shorter landing gear strut which means

less weight; however there still must be enough


ground clearance
Given

enough ground clearance, aft-fuselage


upsweep can be reduced, reducing drag
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Low Wing
Commonly adapted by large commercial transports

which normally operate in well-equipped airfields;


loading and unloading is not a problem
Ground clearance problems may be alleviated by a

dihedral; but too much dihedral can cause Dutch roll


tendencies.
Placing the propellers higher above the wing increases

interference effects and cruise fuel consumption.


Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Effects of Vertical Position

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Number of Wings
Biplane

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Number of Wings
Triplane

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Number of Wings
Multiplane

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Biplane
Pass
Low structural weight
Does not require high-lift devices for low speed flight
Compact: relatively short wing span
Half induced drag compared to monoplane producing

same lift (in theory)


Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Decalage, Stagger, Gap, Span Ratio

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Decalage, Stagger, Gap, Span Ratio


Gap the vertical distance between the two wings
Span Ratio

the ratio between the shorter to the longer wing

Stagger
the longitudinal offset of the two wings relative to
each other (positive, when upper wing is closer to the nose;
negative, otherwise)
Decalage relative incidence between the two wings (positive,
when upper wing has a larger incidence; negative, otherwise)
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Cantilever vs Strutted
Strutted wings are lighter
Struts cause profile and interference drag

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Monoplane, Biplane, Joined Wing

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Other Wing Configurations

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Wing Size and Wing Loading


Affects [a] take-off and landing field length, [b] cruise

performance (L/D), [c] ride through turbulence, and


[d] weight
For a short field length, a large wing / low wing

loading is required
Wing can be kept small by using flaps

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Wing Size and Wing Loading


For cruise at (L/D) max, a high wing loading is required
For flight at high altitudes and at low speeds, a large

wing is required.
Of course a large wing means more weight
A low wing loading translates to a high load factor

and thus poor ride qualities


Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Wing Size and Wing Loading

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Aspect Ratio

b
AR
S

High aspect ratio means reduced induced drag;

increased (L/D)max
Also means high lift curve slope; good approach

attitude; bad ride through turbulence


The higher the AR, the higher the span, the heavier
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Aspect Ratio

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Aspect Ratio

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Thickness Ratio

max thickness
t/c
chord
Higher thickness ratio, higher profile drag / wave drag
Higher thickness ratio, lower weight
Higher thickness ratio (up to 12-14%), higher Clmax

Higher thickness ratio, greater fuel volume


Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Thickness Ratio

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Thickness Ratio

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Thickness Ratio

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Sweep Angle
Delays drag divergence effects

Used for balance


Used for stability (dihedral effect)
Better ride through turbulence characteristics

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Sweep Angle

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Sweep Angle
Recall the concept
of a critical Mach
number?

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Sweep Angle

Effective M is reduced
Mcr is increased.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Sweep Angle
Is Mcr = 0.808 the critical Mach number for the wing?
NO! Because of 3D effects.
M cr for airfoil
M cr for airfoil actual M cr for swept wing
cos

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Sweep Angle
Effective thickness is reduced

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Sweep Angle
The thicker the airfoil,

the less is the critical


Mach number.
Again, sweep delays

drag divergence
effects by increasing
the critical Mach
number.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Sweep Angle
In supersonic flight, sweep reduces wave drag.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Sweep Angle: forward VS aft


Both delay drag divergence or compressibility

effects the same way


Forward swept wing is usually heavier
Forward

swept
wing
has
superior
stall
characteristics; outboard-mounted lateral controls
maintain effectiveness well into a stall
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Sweep Angle

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Sweep Angle: oblique wing


An oblique wing is also a swept wing: there is

forward swept and aft swept at the same time

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Sweep Angle

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Sweep Angle
Contributes to pitch up characteristics

Performs less during take-off and landing


Reduces subsonic lift
Significant weight penalty

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Variable Sweep
A solution ton constant sweep problems
Attendant balance problems
Weight penalty due to pivot mechanism
Complexity

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Variable Sweep

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Sweep Angle

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Effect of sweep on lift curve slope

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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What makes for good ride characteristics?

qCL
W /S

n q(C L / )

W /S

A large wing loading and a small lift curve slope

(wing sweep) results in small changes in load factor,


thus good ride through turbulence characteristics.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Effect of sweep on approach attitude

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Effects of Wing Sweep

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Taper Ratio

ct

cr

More taper (smaller taper ratio) means less weight

More taper (small tip chord), more conducive to tip

stall
Less taper means more fuel volume
Tapered wings cost more than untapered wings
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Taper Ratio
A wing with taper is a trade-off between elliptical

(least induced drag, difficult to manufacture) and a


rectangular wing (more induced drag, easy to
manufacture).
More taper is needed for a swept wing.
Very low taper (<0.2) promotes tip stall
Low taper is inherent for a delta wing
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Taper Ratio
Geometry for minimum induced drag

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Taper Ratio

Supermarine Spitfire
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Taper Ratio

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Taper Ratio

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Taper Ratio
Effect of Taper on Lift Distribution

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Effect of sweep on desired taper ratio

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Taper Ratio

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Reverse Taper Republic XF-91 Thunderceptor

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Reverse Taper
Improved tip stall characteristics

Improved cross-sectional area distribution; allows for a

smaller fuselage
Weight penalty

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Variable Taper

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Wing Twist

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Wing Twist
Geometric Twist one type of airfoil used, incidence is
changing relative to root chord.
Linear Twist
incidence is proportional to distance
from root airfoil.
Aerodynamic Twist difference in the zero-lift angles
of the root and tip airfoil. Same as geometric twist if
one type of airfoil is used.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Wing Twist
Note: It is possible for a wing without geometric twist
to have an aerodynamic twist. This can happen, for
example, when the root and the tip are using different
airfoil.
Wash-out tip airfoil has negative incidence relative to
root airfoil.
Wash-in

opposite of wash-out.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Wing Twist

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Wing Twist

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Wing Twist
Washout delays tip stall
May increase induced drag
Less-loaded tip; less strength requirements; less

weight
Wing twist will only be optimal relative to lift

distribution for one value of coefficient of lift.


Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Wing Twist

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Wing Incidence

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Wing Incidence
Used to minimize drag at some operating condition,

usually cruise.
Used to improve attitude
Fuselage angle of attack for minimum drag and

optimal wing angle of attack for the same condition


usually differ.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Wing Incidence

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Dihedral

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Dihedral

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Dihedral

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Wing Tips

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Wing Tips

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Wing Tips
A sharp tip is more effective than a rounded tip in

alleviating tip vortex effects


The Hoerner tip is the most widely used low-drag

wingtip
Tip curved upwards/downwards increase effective

span without increasing actual span


Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Wing Tips
A swept wing tip addresses the condition that

vortices tend to be located at the trailing edge of the


wing tip; increases torsional load
Cut-off forward swept is used for supersonic aircraft;

part with little lift is cut-off; reduced torsional load

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Wing Tips
The endplate is an intuitive solution to the leakage of

the high pressure flow below the wing to the low


pressure flow above it.
Adds to wetted area, and therefore drag
Might be better to just add to the span instead
Solution to a short span requirement
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Wing Tips: A320 Sharklet

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Wing Tips
Works better for low aspect ratio wings; less effective

for an already working high-aspect-ratio wing


Can aggravate flutter tendencies
Works best for only one speed

the design speed

Trade study needed: increase aspect ratio (span) or

use winglet?
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

High-Lift Devices

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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High-Lift Devices

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High-Lift Devices

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High-Lift Devices
(1) airfoil only
(2) plain flap
(3) split flap
(4) leading-edge slat
(5) single-slotted flap
(6) double-slotted flap
(7) double-slotted flap in
combination with a
leading-edge slat
(8) addition of boundarylayer suction (BLC) at the
top of the airfoil.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Plain Flap
Rear section of the airfoil is hinged so that it can be

rotated downward.
With a simple plain flap, CLmax can be almost doubled
Creates more lift simply by mechanically increasing

the effective camber of the airfoil


Increases the drag and pitching moment.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Split Flap
Only the bottom surface of the airfoil is hinged
Causes a slightly higher CLmax than that for a plain flap.

Performs

the same function as a plain


mechanically increasing the effective camber.

flap,

However, the split flap produces more drag and less

change in the pitching moment compared to a plain


flap.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Split Flap
Invented by Orville Wright in 1920
Employed on many of the 1930s and 40s airplanes

because of its simplicity


However, because of the higher drag associated with

split flaps, they are rarely used on modern airplanes.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Leading-Edge Slat

A small, highly cambered airfoil located slightly

forward of the leading edge of the main airfoil


Essentially a flap at the leading edge, but with a gap

between the flap and the leading edge

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Leading-Edge Slat
Functions primarily to modify the pressure distribution

over the top surface of the airfoil.


The slat itself, being highly cambered, experiences a

much lower pressure over its top surface; but the flow
interaction results in a higher pressure over the top
surface of the main airfoil section.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Leading-Edge Slat
This mitigates to some extent the otherwise strong

adverse pressure gradient that would exist over the


main airfoil section, hence delaying flow separation
over the airfoil.
In the process CLmax is increased with no significant

increase in drag

Produces about the same increase in CLmax as the plain

flap

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Single-Slotted Flap
The slot allows the higher-pressure air on the bottom

surface of the airfoil to flow through the gap,


modifying and stabilizing the boundary layer over the
top surface of the airfoil.
Flow through the slot creates a low pressure on the

leading edge of the flap, and essentially a new


boundary layer is formed over the flap which allows
the flow to remain attached to very high flap
deflections.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Double-Slotted Flap
If one slot is good, two are even better

Higher CLMAX compared to a single-slotted flap


This benefit is achieved at the cost of increased

mechanical complexity.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Double-Slotted Flap + LE Slat


If one type of a high-lift device is good, two may

complement each other


Mutual benefit is obtained by employing both

leading- and trailing-edge devices in combination on


the same airfoil

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Boundary Layer Suction


The low-energy boundary layer flow over the top

surface of the airfoil is the culprit, in combination with


the adverse pressure gradient, which causes flow
separation and hence stall.
By mechanically sucking away a portion of the

boundary layer through small holes or slots in the top


surface of the airfoiI, flow separation can he delayed

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Boundary Layer Suction


Increased mechanical complexity and cost of this

device, along with the power requirements on the


pumps, diminish its attractiveness as a design option.
Active boundary layer suction has not yet been used

on standard production airplanes. It remains in the


category of an advanced technology item.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Fowler Flap
Does not only deflect downward to increase the

effective camber, but also translates or tracks to the


trailing edge of the airfoil to increase the exposed
wing area and further increase lift

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Leading-Edge Flap
Pivots downward, increasing the effective camber.
But unlike the leading-edge slat, the leading-edge flap

is sealed, with no slot

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Krueger Flap
Essentially a leading-edge slat which is thinner, and

which lies flush with the bottom surface of the airfoil


when not deployed
Hence, it is suitable for use with thinner airfoils.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Effect of High-Lift Devices on Lift Curve

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Effect of High-Lift Devices on Camber and AOA

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Empennage
Design Considerations

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Function of the Empennage


The empennage exists mainly for trim, stability and

control.
For the horizontal tail, trim is usually achieved

through setting it at a negative angle of attack such


that it will produce negative lift causing a pitch up
moment that will counter the pitch-down tendency
of the wing with a positively cambered airfoil.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Function of the Empennage


Trim in the yaw direction is usually not a problem

due to the aircraft symmetry.


The role of the vertical tail is more important for

multi-engine aircraft.
Propwash may cause the vertical tail to produce a

nose-left moment; the vertical tail can be offset by a


few degrees.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Function of the Empennage


The way the tail provides stability is pretty much

same as for the fins or feathers of an arrow.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Function of the Empennage


Pitch control

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Function of the Empennage


Directional control

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Empennage Configurations

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Conventional

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Conventional
It works! Adapted by about 70% or more of aircraft in

service (Raymer)
Relatively lightweight
Horizontal tail is in the wake of the wing
Does not allow for an aft-mounted engine
Low horizontal tails are best for stall recovery
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

T-Tail

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

T-Tail
Heavier than conventional due to strengthening of the

vertical tail to support the horizontal tail


Allows for a smaller vertical tail due to end plate effect
Horizontal tail is clear of wing wake and propwash
Allows for an aft-mounted engine
Stylish!
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

T-Tail: blanketing/deep stall/superstall

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

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Cruciform

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Cruciform
Compromise between conventional and T-tail
Less weight penalty compared to T-tail
Undisturbed flow in lower part of rudder at high

angles of attack
No endplate effect

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Aft Tail Positioning

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

H-Tail

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

H-Tail

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

H-Tail
Undistrubed flow in vertical tails at high angles of

attack
May enhance engine out control in multiengine

aircraft with the rudders positioned in the propwash


Endplate effect on the horizontal tail; reduced size

possible

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

H-Tail
Heavier than conventional
Hides hot exhaust from heat seeking missiles (as in the

A-10 Warthog)
Allows

for smaller/shorter vertical tail


distributed between the two vertical tails

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

(area

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

is

V-Tail (Butterfly)

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

V-Tail (Butterfly)

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

V-Tail
May allow for a reduced wetted area
Reduced interference drag
Control/Actuation complexity

Adverse roll-yaw coupling


Surfaces are out of the wing wake
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

V-Tail

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

V-Tail: Adverse Roll-Yaw Coupling


Aircraft yaws right with tendency to roll left (counter-clockwise)

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Inverted V-Tail

Proverse Roll-Yaw Coupling


Reduced spiralling tendencies
Ground clearance problems

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Y-Tail
Avoids complexity of ruddervators

V surfaces provide pitch control only


Rudder in third surface

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Twin Tails

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Twin Tails
Avoids blanketing of the rudders due to wing and

forward fuselage at high angles of attack.


Reduces height; area is distributed between the two

vertical tails.
Usually heavier than a single centerline-mounted

vertical tail.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Boom-Mounted Tails

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Boom-Mounted Tails

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Boom-Mounted Tails
Allows for a pusher propeller configuration
Tailbooms are typically heavier than a conventional

fuselage construction
May be connected or not; high-, mid-, or low-mounted

horizontal tail, which can have a V configuration.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Ring Tail

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Ring Tail

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Ring Tail
Doubles as a propeller shroud.
Conceptually appealing, however proven inadequate

in application.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

All-Moving Tail

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

All-Moving Tail

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Other Configurations

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Control Canard

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Control Canard
Negligible contribution to lift
Used to control angle of attack of wing
Used to balance pitching moments due to flaps

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Lifting Canard

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Lifting Canard
Contributes to lift; higher aspect ratio for reduced

induced drag; greater camber for increased lift


Theoretically more efficient than an aft-tailed aircraft;

wing lift reduced - smaller wing; in aft-tailed aircraft,


tail produces negative lift for stability
wing must
produce more lift bigger wing.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Lifting Canard
Pushes wing aft; bigger pitching moments due to flaps
Canard is closer to CG; less effective pitch control;

surface must be increased; resulting in more trim drag


Pitch up tendencies are avoided

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Tandem Wing

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Tandem Wing

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Tandem Wing
Extension of the lifting canard concept
50% theoretical reduction in induced drag because lift

is distributed between the two wings


Aft wing experiences downwash and turbulence

caused by the forward wing


Wings must be separated (horizontally and vertically)

as far as possible
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Three Surface

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Three Surface
Theoretically offers minimum trim drag
Additional weight; more interference drag; complexity

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Engine Disposition

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Mounting
Wing-mounted

Fuselage-mounted
Empennage-mounted
Any combination of the above

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Powerplant Disposition Considerations


Effect of power changes or power failures on stability

and control: longitudinal, lateral and directional. The


vertical and/or lateral location of the thrustline(s) are
critically important in this respect.
Drag of the proposed installation

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Powerplant Disposition Considerations


Weight and balance consequences of the proposed

installation
Inlet requirements and resulting effect on

power and efficiency


Accessibility and maintainability

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Powerplant Disposition Considerations


Acceptable FOD characteristics
Geometric clearance when static on the ramp: no

nacelle or propeller tip may touch the ground with


deflated landing gear struts and tires
Geometric clearance during take-off rotation: no

scraping of nacelles or of propeller tips is allowed with


deflated landing gear struts and tires
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Powerplant Disposition Considerations


Geometric clearance during a low speed approach

with a 5 degrees bank angle


No gun exhaust gasses may enter the inlet a jet

engine. Such gun exhaust gasses are highly corrosive


to fan. Compressor and turbine blades.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Tractor VS Pusher

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Tractor VS Pusher
Tractor - the propeller or inlet plane is forward of the

CG; tend to be destabilizing with respect to static


longitudinal and directional stability
Pusher - the propeller or the inlet plane is located

behind the CG; tend to be stabilizing; may save


empennage area

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Tractor
The heavy engine is at the front, which helps to move

the center of gravity forward and therefore allows a


smaller tail for stability considerations.
The propeller is working in an undisturbed free stream.

There is a more effective flow of cooling air for the

engine.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Tractor
The propeller slipstream disturbs the quality of the

airflow over the fuselage and wing root.


The increased velocity and flow turbulence over the

fuselage due to the propeller slipstream increase the


local skin friction on the fuselage.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Pusher
Higher-quality (clean) airflow prevails over the wing

and fuselage.
The inflow to the rear propeller induces a favorable

pressure gradient at the rear of the fuselage, allowing


the fuselage to close at a steeper angle without flow
separation. This in turn allows a shorter fuselage,
hence smaller wetted surface area.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Pusher
Engine noise in the cabin area is reduced.

The pilot's front field of view is improved.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Pusher
The heavy engine is at the back, which shifts the

center of gravity
longitudinal stability.

rearward,

hence

reducing

Propeller is more likely to be damaged by flying debris

at landing.
Engine cooling problems are more severe.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Landing Gear
Design Considerations

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Landing Gear Configurations

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Single Main
Employed by many sailplanes for its simplicity

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Bicycle
Flat attitude take-off and landing; aircraft must have

high lift at low AOA (high AR with large camber and/or


flaps)
Used by aircraft with narrow fuselage and wide wing

span (e.g. B-47, U2)

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Bicycle
CG should be aft of the midpoint of the 2 wheels

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Taildragger
More propeller ground clearance
Less drag and weight

Easier lift production due to attitude, hence initial AOA


Inherently unstable (ground looping)
Limited ground visibility from cockpit

Inconvenient floor attitude


Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Taildragger

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Longitudinal Tip-Over Criterion

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Tricycle
Stable on the ground; can be landed with a large

(nose not aligned with runway)


Improved forward ground visibility
Flat cabin floor for passenger and cargo loading

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Longitudinal Tip-Over Criterion

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Lateral Tip-Over Criterion

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Longitudinal Ground Clearance Criterion

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Lateral Ground Clearance Criterion

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Quadricycle
Flat take-off and landing attitude
Permits a very low cargo floor

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Multi-boogey
For extra heavy aircraft (200-400 kips)
Redundancy for safety

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Regulations
What are the local and international regulations
that have bearing on aircraft design?

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Aircraft Categories

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

FAR Part 23 Airplane Categories


Normal
limited to airplanes that have a seating
configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less, a
maximum certificated take-off of 12,500 pounds or less,
and intended for non-acrobatic operation.
Non-acrobatic operation includes:
(1) Any maneuver incident to normal flying;
(2) Stalls (except whip stalls); and
(3) Lazy eights, chandelles, and steep turns, in which
the angle of bank is not more than 60 degrees.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

FAR Part 23 Airplane Categories


Utility
limited to airplanes that have a seating
configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less, a
maximum certificated take-off weight of 12,500 pounds
or less, and intended for limited acrobatic operation.
Airplanes certificated in the utility category may be
used in any of the operations covered under the
normal category and in limited acrobatic operations.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

FAR Part 23 Airplane Categories


Limited acrobatic operation includes:
(1) Spins (if approved for the particular type of
airplane); and
(2) Lazy eights, chandelles, and steep turns, or similar
maneuvers, in which the angle of bank is more than 60
degrees but not more than 90 degrees.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

FAR Part 23 Airplane Categories


Acrobatic
limited to airplanes that have a seating
configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less, a
maximum certificated take-off weight of 12,500 pounds
or less, and intended for use without restrictions, other
than those shown to be necessary as a result of
required flight tests.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

FAR Part 23 Airplane Categories


Commuter
limited to propeller-driven, multiengine
airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding
pilot seats, of 19 or less, and a maximum certificated
take-off weight of 19,000 pounds or less. The
commuter category operation is limited to any
maneuver incident to normal flying, stalls (except whip
stalls), and steep turns, in which the angle of bank is
not more than 60 degrees.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

FAR Part 23 Airplane Categories


Except for commuter category, airplanes may be type
certificated in more than one category if the
requirements of each requested category are met.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Limit Maneuvering Load Factor

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Limit Maneuvering Load Factor (Part 23)


The positive limit maneuvering load factor n may not
be less than

24,000
n 2.1
W 10,000
for normal and commuter category airplanes, where
W = design maximum take-off weight, except that n
need not be more than 3.8; 4.4 for utility category
airplanes; or 6.0 for acrobatic category airplanes.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Limit Maneuvering Load Factor (Part 23)


The negative limit maneuvering load factor may not be
less than
(1)0.4 times the positive load factor for the normal,
utility, and commuter categories; or
(2) 0.5 times the positive load factor for the acrobatic
category.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Limit Maneuvering Load Factor (Part 23)


Maneuvering load factors lower than those specified in
the preceding slides may be used if the airplane has
design features that make it impossible to exceed
these values in flight.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Limit Maneuvering Load Factor (Part 25)


The positive limit maneuvering load factor n for any
speed up to VD may not be less than

24,000
n 2.1
W 10,000
where W = design maximum take-off weight, except
that n may not be less than 2.5 and need not be more
than 3.8.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Limit Maneuvering Load Factor (Part 25)


The negative limit maneuvering load factor
a) May not be less than -1.0 at speeds up to VC; and

b) Must vary linearly with speed from the value at VC to


zero at VD .
c) Maneuvering load factors lower than those specified
above may be usd if the airplane has design features that
make it impossible to exceed these values in flight.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Limit Maneuvering Load Factor

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Design Airspeeds

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Design Airspeeds, KEAS (FAR 23.335)


Design cruising speed, VC

For normal, utility, and commuter category airplanes,


VC 33 W / S

For acrobatic category airplanes,


VC 36 W / S
Where W/S is the wing loading at the design
maximum take-off weight.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Design Airspeeds, KEAS (FAR 23.335)


Design cruising speed, VC

For W/S 20
VC k W / S
where k must vary linearly
from 33 at W/S 20, to 28.6 at W/S 100

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Design Airspeeds, KEAS (FAR 23.335)


Design cruising speed, VC
VC need not be more than 0.9 VH at sea level.
At altitudes where an MD is established, a cruising

speed MC limited by compressibility may be selected.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Design Airspeeds, KEAS (FAR 23.335)


Design dive speed, VD

VD 1.25VC

Using the required minimum design cruising speed VC min ,


VD 1.4VC min (normal, commuter)

VD 1.50VC min (utility)


VD 1.55VC min (acrobatic)
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Design Airspeeds, KEAS (FAR 23.335)


Design dive speed, VD
Compliance with requirements in the preceding

slide need not be shown for reasons specified in FAR


Part 23.335(b4).

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Design Airspeeds, KEAS (FAR 23.335)


Design dive speed, VD

For W/S 20
the multiplying factor must vary linearly
from 1.40, 1.50 or 1.55 at W/S 20, to 1.35 at W/S 100

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Design Airspeeds, KEAS (FAR 23.335)


Design maneuvering speed, VA

VA VS n
VS is a computed stalling speed with flaps retracted at the

design weight, normally based on the maximum airplane


normal force coefficients, CAN

n is the limit maneuvering load factor used in design


The value of VA need not exceed the value of VC used in design.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Design Airspeeds, KEAS (FAR 23.335)


Design speed for maximum gust intensity, VB
VB may not be less than the speed determined by the

intersection of the line representing the maximum positive lift,


CN MAX, and the line representing the rough air gust velocity on
the gust V-n diagram, or , VS ng whichever is less
1

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Design Airspeeds, KEAS (FAR 23.335)


Design speed for maximum gust intensity, VB

VB VS1 ng
ng is the positive airplane gust load factor due to gust, at speed

VC and at the particular weight under consideration

VS1 is the stalling speed with the flaps retracted at the particular

weight under consideration.

VB need not be greater than VC


Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

V-n Diagram

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

V-n Diagram aka Flight Envelope (FAR 23.333)

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

V-n Diagram without gust effect

V2 SCL

L
n 2
W
W
1
2 C L , max
nmax V
W
2
S

VC
VB

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

VD

VA

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Gust V-n Diagram

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Gust V-n Diagram

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Load factor increment due to gust


When an aircraft in level equilibrium flight encounters a
gust, its load factor of 1 is incremented.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Load factor increment due to gust


V'

Vg

tan

Vg
V


Vg

C L C L C L

L qSC L
L qSCL (Vg / V )
n

W
W
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

(1 / 2) V SCL Vg
2

n 1 n 1
n 1

WV

VSCL Vg
2W
Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Load factor increment due to gust


How does our result compare with
n 1

VSCL Vg
2W

n 1

k gU deVa
498(W / S )

C L is the same as a - airplane lift curve slope


Vg , the gust velocity, is the same as U de , or rather Vg k gU de

turn our result into a form similar to that of


Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Load factor increment due to gust


More about the slope a
a is the slope of the airplane normal force coefficient

curve CNA per radian if the gust loads are applied to the
wings and horizontal tail surfaces simultaneously by a
rational method.
The wing lift curve slope CL per radian may be used
when the gust load is applied to the wings only and
the horizontal tail gust loads are treated as a separate
condition.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

CL vs CN
CN

CL

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Load factor increment due to gust


n 1

How does our result compare with


n 1

VSCL Vg

n 1

2W

Vak gU de

k gU deVa
498(W / S )

2(W / S )

Let 0.002378 slug/ft 3


Let V have units of knots (1knot 1.68781 ft/s)
n 1

(0.002378)V (1.68781)ak gU de

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

2(W / S )

k gU deVa
498(W / S )
Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Load factor increment due to gust


n 1

k gU deVa
498(W / S )

Note that because we used sea level density, V is now


equivalent airspeed (knots), that is KEAS.
Wing loading (W/S) should be in lb/ft2
Lift curve slope, a, should be per radian
Ude, the derived gust velocity should be in ft/s
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Load factor increment due to gust


The fact that a gust is usually not sharp-edged is
accounted for by the so-called gust alleviation factor, kg.
kg

0.88 g

5.3 g
2(W / S )
2m
g

cag
caS

Where
g is the airplane mass ratio, c is the mean
aerodynamic chord (ft), m is the air mass (kg), and g is the
gravitational acceleration (ft/s2).
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Load factor increment due to gust


The following gust shape is assumed (as per FAR)
U de
2s
U
(1 cos
)
2
25c

Where s is the distance in feet penetrated into the gust,


and c is the mean aerodynamic chord, also in feet.
Also, gust load factor is assumed to vary linearly from VC
to VD.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Load factor increment due to gust


About the derived gust velocity, as per FAR 23.333,

50 ft/s at VC (sea level to 20,000 ft)


50 to 25 ft/s at VC (20,000 to 50,000 ft)
25 ft/s at VD (sea level to 20,000 ft)
25 to 12.5 ft/s at VD (20,000 t0 50,000 ft)
Rough air gust of 66 ft/s at VB (sea level to 20,000 ft)
(commuter aircraft) and,
66 to 38 ft/s at VB (20,000 to 50,000 ft)

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Load factor increment due to gust


It is clear that n is linear with V.
n

n 1

k gU deVa
498(W / S )

1 constant x V

V
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Combined V-n Diagram / Flight Envelope

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

More Airspeed Terms

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Types of Airspeeds
Indicated Airspeed (IAS)

IAS is shown on the dial of the instrument, uncorrected


for instrument or system errors.

Above is FAA definition. With JAR, IAS is considered to include instrument error correction.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Types of Airspeeds
Calibrated Airspeed (CAS)

CAS is the speed at which the aircraft is moving through


the air, which is found by correcting IAS for instrument
and position errors.

Also called RAS, Rectified Airspeed


Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Types of Airspeeds
Equivalent Airspeed (EAS)
EAS is CAS corrected for compression of the air inside the
pitot tube. EAS is the same as CAS in standard
atmosphere at sea level. As the airspeed and pressure
altitude increase, the CAS becomes higher than it should
be, and a correction for compression must be subtracted
from the CAS.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Types of Airspeeds
True Airspeed (TAS)

TAS is CAS corrected for nonstandard pressure and


temperature. TAS and CAS are the same in standard
atmosphere at sea level. Under nonstandard conditions,
TAS is found by applying a correction for pressure
altitude and temperature to the CAS.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Types of Airspeeds
Ground Speed (GS)

GS or G/S is the rate at which the aircraft travels over the


ground and is equal to TAS +/- the along-track wind
component.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Take-Off Speeds

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Take-Off Speeds (V-Speeds)


Vstall

VMCG

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

VMCA

V1

VR

VMU

VLO

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Stalling Speed
VS0

flaps-down stall speed (minimum steady-flight speed), KCAS

VS1

flaps-up stall speed (minimum steady-flight speed), KCAS

VS0 61 knots
See FAR 23.49 for details.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Stalling Speed

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Stalling Speed

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Minimum Control Speed on the Ground, V MCG


VMCG is the minimum control speed on the ground, and

is the calibrated airspeed during the take-off run at


which, when the critical engine is suddenly made
inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of the
airplane using the rudder control alone (without the
use of nosewheel steering), as limited by 150 pounds of
force, and using the lateral control to the extent of
keeping the wings level to enable the take-off to be
safely continued. -FAR 23.149(f )
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Minimum Control Speed on the Ground, V MCG


In the determination of VMCG, assuming that the path of

the airplane accelerating with all engines operating is


along the centerline of the runway, its path from the
point at which the critical engine is made inoperative
to the point at which recovery to a direction parallel to
the centerline is completed may not deviate more than
30 feet laterally from the centerline at any point. -FAR
23.149(f )

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Minimum Control Speed on the Ground, V MCG


The minimum speed at which the aircraft will remain

controllable, in the event of an engine failure on


ground
Rudder must be able to counteract asymmetrical thrust
Controlable means at most 30 ft lateral excursion
(without use of nose wheel steering)
If failure occurs before VMCG, take-off must be aborted
FAR 25.107
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Minimum Control Speed, V MC


VMC is the calibrated airspeed at which, when the

critical engine is suddenly made inoperative, it is


possible to maintain control of the airplane with that
engine still inoperative, and thereafter maintain
straight flight at the same speed with an angle of bank
of not more than 5 degrees. -FAR 23.149(a)

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Minimum Control Speed in the Air, V MCA


VMCA is the minimum speed at which the aircraft will

remain controllable, in the event of an engine failure in


the air.
Rudder must be able to counteract asymmetrical thrust
Controlable means constant heading with level wings
can be maintained at full rudder.
Bank angle reduces required minimum control speed.
Compliance must be shown at 5 degrees bank angle.
FAR 25.107
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Take-Off Decision Speed, V 1


The take-off decision speed, V1, is the calibrated

airspeed on the ground at which, as a result of engine


failure or other reasons, the pilot is assumed to have
made a decision to continue or discontinue the takeoff.

See FAR 23.51(c) for details.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Take-Off Decision Speed, V 1


The speed at which the pilot can successfully continue

the take-off even though an engine failure (in a


mulitengine aircraft) would occur at that point. This
speed must be equal to or larger than VMCG in order to
maintain control of the airplane.
A more descriptive name for V1 is the critical engine

failure speed. If an engine fails before V1 is achieved,


the take-off must be stopped. If an engine fails after V1
is reached, the take-off can still be achieved.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Rotation Speed, V R
For normal, utility, and acrobatic category airplanes,

rotation speed, VR, is the speed at which the pilot


makes a control input, with the intention of lifting the
airplane out of contact with the runway or water
surface.
See FAR 23.51(a) for details.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Rotation Speed, V R
Lift-Off does not happen at rotation because lift is not

yet greater than the weight


Lift has to be increased by increasing angle of attack
further.
But maximum angle of attack is limited by tail ground
clearance and stall.
Lift must be increased by increasing velocity further.
VR 1.05VMC or 1.10VS1 see FAR 23.51(a)
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Minimum Unstick Speed, V MU


If the angle of attack is increased such that tail ground

clearance is pushed to the limit, and the aircraft liftsoff, the velocity at that point is called VMU.
VMU>VR

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Lift-Off Speed, V LOF


Tail ground clearance is really not pushed to the limit,

thus the aircraft has to accelerate further to increase


lift.
The velocity at the exact point the aircraft lifts-off the

ground is called VLOF.

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Never-Exceed Speed, V NE
FAR 23.1505(a)
The never-exceed speed VNE must be established so that
it is -(1) Not less than 0.9 times the minimum value of VD
allowed under Sec. 23.335; and
(2) Not more than the lesser of -(i) 0.9 VD established under Sec. 23.335; or
(ii) 0.9 times the maximum speed shown under Sec.
23.251.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Maximum Structural Cruising Speed, V NO


FAR 23.1505(b)
The maximum structural cruising speed VNO must be
established so that it is
(1) Not less than the minimum value of VC allowed under
Sec. 23.335; and
(2) Not more than the lesser of
(i) VC established under Sec. 23.335; or
(ii) 0.89 VNE established under paragraph (a) of this
section.
Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Flap Extended Speed, V FE


FAR 23.1511
The flap extended speed VFE must be established so that
it is-[(1) Not less than the minimum value of VF allowed in
Sec. 23.345(b); and
(2) Not more than VF established under Sec. 23.345(a), (c),
and (d).]
See FAR 23.1511 for details

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Take-Off Speeds
Speed at 50 ft
See FAR 23.51(b) for details

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Take-Off Speeds
Critical Engine Failure Speed, VEF
xxx

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Regulation

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Regulation

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015

Regulation

Aircraft Design | Lemuel F. Banal

Aero Board Exam Review 2015