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Due Date: Wednesday, May 25, 2016 at 11am on Blackboard

This exam is comprised of 10 questions. In order to receive full credit, you must answer 8
questions. Questions 1-9 are worth 6pts each. Question #10 is required and is worth 8pts. You
can choose which seven other questions you answer.

Question 1: How does socioeconomic status (SES) affect the health of individuals? Give specific
examples from the text. Social economic status as stated by the textbook is the status of an
individual, family or groups economic and social position often determined by their level of
education and income. Those with a low SES are unable to receive an adequate education and are
unaware of many risk to chronic illness, such as cancer. Their lack of knowledge limits them to
be able to prevent those risks. SES also affects the food choices people are able to make. When
someone has a low SES they often times turn to less expensive foods, which means food may not
be good for their health.

Question 3: Psychologically speaking, work or occupational stress can arise from a number of
factors. Nine factors are mentioned in your textbook. List three of these factors and write a short
example for each one.
One factor mentioned from the textbook that can cause work or occupational stress is the stress
contagion effect; stress from a different source that is connected can spill over to another are of
the individuals life. For example if an individual has stress caused by his relationship that stress
can influence stress already experienced at work. Another cause work stress is being unsure of
their job description. If someone doesnt know what their role is at the job they cant be sure of

what they are and arent allowed to do causing uncertainty and felling of inadequacy.
Discrimination is also another cause of work stress because when someone feels they are being
treated unfairly because of their race, sexual identity they feel stuck. They cant change it and
because of it theyre not getting more money which leads to economic burden.

Question 4: You have been asked by a local health department to speak to a group of newly
pregnant women about prenatal environmental influences. What information would you include
in your discussion? For example, what should the women know about teratogens? How about
maternal disease, exercise, and nutrition? What recommendations would you give to promote a
healthy pregnancy? Use research in your textbook and from the assigned article to support your
answers. Teratogens are factors that are harmful to the embryo and fetus, things such as
environmental toxins and drugs, capable of causing developmental abnormalities.
Question 5: According to the research discussed in the textbook, what are some ways that men
and women might differ in how they respond to stress?
Question 6: What role does diet play in cardiovascular disease and in cancer? Diet is one of
many important factors in reducing of preventing the risks of disease like cancer and
cardiovascular disease. Cancer cells feed off of sugars and animal fats, by increasing the intake
of these foods you are increasing the risk of developing cancer. By replacing important nutrients,
such as fiber, can increase the risks of developing cancer. Fats also affects the cardio vascular
system by clogging arteries and can block the artery to supply blood to the heart which can lead
to heart attacks. If e reduce the amount of fats and sugars consumed we can lower the risks of
these diseases

Question 7: Discuss two personality variables that have been associated with HIV/AIDS
development and/or progression. The textbook mentions how they examined the role of
Neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and consciousness on the change of CD4 cells and other
factors of immune health. The conclusion was that those with openness, extraversion, and
consciousness had a slower progression of the disease. Those with low-extraversion and low
openness showed signs of a faster progression. This is because those with openness,
extraversion, and consciousness are more optimistic and believing and being positive can have a
positive effect on the disease.
Question 8: Describe three reasons why a person might delay seeking medical treatment in a
clinical setting. The textbook mentioned that "the bureaucracies of hospital setting sometimes
makes it difficult for patients to have their illness treated" That is because of the staff have
stereotyped the patient according to the factors like race, SES, sexual identity and etc... This
causes great concern for people because even though people trust in the training and
preparation of those in the medical field biases cant be eradicated, it may be controlled but you
cant really change the way someone perceives someone. The fear of being judged is something
that can deter someone from seeking help. Another factor is denial, when someone doesnt want
to admit that there is something wrong with their health, they often times dont seek medical
help. Also people self-diagnose and can confuse their symptoms with something less dangerous.
Question 9: Define, compare and contrast Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda.
Question 10: Whats the most interesting thing you learned this semester? What do you wish
more people knew about? Finally, discuss how the content of this course relates to your future
career. (mandatory)