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Example 2

How charges are produced?

minutes.

(charge of an electrons ,e =1.6 x 10 -19C)

Determine,

(a) the electric charge

(b) the number of electrons

effects are called negative charge and positive charge.

Like charges always repel each other and unlike charges

always attract each other.

An object becomes negatively charged when it gains an

excess of electrons. Similarly , when an object has some

electrons removed, the deficiency of electrons makes the

object positively charged.

The symbol of charge is Q and the unit is coulomb (C).

The charge in an electron is , e = 1.6 x 10 -19C.

The Van de Graaff generator built a machine in which

charge continuously delivered to the inside of a hollow

metal dome by means of a rotating rubber belt. So the

generator can produce a high voltage, usually in the

megavolt range.

Solution

Current ,I is the rate of flow of charge, Q

Current = Charge

Time

Or

the rate of flow of electric charge and the current

I=Q

t

Hypothesis:

The current increases as the rate of flow of electric

charge increases

Aim of the experiment :

To investigate the relationship between the rate of flow of

electric charge and the current

Variables in the experiment:

Manipulated variable: rate of flow of electric charge

Responding variable: the current

Fixed variable: the number of charge

List of apparatus and materials:

Van de Graaff generator, crocodile clip, galvanometer,

microammeter, metal plate, nylon, ping-pong ball coated

with a metallic paint and metre rule

Arrangement of the apparatus:

1A= 1 C s-1

The charge of an electron is , e = 1.6 x 10 -19C.

If the number of electrons is n,

Q = ne

Example 1

A charge of 600 C flow through a metal conductor in

every 5 minutes. What is the electric current in the

conductor?

Solution

method of controlling the manipulated variable and the

method of measuring the responding variable.

By using a metre rule , the distance between two metal

plate is measured = x

minutes.

The ping-pong ball is touched to metal plate.

The reading of microammeter is recorded = I

The experiment is repeated 5 times for with different

distances between two metal plates

Tabulate the data:

x

I

Analysis the data:

Plot the graph I against x

Electric field

Electric field is a region around a charged object which

any other charged body experience a force.

Electric field can be represented by arrow lines called

electric field line or electric lines of force.

The electric field is strongest where the electric lines of

force are close together.

The electric field lines of force never cross over and they

start on positive charges and end on negative charges.

The electric field lines of force is a vector quantity as it

has both force and direction.

Making the shape of an electric field visible

Semolina powder is dispersed evenly on the surface of the

oil.

The high voltage sup[ply is switched on.

The semolina powder on the oil surface become

aligned in the direction of electric field and thus maps

out the electric field lines due the action of the force of the

electric field.

The pattern of electric field lines of force depends on the

shape and the number of charged objects.

The following figure shows the some examples of the

electric fields:

The high voltage supply is switched on.

The ping-pong ball is touched the negative plate and

released.

It is because when the ball touches the negative plate, it

receives negative charges. So the ball is attracted by the

positive plate. When the ball touches the positive plate ,its

charged is neutralised and immediately receives positive

charge.

Hence the ball is attracted by the negative plate. The

process is repeated caused the ball oscillates.

The speed of the ball increases as

(1) the distance between two electrode decreases

(2) the mass of the ball decreases

(3) the voltage of the power supply increases

Effect of an Electric Field on candle flame

The voltage supply is switched on.

The flame is seen flatten and spreads out and more to the

negative plate.

It is because the heat of burning candle produces positive

and negative ions.

The positive ions which are heavier is pulled towards

negative plate with a large force occupy a larger proportion

of the flame.

TUTORIAL 1

1

A

B

C

D

minutes. What is the current in the conductor?

A

C

480 A

2A

B

D

120 A

1A

is the quantity of charge flows in the bulb?

A

C

charge negative only

high voltage

large current

12 C

4C

B

D

8C

2C

bulb when it lights up at normal brightness for 600

s?

A

C

5

B

D

6.25 x 1019

6.00 x 1021

3.2 x 1012

3.2 x 1015

B

D

A

B

C

D

4.8 x 1012

4.8 x 1015

3.84 x 1011

1.35 x 1018

B

D

Q1

Q2

Positive

Positive

Negative

Negative

Negative

Positive

Positive

Negative

10

pattern?

11

pattern of an electric field correctly?

1.67 x 1014

4.17 x 1023

electric field?

A

B

C

D

4.65 x 1019

3.75 x 1021

electronic advertisement board is 3.0 x 10 -5 A.

What is the number of electrons flowing in the

advertisement board when it is switched on for 2

hours ?

[ Charge of an electron = 1.6 x 10 -19 C ]

A

C

360 C

2400 C

minutes. What is the number of electrons flowing in

the wire?

(e = 1.6 x 10-19 C )

A

C

B

D

conductor for 20 minutes. What is the number of

electrons transferred?

[Charge of an electron = 1.6 x 10 -19 C]

A

C

150 C

840 C

Electric field is a region around a neutral

object

The electric field lines of force always cross

over

The electric field lines start on negative

charges and end on positive charges.

charged particles, Q1 and Q2.

12

pattern?

13

field correctly?

14

pattern?

15

pattern?

16

metal plates, P and Q.

D

19

is switched on ?

A

B

C

D

17

(a)

moved to the left only

will spread to both plates

will remain unchanged

(b)

oscillates between two plates which are connected to

an Extra High Tension (EHT) power supply.

(c)

Diagram 19

What is a Van de Graff generator used for?

..................................................................

..................................................................

Name the part laballed

(i) M

(i) N

.

A microammeter is connected to M and

the another terminal is connected to pipe.

When the Van de Graff is switched on for

4 minutes ,the reading of the micro ammeter is

20 A.

(e= 1.6 x 10-19 C ).

Determine

(i) the quantity of charge

(ii)

21

apparatus to show the existence of an electric field.

increase if

A

B

C

D

18

the size of the sphere is increased.

the length of the thread is increased.

the voltage of the EHT is increased.

electric field .

(a)

(b)

high voltage supply is switched on?

..............................................................................

..............................................................................

..

(c) On Diagram 21.2 , draw the electric field lines

to show the electric field between two

electrodes

A

B

C

Diagram 21.1

Why the olive oil is used?

........................................................................

number of positive ions

the number of positive ions is greater than the

number of negative ions

negative ions is heavier than positive ions

Diagram 21.2

22

with a conducting material is by a nylon thread

between two metal plates P and Q. The metal plate P

is connected to negative terminal(earth) and plate Q

to positive terminal of the high voltage supply.

(a)

Diagram 22.2

23

with metallic paint is hung in an electric field

between two metal plates.

Diagram 22.1

When the ball is touched to the plate Q and

released the ball oscillates between two

plates.

(i)

..........................................................

..........................................................

..........................................................

Diagram 23.1

(a)

(ii)

(ii)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(i)

speed of the ball X?

..........................................................

..........................................................

(iii) What happen to the motion of the ball X

when the connection between the plate P

and the negative terminal is cut off?

..........................................................

..........................................................

Why the nylon thread is used?

..................................................................

When the ball is replaced by the candle flame ,

what happen to

(i) flame of the candle

..........................................................

..........................................................

(ii) give the reason for your answer in

..........................................................

The ball X is charged by positive charges and

is placed near a metal plate a shown Diagram

22.2 .Draw the electric field lines to show the

electric field between the ball and the metal

plate.

(b)

(c)

(i)

...

State the change on the strength of the

electric field when the potential

difference of the high voltage supply

increases.

.........

negative plate.

State the type of charge received by the

polystyrene ball.

...

(ii) What happen to the polystyrene ball when it is

released from negative plate?

replaced by a burning candle. On Diagram

23.2, draw the shape of the candle flame

Diagram 12.2

observed as drawn in answer (c)

(i).

......................................................

........................................................................

........................................................................

........................................................................

..................

........................................................................

........................................................................

........................................................................

........................................................................

(d0

..............................................................................

..............................................................................

..............................................................................

24

metal paint oscillates between two metal plates. The

metal plates are connected to an Extra High Tension,

EHT supply which produce a strong electric field

between plates when the switch is on .

Diagram 24.2 shows the ping pong ball oscillates

between two metal plates when the voltage is

increased

(c)

(i) Compare the EHT voltage.

.........

(ii) Compare the strength of electric field.

.........

(iii)

Compare the oscillation velocity of

ping pong ball.

...

(iv)

State the relationship between the

EHTvoltage and the strength of electric

field.

...

(v)

Relate the strength of electric field

with oscillation velocity.

...

What will happen to the velocity of the ping

pong ball if the distance between two metal plate

is increases. Give one reason for your answer.

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

LESSON 2

Analysing the relationship between electric

current and potential difference

Diagram 24.1

Current,I

From Lesson 1,

Current ,I is the rate of flow of charge, Q

Current = Charge

Time

(a)

Diagram 24.2

What is the meaning of electric field?

Or

I=Q

t

1A= 1 C s-1

Current is said A current flows through......."

The current is measured by an ammeter and it must

be connected in series with the component which

we want to find the current through the component.

For example, if we want to measure the current

through a bulb :

Example 1

A battery is switched on for a few moments. In that time

40 C pass through the battery and they carry away 240 J

of electrical energy . What is the potential difference

across the battery?

Solution

An electric circuit must have a cell or some source of

electrical energy ,if there is to be a current. The

energy to move the electrons or to produce current

we call voltage or potential difference

Example 2

charge charge

minutes convert 5.76 X 10 6 J of electrical energy into

heat energy.

Calculate

(a) the total charge circulated through the heater

(b) the potential difference across the heater

Or

Solution

(energy) to carry a unit charge

V=E

Q

1 V = 1 J C-1

Potential difference is said A potential difference

across......"

The potential difference is measured by a voltmeter

and it must be connected in parallel with the

component which we want to find the potential

difference between the component.

For example, if we want to measure the difference

across a bulb :

current ,I in a metal conductor Ohms Law

The relationship between voltage, V and current ,I in a

metal conductor is discovered by George Ohm is called as

Ohms law.

Ohms law state The potential across a metal conductor is

directly proportional to the current flowing through the

conductor , provided that its temperature remains constant.

Or V I , if T remains constant

The experiment to investigate the relationship between

the potential difference ,V and the current, I in a metal

conductor

Hypothesis:

The potential difference across a metal conductor

increases as the current in the metal conductor increases.

Aim of the experiment :

To investigate the relationship between the potential

difference ,V and current, I in a metal conductor

Variables in the experiment:

Manipulated variable: the current

Responding variable: the potential difference

Fixed variable: temperature

List of apparatus and materials:

Ammeter, voltmeter, rheostat, conductor wire, connection

wires ,dry cells and switch.

Arrangement of the apparatus:

Resistance, R

Based on the Ohms law,

V I

V=k I

k

V

I

k is replaced by R

Hence definition of resistance is ;

Resistance is the ratio of the potential difference to the

current.

Or Resistance = Potential difference

Current

V

R

Or

I

The S.I. unit is Ohm ()

method of controlling the manipulated variable and the

method of measuring the responding variable.

The switch is closed.

The reading of the voltmeter ,V and the ammeter, I is

recorded.

The experiment is repeated 5 times for with different

value of, I, by adjusting the rheostat

Tabulate the data:

I

V

Analysis the data:

Plot the graph V against I

1 = 1 V A-1

other physical properties are remain unchanged , the

resistance of the conductor not depend on the current ,I

and the potential difference, V.

Conductors which obey the Ohms law is called Ohmic

conductors.

(a)

The resistance is directly proportional to the

Length of the conductor

R l

10

R

(b)

The resistance is inversely proportional

to the cross-sectional area of the conductor

(c)

= RA

l

As increases , R increases.

When the number of S.W.G. higher the thickness of the

wire decreases .

the resistance and the length of a metal conductor

Hypothesis:

The resistance of metal conductor increases as the length

increases

Aim of the experiment :

To investigate the relationship between the resistance and

the length of a metal conductor.

Variables in the experiment:

Manipulated variable: the length of the metal conductor

Responding variable: the resistance

Fixed variable: temperature, the cross-sectional area and

type of material

List of apparatus and materials:

Ammeter, voltmeter, conductor wire, connection wires ,dry

cells, metre rule and switch.

Arrangement of the apparatus:

Different material of the conductors have the

resistance .

cooper have low resistance.

For good insulating material such as rubber has high

resistance.

(d)

Temperature

For metal conductors such as cooper ,iron , the

resistance is increases linearly to the temperature.

For alloys such as constantan and nichrome the

temperature not affected the resistance.

For semiconductor materials such silicon and

germanium an also termistor the resistance

decreases when its temperature is increased.

method of controlling the manipulated variable and the

method of measuring the responding variable.

The length of the conductor wire is measured by a ruler = l

The switch is closed.

The reading of the voltmeter ,V and the ammeter, I is

recorded.

The resistance is calculated , R

Hence

and

V

I

length of the wire

Tabulate the data:

I

R

Analysis the data:

Plot the graph R against l

Resistivity ,

R l

1

A

Types of resistor

Fixed resistor :

Common materials is used in fixed resistor are alloys such

as nichrome and constantan.

11

resistance suddenly becomes zero when it is cooled below

a certain temperature called the critical temperature, t c

Rheostat :

This has a coil resistance wire wound a ceramic tube. A

sliding contact ca be moved to any position along the coil.

This changes the length of the wire and as a result the

resistance changes.

act as perfect conductors with zero resistiviy. Once the

current is set up in these materials, its need no applied

voltage to persist flowing without any loss..

The example of superconductor materials are aluminium

(Tc= 1.2 K), Plumbum (Tc= 7.2 K), Niobium (Tc= 9.3 K),

Nb3Sn (Tc= 18 K) , Nb3Ge (Tc= 23 K) and

YBa2Cu3O2 (Tc= 100 K).

Its used in transportation, medicine ,industry and army .

Potentiometer

As voltage divider. When the length increases , the

resistance increases and as the result the potential

differences (voltage) increases .

Thermistor :

A thermistor is a resistor whose resistance changes with

temperature. Its decrease in resistance as the temperature

rises.

The resistance of LDR changes depends on the brightness

of light falling on it. As the brightness of light falling on it

increases the resistance decreases.

TUTORIAL 2

Superconductor

Superconductor is a metal conductor decreases when its

temperature decreases.

12

is 1 Volt if

A

B

C

D

2

6.4 x 10 8 V

4.0 x 108 V

A

B

C

D

7

B

8.0 x 107 V

2.0 x 107 V

x

0.80

0.90

1.00

1.10

y

2.00

1.75

1.63

1.25

difference , V and current , I for an electrolyte.

36 C charge flows in the bulb. What is the energy is

dissipated in the bulb?

A

C

16 C charge flows from the cloud to the Earth and

transferred 6.4 x 10 6 kJ. What is the potential

difference across the cloud and the Earth?

A

C

1 second

a power of 1 W is generated when 1 C

charge flows

an energy of 1 J is used to flow 1 C of charge

an energy of 1 J is used to flow 1 A of current

5.2 J

126 J

B

D

9.0 J

144 J

resistors , R and two measuring instruments X

and Y.

A

B

C

proportional to the current

The electrolyte obeys the Ohms law

The current does not flows in the electrolyte

when the potential difference lower than 1.5 V

potential difference ,V and current, I for a torch light

bulb?

the resistor?

X

A

Ammeter

Ammeter

B

Voltmeter

Voltmeter

C

Ammeter

Voltmeter

D

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Which graph obeys the Ohms law?

and potential difference, V for a conductor that

obeys Ohm's law

13

I/A

0.40

0.70

x

1.20

V/V

1.00

y

2.25

3.00

C

15

10

11

6.0

14.0

B

D

4.0

24.0

A

B

C

D

measure the resistance of a wire.

16

A

500

B

1000

C

2000

D

4000

12

13

Length of wire XY

Diameter of wire XY

Longer

Longer

Shorter

Shorter

Bigger

Smaller

Bigger

Smaller

connected at P and Q.

reading of the voltmeter increase if

resistance increasing as the current increases?

A

B

C

diameter of wire increase

temperature of wire decrease

14

In which direction should the current flows, when

the resistance of the sheet is the smallest?

17

resistance increasing as the current increases?

resistance of a metal conductor?

A

B

C

D

14

reading on the ammeter?

resistance of the device?

A

C

the thickness of the conductor

the type of material of the conductor

the current flows through the conductor

A

B

the length decreases

14

18

A

B

C

D

19

because

Length / cm

100

100

50

50

S.W.G

32

20

32

20

A

B

C

D

22

relationship between the potential

difference and the current of different conductor

20

wire , jockey ,ammeter, voltmeter and dry cell.

cooper wire , the reading of ammeter and voltmeter

are 4A and 12 V respectively.

What is the reading of the ammeter when the jockey

is touched at a length 0.2m on the cooper wire?

A

B

C

D

T

U

T and S

R and T

A

C

23

against current for two resistors P and Q.

24

21

3A

12 A

B

D

2R

A

B

C

D

25

cable but it does not experience an electric shock.

15

4R

its resistance?

Cross-sectional area

Q has a bigger resistance than P

Both resistors are non-ohmic resistor

Both resistors have the same resistance

10 A

24 A

When diameter of the wire is 2d , what is the

resistance of the wire.

A

B

C

D

the voltage between its legs is low

the bird is a good electric insulator

most of the electricity is converted to heat

Double

Double

No change

Half

Length

Double

No change

Half

No change

thermistor?

the experiment.

26

graph for a superconductor material.

Diagram 27.2

What is the name of point P?

A

B

C

D

27

(i) What is the physical quantity represented by

the gradient of the graph?

resistance ?

Absolute temperature

Basic temperature

Critical temperature

Virtual temperature

relationship between current and potential difference

across a constantan wire s.w.g. 24 with length of 10

cm.

28

circuits each consisting of a copper wire.

Diagram 27.1

(a)

(b)

(c)

and Y in Diagram 27.1.

X :

Y :

Diagram 28.1

(i)

reading of the measuring instruments X

and Y?

..

(ii) State the physics law involved in b(i).

constantan wire s.w.g 36 with the same length.

Diagram 27.2 shows the graph V against I for

(a)

(b)

Diagram 28.2

Name the physical quantity measured by the

ammeter.

...

(i) Compare the thickness of the copper

wire in Diagram 28.1 and Diagram 28.2.

..

(ii)

16

...................

Relate the thickness of the copper wire

to the ammeter reading.

to the resistance

(iii)

(iv)

29

m.

m = ..

(ii) Express gradient, m, in terms of R and

d2.

the relationship between the resistance, R, and

diameter, d, of a nichrome wire and to determine the

resistivity,

against

(c)

in Diagram 29 below.

Graph of R against

Rd 2

and the

4l

resistivity ,

, of nichrome. Use l = 100 cm.

and the length, l, of each wire is 100 cm.

The result of the experiment is shown in the graph R

1

d2

0.25 mm and a length of 200 cm.

Using the formula

1

d2

of

Rd 2

and the value

4l

nichrome wire, Y.

(e)

30

during this experiment.

when it is connected to a dry cell.

Diagram 30.2 shows the same light bulb lights up

with more brightness when it is connected to two dry

cells.

Diagram 30.1

(a) State one suitable inference.

(b) State one suitable hypotesis.

(c) With the use of apparatus as a 1.5 V

battery, bulb, ammeter, voltmeter, connecting

wire and other apparatus, describe an

experiment framework to investigate the

hypothesis stated in (b)

Diagram 29

(a)

State the relationship between R and d 2.

nichrome wire, X, with diameter of 0.20

mm.

(i)

following :

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

formula

(i)

Diagram 30.2

Rd 2

4l

17

Variables in the experiment.

List of apparatus and materials.

Arrangement of the apparatus.

The procedure of the experiment which

include the method of controlling the

manipulated variable and the method of

measuring the responding variable.

(vii) The way you would analyse the data.

31

and a bulb. It is connected using a long wire. The

bulb lit less brightly.

Diagram 32.2 also shows an electric circuit with a

cell and bulb. It is connected by using a short wire.

The bulb lit more brightly.

Diagram 31.1

Diagram 31.2

(a) State one suitable inference.

(b)

(c)

voltmeter, rheostat and other apparatus,

describe an experiment framework to

investigate the hypothesis stated in (b)

In your description, state clearly the following:

(i) Aim of the experiment.

(ii) Variables in the experiment.

(iii) List of apparatus and materials

(iv) Arrangement of the apparatus.

(v) The procedure of the experiment which

include the method of controlling the

manipulated variable and the method of

measuring the responding variable.

(vi) The way you would tabulate the data.

(vii) The way you would analyse the data

LESSON 3

Analysing Series and parallel circuits

Resistors in series

18

The same current flows through each resistors.

The potential difference across each resistors is

different.

Hint 2

Resistors in parallel

Hint 3

The same potential difference across each resistors.

The current flow through each resistors is different.

Hint 4

Example 1

Conclusion

CURRENT

SERIES

PARALLEL

POTENTIAL

DIFFERENCE

RESISTANCE

(a)

(Small //Big)

(Small //Big)

Hints of a circuit

(b)

Hint 1

19

(c)

(d)

Solution

(e)

Example 3

Solution

circuits:-

Example 2

Determine the effective resistance for the following

circuits :-

20

Example 5

Diagram 24 shows a battery 15 V is connected to three

resistors.

Solution

Diagram 24

(a) What is the effective resistance of the resistor

15 and 10

(b) What is the effective resistance of the resistors

15 , 10 and 1.5 ?

(c) What is the reading of the ammeter

(i) A1

(ii) A2

(iii) A3

(d) What is the reading of the voltmeter

(i) V1

(ii) V2

Solution

Example 4

What is the reading of the voltmeter for the following

circuits:-

TUTORIAL 3

1

Solution

, the effective resistance is 20 .

What is the effective resistance if the four resistors

are connected in parallel?

A

C

21

0.8

5.0

B

D

1.25

20.0

parallel , the effective resistance is 4 .

What is the effective resistance if the two resistors

are connected in series?

A

C

2

8

B

D

resistance 8 ?

circuit .Which of the following produces the smallest

effective resistance.

connected in parallel.

4

16

A

C

4

25

70

B

D

45

120

10 and a resistor 5 .

combination?

A

C

5

2.5

10

B

D

5

12.5

R.

A

B

C

D

highest resistance?

A

B

C

D

Lowest resistance

Highest

resistance

Q

R

R

P

P

P

Q

R

22

A1> A2 =A3

A1> A3 >A2

A2> A3 = A1

A3 >A2 A1

source. I2 and I3 are the current in each

branch of the parallel arrangement shown.

and I3 is correct?

A

B

C

D

10

I1

I2

I3

I3

13

Which ammeter is showing a faulty reading?

14

is bigger than I3 but smaller than I1.

is bigger than I2 , but smaller than I1.

is equal to I2, but smaller than I1

to a dry cell

A

B

C

D

11

I1 = I5 and I2 = I3

I1 = I2 = I5 and I3

I1 = I2 = I5 and I3

I1 > I2 > I5 and I2 = I3

= I4

= I4

= I4

+ I4

through it?

A

1

B

2

C

3

D

4

are connected to a power supply as shown in

diagram.

15

following figure.

Which lamp, if removed ,would cause all the lamps

to go out?

16

in a series circuit. Diagram (b) shows 3 identical

bulbs are connected in a parallel circuit.

reading of ammeter A2?

A

C

12

0.4 A

0.8 A

B

D

0.7 A

1.2 A

brightest ?

Given that all the bulbs are identical.

23

Diagram (a)

A

B

C

D

19

V3 > V2 > V1

V1 = V3 > V2

V1 = V2 = V3

V1 = V3 < V2

three similar resistors.

Diagram(b)

Which of the following statements about both

circuits is correct if one of the bulbs blow?

Circuit (a)

Circuit (b)

not lit up

The other bulbs do

not lit up

lit up

The other bulbs

do not lit up

correct?

up

lit up

up

do not lit up

A

B

C

A

B

17

18

20

In which circuit are all the bulbs lighted at normal

brightness?

21

as shown in the following figure. A1 and A2 are the

should be closed to make only bulb P, R and S light?

A

B

C

D

1

1

2

3

2

2

3

4

V1 > V2

V1 < V2

V1 = V2

3

5

4

5

in series.

24

the voltmeters.

the brightness of the bulb Q when the switch is on?

Ammeter reading

A

B

C

D

22

Voltmeter reading

A1 < A2

A1 < A2

A1 = A2

A1 = A2

Reading of

the ammeter

V1 < V2

V1 = V2

V1 > V2

V1 = V2

A

B

C

D

resistors connected in parallel as shown in the

following figure. A1 and A2 are the readings on

ammeter V1 and V2 are the readings on the

voltmeters.

25

increase

increase

remain unchanged

remain unchanged

Brightness of

the bulb Q

remain unchanged

increase

increase

remain unchanged

cells, a switch and a lamp.

above torch light?

Ammeter reading

A

B

C

D

23

A1 < A2

A1 =A2

A1 = A2

A1 <A2

Voltmeter reading

V1 > V2

V1 =V2

V1 < V2

V1 = V2

light up at normal brightness.

26

with T, what happen to the brightness of the bulb S

?

A

unchanged

B

increase

C

decrease

24

circuit above when the switch is closed?

three identical bulbs P, Q and R.

26

25

A

0.3 A

B

3.0 A

C

4.0 A

D

8.0 A

Diagram shows two resistors 2 is connected

parallel in a circuit.

30

A

C

27

1.5 A

4.5 A

B

D

S is opened and closed?

3.0 A

6.0 A

Switch S is

opened

A

B

C

D

31

Switch S is

closed

4.0 A

2.0 A

2.0 A

2.0 A

6.0 A

6.0 A

3.0 A

1.2 A

shown in Figure (a) and the current I1 flows.

Later , the resistors 4 is connected series l as

shown in Figure (b) and the current I2 flows.

circuit above when the switch is closed?

A

C

28

0.4 A

1.0 A

B

D

0.5 A

2.0 A

circuit above when the switch is closed?

A

C

29

2.0 A

1.5 A

B

D

1.3 A

1.0 A

A1 is 12 A.

A

C

32

A

C

9A

6A

B

D

8A

3A

26

1:2

2:1

B

D

1: 4

4:1

opened and closed the reading of the ammeter is I1

and I2 respectively.

36

A

C

33

1:2

2:1

B

D

1: 3

3:1

circuit above when the switch is closed?

A

C

37

2.0 V

6.0 V

B

D

4.0 V

12.0 V

is 2A.

A

B

C

D

34

I1 = 0.4A

I1 = 2.0A

I1 = 0.5A

I1 = 2.5A

I2 = 0.4 A

I2 = 0.5 A

I2 = 2.5 A

I2 = 2.5 A

What is the potential difference across the resistor

X?

A

0.5 V

B

2.0 V

C

3.0 V

D

6.0 V

38

identical resistors X ,Y, Z and two measurement

instruments P and Q.

circuit above when the switch is closed?

A

C

35

7.8 V

5.8 V

B

D

6.8 V

4.8 V

(a)

(b)

What is the potential difference across the resistor 2

?

A

C

2V

6V

B

D

Diagram 38.1

Name the measurement instruments,

P...............................................................

Q..............................................................

(i)

connected parallel to resistor Z ,

what happen to the reading of P and Q?

P......................................................

Q......................................................

4V

8V

27

(ii)

(c)

........................................................

The resistors X, Y and Z are replaced by three

identical bulb K, L and M as shown in

Diagram 25.2

Diagram 39.1:

Diagram 39.2:

(e)

Diagram38.2

Compare the brightness between the bulb

(i)

Bulbs are used to heat up the incubator.

Between the circuit in Diagram 39.1

and in Diagram 39.2, which circuit is the

most suitable to be used by the student to heat

up the incubator.

...............................................................

.....

39

K and L

........................................................

(ii) L and M

........................................................

Diagram 39.1 and Diagram 39.2 shows three

identical filament bulbs marked 6V, 12W

arranged in two different ways and connected

to a battery 6 V .

....................................................................

circuit. The circuit contains four identical bulbs

connected to four identical new dry cells

(i)

40

Diagram 40

What is the type of the circuit ?

for the above arrangement of apparatus using

appropriate symbols.

(a)

Diagram 39.1

Diagram

39.2

(a)

K ,L and M.

Tick () one box below.

........

................................................................................

..

(b) State the type of circuit in Diagram 39.1

and 39.2

> lamp L > lamp M

The brightness of lamp L >lamp K

> lamp J > lamp M

Diagram 39.1

.

Diagram 39.2

.......................................

....

(c)

(d)

= lamp K = lamp L =

lamp M

the bulbs in Diagram 39.1.

Explain your answer .

..............................................................

...

(e)

and Diagram 39.2 is 4 . Determine the current

flow in each bulb.

used in

the house lighting circuit.

...

28

41

connected in three circuits as shown in Diagram 41.1

Circuit Y

Circuit Z

Diagram 41.1

The rheostat in each circuit is adjusted and

the potential difference, V, against current,

graphs are plotted for each circuit. The graph

for each circuit is shown in Diagram 41.2.

(ii)

(ii)

minutes.

Circuit X

(b)

43

Calculate

(ii)

(ii)

for two circuit. Each circuit contains four identical

bulbs connected to four identical new dry cells.

Graph K

(i)

Graph L

Graph M

Diagram 41.2

Match the graphs K, L and M to the circuits

X, Y and Z.

Circuit

Diagram 43.1

Graph

(a)

X

Y

(ii)

Z

(ii)

(iii)

42

(i)

............................

.................................................................

.................................................................

Calculate the value of R

Diagram 43.2

that take place in the bulb.

Draw a circuit diagram for each

photograph.

Diagram 43.2 . Compare the type of circuit ,

the brightness of each bulb in each diagrams to

deduce a concept in physics with regard to the

potential difference and the current flow for the

bulbs in series and parallel circuits.

resistors and a bulb.

and internal resistance.

Diagram 42

(a)

(e.m.f), E

E.m.f is the potential across a cell or source of electricity

when it is on open circuit and supplying no current.

ammeter is 1.5 A.

Determine

(ii)

the resistance of the bulb.

29

The symbol of e.m.f is E

(current is flowing) ,the potential across the cell drops in

is call the potential difference across the cell , V

Potential difference

across cell when

no current flow

flowing

Potential

difference

across

+

external

resistance

Potential

difference

across

internal

resistance

E =IR+Ir

E=V+I r

V = IR

V<E

Internal resistance , r

The reason why the potential difference across a cell

drops when it is supplying current is that cell itself has a

resistance.

The internal resistance ,r is the resistance within a cell

due to its electrolyte and electrodes or source of electricity.

The electric current delivered to a circuit by a cell or

battery also flows through the battery itself. Conduction

inside a cell is by means of the movement of charged

atoms or groups of atoms called ions in the electrolyte.

There is some resistance to the flow of these ions which

give a cell an internal resistance.

Example 1

The figure shows a circuit.

is 1.5 V. When the switch S is closed the reading of the

voltmeter and ammeter are 1.35 V and 0.3 A respectively.

Determine

(a) the e.m.f. of the cell

(b) the internal resistance of the cell

(c) the resistance R

Cells in batteries

When cell is joined together to form a battery , two factors

are affected by the way the cells are connected. These are

the e.m.f of the battery and internal resistance of the

battery. The figure following shows three typical

arrangements of cells that are used.

Solution

Example 2

30

calculate,

(a) the resistance of resistor R

(b) the internal resistance ,r of the cell

Solution

E = ........................................................

r = ........................................................

resistance a dry cell.

Example 3

An accumulator produce a current 4 A when it is

connected to a resistor 2. When the same accumulator is

connected to a resistor 3 the current is produced is 3A.

Determine the e.m.f and the internal resistance of the

accumulator.

Solution

and voltmeter is recorded .

Later, the switch is closed and the reading of the

ammeter=I and voltmeter=V is recorded.

The experiment is repeated 5 times by adjusting the

rheostat.

A graph V against I is plotted.

(1)

Graph V against I

From the graph e.m.f is the intercept on the V-axis

and r is the gradient of the graph.

E = ..............................................................

r = ..............................................................

TUTORIAL 4

(2) Graph R against 1

31

4

1

same unit as the unit of the electromotive force?

A

C

Current

Resistance

B

D

reading of the voltmeter is 3.0 V when switch S is

switched off. When switch S is switched on, the

voltmeter reads 2.8 V and the ammeter reads 0.5 A.

Energy

Potential difference

A

C

5

0.40

0.80

B

D

0.60

1.00

resistance of the battery is 1 .

is opened?

A zero

B 3.0 V

C less than 3.0 V

D more than 3.0 V

3

parallel in a circuit.

What is the ammeter reading?

A

C

6

0.43 A

2.22 A

B

D

0.45 A

9.00 A

the voltmeter reading is 1.5 V. When the switch S is

closed the readings of voltmeter and the ammeter is

1.3 V and 0.2 A respectively.

internal resistance of 0.5 , what are the total

e.m.f. and total internal resistance for the circuit?

A

B

C

D

Total e.m.f.

Total

internal

resistance

3V

3V

9V

9V

0.17

0.50

0.17

1.50

A

32

0.1

C

0.6

0.3

D

1.0

5 . When the switch S is opened the reading of the

voltmeter is 14 V. When the switched S is closed the

reading of the voltmeter is 10V.

A

C

11

A

C

8

0.5

3.0

B

D

2.0

4.0

12

0.46 V

1.50 V

1.5 V, 0.5

0.5 V, 1.5

B

D

2.0 V, 0.5

1.0 V , 1.5

to a resistor 2. When the same accumulator is

connected to a resistor 4 the current is produced is

0.4 A. What is the e.m.f of the cell?

A

C

13

B

D

connected to a resistor 2. When the same

accumulator is connected to a resistor 7 the current

is produced is 0.2 A.

What is the e.m.f and the internal resistance of the

accumulator.

A

C

2 and a cell with an electromotive force of 12 V

and internal resistance of 6 .

0.23 V

1.25 V

1.6 V

3.0 V

B

D

2.6 V

4.0 V

and internal resistance of a cell. Figure (b) shows

the experiment is repeated by using the same cell.

A

C

9

1.1 A

1.3 A

B

D

1.2 A

1.4 A

6 and a cell with an electromotive force of 12 V

and internal resistance of 3 .

force of the cell?

A

B

C

D

Internal resistance /

0.25

0.50

1.00

1.25

E.m.f / V

1.5

3.0

3.0

4.5

6?

A

C

10

0.5 A

2.0 A

B

D

1.0 A

3.0 A

10, a resistor 20 , a cell with e.m.f of 1.5 V and

internal resistance of 2.

14

33

internal resistance.

reading when the resistance of the rheostat is

reduced?

A

B

C

D

15

Ammeter

reading

Voltmeter

reading

Decreases

Decreases

Increases

Increases

Decreases

Increases

Decreases

Increases

A

C

18

2.40

1.25

B

D

1.50

0.40

and internal resistance of a cell as shown in

Figure(a). The result of the experiment is shown in

Figure(b).

electromotive force a battery?

internal resistance of the cell?

e.m.f.

A

p

q

p

q

x

16

D

19

Internal

resistance

p

q

y

x

p

q

across a battery against the current through for two

difference batteries X and Y.

ammeter and the voltmeter in figure above?

17

current, I graph.

20

34

Electromotive

force, E

Internal

resistance, r

A

B

C

D

rx>ry

r x < ry

rx<ry

rx>ry

EX < E Y

EX > E Y

EX < E Y

EX > E Y

against current, I of a battery.

22

ammeter, two switches S1 and S2 , two bulbs M1

and M2 and a battery with internal resistance of

1.

A

B

C

D

21

The external resistance is 1.5

The internal resistance of the battery is

1

As the current decreases the internal resistance

of the battery decreases.

Diagram 22

series with a bulb, an ammeter and a

switch. A high resistance voltmeter

connected across the cell gives a reading

of 2 V when the switch is opened and a

reading of 1.5 V when the switch is

closed. The reading on the ammeter when

the switch is closed is 0.3A.

(a)

reading of the voltmeter is 12 V.

What is the e.m.f. of the cell?

(b)

S2 is opened , the reading of the ammeter is

3.0 A.

Calculate

(i)

the reading of the voltmeter?

(ii)

Diagram 21

(a) What is the e.m.f. of the cell?

voltmeter reading when the switch is

closed and when the switch is

opened?

(i) resistance of the bulb

(c)

reading of the ammeter is 6.0 A .

Calculate

(i) the reading of the voltmeter?

(ii)

23

cell.

(d) Another identical bulb is added in

parallel with the existing bulb. What

is the reading of the voltmeter when

the switch is closed.

35

the results of the experiment to determine the

electromotive force ,E, and the internal resistance, r

, of a dry cell.

Graph R against

1

I

Diagram 23

(a)

(b)

(c)

(i) what happen when I increases?

difference , V, when the current ,

I = 0.0 A.

Show on the graph , how you determine

V.

represents the value in (a)(ii).

..

The internal resistance, r, of the dry cell is

given by

r = -m

where m is the gradient of the graph. Calculate

the value r.

(i)

Diagram 24

(a)

graph how you determine value of R.

..

(iv) Calculate the gradient of the graph Show

on the graph how you determine the

gradient of graph.

when I = 0.80 A.

Show on the graph how you determine

the value V.

..

(ii) The resistance R is given by

R=V

I

Calculate R when I = 0.80 A

Gradient = ..

(b) The resistance, R is given by the formula

R=

during this experiment.

the relationship between the electromotive force, E

and internal resistance, r of a dry cell. The result of

the experiment is shown in the graph Resistance, R

against reciprocal of current,

E

-r

I

internal resistance.

Based on your answer in (a)(iii) and (a)(iv) ,

determine the E is electromotive force and r is

internal resistance

(d)

24

(i) What happen to R when I decrease?

.........................................................

(ii) Determine the value of I when R = 5 .

Show on the graph how you determine

value of R.

energy and power

1

as shown in

I

Diagram24

36

I= Q

t

Q = It ...(1)

Based on the definition of potential difference,

V=E

Q

E = V Q (2)

energy is produced in the resistor 6?

Solution

E = VIt (3)

So the definition of electrical energy is the product of the

potential difference , the current and the time.

The S.I. unit of Electrical energy is Joule (J)

I J = 1 VAs

unit

V = IR ..(4)

P = E

t

I = V (5)

R

Substitute (4) into (3)

E = I2 R t

E = V It or E = I2 Rt or E = V2 t

R

P = VIt or P = I2 Rt or P = V2 t

t

t

Rt

E = V2 t

R

Conclusion:

Conclusion

E=VI t

E = I2 R t

E = V2 t

R

P=VI

P=I2R

P = V2

R

Example 1

1W= 1VA

minutes. If the potential difference across the elements is

240 V, calculate the electrical energy is used by the

elements

Example 3

A small laboratory immersion heater uses a 12 V supply.

The current through the heater is 4A. What is the power of

the heater.

Solution

Solution

Example 4

Example 2

(a)

(b)

(c)

37

What is the current flows through the kettle?

Determine the suitable fuse to use in the kettle.

(d)

the kettle.

Solution

Example 6

The following table shows the electrical appliances is used

at Ahmads house.

Appliance

Number

Power of

Time is

of

each

used for

appliance

appliance

a day

(W)

(Hour))

Fluorescent

15

60

12

lamp

Fan

8

90

5

Iron

1

1200

0.5

Calculate the cost of using the electrical appliances by

Ahmads Family within 20 days.

[ The cost of electricity is 20 sen for first 100 units and

24 sen for next 900 units ]

Solution

The reading of the ammeter = I and the voltmeter V is

recorded.

The power of the bulb is calculated by using the formula P

= VI

The experiment is repeated 5 times by adjusting the

rheostat.

The average power of the bulb is calculated.

Buying electrical energy

Every house has an electrical meter supplied by the

Electricity board.

The units used are kilowatt-hours (kWh).

1 kilowatt - hour is the energy supplied in 1 hour to an

appliance whose power rating is 1 kW.

Energy

Kilowatt-hour

Efficiency = Useful energy output of appliance x 100%

Energy input to appliance

= power x time

kilowatts

hours

Efficiency = Eo x 100 %

Ei

Example 7

Example 5

height 5 m in 2.5 s. If the supply voltage is 12 V and the

flow of current in the motor is 5.0 A , calculate

(a) Energy input to the motor

(b) Useful energy output of the motor

(c) Efficiency of the motor

electrical appliances :

(a)

(b)

W,240V

An air-conditioner is rating 2kW and is used for 5

hours per day during one month

38

Solution

by cooking several things at the same time.

Example 8

An electric kettle is used to boil some water to make tea.

The kettle has a power rating of 3 kW, and is filled with

0.5 kg of cold tap water at 20oC . It takes a minutes and a

half to boil. How efficient is this kettle?

[ Specific heat capacity of water = 4 200 Jkg-1 oC-1]

Solution

TUTORIAL 5

1

Ways of increasing energy efficiency.

(1) Maintaining the electrical appliances in good

working condition.

For example :

Regularly cleaning and removing dust from the

air filters of air conditioners and blades of

electric fans.

Cleaning regularly filter bags of vacuum cleaner.

(2) Operating the appliances correctly.

For example :

Turn off the appliance when not in use.

Use full loads of washing in a washing machine.

Use free wind and sunshine instead of a tumbledryer whenever possible.

Do not put warm food into a fridge or freezer.

Do not put more water in a kettle than you need

for your hot drinks.

Switch off all unnecessary lights; use low-power

lamps and install fluorescent lighting

where it is acceptable.

and the current flows to the resistance is 0.2 A for 2

minutes. What is the energy is produced in the

resistance?

A

C

39

B

D

120 J

240 J

when the current flows through the bulb is 1A for

10 s.

What is the potential difference across the bulb?

A

C

60 J

144 J

0.5 V

3.0 V

B

D

1.5 V

4.5 V

and a battery.

determine the energy dissipated in resistor 3 for

5s?

resistors 4 and 8 ?

A

C

6J

1.0 J

B

D

A

C

3J

0.5 J

dissipated in the resistor 8 in 25 second?

A

C

360 J

72 J

B

D

40 J

60 J

0.05 W

10 W

B

D

3.6 W

20 W

What is the current flows through the filament and

the resistance of the filament?

A

C

288 J

36 J

B

D

the bulb?

A

C

30 J

50 J

0.25 A, 60

4.0 A , 60

B

D

0.25 A,960

4.0 A, 960

resistance of the filament is 5. What is the power

generated by the lamp?

A

C

20.0 W

5.0 W

B

D

10.0 W

2.5 W

10

is 2 A, calculate the energy generated in both of the

resistors for every second.

A

C

0.5 J

3.0 J

B

D

the ammeter when the switch is closed?

1.5 J

6.0 J

A

C

6

11

B

D

4A

9A

A

C

40

1A

5A

charge

power

B

D

energy

voltage

12

will it take a 100 W electric light bulb to use the

same amount of energy?

A

C

20 hours

100 hours

B

D

A

C

50 hours

200 hours

17

13

different times.

In which appliance is the greatest amount of energy

converted?

A

B

C

D

14

Appliance

Time

3 kW water heater

1.5 kW hot-plate

1 kW fan

750 W electric iron

0.5 hour

1.5 hours

3 hours

1 hour

consumed the most energy?

A

C

19

20

A label 240V,1500W on electrical kettle means

C

D

16

connected to a 240 V

1500 W of power used every 1 second

when connected to 240 V supply

1500 V of voltage used every 1 second

when connected to 240V

1500 A of current used every 1 second

when connected to 240 V supply

21

22

B

D

2.5 A

12.0 A

To protect the appliance and its cable

To change the efficiency of the appliance

To change the current rating of the appliance

electrical heater should be

much less than the normal heater current

just less than the normal heater current

exactly equal to the normal heater current

just greater than the normal heater current

fuse is most suitable to connect series to the heater?

A

5A

B

7A

C

8A

D

10 A

A television is labelled 250 W , 240 V is used 5

hours per day in one month.

If the cost of electricity is 24 sen per unit , what is

the cost of operating the appliance in the month of

June?

A

C

30 minutes.

0.4 A

7.5 A

A

B

C

D

0.06 kWh

0.18 kWh

and L3 . Each bulb is labelled 12V, 30 W.Power

supply of 12 V is connected across XY

A

B

C

D

B

D

18

15

0.03 kWh

0.12 kWh

RM5.00

RM8.00

B

D

RM6.00

RM9.00

tariff.

Electrical units

First 200 units

Second 500 units

22

25

refrigerator for 360 hours.

41

A

C

23

84.00

118.80

B

D

90.00

129.00

domestic use. The reading of an electricity meter

reading in a house in the month of August is 6020

and in the month of September is 7450.

Energy consumption

First 100 units

Next 900 units

Over 1000 units

Rate(sen/unit)

20 sen

25 sen

30 sen

A

C

24

B

D

RM374

RM168

produce 36 W of light energy.

What is the efficiency of the lamp?

A

C

25

RM420

RM228

72%

85%

B

D

76%

90%

efficiency?

26

to a height 2 m in 10 s. The supply voltage is 25 V

and the flow of current in the motor is 5.0 A .What is

efficiency of the motor

A

C

27

42

B

D

80%

90%

to a height 5 m in 5 s. The flow of current in the

motor is 4.0 A .What is the potential difference

across the motor if the efficiency of the motor is

100%.

A

C

29

75%

85%

10 V

50 V

B

D

20 V

80 V

A high beam bulbs, H are labeled 12V , 36W and

a low beam bulbs, L are labeled 12V , 24W.

(a)

(b)

Diagram 29

(a)

(i)

bracket to complete the sentence below.

The bulb in diagram 6 are connected in

(series, parallel).

Diagram 830

What is meant by specification 240 V,

1000 W?

..........

The electric iron is connected to a 240 V

supply and used to iron clothes for 30

minutes.

Calculate,

(i) current that passes through the

heating element in the iron.

(ii)

(ii)

(b)

blows?

.........

Both of the bulbs H are in Diagram 29 is

labelled 12V , 36 W.

(i) What is meant by 12V , 36 W?

..

..

30 days

(1 unit energy = 23 cents)

(ii)

30

one bulb L is lit.

lifting a 2.0 kg load. When the motor is

switched on, the load moved through a

height of 1.5 m in 2.5 s with constant

speed. The current flowing in the circuit is

1.7 A and the potential difference across

the motor is 10.0 V.

circuit when all the bulbs are lit.

(c)

30

the total resistance of the circuit?

...

Diagram 30

(a)

occur when the motor is switched on.

(b) Calculate,

(i) the electrical power supplied

when the motor is lifting the

load.

specification of 240 V, 1000 W.

when the load moved through a

height of 1.5 m in 2.5 s.

(iii)

43

motor.

31

used to boil water.

suggest and explain how to build a

water heater which can boil a larger

quantity of water faster , more

efficient, and more safety based on

the following aspects;

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

heating element of the water

heater

shape of the heating element of

the water heater

melting point of the heating

element of the water heater

rate of rusting of the heating

element of the water heater

additional component used for

safety when the water boil

44

CHAPTER 7

45

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