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LESSON 1- Analysing electric fields

and charge flow


Example 2
How charges are produced?

An electric current of 3.2 mA flows through a bulb for 4


minutes.
(charge of an electrons ,e =1.6 x 10 -19C)
Determine,
(a) the electric charge
(b) the number of electrons

There are two kinds of charge which produce opposite


effects are called negative charge and positive charge.
Like charges always repel each other and unlike charges
always attract each other.
An object becomes negatively charged when it gains an
excess of electrons. Similarly , when an object has some
electrons removed, the deficiency of electrons makes the
object positively charged.
The symbol of charge is Q and the unit is coulomb (C).
The charge in an electron is , e = 1.6 x 10 -19C.
The Van de Graaff generator built a machine in which
charge continuously delivered to the inside of a hollow
metal dome by means of a rotating rubber belt. So the
generator can produce a high voltage, usually in the
megavolt range.

Solution

The definition of current, I


Current ,I is the rate of flow of charge, Q
Current = Charge
Time
Or

The experiment to investigate the relationship between


the rate of flow of electric charge and the current

I=Q
t

Hypothesis:
The current increases as the rate of flow of electric
charge increases
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the rate of flow of
electric charge and the current
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: rate of flow of electric charge
Responding variable: the current
Fixed variable: the number of charge
List of apparatus and materials:
Van de Graaff generator, crocodile clip, galvanometer,
microammeter, metal plate, nylon, ping-pong ball coated
with a metallic paint and metre rule
Arrangement of the apparatus:

The unit of current, I , is Ampere (A)


1A= 1 C s-1
The charge of an electron is , e = 1.6 x 10 -19C.
If the number of electrons is n,

Q = ne
Example 1
A charge of 600 C flow through a metal conductor in
every 5 minutes. What is the electric current in the
conductor?
Solution

The procedure of the experiment which include the


method of controlling the manipulated variable and the
method of measuring the responding variable.
By using a metre rule , the distance between two metal
plate is measured = x

The motor of the Van de Graaff is turned on for a few


minutes.
The ping-pong ball is touched to metal plate.
The reading of microammeter is recorded = I
The experiment is repeated 5 times for with different
distances between two metal plates
Tabulate the data:
x
I
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph I against x

Electric field
Electric field is a region around a charged object which
any other charged body experience a force.
Electric field can be represented by arrow lines called
electric field line or electric lines of force.
The electric field is strongest where the electric lines of
force are close together.
The electric field lines of force never cross over and they
start on positive charges and end on negative charges.
The electric field lines of force is a vector quantity as it
has both force and direction.
Making the shape of an electric field visible

Effect of an Electric Field on a charge


Semolina powder is dispersed evenly on the surface of the
oil.
The high voltage sup[ply is switched on.
The semolina powder on the oil surface become
aligned in the direction of electric field and thus maps
out the electric field lines due the action of the force of the
electric field.

Some patterns of the electric fields


The pattern of electric field lines of force depends on the
shape and the number of charged objects.
The following figure shows the some examples of the
electric fields:

A ping-pong ball is coated with a metallic paint.


The high voltage supply is switched on.
The ping-pong ball is touched the negative plate and
released.

The ping-pong oscillates between the two plates.


It is because when the ball touches the negative plate, it
receives negative charges. So the ball is attracted by the
positive plate. When the ball touches the positive plate ,its
charged is neutralised and immediately receives positive
charge.
Hence the ball is attracted by the negative plate. The
process is repeated caused the ball oscillates.
The speed of the ball increases as
(1) the distance between two electrode decreases
(2) the mass of the ball decreases
(3) the voltage of the power supply increases
Effect of an Electric Field on candle flame

A lighted candle is placed between to metal plates.


The voltage supply is switched on.
The flame is seen flatten and spreads out and more to the
negative plate.
It is because the heat of burning candle produces positive
and negative ions.
The positive ions which are heavier is pulled towards
negative plate with a large force occupy a larger proportion
of the flame.
TUTORIAL 1
1

A Van de Graaff generator can produces


A
B
C
D

240 C charge flows in a metal conductor for 2


minutes. What is the current in the conductor?
A
C

480 A
2A

B
D

120 A
1A

400 mA current flows for 5 second in a bulb. What


is the quantity of charge flows in the bulb?
A
C

charge positive only


charge negative only
high voltage
large current

12 C
4C

B
D

8C
2C

A light bulb is labelled 240 V, 0.25 A.

What is the quantity of charge that flows through the


bulb when it lights up at normal brightness for 600
s?
A
C
5

B
D

6.25 x 1019
6.00 x 1021

What are the charges of Q1 and Q2?

3.2 x 1012
3.2 x 1015

B
D

A
B
C
D

4.8 x 1012
4.8 x 1015

3.84 x 1011
1.35 x 1018

B
D

Q1

Q2

Positive
Positive
Negative
Negative

Negative
Positive
Positive
Negative

10

Which diagram shows the correct electric field


pattern?

11

Which of the following diagrams does not show the


pattern of an electric field correctly?

1.67 x 1014
4.17 x 1023

Which of the following statement is correct about the


electric field?
A
B
C
D

4.65 x 1019
3.75 x 1021

When the switch is on, the current that flows in an


electronic advertisement board is 3.0 x 10 -5 A.
What is the number of electrons flowing in the
advertisement board when it is switched on for 2
hours ?
[ Charge of an electron = 1.6 x 10 -19 C ]
A
C

360 C
2400 C

A current of 6.4 A flows in a metal wire for 2


minutes. What is the number of electrons flowing in
the wire?
(e = 1.6 x 10-19 C )
A
C

B
D

An electric current of 0.5 A flows through a


conductor for 20 minutes. What is the number of
electrons transferred?
[Charge of an electron = 1.6 x 10 -19 C]
A
C

150 C
840 C

Electric field is a vector quantity


Electric field is a region around a neutral
object
The electric field lines of force always cross
over
The electric field lines start on negative
charges and end on positive charges.

Diagram shows the electric field lines for a pair of


charged particles, Q1 and Q2.

12

Which diagram shows the correct electric field


pattern?

13

Which of the following diagrams show the electric


field correctly?

14

Which diagram shows the correct electric field


pattern?

15

Which diagram shows the correct electric field


pattern?

16

Diagram shows a candle flame placed between two


metal plates, P and Q.

D
19

What happens to the candle flame when the switch


is switched on ?
A
B
C
D
17

Diagram 19 shows a Van de Graff generator.

(a)

moved to the right only


moved to the left only
will spread to both plates
will remain unchanged

(b)

Diagram shows a charged conducting sphere is


oscillates between two plates which are connected to
an Extra High Tension (EHT) power supply.

positive ions is heavier than negative ions

(c)

Diagram 19
What is a Van de Graff generator used for?
..................................................................
..................................................................
Name the part laballed
(i) M

(i) N
.
A microammeter is connected to M and
the another terminal is connected to pipe.
When the Van de Graff is switched on for
4 minutes ,the reading of the micro ammeter is
20 A.
(e= 1.6 x 10-19 C ).
Determine
(i) the quantity of charge
(ii)

21

the number of electrons flows

Diagram 21.1 shows an arrangement of the


apparatus to show the existence of an electric field.

The frequency of the oscillation of the sphere will


increase if
A
B
C
D
18

the distance between the plates is increased.


the size of the sphere is increased.
the length of the thread is increased.
the voltage of the EHT is increased.

The diagram shows a candle flame is placed in an


electric field .

(a)
(b)

What happen the semolina powder when the


high voltage supply is switched on?
..............................................................................
..............................................................................
..
(c) On Diagram 21.2 , draw the electric field lines
to show the electric field between two
electrodes

The observation the shape of the flame is due to


A
B
C

Diagram 21.1
Why the olive oil is used?
........................................................................

the number of negative ions is greater than the


number of positive ions
the number of positive ions is greater than the
number of negative ions
negative ions is heavier than positive ions

Diagram 21.2
22

Diagram 22.1 shows an uncharged ball X coated


with a conducting material is by a nylon thread
between two metal plates P and Q. The metal plate P
is connected to negative terminal(earth) and plate Q
to positive terminal of the high voltage supply.

(a)

Diagram 22.2
23

Diagram 23.1 shows a polystyrene ball that coated


with metallic paint is hung in an electric field
between two metal plates.

Diagram 22.1
When the ball is touched to the plate Q and
released the ball oscillates between two
plates.
(i)

Explain how the oscillations happened?


..........................................................
..........................................................
..........................................................

Diagram 23.1
(a)

(ii)

(ii)

(b)
(c)

(d)

(i)

Give two suggestions to increase to


speed of the ball X?
..........................................................
..........................................................
(iii) What happen to the motion of the ball X
when the connection between the plate P
and the negative terminal is cut off?
..........................................................
..........................................................
Why the nylon thread is used?
..................................................................
When the ball is replaced by the candle flame ,
what happen to
(i) flame of the candle
..........................................................
..........................................................
(ii) give the reason for your answer in
..........................................................
The ball X is charged by positive charges and
is placed near a metal plate a shown Diagram
22.2 .Draw the electric field lines to show the
electric field between the ball and the metal
plate.

(b)

(c)

(i)

What is the meaning of electric field?


...
State the change on the strength of the
electric field when the potential
difference of the high voltage supply
increases.

.........

The polystyrene ball then is touched to the


negative plate.
State the type of charge received by the
polystyrene ball.
...
(ii) What happen to the polystyrene ball when it is
released from negative plate?

(i) The polystyrene ball in Diagram 23.1 is


replaced by a burning candle. On Diagram
23.2, draw the shape of the candle flame

Diagram 12.2

(ii) Explain why the shape of the candle flame


observed as drawn in answer (c)
(i).
......................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
..................
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
(d0

Why E.H.T is used ?


..............................................................................
..............................................................................
..............................................................................

24

Diagram 24.1 shows a ping pong ball coated with


metal paint oscillates between two metal plates. The
metal plates are connected to an Extra High Tension,
EHT supply which produce a strong electric field
between plates when the switch is on .
Diagram 24.2 shows the ping pong ball oscillates
between two metal plates when the voltage is
increased

(c)

(b) Observe Diagram 24.1 and Diagram 24.2.


(i) Compare the EHT voltage.
.........
(ii) Compare the strength of electric field.
.........
(iii)
Compare the oscillation velocity of
ping pong ball.
...
(iv)
State the relationship between the
EHTvoltage and the strength of electric
field.
...
(v)
Relate the strength of electric field
with oscillation velocity.
...
What will happen to the velocity of the ping
pong ball if the distance between two metal plate
is increases. Give one reason for your answer.
...........................................................................
...........................................................................
...........................................................................

LESSON 2
Analysing the relationship between electric
current and potential difference

Diagram 24.1

Current,I
From Lesson 1,
Current ,I is the rate of flow of charge, Q
Current = Charge
Time
(a)

Diagram 24.2
What is the meaning of electric field?

Or

I=Q
t

The unit of current, I , is Ampere (A)


1A= 1 C s-1
Current is said A current flows through......."
The current is measured by an ammeter and it must
be connected in series with the component which
we want to find the current through the component.
For example, if we want to measure the current
through a bulb :

Example 1
A battery is switched on for a few moments. In that time
40 C pass through the battery and they carry away 240 J
of electrical energy . What is the potential difference
across the battery?
Solution

Potential difference (Voltage) , V


An electric circuit must have a cell or some source of
electrical energy ,if there is to be a current. The
energy to move the electrons or to produce current
we call voltage or potential difference

Example 2

Potential difference = work = energy


charge charge

A current of 8 A flowing through an electric heater for 50


minutes convert 5.76 X 10 6 J of electrical energy into
heat energy.
Calculate
(a) the total charge circulated through the heater
(b) the potential difference across the heater

Or

Solution

The potential difference across a conductor is work


(energy) to carry a unit charge

V=E
Q

The unit of potential difference, V = Volt(V)


1 V = 1 J C-1
Potential difference is said A potential difference
across......"
The potential difference is measured by a voltmeter
and it must be connected in parallel with the
component which we want to find the potential
difference between the component.
For example, if we want to measure the difference
across a bulb :

The relationship between potential difference, V and


current ,I in a metal conductor Ohms Law
The relationship between voltage, V and current ,I in a
metal conductor is discovered by George Ohm is called as
Ohms law.
Ohms law state The potential across a metal conductor is
directly proportional to the current flowing through the
conductor , provided that its temperature remains constant.

Or V I , if T remains constant
The experiment to investigate the relationship between
the potential difference ,V and the current, I in a metal
conductor
Hypothesis:
The potential difference across a metal conductor
increases as the current in the metal conductor increases.
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the potential
difference ,V and current, I in a metal conductor
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: the current
Responding variable: the potential difference
Fixed variable: temperature
List of apparatus and materials:
Ammeter, voltmeter, rheostat, conductor wire, connection
wires ,dry cells and switch.
Arrangement of the apparatus:

Resistance, R
Based on the Ohms law,

V I
V=k I
k

V
I

k is replaced by R
Hence definition of resistance is ;
Resistance is the ratio of the potential difference to the
current.
Or Resistance = Potential difference
Current
V
R
Or
I
The S.I. unit is Ohm ()

The procedure of the experiment which include the


method of controlling the manipulated variable and the
method of measuring the responding variable.
The switch is closed.
The reading of the voltmeter ,V and the ammeter, I is
recorded.
The experiment is repeated 5 times for with different
value of, I, by adjusting the rheostat
Tabulate the data:
I
V
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph V against I

1 = 1 V A-1

Note : For a metal conductor ,if the temperature and the


other physical properties are remain unchanged , the
resistance of the conductor not depend on the current ,I
and the potential difference, V.

The Ohmic conductors and non-Ohmic conductor


Conductors which obey the Ohms law is called Ohmic
conductors.

The factors affect the resistance of a conductor


(a)

The length of the conductor( l)


The resistance is directly proportional to the
Length of the conductor

R l

10

R
(b)

The cross-sectional area of the conductor (A)


The resistance is inversely proportional
to the cross-sectional area of the conductor

(c)

= RA
l
As increases , R increases.

S.W.G ( Standard Wire Gauge ) of a conductor wire


When the number of S.W.G. higher the thickness of the
wire decreases .

The experiment to investigate the relationship between


the resistance and the length of a metal conductor
Hypothesis:
The resistance of metal conductor increases as the length
increases
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the resistance and
the length of a metal conductor.
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: the length of the metal conductor
Responding variable: the resistance
Fixed variable: temperature, the cross-sectional area and
type of material
List of apparatus and materials:
Ammeter, voltmeter, conductor wire, connection wires ,dry
cells, metre rule and switch.
Arrangement of the apparatus:

The type of the material of the conductor


Different material of the conductors have the
resistance .

For good conducting material such as silver and


cooper have low resistance.
For good insulating material such as rubber has high
resistance.
(d)

Temperature
For metal conductors such as cooper ,iron , the
resistance is increases linearly to the temperature.
For alloys such as constantan and nichrome the
temperature not affected the resistance.
For semiconductor materials such silicon and
germanium an also termistor the resistance
decreases when its temperature is increased.

The procedure of the experiment which include the


method of controlling the manipulated variable and the
method of measuring the responding variable.
The length of the conductor wire is measured by a ruler = l
The switch is closed.
The reading of the voltmeter ,V and the ammeter, I is
recorded.
The resistance is calculated , R

Hence

and

V
I

The experiment is repeated 5 times for with different


length of the wire
Tabulate the data:
I
R
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph R against l

Resistivity ,

R l

1
A

Types of resistor

Fixed resistor :
Common materials is used in fixed resistor are alloys such
as nichrome and constantan.

11

The resistance decreases with temperature but the


resistance suddenly becomes zero when it is cooled below
a certain temperature called the critical temperature, t c
Rheostat :
This has a coil resistance wire wound a ceramic tube. A
sliding contact ca be moved to any position along the coil.
This changes the length of the wire and as a result the
resistance changes.

These materials offer no resistance to flow of current and


act as perfect conductors with zero resistiviy. Once the
current is set up in these materials, its need no applied
voltage to persist flowing without any loss..
The example of superconductor materials are aluminium
(Tc= 1.2 K), Plumbum (Tc= 7.2 K), Niobium (Tc= 9.3 K),
Nb3Sn (Tc= 18 K) , Nb3Ge (Tc= 23 K) and
YBa2Cu3O2 (Tc= 100 K).
Its used in transportation, medicine ,industry and army .

Potentiometer
As voltage divider. When the length increases , the
resistance increases and as the result the potential
differences (voltage) increases .

Thermistor :
A thermistor is a resistor whose resistance changes with
temperature. Its decrease in resistance as the temperature
rises.

Light dependent resistor (LDR)


The resistance of LDR changes depends on the brightness
of light falling on it. As the brightness of light falling on it
increases the resistance decreases.

TUTORIAL 2
Superconductor
Superconductor is a metal conductor decreases when its
temperature decreases.

12

The potential across two points in a metal conductor


is 1 Volt if

A
B
C
D
2

6.4 x 10 8 V
4.0 x 108 V

A
B
C
D
7

B
8.0 x 107 V
2.0 x 107 V

x
0.80
0.90
1.00
1.10

y
2.00
1.75
1.63
1.25

The graph shows the relationship between potential


difference , V and current , I for an electrolyte.

The potential difference across a bulb is 4.0 V and


36 C charge flows in the bulb. What is the energy is
dissipated in the bulb?
A
C

What are the values of x and y?

When lighting strikes between two charged cloud ,


16 C charge flows from the cloud to the Earth and
transferred 6.4 x 10 6 kJ. What is the potential
difference across the cloud and the Earth?
A
C

a current of 1 A flows in a metal conductor


1 second
a power of 1 W is generated when 1 C
charge flows
an energy of 1 J is used to flow 1 C of charge
an energy of 1 J is used to flow 1 A of current

5.2 J
126 J

B
D

9.0 J
144 J

Diagram shows a circuit with three identical


resistors , R and two measuring instruments X
and Y.

Which of the following is true?


A
B
C

The potential difference is directly


proportional to the current
The electrolyte obeys the Ohms law
The current does not flows in the electrolyte
when the potential difference lower than 1.5 V

Which graph shows the relationship between


potential difference ,V and current, I for a torch light
bulb?

Which circuit could be used to find the resistance of


the resistor?

Which of the following is correct?


X

A
Ammeter
Ammeter
B
Voltmeter
Voltmeter
C
Ammeter
Voltmeter
D
Voltmeter
Ammeter
Which graph obeys the Ohms law?

The following Table gives the values of current, I


and potential difference, V for a conductor that
obeys Ohm's law

13

I/A
0.40
0.70
x
1.20

V/V
1.00
y
2.25
3.00

C
15

10

11

6.0
14.0

B
D

4.0
24.0

A
B
C
D

The graph shows the results of an experiment to


measure the resistance of a wire.

16

What is the resistance of the wire?.


A
500
B
1000
C
2000
D
4000
12

13

Length of wire XY

Diameter of wire XY

Longer
Longer
Shorter
Shorter

Bigger
Smaller
Bigger
Smaller

Diagram shows a piece of nichrome wire is


connected at P and Q.

If the reading of the ammeter is kept constant, the


reading of the voltmeter increase if

Which of the following V-I graph shows the


resistance increasing as the current increases?

A
B
C

length of nichrome wire increase


diameter of wire increase
temperature of wire decrease

14

Diagram shows a constantan sheet.


In which direction should the current flows, when
the resistance of the sheet is the smallest?

17

Which of the following V-I graph shows the


resistance increasing as the current increases?

Which of the following factor is not affect the


resistance of a metal conductor?
A
B
C
D

14

Diagram shows an electrical circuit.

Which changes to the wire will produce the smallest


reading on the ammeter?

An electronic device labelled 12V , 2A. What is the


resistance of the device?
A
C

the thickness decreases

the length of the conductor


the thickness of the conductor
the type of material of the conductor
the current flows through the conductor

The resistance of a conductor increases as


A
B

the temperature decreases


the length decreases

14

18

A
B
C
D
19

The eagle does not experience an electric shock


because

Which of the following has the highest resistance?


Length / cm
100
100
50
50

S.W.G
32
20
32
20

A
B
C
D
22

Diagram shows a graph which shows the


relationship between the potential
difference and the current of different conductor

20

Diagram shows an electric circuit consists a cooper


wire , jockey ,ammeter, voltmeter and dry cell.

When the jockey is touched at a length 0.5m on the


cooper wire , the reading of ammeter and voltmeter
are 4A and 12 V respectively.
What is the reading of the ammeter when the jockey
is touched at a length 0.2m on the cooper wire?

Which conductor obey the Ohms Law


A
B
C
D

T
U
T and S
R and T

A
C
23

Diagram shows a graph of potential difference


against current for two resistors P and Q.

24

21

3A
12 A

B
D

2R

A
B
C
D
25

Diagram shows an eagle perching on a high voltage


cable but it does not experience an electric shock.

15

4R

Which of the following changes to wire will double


its resistance?
Cross-sectional area

Resistance depends on current


Q has a bigger resistance than P
Both resistors are non-ohmic resistor
Both resistors have the same resistance

10 A
24 A

A piece of wire has diameter d and resistance R.


When diameter of the wire is 2d , what is the
resistance of the wire.

Which statements is correct?


A
B
C
D

the resistance of the cable is high


the voltage between its legs is low
the bird is a good electric insulator
most of the electricity is converted to heat

Double
Double
No change
Half

Length
Double
No change
Half
No change

Which of the following is the symbol of a


thermistor?

the experiment.

26

The graph resistance temperature represents a


graph for a superconductor material.

Diagram 27.2
What is the name of point P?
A
B
C
D
27

Based on graph in Diagram 27.2 ;


(i) What is the physical quantity represented by
the gradient of the graph?

(ii) Which of the constantan wire has the higher


resistance ?

(iii) Explain your answer in c(ii)

Absolute temperature
Basic temperature
Critical temperature
Virtual temperature

Diagram 27.1 shows a circuit used to investigate the


relationship between current and potential difference
across a constantan wire s.w.g. 24 with length of 10
cm.

28

Diagram 28.1 and Diagram 28.2 shows two electric


circuits each consisting of a copper wire.

Diagram 27.1
(a)

(b)

(c)

Name the measuring instruments labeled X


and Y in Diagram 27.1.
X :
Y :

Diagram 28.1

(i)

What is the relationship between the


reading of the measuring instruments X
and Y?
..
(ii) State the physics law involved in b(i).

The experiment is repeated by using a


constantan wire s.w.g 36 with the same length.
Diagram 27.2 shows the graph V against I for
(a)
(b)

Diagram 28.2
Name the physical quantity measured by the
ammeter.
...
(i) Compare the thickness of the copper
wire in Diagram 28.1 and Diagram 28.2.
..
(ii)

16

Compare the ammeter reading in

...................
Relate the thickness of the copper wire
to the ammeter reading.

Relate the thickness of the copper wire


to the resistance

(iii)
(iv)

29

Show on the graph how you determine


m.
m = ..
(ii) Express gradient, m, in terms of R and
d2.

A student carried out an experiment to investigate


the relationship between the resistance, R, and
diameter, d, of a nichrome wire and to determine the
resistivity,

(iii) Using the formula

, of the nichrome wire. The student

against

(c)

in Diagram 29 below.
Graph of R against

Rd 2
and the
4l

value of m in(b)(i), calculate the


resistivity ,
, of nichrome. Use l = 100 cm.

used six nichrome wires with different diameters


and the length, l, of each wire is 100 cm.
The result of the experiment is shown in the graph R

1
d2

Another nichrome wire, Y, has a diameter of


0.25 mm and a length of 200 cm.
Using the formula

1
d2

of

Rd 2
and the value
4l

in (b)(iii), calculate the resistance of

nichrome wire, Y.
(e)

30

State one precaution that should be taken


during this experiment.

Diagram 30.1 shows a light bulb which lights up


when it is connected to a dry cell.
Diagram 30.2 shows the same light bulb lights up
with more brightness when it is connected to two dry
cells.

Diagram 30.1

Based on the information and observation above :


(a) State one suitable inference.
(b) State one suitable hypotesis.
(c) With the use of apparatus as a 1.5 V
battery, bulb, ammeter, voltmeter, connecting
wire and other apparatus, describe an
experiment framework to investigate the
hypothesis stated in (b)

Diagram 29
(a)

Based on the graph in Diagram 29,


State the relationship between R and d 2.

(ii) Determine resistance of 100 cm


nichrome wire, X, with diameter of 0.20
mm.

(i)

In your description, state slearly the


following :
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

(b) The resistivity , , of nichrome is given by the


formula
(i)

Diagram 30.2

Rd 2
4l

Calculate the gradient, m, of the graph.

17

Aim of the experiment.


Variables in the experiment.
List of apparatus and materials.
Arrangement of the apparatus.
The procedure of the experiment which
include the method of controlling the
manipulated variable and the method of
measuring the responding variable.

(vi) The way you would tabulate the data.


(vii) The way you would analyse the data.

31

Diagram31.1 shows an electrical circuit with a cell


and a bulb. It is connected using a long wire. The
bulb lit less brightly.
Diagram 32.2 also shows an electric circuit with a
cell and bulb. It is connected by using a short wire.
The bulb lit more brightly.

Diagram 31.1

Diagram 31.2

Based on the above information and observation:


(a) State one suitable inference.
(b)

State one suitable hypothesis.

(c)

With the use of apparatus such as an ammeter,


voltmeter, rheostat and other apparatus,
describe an experiment framework to
investigate the hypothesis stated in (b)
In your description, state clearly the following:
(i) Aim of the experiment.
(ii) Variables in the experiment.
(iii) List of apparatus and materials
(iv) Arrangement of the apparatus.
(v) The procedure of the experiment which
include the method of controlling the
manipulated variable and the method of
measuring the responding variable.
(vi) The way you would tabulate the data.
(vii) The way you would analyse the data

LESSON 3
Analysing Series and parallel circuits

Resistors in series

18

Resistors connected in series :


The same current flows through each resistors.
The potential difference across each resistors is
different.

Hint 2

Resistors in parallel

Hint 3

Resistors connected in parallel :


The same potential difference across each resistors.
The current flow through each resistors is different.

Hint 4

Work example for series and parallel circuits


Example 1

Conclusion
CURRENT

SERIES

PARALLEL

POTENTIAL
DIFFERENCE

RESISTANCE

Name the type of the following circuits:

(a)
(Small //Big)

(Small //Big)

Hints of a circuit

(b)

Hint 1

19

(c)

(d)
Solution

(e)

Example 3
Solution

What is the reading of the ammeter for the following


circuits:-

Example 2
Determine the effective resistance for the following
circuits :-

20

Example 5
Diagram 24 shows a battery 15 V is connected to three
resistors.

Solution
Diagram 24
(a) What is the effective resistance of the resistor
15 and 10
(b) What is the effective resistance of the resistors
15 , 10 and 1.5 ?
(c) What is the reading of the ammeter
(i) A1
(ii) A2
(iii) A3
(d) What is the reading of the voltmeter
(i) V1
(ii) V2
Solution
Example 4
What is the reading of the voltmeter for the following
circuits:-

TUTORIAL 3
1
Solution

When four identical resistors are connected in series


, the effective resistance is 20 .
What is the effective resistance if the four resistors
are connected in parallel?
A
C

21

0.8
5.0

B
D

1.25
20.0

When two identical resistors are connected in


parallel , the effective resistance is 4 .
What is the effective resistance if the two resistors
are connected in series?
A
C

2
8

B
D

Which resistor combination gives the effective


resistance 8 ?

Three identical resistor are connected in a electrical


circuit .Which of the following produces the smallest
effective resistance.

Diagram shows two identical resistors are


connected in parallel.

4
16

Diagram shows an electric circuit.

Calculate the effective resistance in the circuit.


A
C
4

25
70

B
D

45
120

The figure a circuit consisting of 3 resistors


10 and a resistor 5 .

What is the effective resistance of resistors


combination?
A
C
5

2.5
10

B
D

5
12.5

The figure show the resistor combinations P,Q and


R.

Which of following readings are correct .


A
B
C
D

Which resistor combination has the lowest and the


highest resistance?

A
B
C
D

Lowest resistance

Highest
resistance

Q
R
R
P

P
P
Q
R

22

A1> A2 =A3
A1> A3 >A2
A2> A3 = A1
A3 >A2 A1

Diagram shows I1 is the current supplied by a


source. I2 and I3 are the current in each
branch of the parallel arrangement shown.

Which of the following statements concerning I1, I2


and I3 is correct?
A
B
C
D
10

I1
I2
I3
I3

13

The figure shows ammeter reading in a circuit.


Which ammeter is showing a faulty reading?

14

Diagram shows an electrical circuit.

is equal to I2, but smaller than I3.


is bigger than I3 but smaller than I1.
is bigger than I2 , but smaller than I1.
is equal to I2, but smaller than I1

Diagram shows three identical resistors connected


to a dry cell

Which of the following statements is true?


A
B
C
D
11

I1 = I5 and I2 = I3
I1 = I2 = I5 and I3
I1 = I2 = I5 and I3
I1 > I2 > I5 and I2 = I3

= I4
= I4
= I4
+ I4

Which resistor allows the greatest current flows


through it?
A
1
B
2
C
3
D
4

Four identical resistors and two ammeter A1 and A2


are connected to a power supply as shown in
diagram.

15

A battery lights all four lamps as shown in the


following figure.
Which lamp, if removed ,would cause all the lamps
to go out?

16

Diagram (a) shows 3 identical bulbs are connected


in a series circuit. Diagram (b) shows 3 identical
bulbs are connected in a parallel circuit.

If the reading of ammeter A1 is 1.2 A, what is the


reading of ammeter A2?
A
C
12

0.4 A
0.8 A

B
D

0.7 A
1.2 A

Which of the bulbs in the following figure is the


brightest ?
Given that all the bulbs are identical.

23

Diagram (a)

Which of the following is correct?


A
B
C
D
19

V3 > V2 > V1
V1 = V3 > V2
V1 = V2 = V3
V1 = V3 < V2

Diagram shows an electric circuit that contains


three similar resistors.

Diagram(b)
Which of the following statements about both
circuits is correct if one of the bulbs blow?
Circuit (a)

Circuit (b)

The other bulbs do


not lit up
The other bulbs do
not lit up

The other bulbs


lit up
The other bulbs
do not lit up

Which of the following comparison of readings is


correct?

The other bulbs lit


up

The other bulbs


lit up

The other bulbs lit


up

The other bulbs


do not lit up

A
B
C

A
B

17

18

20

Four bulbs are labelled `80 W 240 V.


In which circuit are all the bulbs lighted at normal
brightness?

21

A current flows in two resistors connected in series


as shown in the following figure. A1 and A2 are the

Which of the following combination of switches


should be closed to make only bulb P, R and S light?

A
B
C
D

1
1
2
3

2
2
3
4

V1 > V2
V1 < V2
V1 = V2

3
5
4
5

Diagram shows three resistors which are connected


in series.

24

readings on ammeter V1 and V2 are the readings on


the voltmeters.

What will happen to the reading of the ammeter and


the brightness of the bulb Q when the switch is on?

Which of the following is correct?


Ammeter reading
A
B
C
D
22

Voltmeter reading

A1 < A2
A1 < A2
A1 = A2
A1 = A2

Reading of
the ammeter

V1 < V2
V1 = V2
V1 > V2
V1 = V2

A
B
C
D

A current flows towards the junction of two


resistors connected in parallel as shown in the
following figure. A1 and A2 are the readings on
ammeter V1 and V2 are the readings on the
voltmeters.

25

increase
increase
remain unchanged
remain unchanged

Brightness of
the bulb Q
remain unchanged
increase
increase
remain unchanged

Diagram shows a torch light containing two dry


cells, a switch and a lamp.

Which of the following is the circuit diagram for the


above torch light?

Which of the following is correct?


Ammeter reading
A
B
C
D
23

A1 < A2
A1 =A2
A1 = A2
A1 <A2

Voltmeter reading
V1 > V2
V1 =V2
V1 < V2
V1 = V2

Diagram shows two identical bulb S and T are


light up at normal brightness.
26

When another identical bulb is connected in parallel


with T, what happen to the brightness of the bulb S
?
A
unchanged
B
increase
C
decrease
24

What is the reading of the ammeter in the


circuit above when the switch is closed?

Diagram shows an electric circuit that contains


three identical bulbs P, Q and R.

26

25

A
0.3 A
B
3.0 A
C
4.0 A
D
8.0 A
Diagram shows two resistors 2 is connected
parallel in a circuit.

30

What is the reading of the ammeter?


A
C
27

1.5 A
4.5 A

B
D

The diagram shows a circuit.

What is the reading of the ammeter when the switch,


S is opened and closed?

3.0 A
6.0 A

Switch S is
opened

Diagram shows an electric circuit.

A
B
C
D
31

Switch S is
closed

4.0 A
2.0 A
2.0 A
2.0 A

6.0 A
6.0 A
3.0 A
1.2 A

Two resistors 4 is connected parallel as


shown in Figure (a) and the current I1 flows.
Later , the resistors 4 is connected series l as
shown in Figure (b) and the current I2 flows.

What is the reading of the ammeter in the


circuit above when the switch is closed?
A
C
28

0.4 A
1.0 A

B
D

0.5 A
2.0 A

Diagram shows an electric circuit.

What is the reading of the ammeter in the


circuit above when the switch is closed?
A
C
29

2.0 A
1.5 A

B
D

1.3 A
1.0 A

What is the ratio I1 : I2 ?

In the following circuit the reading of the ammeter


A1 is 12 A.

A
C

32

What is the reading of the ammeter A2 ?


A
C

9A
6A

B
D

8A
3A

26

1:2
2:1

B
D

1: 4
4:1

The figure shows a circuit. When the switch ,S is


opened and closed the reading of the ammeter is I1
and I2 respectively.

36

The diagram shows a circuit.

What the ratio of I1 : 12 ?


A
C
33

1:2
2:1

B
D

1: 3
3:1

The diagram shows a circuit.

What is the reading of the voltmeter in the


circuit above when the switch is closed?
A
C
37

2.0 V
6.0 V

B
D

4.0 V
12.0 V

The reading of the ammeter in the following circuit


is 2A.

What is the value of current I1 and I2 ?


A
B
C
D
34

I1 = 0.4A
I1 = 2.0A
I1 = 0.5A
I1 = 2.5A

I2 = 0.4 A
I2 = 0.5 A
I2 = 2.5 A
I2 = 2.5 A
What is the potential difference across the resistor
X?
A
0.5 V
B
2.0 V
C
3.0 V
D
6.0 V

The diagram shows a circuit.

38

Diagram 38 .1 shows a circuit consisting of three


identical resistors X ,Y, Z and two measurement
instruments P and Q.

What is the reading of the voltmeter in the


circuit above when the switch is closed?
A
C
35

7.8 V
5.8 V

B
D

6.8 V
4.8 V

The diagram shows a circuit.


(a)

(b)
What is the potential difference across the resistor 2
?
A
C

2V
6V

B
D

Diagram 38.1
Name the measurement instruments,
P...............................................................
Q..............................................................

(i)

When an identical resistor is


connected parallel to resistor Z ,
what happen to the reading of P and Q?
P......................................................
Q......................................................

4V
8V

27

(ii)

(c)

Give the reason for your answer in (b)(i).


........................................................
The resistors X, Y and Z are replaced by three
identical bulb K, L and M as shown in
Diagram 25.2

Diagram 39.1:
Diagram 39.2:
(e)

Diagram38.2
Compare the brightness between the bulb

(i)

A student wants to design an incubator.


Bulbs are used to heat up the incubator.
Between the circuit in Diagram 39.1
and in Diagram 39.2, which circuit is the
most suitable to be used by the student to heat
up the incubator.

(ii) Give two reasons for your answer in (e)(i).


...............................................................

.....

39

K and L
........................................................
(ii) L and M
........................................................
Diagram 39.1 and Diagram 39.2 shows three
identical filament bulbs marked 6V, 12W
arranged in two different ways and connected
to a battery 6 V .

....................................................................

Diagram 40 shows photograph of an electric


circuit. The circuit contains four identical bulbs
connected to four identical new dry cells

(i)

40

Diagram 40
What is the type of the circuit ?

(b) Draw an electric circuit diagram


for the above arrangement of apparatus using
appropriate symbols.
(a)

Diagram 39.1

Diagram

39.2
(a)

(c) Compare the brightness of the lamps J ,


K ,L and M.
Tick () one box below.

What is meant by 6V,12W ?


........
................................................................................

..
(b) State the type of circuit in Diagram 39.1
and 39.2

The brightness of lamp J >lamp K


> lamp L > lamp M
The brightness of lamp L >lamp K
> lamp J > lamp M

Diagram 39.1
.
Diagram 39.2
.......................................
....
(c)

(d)

The brightness of lamp J


= lamp K = lamp L =
lamp M

The bulbs in Diagram 39.2 are brighter than


the bulbs in Diagram 39.1.
Explain your answer .

(d) Give one reason for your answer


..............................................................
...
(e)

The resistance of each bulb in Diagram 39.1


and Diagram 39.2 is 4 . Determine the current
flow in each bulb.

Explain why the circuit above is

used in
the house lighting circuit.
...

28

41

Identical light bulbs, each of resistance R , are


connected in three circuits as shown in Diagram 41.1

Circuit Y
Circuit Z
Diagram 41.1
The rheostat in each circuit is adjusted and
the potential difference, V, against current,
graphs are plotted for each circuit. The graph
for each circuit is shown in Diagram 41.2.

(ii)

the reading of the voltmeter

(ii)

charge flows in the bulb for 4


minutes.

Circuit X

(b)

43

When the switch is closed ,


Calculate
(ii)

the effective resistance in the circuit.

(ii)

the reading of the ammeter.

Diagram 43.1 and Diagram 43.2show photographs


for two circuit. Each circuit contains four identical
bulbs connected to four identical new dry cells.

Graph K
(i)

Graph L
Graph M
Diagram 41.2
Match the graphs K, L and M to the circuits
X, Y and Z.
Circuit

Diagram 43.1

Graph

(a)

X
Y

(ii)

Z
(ii)

(iii)

42

(i)

Explain your answers in (c)(i).


............................
.................................................................
.................................................................
Calculate the value of R

Diagram 43.2

State the energy transformations


that take place in the bulb.
Draw a circuit diagram for each
photograph.

(b) Observe the photographs in Diagram 43.1 and


Diagram 43.2 . Compare the type of circuit ,
the brightness of each bulb in each diagrams to
deduce a concept in physics with regard to the
potential difference and the current flow for the
bulbs in series and parallel circuits.

Diagram 42 shows a circuit consisting of two


resistors and a bulb.

LESSON 4- Analysing electromotive force


and internal resistance.

Diagram 42
(a)

The definition and the S.I. unit of Electromotive force


(e.m.f), E
E.m.f is the potential across a cell or source of electricity
when it is on open circuit and supplying no current.

When switch S is opened ,the reading of the


ammeter is 1.5 A.
Determine
(ii)
the resistance of the bulb.

29

The S.I. unit of e.m.f is Volt (V).


The symbol of e.m.f is E

When the cell or source of electricity in a closed circuit


(current is flowing) ,the potential across the cell drops in
is call the potential difference across the cell , V

The relationship between E,V,I,r and R


Potential difference
across cell when
no current flow
flowing

Potential
difference
across
+
external
resistance

Potential
difference
across
internal
resistance

E =IR+Ir
E=V+I r
V = IR

V<E
Internal resistance , r
The reason why the potential difference across a cell
drops when it is supplying current is that cell itself has a
resistance.
The internal resistance ,r is the resistance within a cell
due to its electrolyte and electrodes or source of electricity.
The electric current delivered to a circuit by a cell or
battery also flows through the battery itself. Conduction
inside a cell is by means of the movement of charged
atoms or groups of atoms called ions in the electrolyte.
There is some resistance to the flow of these ions which
give a cell an internal resistance.

Example 1
The figure shows a circuit.

The S.I. unit of r is Ohm ()

When the switch S is opened ,the reading of the voltmeter


is 1.5 V. When the switch S is closed the reading of the
voltmeter and ammeter are 1.35 V and 0.3 A respectively.
Determine
(a) the e.m.f. of the cell
(b) the internal resistance of the cell
(c) the resistance R

Cells in batteries
When cell is joined together to form a battery , two factors
are affected by the way the cells are connected. These are
the e.m.f of the battery and internal resistance of the
battery. The figure following shows three typical
arrangements of cells that are used.

Solution

Example 2

30

From the formula E = IR + Ir

Base on the information in the figure above,


calculate,
(a) the resistance of resistor R
(b) the internal resistance ,r of the cell
Solution

E = ........................................................
r = ........................................................

Experiment to determine the e.m.f. and internal


resistance a dry cell.

Example 3
An accumulator produce a current 4 A when it is
connected to a resistor 2. When the same accumulator is
connected to a resistor 3 the current is produced is 3A.
Determine the e.m.f and the internal resistance of the
accumulator.
Solution

When the switch is opened , the reading of the ammeter


and voltmeter is recorded .
Later, the switch is closed and the reading of the
ammeter=I and voltmeter=V is recorded.
The experiment is repeated 5 times by adjusting the
rheostat.
A graph V against I is plotted.

Determination of E and r by using the graph method


(1)

Graph V against I

From the formula E = V + Ir


From the graph e.m.f is the intercept on the V-axis
and r is the gradient of the graph.
E = ..............................................................
r = ..............................................................
TUTORIAL 4
(2) Graph R against 1

31

4
1

Which of the following physical quantity has the


same unit as the unit of the electromotive force?
A
C

Current
Resistance

B
D

In the circuit shown in Diagram 21 below, the


reading of the voltmeter is 3.0 V when switch S is
switched off. When switch S is switched on, the
voltmeter reads 2.8 V and the ammeter reads 0.5 A.

Energy
Potential difference

Diagram shows an electric circuit.

The internal resistance of the battery is


A
C
5

0.40
0.80

B
D

0.60
1.00

Diagram shows an electric circuit where the internal


resistance of the battery is 1 .

What is the reading of the voltmeter when the switch


is opened?
A zero
B 3.0 V
C less than 3.0 V
D more than 3.0 V
3

Diagram shows three identical cells are connected in


parallel in a circuit.
What is the ammeter reading?
A
C
6

0.43 A
2.22 A

B
D

0.45 A
9.00 A

When the switch S in the following figure is opened


the voltmeter reading is 1.5 V. When the switch S is
closed the readings of voltmeter and the ammeter is
1.3 V and 0.2 A respectively.

Given that each cell has an e.m.f. of 3 V with an


internal resistance of 0.5 , what are the total
e.m.f. and total internal resistance for the circuit?

A
B
C
D

Total e.m.f.

Total
internal
resistance

3V
3V
9V
9V

0.17
0.50
0.17
1.50

What is the internal resistance of the cell?


A

32

0.1
C
0.6

0.3
D
1.0

The figure shows a battery is connected to a resistor


5 . When the switch S is opened the reading of the
voltmeter is 14 V. When the switched S is closed the
reading of the voltmeter is 10V.

What is the reading of he voltmeter?


A
C
11

What is the internal resistance of the battery?


A
C
8

0.5
3.0

B
D

2.0
4.0
12

0.46 V
1.50 V

1.5 V, 0.5
0.5 V, 1.5

B
D

2.0 V, 0.5
1.0 V , 1.5

A cell produces a current 0.5 A when it is connected


to a resistor 2. When the same accumulator is
connected to a resistor 4 the current is produced is
0.4 A. What is the e.m.f of the cell?
A
C

13

B
D

An accumulator produce a current 0.6 A when it is


connected to a resistor 2. When the same
accumulator is connected to a resistor 7 the current
is produced is 0.2 A.
What is the e.m.f and the internal resistance of the
accumulator.
A
C

The figure shows a circuit containing three resistors


2 and a cell with an electromotive force of 12 V
and internal resistance of 6 .

0.23 V
1.25 V

1.6 V
3.0 V

B
D

2.6 V
4.0 V

Figure(a) shows a circuit to determine the e.m.f


and internal resistance of a cell. Figure (b) shows
the experiment is repeated by using the same cell.

What is the current flowing through the circuit.


A
C
9

1.1 A
1.3 A

B
D

1.2 A
1.4 A

The figure shows a circuit containing two resistors


6 and a cell with an electromotive force of 12 V
and internal resistance of 3 .

What is the internal resistance and the electromotive


force of the cell?

A
B
C
D

Internal resistance /
0.25
0.50
1.00
1.25

E.m.f / V
1.5
3.0
3.0
4.5

What is the current flowing through each resistor


6?
A
C
10

0.5 A
2.0 A

B
D

1.0 A
3.0 A

The figure shows a circuit containing two resistors


10, a resistor 20 , a cell with e.m.f of 1.5 V and
internal resistance of 2.

14

33

Diagram shows a circuit with a dry cell that has


internal resistance.

What is the change in the ammeter and voltmeter


reading when the resistance of the rheostat is
reduced?

A
B
C
D
15

Ammeter
reading

Voltmeter
reading

Decreases
Decreases
Increases
Increases

Decreases
Increases
Decreases
Increases

What is the internal resistance of the cell?


A
C
18

2.40
1.25

B
D

1.50
0.40

An experiment is carried out to determine e.m.f


and internal resistance of a cell as shown in
Figure(a). The result of the experiment is shown in
Figure(b).

Which circuit can be used to determine the


electromotive force a battery?

Which of the following represent the e.m.f and the


internal resistance of the cell?
e.m.f.
A

p
q
p
q
x

16

D
19

Internal
resistance
p
q
y
x
p
q

Diagram shows a graph of the potential difference


across a battery against the current through for two
difference batteries X and Y.

Which of the following graphs relates the reading of


ammeter and the voltmeter in figure above?

Which of the following comparisons is correct?


17

Diagram shows a potential difference, V against


current, I graph.

20

34

Electromotive
force, E

Internal
resistance, r

A
B
C
D

rx>ry
r x < ry
rx<ry
rx>ry

EX < E Y
EX > E Y
EX < E Y
EX > E Y

The figure shows a graph potential difference, V


against current, I of a battery.

22

Diagram 22 shows a circuit containing voltmeter,


ammeter, two switches S1 and S2 , two bulbs M1
and M2 and a battery with internal resistance of
1.

Which of the following is not true?


A
B
C
D
21

E.m.f of the battery is 1.5 V


The external resistance is 1.5
The internal resistance of the battery is
1
As the current decreases the internal resistance
of the battery decreases.

Diagram 22

Diagram 21 shows a cell connected in


series with a bulb, an ammeter and a
switch. A high resistance voltmeter
connected across the cell gives a reading
of 2 V when the switch is opened and a
reading of 1.5 V when the switch is
closed. The reading on the ammeter when
the switch is closed is 0.3A.

(a)

When the switches S1 and S2 is opened , the


reading of the voltmeter is 12 V.
What is the e.m.f. of the cell?

(b)

When the switch S1 is closed and the switch


S2 is opened , the reading of the ammeter is
3.0 A.
Calculate
(i)
the reading of the voltmeter?

(ii)

Diagram 21
(a) What is the e.m.f. of the cell?

(b) What causes the difference in the


voltmeter reading when the switch is
closed and when the switch is
opened?

(c) Calculate the,


(i) resistance of the bulb

(c)

When the switches S1 and S2 is closed , the


reading of the ammeter is 6.0 A .
Calculate
(i) the reading of the voltmeter?

(ii)
23

(ii) the internal resistance of the


cell.
(d) Another identical bulb is added in
parallel with the existing bulb. What
is the reading of the voltmeter when
the switch is closed.

35

the resistance of bulb M1 ?

the resistance of bulb M2 ?

The graph V against I in Diagram 23 below shows


the results of the experiment to determine the
electromotive force ,E, and the internal resistance, r
, of a dry cell.

Graph R against

1
I

Diagram 23
(a)

(b)

(c)

Based on the graph in the Diagram 23,


(i) what happen when I increases?

(ii) determine the value of the potential


difference , V, when the current ,
I = 0.0 A.
Show on the graph , how you determine
V.

(iii) name the physical quantity that


represents the value in (a)(ii).
..
The internal resistance, r, of the dry cell is
given by
r = -m
where m is the gradient of the graph. Calculate
the value r.

(i)

Diagram 24
(a)

(iii) Determine the R-intercept. Show on the


graph how you determine value of R.

..
(iv) Calculate the gradient of the graph Show
on the graph how you determine the
gradient of graph.

From the graph , state the value of V,


when I = 0.80 A.
Show on the graph how you determine
the value V.
..
(ii) The resistance R is given by
R=V
I
Calculate R when I = 0.80 A

Gradient = ..
(b) The resistance, R is given by the formula
R=

State one precaution that should be taken


during this experiment.

A student carries out an experiment to investigate


the relationship between the electromotive force, E
and internal resistance, r of a dry cell. The result of
the experiment is shown in the graph Resistance, R
against reciprocal of current,

E
-r
I

Where E is electromotive force and r is


internal resistance.
Based on your answer in (a)(iii) and (a)(iv) ,
determine the E is electromotive force and r is
internal resistance

(d)

24

Based on the graph in Diagram 24,


(i) What happen to R when I decrease?
.........................................................
(ii) Determine the value of I when R = 5 .
Show on the graph how you determine
value of R.

LESSON 5 Analysing electrical


energy and power

1
as shown in
I

Diagram24

Definition of electrical energy, E and the S.I. unit.

36

Based on the definition of current,,


I= Q
t
Q = It ...(1)
Based on the definition of potential difference,
V=E
Q
E = V Q (2)

When the switch S is closed for 5 minutes , calculate the


energy is produced in the resistor 6?

Substitute (1) into (2)

Solution

E = VIt (3)
So the definition of electrical energy is the product of the
potential difference , the current and the time.
The S.I. unit of Electrical energy is Joule (J)
I J = 1 VAs

The definition of the Electrical Power ,P and the S.I.


unit

Based on the equation of the Ohms law


V = IR ..(4)

From the definition of power,


P = E
t

I = V (5)
R
Substitute (4) into (3)
E = I2 R t

and from the formula of the electrical energy ,


E = V It or E = I2 Rt or E = V2 t
R
P = VIt or P = I2 Rt or P = V2 t
t
t
Rt

Substitute (5) into (3)


E = V2 t
R
Conclusion:

Conclusion

E=VI t
E = I2 R t
E = V2 t
R

P=VI
P=I2R
P = V2
R

Example 1

The S.I. unit f power is Watt (W)


1W= 1VA

A current of 5A flows in a heating elements for 10


minutes. If the potential difference across the elements is
240 V, calculate the electrical energy is used by the
elements

Example 3
A small laboratory immersion heater uses a 12 V supply.
The current through the heater is 4A. What is the power of
the heater.

Solution

Solution

Example 4

Example 2

An electric kettle is labelled 3 kW,240 V.


(a)
(b)
(c)

37

What is meant by the label 3KW,240 V?


What is the current flows through the kettle?
Determine the suitable fuse to use in the kettle.

(d)

Determine the resistance of the heating elements in


the kettle.

Solution

Example 6
The following table shows the electrical appliances is used
at Ahmads house.
Appliance
Number
Power of
Time is
of
each
used for
appliance
appliance
a day
(W)
(Hour))
Fluorescent
15
60
12
lamp
Fan
8
90
5
Iron
1
1200
0.5
Calculate the cost of using the electrical appliances by
Ahmads Family within 20 days.
[ The cost of electricity is 20 sen for first 100 units and
24 sen for next 900 units ]
Solution

Experiment to determine the power of a bulb.

The switch is closed.


The reading of the ammeter = I and the voltmeter V is
recorded.
The power of the bulb is calculated by using the formula P
= VI
The experiment is repeated 5 times by adjusting the
rheostat.
The average power of the bulb is calculated.
Buying electrical energy
Every house has an electrical meter supplied by the
Electricity board.
The units used are kilowatt-hours (kWh).
1 kilowatt - hour is the energy supplied in 1 hour to an
appliance whose power rating is 1 kW.
Energy
Kilowatt-hour

Efficiency of Electrical Appliances


Efficiency = Useful energy output of appliance x 100%
Energy input to appliance

= power x time
kilowatts

hours

Efficiency = Eo x 100 %
Ei

1 kW h = 1000 x 3600 J = 3.6 x 106 J


Example 7

Example 5

An electric motor is used to lift a load of mass 2 kg to a


height 5 m in 2.5 s. If the supply voltage is 12 V and the
flow of current in the motor is 5.0 A , calculate
(a) Energy input to the motor
(b) Useful energy output of the motor
(c) Efficiency of the motor

Determine how many units is used for the following


electrical appliances :
(a)
(b)

2 bulbs is used in 5 hours and each is labelled 60


W,240V
An air-conditioner is rating 2kW and is used for 5
hours per day during one month

38

Solution

Make full use of energy needed to heat an oven


by cooking several things at the same time.

Example 8
An electric kettle is used to boil some water to make tea.
The kettle has a power rating of 3 kW, and is filled with
0.5 kg of cold tap water at 20oC . It takes a minutes and a
half to boil. How efficient is this kettle?
[ Specific heat capacity of water = 4 200 Jkg-1 oC-1]
Solution

TUTORIAL 5
1
Ways of increasing energy efficiency.
(1) Maintaining the electrical appliances in good
working condition.
For example :
Regularly cleaning and removing dust from the
air filters of air conditioners and blades of
electric fans.
Cleaning regularly filter bags of vacuum cleaner.
(2) Operating the appliances correctly.
For example :
Turn off the appliance when not in use.
Use full loads of washing in a washing machine.
Use free wind and sunshine instead of a tumbledryer whenever possible.
Do not put warm food into a fridge or freezer.
Do not put more water in a kettle than you need
for your hot drinks.
Switch off all unnecessary lights; use low-power
lamps and install fluorescent lighting
where it is acceptable.

The potential difference across a resistance is 6.0V


and the current flows to the resistance is 0.2 A for 2
minutes. What is the energy is produced in the
resistance?
A
C

39

B
D

120 J
240 J

15 J of energy is produced in a torch light bulb


when the current flows through the bulb is 1A for
10 s.
What is the potential difference across the bulb?
A
C

60 J
144 J

0.5 V
3.0 V

B
D

1.5 V
4.5 V

The figure shows a circuit containing two resistors


and a battery.

Based on the information in the figure above


determine the energy dissipated in resistor 3 for
5s?

What is the energy dissipated per second in the


resistors 4 and 8 ?
A
C

6J
1.0 J

B
D

A
C

3J
0.5 J

Base on the figure above ,what is the energy


dissipated in the resistor 8 in 25 second?
A
C

360 J
72 J

B
D

40 J
60 J

0.05 W
10 W

B
D

3.6 W
20 W

A filament bulb is labelled 240 V, 60 W.


What is the current flows through the filament and
the resistance of the filament?
A
C

288 J
36 J

B
D

A bulb is labelled 6 V, 0.6 A. What is the power of


the bulb?
A
C

30 J
50 J

0.25 A, 60
4.0 A , 60

B
D

0.25 A,960
4.0 A, 960

A current of 2 A flows in filament bulb . The


resistance of the filament is 5. What is the power
generated by the lamp?
A
C

20.0 W
5.0 W

B
D

10.0 W
2.5 W

10

The figure shows a circuit.

When the reading of the ammeter in the figure above


is 2 A, calculate the energy generated in both of the
resistors for every second.
A
C

0.5 J
3.0 J

B
D

Based on the circuit above , what is the reading of


the ammeter when the switch is closed?

1.5 J
6.0 J

A
C

6
11

B
D

4A
9A

The kilowatt - hour is a unit of


A
C

40

1A
5A

charge
power

B
D

energy
voltage

12

A 2 kW electric fire is used for 10 hours. How long


will it take a 100 W electric light bulb to use the
same amount of energy?
A
C

20 hours
100 hours

B
D

Determine the energy used by the toaster.


A
C

50 hours
200 hours
17

13

Four electrical appliances are left switched on for


different times.
In which appliance is the greatest amount of energy
converted?

A
B
C
D
14

Appliance

Time

3 kW water heater
1.5 kW hot-plate
1 kW fan
750 W electric iron

0.5 hour
1.5 hours
3 hours
1 hour

Which of the following electrical appliances


consumed the most energy?

A
C

19

20
A label 240V,1500W on electrical kettle means

C
D
16

1500 J of energy used every 1 second when


connected to a 240 V
1500 W of power used every 1 second
when connected to 240 V supply
1500 V of voltage used every 1 second
when connected to 240V
1500 A of current used every 1 second
when connected to 240 V supply

21

22

B
D

2.5 A
12.0 A

To earth the appliance


To protect the appliance and its cable
To change the efficiency of the appliance
To change the current rating of the appliance

The fuse rating for a fuse used in the plug of an


electrical heater should be
much less than the normal heater current
just less than the normal heater current
exactly equal to the normal heater current
just greater than the normal heater current

An electric heater marked 240V , 2.3 kW . With


fuse is most suitable to connect series to the heater?
A
5A
B
7A
C
8A
D
10 A
A television is labelled 250 W , 240 V is used 5
hours per day in one month.
If the cost of electricity is 24 sen per unit , what is
the cost of operating the appliance in the month of
June?
A
C

Diagram shows a toster 240V, 60 W is used for


30 minutes.

0.4 A
7.5 A

Why is a fuse used in electrical appliance?

A
B
C
D

0.06 kWh
0.18 kWh

Diagram shows wiring system for the bulb L1 , L2


and L3 . Each bulb is labelled 12V, 30 W.Power
supply of 12 V is connected across XY

A
B
C
D

B
D

What is the value of current flows through XY?

18

15

0.03 kWh
0.12 kWh

RM5.00
RM8.00

B
D

RM6.00
RM9.00

The table shows the electrical energy consumption


tariff.
Electrical units
First 200 units
Second 500 units

Cost per unit (sen)


22
25

Calculate the cost in RM of using a 1.5 kW


refrigerator for 360 hours.

41

A
C
23

84.00
118.80

B
D

90.00
129.00

The table above shows the electricity tariffs for


domestic use. The reading of an electricity meter
reading in a house in the month of August is 6020
and in the month of September is 7450.
Energy consumption
First 100 units
Next 900 units
Over 1000 units

Rate(sen/unit)
20 sen
25 sen
30 sen

What is the cost of electricity is used in the house ?


A
C
24

B
D

RM374
RM168

A fluorescent lamp with a power rating of 40 W


produce 36 W of light energy.
What is the efficiency of the lamp?
A
C

25

RM420
RM228

72%
85%

B
D

76%
90%

Which of the following light bulbs has the highest


efficiency?

26

An electric motor is used to lift a load of mass 50 kg


to a height 2 m in 10 s. The supply voltage is 25 V
and the flow of current in the motor is 5.0 A .What is
efficiency of the motor
A
C

27

42

B
D

80%
90%

An electric motor is used to lift a load of mass 8 kg


to a height 5 m in 5 s. The flow of current in the
motor is 4.0 A .What is the potential difference
across the motor if the efficiency of the motor is
100%.
A
C

29

75%
85%

10 V
50 V

B
D

20 V
80 V

Diagram 29 shows headlamps circuit of a car.


A high beam bulbs, H are labeled 12V , 36W and
a low beam bulbs, L are labeled 12V , 24W.

(a)
(b)

Diagram 29
(a)

(i)

Underline the correct answer in the


bracket to complete the sentence below.
The bulb in diagram 6 are connected in
(series, parallel).

Diagram 830
What is meant by specification 240 V,
1000 W?
..........
The electric iron is connected to a 240 V
supply and used to iron clothes for 30
minutes.
Calculate,
(i) current that passes through the
heating element in the iron.
(ii)

(ii)
(b)

What will happen to bulbs H if bulbs L


blows?
.........
Both of the bulbs H are in Diagram 29 is
labelled 12V , 36 W.
(i) What is meant by 12V , 36 W?
..
..

the cost of using the electric iron in


30 days
(1 unit energy = 23 cents)

(ii)

30

Calculate the current in the circuit when


one bulb L is lit.

Diagram 30 shows an electric motor


lifting a 2.0 kg load. When the motor is
switched on, the load moved through a
height of 1.5 m in 2.5 s with constant
speed. The current flowing in the circuit is
1.7 A and the potential difference across
the motor is 10.0 V.

(iii) Calculate the total resistance of the


circuit when all the bulbs are lit.

(c)

30

How can the bulbs be connected to increase


the total resistance of the circuit?
...

Diagram 30
(a)

State the changes in energy that


occur when the motor is switched on.

(b) Calculate,
(i) the electrical power supplied
when the motor is lifting the
load.

Diagram 30 shows part of an electric iron with


specification of 240 V, 1000 W.

(ii) the output power of the motor


when the load moved through a
height of 1.5 m in 2.5 s.
(iii)

43

the efficiency of the electric


motor.

31

Diagram 31 shows a water heater


used to boil water.

Using appropriate physics concepts,


suggest and explain how to build a
water heater which can boil a larger
quantity of water faster , more
efficient, and more safety based on
the following aspects;
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

type of material used for the


heating element of the water
heater
shape of the heating element of
the water heater
melting point of the heating
element of the water heater
rate of rusting of the heating
element of the water heater
additional component used for
safety when the water boil

44

CHAPTER 7

45