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Pascal Principle
Archimedes Principle (Buoyancy)
Bernoulli's Equation

Pascal Principle
Archimedes Principle (Buoyancy)
Bernoulli's Equation

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an object floats or not than just average density. For

example, why do some objects float higher in the water

than others? And why is it easier to lift objects

underwater than in the air? To answer these questions,

youll need to understand the concept of buoyancy, a

force which is exerted by a fluid on an object, opposing

the objects weight.

It is rumored that the Greek philosopher and scientist

Archimedes, around 250 B.C., was asked by King Hiero II

to help with a problem. King Hiero II had ordered a fancy

golden crown from a goldsmith. However, the king was

concerned that the goldsmith may have taken his

money and mixed some silver in with the crown instead

of crafting the crown out of pure gold. He asked

Archimedes if there was a way to determine if the crown

was pure gold.

Archimedes puzzled over the problem for some time,

coming up with the solution while he was in the bath tub

one evening. When Archimedes submerged himself in

the tub, he noticed that the amount of water that spilled

over the rim of the tub was equal to the volume of water

he displaced.

Using this method, he could place the crown in a bowl

full of water. The amount of water that spilled over could

be measured and used to tell the volume of the crown.

By then dividing the mass of the crown by the volume,

he could obtain the density of the crown, and compare

the density to that of gold, determining if the crown was

pure gold. According to legend, he was so excited he

popped out of the tub and ran through the streets naked

yelling Eureka! Eureka! (Greek for I found it! I found

it!)

of the situation, realizing that you have the

force of gravity (mg) pulling down, the buoyant

force upward, and the force of tension in the

cable upward.

Because the shark tank is at equilibrium under

the water, the net force on it must be zero,

therefore the upward forces must balance the

downward forces. You can write this using

Newtons 2nd Law in the y-direction as:

Finally, you can use this equation to solve for the force

of tension in the cable.

with a mass of 3000 kg floats on a freshwater lake

(=1000 kg/m3). If the bottom area of the boat is 6 m 2,

how much of the boat is submerged?

Answer: Because the boat is floating on the lake, the

magnitude of the buoyant force must be equal to the

magnitude of the weight of the boat. (FB=mg).

Since the boat is rectangular, you can write its volume

(V) as its bottom area (A=6 m 2) multiplied by the depth

submerged (d).

Archimedes development of a key principle of

buoyancy: the buoyant force (FB) on an object is equal to

the density of the fluid, multiplied by the volume of the

fluid displaced (which is also equal to the volume of the

submerged portion of the object), multiplied by the

gravitational

field

strength.

This

is

known

as Archimedes Principle.

Archimedes Principle explains why boats made of steel

can float. Although the steel of the boat itself is more

dense than water, the average density of the entire boat

(including the air in the interior of the boat) is less than

that of water. Put another way, the boat floats because

the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat

is greater than the weight of the boat itself.

PASCAL PRINCIPLE

When a force is applied to a contained, incompressible

fluid, the pressure increases equally in all directions

throughout the fluid. This fundamental characteristic of

fluids provides the foundation for hydraulic systems

found in barbershop chairs, construction equipment,

and the brakes in your car.

to control their depth. Submarines use pumps to move

water into and out of chambers in their interior,

effectively controlling the average density of the

submarine. If the submarine wants to rise, it pumps

water out, reducing its average density. If it wants to

submerge, it pumps water in, increasing its average

density.

Question: What is the buoyant force on a 0.3 m3 box

which is fully submerged in freshwater (density=1000

kg/m3)?

Answer:

meters below the surface of saltwater. If the volume of

water displaced by the shark tank is 0.1 m3, what is the

tension in the cable? Assume the density of saltwater is

1025 kg/m3.

distributed throughout the system, you can multiply the

applied force through this application of Pascals

Principle in the following manner. Assume you have a

closed container filled with an incompressible fluid with

two pistons of differing areas, A1 and A2. If you apply a

force, F1, to the piston of area A 1, you create a pressure

in the fluid which you can call P1.

equal to F2 divided by the area of the second piston, A2.

fluid in all directions according to Pascals Principle,

P1 must equal P2.

by the ratio of the areas A2 over A1.

force F1. Of course, the law of conservation of energy

cannot be violated, so the work done on the system

must balance the work done by the system. In the

hydraulic lift diagram shown on the previous page, the

distance over which F1 is applied will be greater than the

distance over which F2 is applied, by the exact same

ratio as the force multiplier!

Question: A barber raises his customers chair by

applying a force of 150N to a hydraulic piston of area

0.01 m2. If the chair is attached to a piston of area 0.1

m2, how massive a customer can the chair raise?

Assume the chair itself has a mass of 5 kg.

Answer: To solve this problem, first determine the force

applied to the larger piston.

motion, leads to Bernoullis Principle. Bernoullis

Principle states that fluids moving at higher velocities

lead to lower pressures, and fluids moving at lower

velocities result in higher pressures.

Airplane wings have a larger top surface than a bottom

surface to take advantage of this fact. As the air moves

across the larger top surface, it must move faster than

the air traveling a shorter distance under the bottom

surface. This leads to a lower pressure on top of the

wing, and a higher pressure underneath the wing,

providing some of the lift for the aircraft (note that this

isnt the only cause of lift, as Newtons 3rd Law also

plays a critical role in understanding the dynamics of

flight).

delivery systems, and even water-powered sump

pumps!

Expressing Bernoullis Principle quantitatively, you can

relate the pressure, velocity, and height of a liquid in a

tube at various points.

The pressure at a point in the tube plus half the density

of the fluid multiplied by the square of its velocity at

that point, added to the gauge pressure of the fluid

(gy), must be equal at any point in the tube.

Question: Water sits in a large open jug at a height of

0.2m above the spigot. With what

velocity will the water leave the

spigot when the spigot is opened?

now determine the maximum mass which can be lifted

by recognizing that the force that must be overcome to

lift the customer is the force of gravity, therefore the

applied force on the customer must equal the force of

gravity on the customer.

and the spigot are both open to

atmosphere, the pressures P1and

P2 must be equal. Since the jug is

much larger than the spigot, you

can assume the velocity of the

water at the top of the jug is

nearly zero. This allows you to simplify Bernoullis

Equation considerably.

mass of a customer in the chair must be 148 kg.

Question: A hydraulic system is used to lift a 2000-kg

vehicle in an auto garage. If the vehicle sits on a piston

of area 0.5 square meter, and a force is applied to a

piston of area 0.03 square meters, what is the minimum

force that must be applied to lift the vehicle?

Answer:

BERNOULLIS

PRINCIPLE

you can do some algebraic simplification to solve for v2.

difference in height is 0.2m, you can now easily solve

for the velocity of the water at the spigot.

you had solved for the velocity of an object dropped

from a height of 0.2 meters using the kinematic

equations... this should make sense, as Bernoullis

Equation is really just a restatement of conservation of

energy, applied to fluids!

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