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# 16

5 Equilibrium

y
a2

a1
a3

C
A

(a)

y
a2

a1

O
a3

B
TAB

1 2
A

TAC

(b)
Fig. E5.2 Example 5.2

There are two equations with two unknowns. The problem is therefore statically
sin 1
determinate, i.e., it can be solved. From Eq. (5.7), TAC =
TAB . Substiting into
sin 2
Eq. (5.8) it results
sin 1
TAB cos 2 = m g,
TAB cos 1 +
sin 2
or
mg
mg sin 2
=
.
TAB =
sin 1
cos 1 sin 2 + sin 1 cos 2
cos 1 +
cos 2
sin 2
The trigonometric functions are
a1
a3
a2
a3
sin 1 =
, cos 1 =
, sin 2 =
, and cos 2 =
,
lAB
l
l
l
AB
AC
AC


where lAB = a21 + a23 and lAC = a22 + a23 .
It results


a2 a21 + a23
5 32 + 12
= 10 (9.81)
= 193.887 N,
TAB = m g
a3 (a1 + a2 )
(1)(3 + 5)

5.6 Examples

17

## and in a similar way


a22 + a23

3 52 + 1 2
= 10 (9.81)
= 187.58 N.
TAC = m g
a3 (a1 + a2 )
(1)(3 + 5)
a1

The same solution could also be obtained by writing an equilibrium moment equation with respect to a point that yields to one unknown. Suppose, for example, the
moment equation is written about the point B. Then

## MB = rBA (TAB + TAC + G) = rBA (TAC + G) = 0,

(5.9)

where
G = Gj = mgj, TAB = TABx + TABy j, TAC = TACx + TACy j,
and
rBA TAB = 0.

(5.10)

## The position vectors of the points A, B, and C are

rA = xA + yA j = a3 j, rB = xB + yB j = a1 , rC = xC + yC j = a2 .
Equation (5.9) becomes

MB = r BA TAC + rBA G

 


j

j
k  
k 

yA yB 0  +  xA xB yA yB 0 
=  xA xB
 TAC sin 2 TAC cos 2 0   0
G 0

## = ((xA xB ) TAC cos 2 (yA yB ) TAC sin 2 ) k+ (xA xB ) Gk

= [(xA xB ) TAC cos 2 (yA yB ) TAC sin 2 + (xA xB ) G] k = 0,
or
(xA xB ) TAC cos 2 (yA yB ) TAC sin 2 + (xA xB ) G = 0.
It results
TAC = mg

(xA xB )
.
(xA xB ) cos 2 (yA yB ) sin 2

The unknown TAB is calculated from a equilibrium moment equation of the system
about the point C.

## MC = rCA (TAB + TAC + G) = rCA (TAB + G) = 0,

and from the previous relation the tension TAB is calculated. The M ATLAB program
for the problem is given by
% problem 5.2
clear all; clc; close

18

5 Equilibrium

## syms a_1 a_2 a_3 T_AB T_AC m g

list={m, g, a_1, a_2, a_3 };
listn={10, 9.81, 3, 5, 1 };
lAB=sqrt(a_12+a_32);
lAC=sqrt(a_22+a_32);
s_theta_1=a_1/lAB;
c_theta_1=a_3/lAB;
s_theta_2=a_2/lAC;
c_theta_2=a_3/lAC;
TAB=[ -T_AB*s_theta_1, T_AB*c_theta_1, 0];
TAC=[ T_AC*s_theta_2, T_AC*c_theta_2, 0];
G=[0, -m*g, 0];
fprintf(Method I \n)
% SF = TAB + TAC + G = 0
fprintf(sum forces = TAB + TAC + G = 0 \n)
SF=TAB+TAC+G;
SFx=SF(1);
SFy=SF(2);
sol=solve(SFx, SFy,T_AB, T_AC);
Tab=eval(sol.T_AB);
Tac=eval(sol.T_AC);
fprintf(T_AB = \n);pretty(simple(Tab)); fprintf(\n)
fprintf(T_AC = \n);pretty(simple(Tac)); fprintf(\n)
Tabn=subs(Tab, list, listn);
Tacn=subs(Tac, list, listn);
fprintf(T_AB = %g (N) \n, Tabn);
fprintf(T_AC = %g (N) \n, Tacn);
fprintf(\n)
fprintf(Method II \n)
rB=[-a_1, 0, 0];
rC=[ a_2, 0, 0];

5.6 Examples

19

rA=[0,-a_3,0];
% SM_B = rBA x (TAC+G) = 0
fprintf(sum M about B = rBA x (TAC+G) = 0 \n)
SM_B=cross(rA-rB,TAC+G);
TACs=solve(SM_B(3),T_AC);
fprintf(T_AC = \n);pretty(simple(TACs)); fprintf(\n)
TACn=subs(TACs, list, listn);
fprintf(T_AC = %g (N) \n, TACn);
fprintf(\n)
% SM_C = rCA x (TAB+G) = 0
fprintf(sum M about C = rCA x (TAB+G) = 0 \n)
SM_C=cross(rA-rC,TAB+G);
TABs=solve(SM_C(3),T_AB);
fprintf(T_AB = \n);pretty(simple(TABs)); fprintf(\n)
TABn=subs(TABs, list, listn);
fprintf(T_AB = %g (N) \n, TABn);
Method I
sum forces = TAB + TAC + G = 0
T_AB =
2
2 1/2
(a_1 + a_3 )
m g a_2
-----------------------a_3 (a_1 + a_2)
T_AC =
2
2 1/2
(a_2 + a_3 )
m g a_1
-----------------------a_3 (a_1 + a_2)
T_AB = 193.887 (N)
T_AC = 187.58 (N)

20

5 Equilibrium

Method II
sum M about B = rBA x (TAC+G) = 0
T_AC =
2
2 1/2
(a_2 + a_3 )
m g a_1
-----------------------a_3 (a_1 + a_2)
T_AC = 187.58 (N)
sum M about C = rCA x (TAB+G) = 0
T_AB =
2
2 1/2
(a_1 + a_3 )
m g a_2
-----------------------a_3 (a_1 + a_2)
T_AB = 193.887 (N)

Chapter 6

Problems

5.1 The beam shown in Fig. P5.1 is loaded with the concentrated forces F1 =100 N
and F2 =500 N. The following dimensions are given: a=0.5 m, b=0.3 m, and
l=1 m. Find the reactions at the supports O and C.
l
FA
a

FB

## Fig. P5.1 Problem 5.1

5.2 The beam depicted in Fig. P5.2 is loaded with the two concentrated forces with
the magnitude F=200 lbs. The dimensions of the beam are given: a=5 in and
l=1 ft. Find the reactions at the supports.
l
a
F

a
F

## Fig. P5.2 Problem 5.2

21

22

6 Problems

5.3 Consider the cantilever beam of Fig. P5.3, subjected to a uniform load distributed, w=100 N/m, over a portion of its length. The dimensions of the beam
are: a=10 cm and l=1 m. Find the support reaction on the beam.
l
a

## Fig. P5.3 Problem 5.3

5.4 A smooth sphere of mass m is resting against a vertical surface and an inclined
surface that makes an angle with the horizontal, as shown in Fig. P5.4. Find
the forces exerted on the sphere by the two contacting surfaces.
Numerical application: a) m = 10 kg, = 30 , and g = 9.8 m/s2 ; b) m = 2 slugs,
= 60 , and g = 32.2 ft/sec2 .

## Fig. P5.4 Problem 5.4

5.5 The links 1 and 2 shown in Fig. P5.5 are each connected to the ground at A
and C, and to each other at B using frictionless pins. The length of link 1 is
AB = l. The angle between the links is  ABC = . A force of magnitude P is
applied at the point D (AD = 2l/3) of the link 1. The force makes an angle
with the horizontal. Find the force exerted by the lower link 2 on the upper
link 1. Numerical application: a) l = 1 m, = 30 , and P = 1000 N; b) l = 2 ft,
= 45 , and P = 500 lb.

6 Problems

23

2
C
Fig. P5.5 Problem 5.5

5.6 The shaft shown in Fig. P5.6 turns in the bearings A and B. The dimensions of
the shaft are a = 6 in. and b = 3 in. The forces on the gear attached to the shaft
are Ft = 900 lb and Fr = 500 lb. The gear forces act at a radius R = 4 in. from the
axis of the shaft. Find the loads applied to the bearings.
Fr

bearing A

bearing B

Ft

a
b
Fig. P5.6 Problem 5.6

5.7 The shaft shown in Fig. P5.7 turns in the bearings A and B. The dimensions of
the shaft are a = 120 mm and b = 30 mm. The forces on the gear attached to the
shaft are Ft = 4500 N, Fr = 2500 N, and Fa = 1000 N. The gear forces act at a
radius R = 100 mm from the shaft axis. Determine the bearings loads.

24

6 Problems

Fr
Ft

bearing A

Fa

bearing B

a
b
Fig. P5.7 Problem 5.7

5.8 The dimensions of the shaft shown Fig. P5.8 are a = 2 in. and l = 5 in. The force
on the disk with the radius r1 = 5 in. is F1 = 600 lb and the force on the disk with
the radius r2 = 2.5 in. is F2 = 1200 lb. Determine the forces on the bearings at A
and B.

B
r2
F2

r1
F1

l
a

## Fig. P5.8 Problem 5.8

6 Problems

25

5.9 The dimensions of the shaft shown Fig. P5.9 are a = 50 mm and l = 120 mm.
The force on the disk with the radius r1 = 50 mm is F1 = 4000 N and the force
on the disk with the radius r2 = 100 mm is F2 = 2000 N. Determine the bearing
loads at A and B.
F2
r2

r1

F1
l
a

## Fig. P5.9 Problem 5.9

5.10 The force on the gear in Fig. P5.10 is F = 1.5 kN and the radius of the gear
is R = 60 mm. The dimensions of the shaft are l = 300 mm and a = 60 mm.
Determine the bearing loads at A and B.
A
F

20
B
l
R
a
Fig. P5.10 Problem 5.10

26

6 Problems

5.11 A torque (moment) of 24 N m is required to turn the bolt about its axis, as shown
in Fig. P5.11, where d = 120 mm and l = 14 mm. Determine P and the forces
between the smooth hardened jaws of the wrench and the corners of A and B of
the hexagonal head. Assume that the wrench ts easily on the bolt so that contact
is made at corners A and B only.

d
B
l
A
Fig. P5.11 Problem 5.11