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NGHIN CU NHU CU MUA SM V S DNG BT GIT TI TH TRNG NNG

Vn Tnh- KHOA QTKD


Vi nn kinh t pht trin nh hin nay ko theo s cnh tranh ngy cng gay gt gia cc
doanh nghip, do c th tn ti v ng vng trn th trng th phi lun theo st xu hng
pht trin ca th trng. V vy, vic nghin cu hnh vi ngi tiu dng l vic lm cn thit v c
vai tr quan trng trong vic h tr cc nh sn xut a ra th trng nhng sn phm p ng
c nhu cu ca khch hng. N cng gip cho cc doanh nghip hiu c tm l khch hng
a ra nhng chin lc marketing ng n v hiu qu.
Bt git l sn phm thng dng v rt cn thit cho nhu cu s dng hng ngy. Trong thi k hi
nhp hin nay, c nhiu sn phm bt git, s cnh tranh ngy cng gay gt khi cc hng lun c
s a dng v chng loi, thit k, cht lng...
Vic phn tch hnh vi tiu dng ca khch hng i vi cc sn phm bt git nhm em li cc
thng tin gip cc nh sn xut hoch nh chin lc kinh doanh ph hp vi nhu cu trn th
trng. Lun ci tin to ra cc sn phm cht lng cao ph hp vi nhu cu khch hng nhm
m rng th phn cho nhn hiu ca mnh.
Kho st v phn tch nhu cu mua sm cng nh s dng bt git ti Tp. Nng cung cp
nhng thng tin t vn chung cho cc hng sn xut bt git, lm thay i nhn quan ca cc ch
th trong vic khai thc nhu cu, nh v sn phm, hng n khai thc trit v hiu qu th
trng mc tiu nh ra.
NI DUNG NGHIN CU
Tiu ch
Xc nh i tng nghin cu
n hng n i tng nghin cu l nhng h gia nh trn a bn TP. Nng.
Th hiu ca ngi dn Nng
Nng nm v tr trung ca Vit Nam, c v tr trng yu c v kinh t- x hi v quc phngan ninh; l u mi giao thng quan trng v ng b, ng st, ng bin v ng hng
khng, ca ng chnh ra bin ng ca cc tnh Min Trung- Ty Nguyn v cc nc tiu vng M
Kng. nng hin nay c tm qun, huyn vi tng din tch l 1.283 km2. Theo kt qu iu tra
nm 2013, dn s thnh ph l 970.693 ngi, mt dn s l 757 ngi/km 2

Biu dn s Nng
(Theo: Cc Thng K TP. ng http://ctk.danang.gov.vn/)
Trnh hc vn:
Trnh vn ha ca mi ngi dn hin nay c th ni n i cng vi mt nt sinh hot sn xut
v tiu dng. y l tip cn kinh t c th ni l vi m, nh hng n phc li ca ngi tiu
dng. Trnh vn ha khc nhau c nhng s thch v nhn hiu, sn phm khc nhau.
Trnh hc vn v trnh chuyn mn k thut ca ngun nhn lc thnh ph Nng tng i
cao so vi trung bnh chung ca c nc. Theo s liu thng k ca Trung tm Xc tin u t
thnh ph, nm 2011 lao ng c trnh i hc, cao ng chim 18% lc lng lao ng thnh
ph, cng nhn k thut chim 9%, trung cp chim 5% v 68% lc lng lao ng khc
Trnh
Nm 2011
Nm 2012
i hc, cao ng
18%
21%
Cng nhn k thut
9%
8%
Trung cp
5%
7%
Lao ng khc
68%
64%
(Theo http://www.danang.gov.vn)

Dn s nng c trnh hc vn cao th tt yu s ko i sng vt cht v tinh thn thay i


theo chiu hng tt hn. Cc chng trnh Marketing ca doanh nghip s c h tip cn nhanh
chng

Biu v trnh dn c Nng nm 2011

Biu trnh dn c Nng nm 2012


Vn ha bn a
Thnh ph Nng l trung tm gn nht n cc a im c gi tr vn ha lch s lu i v ni
ting ca c nc nh Hu, Hi An,...Hin nay Nng hng nm t chc nhiu s kin vn ha ln
thu ht mt lng ngi cc ln trong v ngoi nc nh l hi ua thuyn, l hi bn pho hoa
quc t. Nhng l hi vn ha quc t Nng s thu ht mt s lng ln khch du lch n
tham gia, ngh ngi to iu kin lm n cho cc nh hng, khch sn kinh doanh tt. iu ny gp
phn nh hng gin tip n nhu cu mua hng ca khch hng l cc nh hng, khch sn tng
ln ng k.
Hnh vi tiu dng bt git ca khch hng TP. Nng b chi phi kh nhiu bi yu t vn ha.
Nng nm khu vc min Trung nn khch hng y chu nh hng bi cc yu t vn ha
c trng, v vy, vic tiu th sn phm bt git cng khc so vi cc thnh ph trong c nc.
Thi ca khch hng trong vic tiu dng sn phm b nh hng bi cc yu t vn ha, do
cng nh hng n nhu cu v cc sn phm bt git
Phong tc, tp qun
Mi trng vn ha x hi c nh hng trc tip n cuc sng v hnh vi tiu dng ca ngi
dn Nng. Trong nhng nm gn y, s pht trin ca nn kinh t v s hi nhp ca Vit Nam
vi th trng th gii to ra cho vn ha tiu dng ca ngi Vit Nam ni chung v ngi dn
Nng ni ring nhiu nt i mi, hin i hn, tip cn gn hn vi vn minh tiu dng.
Mi trng vn ha x hi chu nh hng thi quen, tp qun, nguyn tc, cch thc, trnh ca
cc i tng khch hng ang v s s dng cc loi bt git. Thi quen tiu dng v phong
tc tp qun ca ngi dn s nh hng n hnh vi mua hng ha ca khch hng.
Ti thnh ph Nng, vic hi nhp v pht trin du lch gp phn thc y kinh t. S pht trin
bn l a n ngi tiu dng nhiu s la chn hn. Tuy nhin, nt c trng ca ngi min
Trung l cn c, chu kh v chi tiu tit kim, h thng s dng nhng sn phm vn quen vi
mnh hoc ch s dng nhng sn phm m theo h cht lng tng ng vi gi thnh b ra.
Bng vic gia nhp nn WTO, v vic tp trung pht trin du lch, s hi nhp v giao thoa vn ha
Nng din ra kh nhanh iu ny tng bc lm thay i th hiu v ngi tiu dng cn nhc
th cc sn phm mi thay v nhng sn phm quen thuc.
Cng vi hi nhp trn th trng Quc t v vic th ha qu nhanh lm cho vn ha ngi
dn Nng thay i c bn, h dn thin v hnh thc v nhu cu th hin ngy cng ln.

Nghin cu cc yu t x hi khng nhng gip cc nh sn xut s d dng xc nh r nhng tc


ng n thi v s la chn ca khch hng i vi sn phm ca mnh, bn cnh cn gip
doanh nghip ch ng hn trong vic tham gia xy dng cc chng trnh PG v qung co ph
hp vi c im vn ha ca ngi dn Nng.
Thu nhp
2011
2012
2013
GDP (t ng)
13.178,8
14.230
15.382,63
GDP bnh qun u ngi 41,7
46,116
56,3
(triu ng)
Tc tng GDP (%)

13%
(so vi nm
2010)
17,61

13,5%
(so vi
2011)
9,18

nm

CPI (%)
5,42
(Theo: Cc thng k Nng)
Trong nhng nm gn y, thnh ph Nng l mt trong nhng th hng u trong pht trin
kinh t vng, c bit sau khi gia nhp WTO rt nhiu d n c u t vo Nng gip thnh
ph pht trin c s h tng, gii quyt rt nhiu cng n vic lm cho lao ng trong vng v
vng ph cn. Trong nhng nm tr li y, tc tng GDP ca nc ta l kh nhanh v trong thi
gian ti s hn na. Nh vy, nhu cu tiu dng cc mt hng sn phm c cht lng cao s tng
theo v c thay i ln khng ch khu vc thnh th m cn cc khu vc khc. y l c hi
cc hng bt git m rng pht trin th trng cng nh a dng chng loi sn phm ca cc
mt hng kinh doanh.
Khi con ngi nhn thc c th gii hin ti, bit c nhng g mnh cn, mnh c v ang thiu,
mun c nhng ci cn thiu th h s n lc. Ngi dn Nng cng vy, s ha nhp vi cng
ng quc t, theo kp vi s pht trin ca nn kinh t hin ti th nhu cu v cuc sng cn phi
c thoi mn, i cng vi l thu nhp, kinh t hin c ca tng h gia nh la nhng sn
phm no l ph hp vi chnh mnh. Nu trung bnh th dng hng bnh thng dng t li, hn
ch, nu mc thu nhp cao th dng hng thng hng, dng nhiu hn,
Gi c sn phm
Gi cc loi bt git trn th trng Nng
Loi bt git
Omo
Surf
Ariel
Tide
Viso
Khi lng
400 g
16.500
550g
15.500
18.000
800 g
32.500
1,2 kg
43.000
1,5 kg
59.000
59.000
2,1 kg
70.500
2,2 kg
57.500
2,7 kg
3 kg
117.000
113.000
109.000
4,5 kg
6 kg
194.000
Ngun:ticmart.vn
Theo s liu trn ta c gi bt git trung bnh trn 1 kg nh sau:
Loi bt git

Omo
Khi lng

400g

41,250

Surf

Ariel

Tide

viso

550g
800g
1.2kg
1.5kg
2.1kg
2.2kg
2.7kg
3kg
4.5kg
6kg

28,182

32,727

40,625
35,833
39,333

39,333
33,571
26,136

39,000

37,667

36,333
32,333

Bt git Viso

Bt git Omo

Bt git
Ariel

Gi bt
git tng
t thp
ln cao

Bt git Tide

Bt git Surf

Hin nay, trn th trng c rt nhiu loi bt git, mi loi bt git u c mu m, trng lng a
dng nh cc gi: 400g, 800g, 1kg, 3kg, 4.5kgMi gi bt git c khi lng khc nhau s c gi
c khc nhau, vic a dng v khi lng tc ng tch cc n vic s dng v gi thnh sn
phm i vi ngi tiu dng.
mc khi lng khc nhau th ngi tiu dng c th la chn mc gi ph hp vi thu nhp ca
h. Mt khc, a dng v khi lng cng l mt hnh thc kch thch ngi tiu dng. H s d
dng nhn ra rng khi mua gi bt git c khi lng ln th gi trung bnh s r hn.
Ta c: gi 1 sn phm bt git = chi ph nguyn vt liu + chi ph in bao b + chi ph bn hng + chi
ph khc.
Nn ngi tiu dng mua bt git vi khi lng ln th doanh nghip s tit kim c chi ph in
bao b. Suy ra, ngi tiu dng c th mua 1kg bt git vi gi r hn.
M hnh
- S dng phng php c lng cc tham s kinh t nhm lng ha nhu cu
- Thng k, phn tch, tng hp v quy np bin chng

Phn tch s liu iu tra


Qua qu trnh nghin cu iu tra 100 bng cu hi i vi ngi tiu dng th trng Nng,
nhm chng em c s liu v nhn xt nh sau:
Loi bt git ang s dng

T biu cho thy, loi bt git c s dng nhiu nht l OMO chim t l 70% cao nht trong
s cc loi bt git. Bn cnh , V dn v Ariel l hai nhn hiu bt git t c s dng chim t
l 2% v 5%. Kt qu ny cho thy bt git OMO ca Unilever rt chim c lng tin ca ngi
tiu dng.
L do chn bt git

a s ngi tiu dng chn bt git ang dng l do cht lng bt git tt chim t l rt cao ti
86%. Trong khi , yu t mu m , bao b v khuyn mi chim t l rt thp, iu ny cho thy
mu m, bao b v nhng chng trnh khuyn mi cha phi l l do thc s thu ht i vi ngi
tiu dng.
Lc mua bt git

Theo biu cho thy phn ln ngi tiu dng mua bt git l khi ht bt git c, t l ny chim
75%. Mua nh k chim t l thp ch 13%, iu ny chng t bt git ngi tiu dng ang s

dng rt d tm mua v nh bit bt git l mt sn phm thit yu nn c bn ph bin trn


th trng, nn ngi tiu dng khng phi mua d tr. Xu hng mua bt git ca ngi tiu dng
khi c chng trnh khuyn mi cng chim t l thp vi 5%.
Ngun thng tin tc ng ti ngi tiu dng

C th ni truyn thanh truyn hnh v kinh nghim bn thn l hai c s ch yu ngi tiu
dng la chn bt git, ln lt chim t l 50% v 39% rt cao so vi nhng ngun thng tin cn
li. iu ny cho thy tm quan trng ca qung co i vi cc sn phm ni chung v bt git
ni ring, y l mt thng tin gip cc cng ty c th tng cng hot ng qung co c th
thu ht khch hng.
Trng lng bt git
Kt qu nghin cu cho thy c ti 26% ngi tiu dng l thng s dng gi bt git c trng
lng 800g, 21% thng s dng gi 600g, 20% thng s dng gi 1kg. y l thng tin c th
gip cho cc nh phn phi c th la chn gi bt git thng c s dng.

a im mua bt git

Ngi tiu dng s mua bt git nhiu nht tim tp ha chim 59%, iu ny cho thy ngi tiu
dng s chn a im mua thun tin v gn nht. 25% ngi tiu dng s mua b git siu th
v 16% mua ch cho ta thy thi quen i ch v siu th thng xuyn ca ngi tiu dng.
Tiu ch la chn bt git ca ngi tiu dng

Cht lng v gi c l hai tiu ch c ngi tiu dng u tin hng u khi mua bt git, trong
tiu ch cht lng l u tin hn c chim 55%. V vy, nh sn xut cn phi ch trng vo
cht lng sn phm c th thu ht ngi tiu dng hn.
Mc hi lng vi loi bt git ang s dng

Ngi tiu dng lun la chon nhng sn phm ph hp vi tm l tiu dng ca mnh nn h
thng hi lng vi nhng sn phm mnh ang s dng chim 62%. Nhng cng c th v mt vi
l do no nh bt git ang s dng c cht lng khng tt: t bt, hi da tay nn ngi tiu
dng cm thy rt khng hi lng chim 5%.
Khi no thay i bt git

Nh phn tch trn, ngi tiu dng th trng Nng thng chn mua sn phm bt git
c cht lng tt, vy nn, khi cht lng gim h s thay i hnh vi mua ca mnh chim 67%.
Khi gi tng nhng cht lng khng i h cng s thay i bt git chim 20%. Tiu ch ny gip
cc nh sn xut phi c chin lc trong vic ngy cng nng cao cht lng sn phm ca mnh.
i tng tiu dng

p vin l n chim t l cao trong vic mua bt git chim 79%, iu ny cng cho thy rng
vic mua sm thng do ph n m nhn. Tuy nhin, nam gii cng chim t l tng i trong
mua sm chim 29%. iu ny gip cho cc hng sn xut bt git c nhng chng trnh qung
co hay khuyn mi tc ng n tm l ca ph n nhiu hn

Cc gi thuyt nghin cu
nh hng ca thu nhp n loi bt git ang s dng
Gi Y1 l loi sn phm bt git ang s dng
X1 l thu nhp ca ngi dn Nng
1 l h s chn
2 l h s gc
Ta c Y1= 1 + 2X1
Vi mc ngha = 0,95
Ta kim nh gi thuyt: Thu nhp c nh hng ti loi bt git ang s dng
H0 :2 = 0
H1 :2 0
Ta thy P-value = 0,986 >0,95
Chp nhn H0:
Chi-Square Tests
ngi
dn
hng n loi
Asymp. Sig. (2git ang s
Value
df
sided)
Pearson Chi-Square

3.861a

12

.986

Likelihood Ratio

4.815

12

.964

.023

.878

Linear-by-Linear
Association
N of Valid Cases

100

nh hng ca qung co n loi bt git ang s dng


Chi-Square Tests

Pearson Chi-Square
Likelihood Ratio
Linear-by-Linear
Association
N of Valid Cases

Value

df

Asymp.
Sig.
(2-sided)

61.384a
34.557

20
20

.000
.023

10.803

.001

100

Gi Y2 l loi sn phm bt git ang s dng


X2 l ngun thng tin tip cn sn phm

Thu nhp ca
khng
nh
sn phm bt
dng

1 l h s chn
2 l h s gc
Ta c Y2= 1 + 2X2
Vi mc ngha = 0,95
Ta kim nh gi thuyt: Ngun thng tin tip cn c nh hng n bt git ang s dng
H0 :2 = 0
H1 :2 0
Ta thy: P- value <
Bc b H0, chp nhn H1: Ngun thng tin c nh hng n loi bt git ang s dng
KT LUN
Th trng bn l Nng kh hp dn, cc nh u t trong lnh vc tiu dng khng mun b
qua c hi kinh doanh ti th trng ny trong c cc hng bt git.
th trng Nng, a s ngi tiu dng s dng sn phm bt git Omo ca Uniliver v tip
cn vi mt hng ny ch yu t qung co. y l thng tin gip cc nh Marketing c th la
chn phng tin thc hin nhng hot ng cng b sn phm ca mnh. Yu t cht lng v
gi lun l yu t hng u khi ngi tiu dng chn mua sn phm, ngi tiu dng lun mun
mua sn phm tt vi gi ph hp, v vy nh sn xut phi a ra cc k hoch sn xut ph hp
theo hai yu t ny mt cch tt nht. Ngi tiu dng a s tha mn vi bt git ang s dng,
nhng yu t lm ngi tiu dng thay i sn phm ang s dng hay khng l cht lng sn
phm.
Qua y, cc nh sn xut bt git c th hiu r hn th trng tiu dng bt git Nng. Cc
nh qun tr c nhng chin lc ng n hng n nhu cu, mong mun, s thch, nhn thc v
cc la chn mua sm ca khch hng mc tiu trn a bn Tp. Nng. Bn cnh cc nh sn
xut c th khai thc trit v hiu qu th trng mc tiu nh ra.

BNG CU HI NGHIN CU NHU CU MUA SM V S DNG I VI CC SN PHM


BT GIT
A.
Phn gii thiu
Xin anh/ch vui lng dnh cht thi gian tr li cc cu hi ca chng ti. Cc cu tr li ca
anh/ch khng c ng hay sai m tng kin ca anh ch l ngun d liu qu gi gip chng ti v
nh sn xut
S th t mu :.....................................
Tn phng vn vin:
Tn p vin :......................................
Ngy phng vn: .
S in thoi:......................................
Kim tra vin: .
Gii tnh:
1. Nam
2. N
Kt lun: .
Tui: ..

Anh/ ch xin vui lng cho bit anh/ ch c phi ngi Nng hay khng, nu C anh ch vui lng
gip chng ti tr li nhng cu hi sau y:
C

Khng

B.
Phn ni dung
1.
Xin anh/ch vui lng cho bit anh ch tng s dng nhng nhn hiu bt git no di
y? ( nh du x vo , c th nh du vo nhiu mc )
OMO ...............................
V DN ................................
TIDE ...............................
SURF.... ...............
ARIEL..............................
KHC (xin ghi r): .
2.
Xin anh/ch vui lng cho bit nhn hiu bt git m hin nay anh ch ang s dng (ch chn
mt thng hiu, nh du x vo )
OMO...............................
V DN...............................
TIDE .............................
SURF.................
ARIEL.............................
KHC (xin ghi r): .
3.
Anh/ ch chn loi bt git ang dng vi l do g? (c th nh du vo nhiu mc)
Cht lng tt..
Gi r
Mu m, bao b tt
Khuyn mi..
4.
Anh/ ch mua bt git khi no?(ch chn vo mt mc)
Ht th mua...
Mua nh k..
Khuyn mi..
Cn vi ngy s dng th mua
Khi xut hin sn phm mi

5.
Anh (ch) bit loi bt git ang s dng thng qua nhng ngun thng tin no?
Truyn thanh, truyn hnh
Kinh nghim bn thn

Bo ch, Internet

Nhn vin bn hng/tip th


Bn b, ng nghip

Thng tin khc

6.
Mc quan trng ca nhng ngun thng tin i vi quyt nh chn dch v?
1. Hon ton khng quan trng 2. Khng quan trng 3. Kh quan trng 4. Quan trng
quan trng
Ngun thng tin v bt git ang s dng
1
2
3
4
5

1. Truyn thanh, truyn hnh

2. Bo ch, Internet

3. Bn b, ng nghip

4. Kinh nghim bn thn

5. Nhn vin bn hng/tip th

5. Rt

6. Thng tin khc: .

7.
Theo anh/ ch nh gi mt loi bt git cn da trn nhng tiu ch no? (c th chn
nhiu mc)
ty trng.
An ton cho ngi s dng..
Hng thm.
Mu m, bao b .
bt...
Khc..................
8.

Anh ch thng s dng bt git c trng lng bao nhiu?

200g.
400g.
600g.
800g.
1kg..
Khc
9.
Anh/ ch thng mua bt git u?
Ch
Siu th...
Tim tp ha..
Khc...
10.
Theo anh/ ch tiu ch no quan trng trong vic ra quyt nh mua?
Tnh nng ..........
Thng hiu........
Cht lng .........
Gi c..................
Bao b..................
Bo qun..............
11.
Ngi quyt nh mua bt git trong phng/gia nh ca Anh/Ch l ai?
Bn thn.
Bn b
Ngi thn.
Khc..
12.
Anh/Ch c hi lng vi loi bt git mnh ang s dng?
Rt khng hi lng.
Khng hi lng.
Bnh thng
Hi lng..
Rt hi lng.
13.
Anh / ch c hay qung co loi bt git m mnh ang s dng cho bn b, ngi thn s
dng hay khng
C
Khng
14.
Khi bt git khng p ng c k vng ca Anh/Ch, Anh/Ch s.
Thay i loi bt git.. Ni cho ngi khc nghe..
i li..
Khiu ni
Khc.
15.
Anh/ ch c mun thay i loi bt git khc?
C..................................
Khng.........................
16.
Anh/ ch thay i loi bt git khi no?
Cht lng gim..
Gi tng...
Kh tm
C loi bt git mi..
Khc.
C.
Phn thng tin c nhn
17.
Xin vui lng cho bit Anh/ Ch thuc nhm tui no sau y:
18-24
25-31
32-38
39-45
>45
18.
Xin cho bit thu nhp hng thng ca Anh/ Ch
< 2 triu
2-5 triu
5-10 triu
>10 triu
19.
Xin vui lng cho bit gii tnh ca Anh/ Ch:
Nam
N
20.
Trnh hc vn ca Anh/ Ch:
Ph thng Trung cp
Cao ng i Hc
Sau i Hc
Chn thnh cm n Anh/ Ch dnh thi gian tr li bng kho st kin ny. Knh chc Anh/ch
v gia quyn di do sc kho v t nhiu thnh cng trong cng vic cng nh trong cuc sng.