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Science & Technology Development, Vol 18, No Q3 - 2015

CAC YU T ANH HNG N VIC LA CHON VA TIU DUNG TRAI CY CUA


NGI TIU DUNG TAI CAC SIU THI TP H CH MINH
FACTORS AFFECTING THE CHOICE AND CONSUMPTION OF FRUITS BY CUSTOMERS AT
SUPERMARKETS IN HO CHI MINH CITY
c Kha, Nguyn Thi Huyn Trang, Nguyn Anh Tun
Trng i hc Kinh t - Lut, HQG HCM - Email: khadd@uel.edu.vn
(Bi nhn ngy 03 thng 06 nm 2015, hon chnh sa cha ngy 15 thng 09 nm 2015)

TM TT
Bi vit tp trung phn tich cc yu t, xy dng v kim inh m hinh cu truc tuyn tinh (SEM) v cc
yu t anh hng n hnh vi la chon v tiu dung tri cy cua ngi tiu dung nhm phn tich thc
trang tiu thu tri cy ni so vi tri cy nhp khu tai cc h thng siu thi tai Thnh ph H Chi
Minh. Cc yu t bao gm: Cht lng v cc c tinh cua san phm; Thng hiu; Gi bn san phm;
v hnh vi c nhn cua ngi tiu dung. Cc kt lun v gi y cc hng giai php cho vn cung
c cp trong bi vit ny.
Mt cu hi ln c t ra l: Thc s c s khc bit c y ngha trong hnh vi la chon v tiu dung
tri cy ni v ngoai cua ngi tiu dung tai cc siu thi tai Thnh ph H Chi Minh thng qua cc yu
t Cht lng v cc c tinh cua san phm; Thng hiu; Gi bn san phm; v Tm ly c nhn cua
ngi tiu dung hay khng? Nu c, s khc bit ny l g, c th o lng c hay khng?
lm r s khc bit ny, nhm nghin cu s dung bn yu t so snh v hnh vi cua ngi tiu
dung trong la chon v tiu dung tri cy i vi hai nhm san phm l tri cy ni v ngoai c by
bn cc siu thi tai Thnh ph H Chi Minh.
lm r s anh hng cua bn yu t trn n hnh vi la chon v tiu dung tri cy cua ngi tiu
dung, bi vit s dung m hnh cu trc tuyn tnh (SEM), thng qua kim inh CFA (phn tch nhn t
khng inh). D liu inh lng c thu thp t ngi mua v tiu dung tri cy tai cc siu thi tai
thnh ph H Chi Minh v c thc hin t thng 10 n thng 12 nm 2013 ( c Kha, 2013).
T khoa: Hnh vi la chon v v tiu dung; Cht lng v cc c tinh cua san phm; Thng hiu;
Gi bn san phm; m hinh SEM
ABSTRACT
This paper aims to answer whether there is a difference in the choice and consumption of domestic and
imported fruits at supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh city and if yes, whether it can be measured. To answer
these questions, we employ the structural equation model (SEM) with four variables, including product
quality and feature, brand, price, and personal behavior of consumers. The model is subsequently
checked using the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Data is obtained from surveys on the fruit
consumers in HCMCs supermarkets conducted from October to December, 2013. Conclusions and
suggestions are also offered in the paper.
Key words: Choice and consumer behavior; product quality and feature; brand; price; structural
equation model

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TP CH PHT TRIN KH & CN, TP 18, S Q3 - 2015


1. T VN
Hanh vi la chn va tiu dung trai cy cua
ngi tiu dung quyt inh s thanh bi cua
nganh cng nghip san xut trai cy trn phm
vi toan cu. Rau v tri cy ng vai tr rt ln
trong san xut thc phm dinh dng cho
ngi tiu dng. X hi cng pht trin cao th
lng tiu th rau v tri cy ngy cng ln.
Rt nhiu cng trnh nghin cu ch ra rng
tiu dng tri cy v rau qua gp phn lm cho
sc khe con ngi tt hn va c th gip h
ngn nga cac nguy c cac bnh mn tnh nh
tim mch, tiu ng, ung th, cao huyt p
(Joshipura et al.,1999; Key et al., 2002; Hu,
2003). Do vy, hot ng marketing trong lnh
vc rau va trai cy ng vai tr quan trng
trong vic kch thch san xut v tiu th cng
nh y nhanh tc pht trin kinh t nng
nghip, nng thn nhiu quc gia (FAO,
1989). nhiu quc gia c nn kinh t thi
trng phat trin, do nm bt c quy lut
cnh tranh nn nganh san xut trai cy i
ung quy lut, la bt u t thi trng, t
ngi tiu dung sau mi san xut. Nh ,
nha san xut nm bt va inh hng ung nhu
cu cua thi trng, san xut phat trin n inh,
to ra gia tri va li nhun cao cho nha san xut.
Vit Nam ni chung va cac tnh ng
bng sng Cu Long ni ring c tim nng
san xut trai cy rt ln. Din tch va san lng
trai cy cua Vit Nam ng u cac nc thuc
khu vc ng nam A. Tuy vy, nganh san xut
trai cy cua Vit Nam hin nay thuc hang yu
kem nht so vi cac loi cy trng khac nh lua
go, cao su, ca ph, h tiu. Do khng nm bt
c nhu cu thi trng nn nganh san xut
trai cy cua vit Nam lun lun bp bnh, hin
tng "c mua rt gia" din ra ph bin dn
n khng to ra ng lc trong san xut va
khng to ra cac li th trong cnh tranh so vi
cac loi trai cy nhp ngoi ngay ti sn nha.

S bp bnh trong gi bn dn n thu nhp


trong san xut tri cy khng n inh. Thanh
long rut l mt th mnh cng chiu anh
hng nng n cua cnh tranh thi trng, gi
rt tht thng t 60.000 ng/kg, giam xung
40.000 ng ri 15.000 va 10.000 ng/kg.
Ngi trng Thanh Long u t kha nhiu tin
cua v cng sc nhng thu v khng c nh
k vng (Vn Vnh, Nh Anh, 2015). Theo
anh gia cua Vin cy n qua min Nam, c
n 90% lng tri cy cua vung ng bng
sng Cu Long c tiu th trong nc v ch
c 10% xut khu, chu yu l bn sang Trung
Quc. Thi trng ny rt ln nhng tim n
nhiu rui ro. Hin nay, cc thi trng khac nh
M v Chu u, Nht Ban chp nhn cho
tri cy Vit Nam c nhp khu nh: thanh
long, chm chm, bi, chui y la nhng
thi trng ln, ban c gia cao nhng i hi
v tiu chun v sinh an ton thc phm cng
ht sc gt gao (XTTM, 2014). Theo Th
trng B Cng thng Trn Tun Anh
(2015), nhng hn ch trong san xut tiu th
rau qua v tri cy cua Vit Nam tp trung
cc khu quy trnh san xut, tiu chun cht
lng, v sinh an ton thc phm v tiu th
san phm v thng tin thi trng. C th, trc
ht l nhng hn ch v san xut, ch bin, bao
quan sau thu hoch, cht lng v sinh an ton
thc phm. San xut rau qua a s l nh l,
phn tn, cht lng khng ng u. Cng tc
kim sot, phng tr su hi theo cc tiu
chun Global Gap, Viet Gap cha c p
dng rng ri. Cng tc tiu th tri cy trong
nc v xut khu chu yu la qua thng lai,
cng ty t nhn thu gom; h thng h tng
thng mi cn thiu v yu, cha ap ng
c yu cu v tc tng trng thng mi
rau qua ngy cng cao. Cng tc thng tin v
kt ni chia s thng tin gia cac c quan hu
quan, ia phng va doanh nghip cha cao.

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Science & Technology Development, Vol 18, No Q3 - 2015


Vn cn nhiu hn ch vn cha c giai
quyt (Trn Tun Anh, 2015).
Trong bi canh nn kinh t thi trng cnh
tranh, cha bao gi cc san phm tri cy cua
Vit Nam gp phai s cnh tranh gay gt nh
ngy nay. Khng ch gp phai s cnh tranh t
cc nh san xut trong nc, cc san phm cn
gp phai s cnh tranh t cc san phm n t
Trung Quc, Thailand, Newzeland, M,
Australia. Xu hng thm nhp, chim lnh thi
trng cua san phm tri cy ngoi ngy cng
gia tng khi Vit Nam thc hin cc l trnh
m ca hi nhp nn kinh t quc t. Nhng
yu t c ban giup cac san phm tri cy ngoi
thm nhp nhanh chng vo thi trng Vit
Nam bao gm Gia, Thng hiu, H thng
phn phi bn hng, Cht lng san phm v
Hnh thc bn ngoi bt mt (Nguyn Vit,
2013). Khao sat ti cac siu thi cho thy cac
loi trai cy ngoi nhp t c s ng u
v trng lng, kiu dang, mau sc, cht lng,
mu m, ng gi, gia ban, c sp xp ep
mt trong ngn k ep nht, c bao quan
lnh va hiu ng anh sang tn thm v ep cua
san phm, c t ung tm vi cua khach
hang v.v Do vy cac loi trai cy nhp khu
ang dn dn chim u th trong s la chn
va tiu dung cua ngi tiu dung. Trong khi
cac loi trai cy ni thiu hn cac yu t trn,
c xp ln ln vi cac loi rau va gia vi. Trai
cy ni khng to c cac yu t hp dn
ngi tiu dung va bi ym th so vi cac trai
cy nhp ngoi ngay trn sn nha ( c
Kha, 2012).
2. TNG QUAN V TI LIU VA PHNG
PHP NGHIN CU
2.1. Hanh vi la chn v tiu dng
La vic nghin cu cac ca nhn, cac nhm,
cac t chc trong la chn, mua, s dng va
vt b cac y tng, hang hoa va dich v
thoa mn nhu cu va c mun cua h. N lin
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quan n cac hanh ng cua ngi tiu dung


trn thi trng va cac c s to ra hanh vi va
hanh ng cua ngi tiu dung (Smriti
Chand, 2014).
Hiu c hnh vi la chn v mua cua
ngi tiu dng l cha kha thnh cng trong
pht trin cc chin lc marketing. Hu nh
khng c mt quyt inh chin lc no m
khng c s hin din cua hanh vi ngi tiu
dng trong (Chen, Kunag - Jung, 1996).
Hanh vi ngi tiu dung c th hin trong
nhiu m hnh khc nhau, c th l kinh t, x
hi v tm l tiu dng (Berndt, 1996). C rt
nhiu yu t anh hng hanh vi ngi tiu
dung nh: marketing (san phm, gia, phn
phi, chiu thi, bao bi, inh vi thng hiu,
chm sc khach hang,v.v); yu t ca nhn
( tui, gii tnh, trinh hc vn, giao dc,
thu nhp ca nhn,v.v); yu t tm ly (nh
ng c, li sng, thi quen, nhn thc, thai
); yu t hoan canh (mi trng vt cht ti
thi im mua, mi trng x hi luc mua);
yu t x hi (hoan canh x hi, ng cp, tinh
trng gia inh, cac nhm tham khao); cac yu
t vn hoa (Tn giao, chung tc, quc tich)
(Smriti Chand, 2014).
Sallis va Owen (2002) xac inh hai nhn
t l nhng c tnh c ban xac inh hnh vi
tiu dng cua ngi mua, la nhn t mi
trng v nhn t c nhn. Nhn t mi trng
l tt ca cc yu t bn ngoi c nhn m n tc
ng n mt ca nhn nh gia inh, bn b, hi
nhm v tnh sn c cua san phm/dich v.
Nhn t c nhn l cc nhn t bn trong c
nhn anh hng trc tip hnh vi cua mt c
nhn nh s k vng, nim tin, nhng cam
nhn c nhn, mc tiu, d inh.
Kotler v Keller (2006) a ra m hinh
hnh vi mua cua ngi tiu dung c gi l
m hinh Kch thch ap tra (Stimulus Response
model) (xem hnh 1). Theo m hnh ny c 3

TP CH PHT TRIN KH & CN, TP 18, S Q3 - 2015


nhm: Nhm kch thch (Marketing Stimulus +
Other Stimulus) tac ng n c tnh cua
ngi mua v Tin trnh quyt inh cua ngi
mua (Buyers Characteristic/Buyers Decision
Process), t nhm ny dn n hanh ng
Quyt inh mua (Buyers Decision). Cc kch
thch marketing (Marketing Stimulus) bao gm
cc yu t nh: san phm; gi bn; phn phi;
thuc y. Cc kch thch khc (Other Stimulus)
nh: Kinh t, Cng ngh, Chnh tri, Vn ha.
c tnh cua ngi
mua (Buyers
Characteristic) bao gm cc yu t X hi, vn

ha, c nhn v tm l. Tin trnh quyt inh


cua ngi mua (Buyers Decision Process) bao
gm: Nhn bit vn , tm kim thng tin,
anh gia cac la chn, quyt inh va thai
sau khi mua. Quyt inh cua ngi mua bao
gm: la chn san phm, la chn thng hiu,
la chn ngi bn, la chn thi gian v tng
s tin mua. M hnh cua Kotler v Keller
(2006) c coi l m hnh ph qut v hnh vi
mua theo tin trnh cua ngi mua va c p
dng trong nhiu lnh vc khc nhau.

Hnh 1. M hnh kch thch p tra


Ngun: Kotler Philip and Keller l. Kevin, 2006
Trong nghin cu hnh vi la chn v tiu
dng san phm, Bandura (1997) a ra m
hnh L thuyt nhn bit x hi (Social
Cognitive Theory - SCT). M hnh ny giai
thch s tac ng qua li gia cc nhn t c
nhn, mi trng v hnh vi hay hiu bit hnh
vi ngi tiu dng. Nhn t c nhn (Personal
factors) bao gm thai (Attitude) v thi

quen (Habit). Nhn t mi trng


(Environmental factors) bao gm: nhng anh
hng x hi (Social influences) v s sn c
(Availability). T m hnh STC cua Bandura
(1997), Khairunnisa I.O & ctg (2012) a ra
m hnh STC trong nghin cu hnh vi mua v
tiu dng tri cy v rau qua ti Malaysia nh
sau (xem hnh 2).

Hnh 2. M hnh L thuyt nhn bit x hi trong hnh vi mua v tiu dng tri cy v rau qua
Ngun: Khairunnisa I.O & ctg, 2012
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Science & Technology Development, Vol 18, No Q3 - 2015


Da trn cac m hnh hai nhn t cua Sallis
v Owen (2002); m hnh kch thch ap tra
cua Kotler & Keller (2006); m hnh cua
Bandura (1997) c Khairunnisa v ctg p
dng (2012) va cn c vao cc nghin cu ti
Vit Nam ( c Kha, 2012; Nguyn Vit,
2013), nghin cu nay tp trung phn tch bn
nhm yu t c ban la: Cht lng v c tinh
cua san phm; Thng hiu; Gi bn san
phm; v Hnh vi la chon v tiu dng san
phm. Trong ba yu t la Cht lng va c
tnh cua san phm; Thng hiu; gia ban san
phm thuc v nhn t mi trng v hnh vi
thuc nhn t c nhn cua ngi mua.
2.2. Cht lng va cc c tnh cua san
phm
Cac c tnh cua san phm la yu t u
tin chi phi hanh vi mua va tiu dung cac loi
trai cy. Cac c tnh cua san phm bao gm
cac yu t nh mau sc, kiu dang, kch c, cac
chc nng, cac thanh t va cac c im ma n
to ra s li cun hp dn cua trai cy hay s
chp nhn san phm trn thi trng (Businees
Dictionary.com).
Th nht, c tinh cua san phm. Mt s
cng trinh nghin cu ch ra mi lin h mt
thit gia cac c tnh, cht lng san phm va
hanh vi la chn va tiu dung trai cy cua
ngi tiu dung (Loureiro et al. 2002;
Thilmany et al. 2008; USDA, 2010; Riccarda
Moser et al. 2011). Nhin chung, khach hang
thoa mn vi mt san phm hay dich v thng
c xu hng la chn va trung thanh vi nhn
hiu cua san phm hay dich v . S thoa mn
cua khach hang da trn hai nn tang c ban la
s anh gia v cht lng va nhng trai nghim
ma h nhn c t san phm (Ostrom &
Iacobucci 1995; Crosby et al. 1990). Chia
khoa khach hang la chn san phm va
h duy tri lng trung thanh chnh la em n

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cho khach hang mt s thoa mn (Kotler


1994).
Th hai, nhn thc v cht lng. Hanh vi
la chn va tiu dung cac san phm trai cy
chiu anh hng bi nhn thc cua ngi mua
v cht lng cua san phm. Ngi mua anh
gia cht lng bn trong thng qua cac ch dn
va c tnh bn ngoai cua san phm va do cac
thng tin c cung cp bi ngi ban
(Caswell et al. 2002). Cht lng trai cy la
mt khai nim rt kh din ta, vi n la mt s
tp hp cua nhiu thuc tnh c lin quan mt
thit n s cam nhn cua khach hang nh mui,
vi, mau sc, kch c, trng lng, chn,
ti,v.v. cua trai cy (Lohr 2000; Mabiso et al.
2005; Darby 2006; Akgngr et al. 2007;
Ghorbani et al. 2007; Lili and Tong, 2007;
Ness et al. 2010). Vi ngon cua trai cy ma
ngi tiu dung nhn c a n li ch la
lng tiu dung trai cy gia tng
(Heimendinger J & Van Duyn MA, 1995)
Th ba, nim tin vo san phm. Nim tin
vao san phm cung cp nhng li ch cho ca
nhn ngi s dng nh dinh dng, cac loi
vitamin, khoang cht, giam cholesterol, tng
cng sc kho, ngn nga mt s loi bnh
cua trai cy v.v. la mt c s vng chc cho
hanh vi la chn va tiu dung cac loi trai cy
cua ngi tiu dung (Caswell and Mojduszka
1996; Becker 1999; Lusk et al. 2007). Nim tin
vao san phm cn c th hin qua s nhn
bit ro rang v cac c tnh cua san phm va
mi quan h cua n vi bao v mi trng,
am bao an toan v sinh thc phm, thc hin
Quan ly Dich hi Tng hp (Integrated Pest
Management - IPM), giam thiu cac c hi
cho ngi s dng, ngun gc ro rang cua san
phm, san phm hu c t nhin, va ngay ca
cuc sng cua ngi dn trng trai cy ra sao
(Becker 1999; Midmore et al. 2005; Darby et
al. 2006).

TP CH PHT TRIN KH & CN, TP 18, S Q3 - 2015


Th t, li ich cua c nhn v xa hi.
Ngoai cac yu t trn, li ch trn gi cua trai
cy em li cho ngi tiu dung cn bao gm
cac chng nhn v quy trinh san xut, h thng
cung ng nhm chuyn giao gia tri tt nht cho
ngi tiu dung va x hi (Travisi and Nijkamp
2008; Arunachalam et al. 2009).
2.3. Thng hiu
Thng hiu to ra gi tri cho nh san xut
ln ngi mua, l yu t quyt inh hnh vi
mua v lng trung thnh cua khch hng
(Aakar, 1991, 1996; Keller, 1993). Schiffman
va Kanuk (2004) ch ro kin thc va kinh
nghim cua ngi tiu dung v thng hiu la
cai ma mt ca nhn nm bt c trong qua
trinh mua va tiu dung san phm, t to
hanh vi ap tra cua h trong tng lai. Trong
cach tip cn khac v kin thc va kinh nghim
cua ngi tiu dung v thng hiu, Marcia va
Lehman (2009) cho rng thng hiu c to
ra bi ba yu t c ban la li ha thng hiu,
marketing thng hiu va s trai nghim
thng hiu. Li ha thng hiu la nhng k
vng c to ra t san phm, t chc hay mt
con ngi. Marketing thng hiu c xy
dng t bn trong, t mi trng vn hoa cua
mt t chc nhm chuyn giao li ha va em
li mt s trai nghim tt v thng hiu. Trai
nghim thng hiu la nhng gi thc s xay
ra trong qua trinh khach hang tiu dung san
phm, thng la n li mt n tng nao .
Li ha, marketing va s trai nghim cung
nhau to nn mt thng hiu mnh, nu n
khng hi c ba yu t nay thi thng hiu
se bi tn thng.
Kha nng nhn bit mt thng hiu san
phm cua ngi tiu dung cang cao thi kha
nng la chn thng hiu cang ln. Theo
Tuominen (1999), nhn bit thng hiu lin
kt vi sc mnh cua mt im nhn thng
hiu trong ky c khach hang, phan anh kha

nng nhn bit thng hiu cua khach hang


di cac iu kin khac nhau.
Kha nng nhn bit a n kha nng lin
kt cua mt thng hiu va n la mt yu t c
ban to nn gia tri thng hiu (Aaker, 1992).
Cac yu t lin kt cua mt thng hiu bao
gm tt ca cac suy ngh, cam nhn, nhn thc,
hinh anh, trai nghim, nim tin, thai cua
ngi tiu dung i vi mt thng hiu
(Kotler and Keller, 2006). Vi vy lin kt
thng hiu tr thanh yu t quyt inh hanh vi
mua va lng trung thanh i vi mt thng
hiu (Aaker, 1991).
Thng hiu l mt kha nng duy nht cua
cng ty i x vi nhng khch hng khc
nhau va xy dng mi quan h lu di gia
cng ty vi khach hang, thng qua em li
li nhun cho cng ty. Thng hiu lm thay
i thai cua ngi tiu dung i vi san
phm rau va trai cy va giup cng ty chim lnh
c thi trng mc tiu (Eric Barrett, 2012).
Thng hiu tr thnh mt phn gi tri cua
san phm rau va trai cy, thm ch thng hiu
cn to ra gi tri c nhn cho nhng ngi mua
v s dng chng. Nh c thng hiu, gi cua
san phm c nng ln cao hn rt nhiu so
vi nhng san phm khng c thng hiu.
Ngi tiu dng chp nhn mua rau va trai cy
c thng hiu vi gia cao hn rt nhiu so vi
cc loi san phm thng thng khac v h cam
thy yn tm v cht lng v s an ton cua
n. Theo tc gia, thng hiu em li danh
ting v gi tri rt ln cho cc cng ty, trang
tri v cc h gia inh trng rau va trai cy
Trung quc (Wang, 2005).
Li th cnh tranh cua mt thng hiu
khng ch to ra lng trung thnh cua khch
hng, khin h mua nhiu hn, sn sng tra gi
cao hn so vi san phm cua i thu m cn
gip doanh nghip inh c gia ban cao hn
va duy tri, thuc y c cc knh phn phi
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Science & Technology Development, Vol 18, No Q3 - 2015


u tin la chn san phm c thng hiu
(Johan, A., Ulf, J. and Niklas, P. 2007;
Sethuraman, 2003; Ailawadiet al., 2003;
Agarwal & Rao, 1996).
2.4. Gi bn san phm
Gi ca cua san phm la thc o quan trng
nht cua gi tri thng hiu. Li nhun va s
n inh cua gia ban san phm khac bit c th
vt ra ngoai chin thut thng thng, n c
th la mt s chin thng cua chin lc
thng hiu (Gordon Pincott, 2011). Gia ca tr
thanh mt trong cac yu t quan trng nht
trong marketing. Trong hot ng thng mi,
cac doanh nghip thng ap dng nhiu cng
c inh gia khac nhau va cac chnh sach thuc
y nhm thu hut khach hang mi va gia tng
lng trung thanh cua khach hang (Simone A.
French, 2003; Marinescu; Sabin M. and Toma,
2008). Nhn thc v gia tac ng c y ngha
n hanh vi la chn va s thoa mn cua khach
hang. N xac inh hiu nng cua ban hang va
duy tri lng trung thanh cua khach hang (Varki,
S. and Colgate, M., 2001).
Nm bt c hiu ng tac ng cua gia
ban san phm n hanh vi la chn san phm
cua ngi tiu dung la mt vic lam ti quan
trng, bi vi n giup cac nha quan ly ban l
inh gia san phm phu hp, khng nhng am
bao c mc tiu li nhun ma cn gy c
cam tinh cua ngi mua, gp phn nng cao
gia tri thng hiu cua san phm (Zielke,
Stephan 2006).
Mi quan h gia hng vi cua trai cy va
gia ban rt ro net. Trong kt qua nghin cu v
s a thch va la chn trai cy cua ngi tiu
dung, Roger Harker (2005) ch ro nu hng
vi trai cy kem se dn n gia ban bi giam sut;
hng vi thm ngon se gia tng gia ban san
phm; hng vi trai cy c tm quan trng gp
hai ln gia ban san phm. Theo Amanda
Christine Smith (2010), ngi tiu dung sn
Trang 56

sang tra gia cao cho cac san phm thc phm
hu c t nhin (organic products), sau la
yu t v tnh tin li khi mua va cac yu t
khac nh hng vi, mau sc, kiu dang cua trai
cy.
2.5. Cc yu t thuc c im c nhn
S la chn va tiu dung trai cy cua ngi
tiu dung chiu tac ng bi nhiu yu t cua
mi trng va cac yu t ni ti hin hu trong
mi ca nhn. Mt s tac gia cho rng hanh vi
la chn va tiu dung trai cy, rau, thc phm
cua ngi tiu dung chiu tac ng mnh bi
cac yu t nh thu nhp, vn hoa giao dc va
ia vi, ng cp trong x hi (Johansson &
Andersen 1998; Mc Clelland et al. 1998). Cac
c im v nhn khu hc cng la cac yu t
tac ng n hanh vi la chn va tiu dung trai
cy. Ph n dung nhiu trai cy va rau hn nam
gii. Ngi trng thanh ln tui dung nhiu
hn gii tr (Thompson et al.1999).
i vi nhiu ngi, la chn va tiu dung
trai cy khng ch vi n cung cp cac gia tri
dinh dng hay sc kho cua h ma cn la
nim vui, kinh nghim v thng thc, s
khuy khoa, sung tuc, nim tin vao cht lng
va hng vi ngon cua trai cy (Brug et al.
1995).
Thi quen tiu dung trai cy la mt yu t
then cht dn n hanh vi la chn va tiu
dung trai cy. Thi quen c hinh thanh do
nhiu yu t kt hp, c lp li nhiu ln
trong qua kh cua ngi tiu dung (Khan,
1981; Brug et al. 1995; Bandura, 1997; Sallis
& Owen, 2002;). Thi quen bao gm kinh
nghim hc hi t qua kh hinh thanh thai
hng v la chn va tiu dung trai cy. Hn
na, thi quen cn din ta "s t th hin
minh", gp phn to nn phong cach sng cua
ca nhn. Theo Khan (1981), thi quen nay tr
thanh mt yu t mnh xac inh hanh vi la

TP CH PHT TRIN KH & CN, TP 18, S Q3 - 2015


chn va tiu dung cac san phm nc trai cy,
salad va trai cy.
Chnh thi quen tiu dung tr thanh ly do
c ban giai thich s bn vng cua yu t vn
hoa, truyn thng va anh hng n hanh vi
tiu dung. C th ni rng vn hoa truyn
thng va cac tp quan truyn thng la cac nn
tang ma trn cac hanh vi la chn va tiu
dung thc phm trong c rau va trai cy
c hinh thanh (Rozin & Vollmecke, 1986;
Bandura, 1997; Pollard, Kirk & Cade, 2002;
Sallis & Owen, 2002).
Nhng kinh nghim n san phm c cht
lng (experiential eating quality) trong qua
kh, kt hp vi nhng c tnh bn ngoai cua
san phm c ngi tiu dung cam nhn la
nhng c s quan trng nht dn dt hanh vi
la chn va tiu dung trai cy cua h. Nhng
trai nghim cua ngi tiu dung c hinh
thanh thng qua nm th, mui, vi va tnh tin
li khi mua giup ngi tiu dung d dang nhn
din cht lng san phm va a n quyt
inh la chn mua va tiu dung cac loi trai
cy (Nelson, 1970, 1974; Torjusen et al. 2001;
Grunert et al. 2004). Thanh t chnh to nn
kinh nghim cua ngi tiu dung v cht lng
chnh la vi ngon cua trai cy. Vi ngon cua trai
cy bao gm hng vi (ngt, bui, chua, chat,
cay, ng), hng thm cung vi mng
nc, chn, mau sc va hinh dang cua san
phm (Tan, 2000). Nh vy mau sc hin thi,
hng va vi cua trai cy tr thanh thanh t
hang u trong danh sach cac yu t to ra cac
c tnh va cht lng cua san phm, to ra s

thoa mn khi n va quyt inh hanh vi mua va


tiu dung trai cy cua h (Zanoli et al. 2003;
Ernst et al. 2006).
Quan h x hi cua mt ca nhn c anh
hng nht inh n vic la chn va tiu dung
thc phm trong c rau va trai cy (Germov
& Williams, 1999). Mt ca nhn c th tim
kim s khac bit so vi ngi khac, hay s th
hin minh trc ngi khac bng vic la chn
cac thc phm hay chn mn n hay ung
trong mt nha hang, la chn rau va trai cy ti
mt siu thi c ng ngi va coi nh la
mt hanh ng "ghi im" trc ngi khac
(Westenhoefer & Pudel, 1993; Germov &
Williams, 1999).
Nghin cu cua Roger Harker (2005) cho
thy c nhiu yu t anh hng n hanh vi
mua trai cy cua ngi tiu dung ti M la trai
cy giup duy tri sc kho, hng vi, cam giac
ngon, chng li bnh tt, gia ban, tnh sn c va
tnh thun tin. Tnh sn c cua tri cy mi
ni, mi thi im khi ngi tiu dng bt gp
l yu t kch thch hnh vi mua v tiu dng
cua h (Bandura, 1997; Khairunnisa &ctg,
2012).
Nh vy, c bn yu t c ban anh hng
n hanh vi la chn va tiu dung trai cy cua
ngi tiu dung. Da trn bn yu t nay, mt
b thang o gm 29 bin giai thch c xy
dng nhm giai thch ro bn yu t nay. ng
thi chung la c s thu thp cac d liu va
s dng trong nghin cu inh lng (xem
bang 1).

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Science & Technology Development, Vol 18, No Q3 - 2015


Bang 1. Thang o cc yu t anh hng n hanh vi la chn va tiu dung tri cy
Yu t

Ma

Cht
lng
& c
tnh cua
trai cy

Cd1

Hng thm cua tri cy

Loureiro et al. 2002; Thilmany et al. 2008;


Riccarda Moser et al. 2011; Brug et al. 1995.
Zanoli et al. 2003; Ernst et al. 2006.

Cd2

Vi ngon cua tri cy

Heimendinger J & Van Duyn MA, 1995;


Ness et al. 2010; Torjusen et al. 2001;
Grunert et al. 2004.

Cd3

chin cua tri cy

Ostrom & Iacobucci 1995; Crosby et al.


1990; Lili and Tong, 2007; Ness et al. 2010

Cd4

Mu sc, ti cua tri cy

Lohr 2000; Mabiso et al. 2005; Darby 2006;


Akgngr et al. 2007; Ghorbani et al. 2007;
Lili and Tong, 2007; Ness et al. 2010; Zanoli
et al. 2003; Ernst et al. 2006

Cd5

ng u v kiu dng, kich


thc, trong lng cua tri cy

Mabiso et al. 2005; Darby 2006; Akgngr et


al. 2007

Cd6

An ton, v sinh, sach ep cua


tri cy

Becker 1999; Midmore et al. 2005; Darby et


al. 2006

Cd7

Dinh dng v sc khoe cho


ngi tiu dung

Caswell and Mojduszka 1996; Becker 1999;


Lusk et al. 2007; Travisi and Nijkamp 2008;
Arunachalam et al. 2009.

Th1

Kinh nghim tiu dung thng qua


thng hiu

Kotler and Keller, 2006; Ailawadiet al., 2003;


Agarwal & Rao, 1996.

Th2

Nhn bit san phm thng qua


thng hiu

Aaker,1991, 1992,1996; Tuominen,1999

Th3

Thng hiu l s la chon u


tin

Aaker,1991; Kotler and Keller, 2006

Th4

Tin tng vo cht lng thng


qua thng hiu

Kotler and Keller, 2006; Tuominen,1999

Th5

Thoa man v trung thnh vi


thng hiu

Aakar, 1991, 1996; Keller, 1993). Schiffman


va Kanuk (2004

Th6

Thng hiu ai din cho mt


phong cch sng

Johan, A., Ulf, J. and Niklas, P. 2007;


Sethuraman, 2003; Ailawadiet al., 2003;
Agarwal & Rao, 1996

Gb1

Gi bn xng ng vi cht
lng

Zielke, Stephan 2006; Johan, A., Ulf, J. and


Niklas, P. 2007; Agarwal & Rao, 1996.

Gb2

Lun lun cn nhc gi khi mua

Roger Harker, 2005; Sethuraman, 2003;


Ailawadiet al., 2003.

Thng
hiu trai
cy

Trang 58

Cc bin giai thch

Ngun

TP CH PHT TRIN KH & CN, TP 18, S Q3 - 2015

Gb3

Thng qua gi bn nh gi cht


lng

Simone A. French, 2003; Marinescu; Sabin


M. and Toma, 2008.

Gb4

Gi bn tao c s cam tinh


cua ngi mua v tiu dung.

Keller, 1993; Tuominen,1999

Gb5

Gi bn tao nim tin vo cht


lng

Keller, 1993; Tuominen,1999; Aakar, 1991,


1996

Gb6

Sn sng tra gi cao cho san


phm c hng vi thm ngon,
hinh dng v mu sc ep

Simone A. French, 2003; Marinescu; Sabin


M. and Toma, 2008; Amanda Christine
Smith, 2010.

Tl1

Kinh nghim v thi quen trong


la chon v tiu dung tri cy

Nelson, 1970, 1974; Torjusen et al. 2001;


Grunert et al. 2004.

Tl2

Lun lun la chon v tiu dung


tri cy da trn li khuyn cua
ngi thn, ban be

Germov & Williams, 1999; Johansson &


Andersen 1998; Mc Clelland et al. 1998

Tl3

Nim vui thich khi mua v tiu Zanoli et al. 2003; Ernst et al. 2006; Roger
dung tri cy
Harker, 2005.

Tl4

S thich ring, n tng, vn


ho truyn thng

Westenhoefer & Pudel, 1993; Germov &


Williams, 1999; Rozin & Vollmecke, 1986;
Pollard, Kirk and Cade, 2002.

Tl5

Kinh nghim n tri cy

Zanoli et al. 2003; Ernst et al. 2006

Tl6

Khng inh phong cch sng v


ia vi xa hi

Johansson & Andersen 1998; Mc Clelland et


al. 1998; Thompson et al.1999

Hv1

u tin la chon v tiu dung


tri cy c cht lng, dinh
dng v an ton

Smriti Chand, 2014; Lohr 2000; Mabiso et al.


2005; Darby 2006; Akgngr et al. 2007;
Ghorbani et al. 2007; Lili and Tong, 2007;
Ness et al. 2010.

Hv2

Tin tng, n tng v quyt


inh la chon, mua tri cy

Aaker,1991; Marcia va Lehman, 2009;


Sethuraman, 2003; Ailawadiet al., 2003;
Agarwal & Rao, 1996

Hv3

Thi quen trong la chon v tiu


dung tri cy

Johansson & Andersen 1998; McClelland et


al. 1998; Rozin & Vollmecke, 1986; Pollard,
Kirk and Cade, 2002. Khan, 1981; Brug et al.
1995.

Hv4

Ch trung thnh vi s la chon


v tiu dung mt s loai tri cy
a lai nhng n tng manh

Crosby et al. 1990; Kotler and Keller, 2006

Gia ban

Cc yu
t thuc
c
im c
nhn

Hanh vi
la
chn va
tiu
dung

2.6. Phng php nghin cu


lm r cc mi quan h gia cc yu t
cng nh xy dng v kim inh mt m hnh
c s hin din va tng tac cua cc yu t,

nghin cu ny kt hp ng thi hai phng


php nghin cu inh tnh va inh lng.
Phng phap inh tnh c s dng lm r
cc mc tiu nghin cu, cc ni dung, thut
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Science & Technology Development, Vol 18, No Q3 - 2015


ng, cc yu t, cc mi tng quan, phn tch
kt qua, kt lun vn nghin cu. Phng
phap inh lng c s dng nhm giai thch
cc yu t trn bng cc con s, c kha nng o
lng.
D liu bao gm d liu th cp va s cp.
D liu th cp c khai thc t cc bi bo,
cc cng trnh nghin cu cua cc tc gia trong
va ngoai nc c lin quan n vn nghin
cu. D liu s cp c thu thp trc tip t
cac i tng nghin cu bng bang cu hi
theo thang o Likert c 5 mc (1: hoan toan
khng ng y va 5: hoan toan ng y). i
tng nghin cu la ngi mua va tiu dung
tri cy ti cc siu thi trn ia ban thnh ph
H Ch Minh.
am bao tin cy cua mu va thang
o, cc kim inh mu c thc hin bao
gm: kim inh h s KMO (cho bit ph
hp cua tp hp mu, khi h s KMO >.50
(Norussis, 1985; Field, 2005). H s Cronbach
alpha dung o lng tin cy cua thang o
cc yu t, vi h s >.70. Kim inh EFA
dung xac inh trng s ma trn (>.40),
tng quan gia bin v tng (>.30) v tng
phng sai trch (>50%) trong thang o
(Churchill, 1979; Hair & et al., 1995).
kim inh s ph hp cua m hnh
nghin cu (m hnh cu trc tuyn tnh SEM),
kim inh CFA c s dng vi cc ch s
cn t nh: Gia tri hi t v phn bit cua cc
trng s hi quy chun (Standardized
Regression Weight - SRW) >.50 v <1.0
(Anderson & Gerbing, 1988); ch s CMIN v
CMIN/df <2 va 2 (Kline, 1979; Bollen, 1990;
Fredenberger 1994; Hair et al, 1995); CFI >.90;
TLI >.90 <1.0; RMSEA (Root Mean Square
Error of Approximation) t <.05 n <.08
(Steiger, 2000; Browne & Cudeck, 1993); ch
s then cht CR (Critical ratios) > 1.96 (Richart
Bagozzi & Yi, 1988).
Trang 60

V s mu trong nghin cu. C nhiu


kin khac nhau t ra l bao nhiu mu th ph
hp. Mt s tc gia cho rng s mu ti thiu
cn t trong nghin cu l 100 (Kline, P.
1979; Gorsuch, R. L. 1983). t nht l 200
(Guilford, J. P. 1954); 250 mu (Cattell, R. B.
1978). Cc tc gia u nht tr rng: 50 mu l
qu thp; 100 l thp; 200 l tm c; 300 l
tt; 500 l rt tt; v 1000 mu l xut sc.
t s mu theo yu cu, 500 phiu
c phat ra theo phng phap ngu nhin n
gian, phn tng ti 16 siu thi ti thanh ph H
Ch Minh bao gm: Co-opmart (6); Metro (3);
Lotte (3); Big C (4). Tng s phiu thu v l
394 (79%) v s dng c l 321 (64%).
chng minh s lng mu c s dng (321
mu) la phu hp, nghin cu nay thc hin
phng phap ly mu c lp li bng kim inh
Bootstrap vi s mu chn la 1000. Kt qua
cho thy chch gia s mu 1000 va 321
(mu ban u) la bng 0, vi p = .000<.05. Do
vy c th kt lun la s mu 321 la phu hp.
Trong i tng khao sat, n la 287 (tng
ng 89%); Nam la 34 ngi (11%).
V tui: Di 18 tui la 25 ngi (chim
ty l 7,7%); t 18 n 25 tui la 34 ngi
(10,5%); trn 25 n 35 tui la 57 ngi
(17,7%); trn 35 n 45 tui la 71 ngi
(22%); trn 45 n 55 tui la 68 ngi (21%);
tui trn 55 tui la 66 ngi (20,56%).
V thu nhp. Di 5 triu ng/thang la 73
ngi (22,7%); t 5 n 7 triu la 67 ngi
(21%); trn 7 n 10 triu la 93 ngi (29%);
trn 10 n 15 triu ng/thang c 45 ngi
(14%); trn 15 n 20 triu la 28 ngi (9%);
va trn 20 triu ng/thang la 15 ngi (5%).
V tn sut mua trai cy ti siu thi. 01
ln/thang la 25 ngi (8%); 2 ln/thang la 56
ngi (17%); 03 ln/thang la 98 ngi (31%);
t 04 ln/thang la 142 ngi (44%).

TP CH PHT TRIN KH & CN, TP 18, S Q3 - 2015


3. KT QUA NGHIN CU V THAO
LUN
3.1. Kt qua kim inh s khc bit trong
cc yu t anh hng n hanh vi la chn
va tiu dung tri cy ngoai va tri cy ni.
xac inh cac yu t nh cht lng va
c tnh cua san phm; thng hiu; gia ban
san phm; va tm ly ca nhn cua ngi tiu
dung anh hng n hanh vi la chn va tiu
dung trai cy, nhm nghin cu s dng kt
qua iu tra ngi tiu dung v hai nhm trai
cy: nhp khu (ngoi) va san xut trong nc
(ni) ti cac siu thi so sanh. Kim inh T
(test) trong ANOVA c s dng nhm xc
inh s khc bit gia hai nhm san phm ny.
Gia thuyt Ho t ra la : Khng c s khc
bit c y ngha trong hnh vi la chon v tiu
dung tri cy gia tri cy ngoai v ni tai cc
siu thi thnh ph H Chi Minh. Gia thuyt
trn c loi b khi t (start)> t (critical- tra
bang phn phi T); vi P<.025 (p l mc
ngha trong kim inh hai ui). Kt qua kim
inh cho kt qua nh sau (xem bang 2):

i. Cht lng v c tinh cua san phm


(tri cy ngoai)-Cht lng v c tinh
cua san phm (tri cy ni): t (start) =
12.27 > 1.96 (t-critical); p= .000 < .025;
ii. Thng hiu san phm (tri cy ngoai)Thng hiu san phm (tri cy ni): t
(start) = 11.95 > 1.96 (t-critical); p= .000<
.025;
iii. Gi bn san phm (tri cy ngoai)- Gi
bn san phm (tri cy ni): t (start) =
14.95 > 1.96 (t-critical); p= .000 < .025;
iv. c im c nhn trong la chon v tiu
dung (tri cy ngoai)- c im c nhn
trong la chon v tiu dung (tri cy ni):
t (start) = 9.85> 1.96 (t-critical); p= .000<
.025;
v. Hnh vi la chon (tri cy ngoai)- Hnh
vi la chon (tri cy ni): t (start) = 9.12
> 1.96 (t-critical); p = .000< .025;
T kt qua trn, gia thuyt Ho bi bc b v
a n mt kt lun l c s khc bit c
ngha trong hanh vi la chn va tiu dung gia
tri cy ngoi va trai cy ni.

Bang 2. Kt qua kim inh s khc bit trong hanh vi la chn va tiu dung tri cy ngoai va ni

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Science & Technology Development, Vol 18, No Q3 - 2015


3.2. Kt qua kim inh thang o cc yu
t anh hng n hanh vi la chn v tiu
dung
khng inh tnh tng thch va tin
cy cua mu va thang o (c s ly thuyt) so
vi d liu thi trng, mt nghin cu s b
c thc hin vi 60 mu. Kt qua kim inh
thang o bng h s KMO, Cronbach alpha va
EFA cho thy c 5 bin quan sat khng t cac
yu cu (cn gi la bin rac) va bi loi ra khi
m hinh, la 2 bin thuc v Thng hiu
(Th3: Thng hiu l s la chon u tin; va
Th6: Thng hiu ai din cho mt phong cch
sng); 2 bin thuc v Tm ly ca nhn (Tl2:

Lun lun la chon v tiu dung tri cy da


trn li khuyn cua ngi thn, ban be; TL4:
tui anh hng rt ln ti la chon v tiu
dung tri cy); 01 bin thuc v Hanh vi ngi
tiu dung (HV4: Ch trung thnh vi s la
chon v tiu dung mt s loai tri cy a lai
nhng n tng manh).
T 29 bin ban u, sau khi loi 5 bin rac,
s bin cn li la 24 bin va c gi li trong
nghin cu chnh thc. H s KMO cua tng
thang o la .85 >.50 (mc chp nhn); h s
Cronbach alpha l .88 >.70; Tng phng sai
giai thch cua thang o la 66% > 50% (xem
bang 3).

Bang 3. Kt qua kim inh KMO, Cronbach alpha v EFA cua thang o cc yu t

Ngun: D liu iu tra thi trng t thng 10 n thng 12 nm 2013


3.3. Kt qua kim inh m hnh cc yu
t anh hng n hanh vi la chn va tiu
dung tri cy
Kt qua kim inh m hnh l thuyt v cc
yu t anh hng n hanh vi la chn va tiu

Trang 62

dung trai cy thng qua m hinh cu truc tuyn


tnh SEM vi s h tr cua phn mm
AMOS.22 cho thy: cc ch s thng k u
t yu cu ra (xem hnh 3 v bang 4).

TP CH PHT TRIN KH & CN, TP 18, S Q3 - 2015

Hnh 3. Kt qua kim inh m hnh cc yu t anh hng n hanh vi la chn va tiu dung tri
cy cua ngi tiu dung
Gia tri chi-square cua m hinh la 587.68 vi
CR (Critical ratios) > 1.96. Gi tri hi t v
298 bc t do. Ch s CMIN/df l 1.97 < 2.0;
phn bit cua cc trng s hi quy chun
CFI l .983 >.90; TLI l .945 >.90; GFI l .928
SRWu >.50 v <1.0.
>.90; RMSEA l .037 <.05; ch s then cht
Bang 4. Kt qua kim inh cc yu t anh hng n hanh vi la chn va tiu dung tri cy

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Science & Technology Development, Vol 18, No Q3 - 2015


Kt qua kim inh trong bang 4 cho thy:
Th nht, c mt s tac ng kha ro rt cua
cac yu t n hanh vi khach hang trong la
chn va tiu dung trai cy. Trong bn yu t
trn, yu t anh hng mnh nht n hanh vi
la chn va tiu dung trai cy cua ngi tiu
dung la Cht lng v c tinh cua san phm
(Trng s hi qui chun -SRW la .76; p =.000
<.05); tip theo la c im c nhn cua ngi
mua la .74; p =.000 <.05); th ba la Thng
hiu vi gia tri la .71, p =.000<.05; va cui
cung la Gi bn la .62, p=.000 <.05.
Th hai, c mi tng quan gia bn yu
t. Trong , tng quan mnh nht thuc v
Cht lng va c tnh cua san phm - c
im c nhn vi h s tng quan la .81; p
=.000 <.05; th hai la Thng hiu v c
im c nhn (.77; p =.00 <.05); th ba la Gia
ban va c im c nhn (.74; p =.000 <.05);
th t la cht lng va c tnh cua san phm thng hiu (.71; p =.00 <.05); th nm la
Thng hiu va Gia ban (.69, p = .00 <.05); th
sau la cht lng va c tnh cua san phm gia ban .68; p = .000 <.05).
4. KT LUN
T cc kt qua nghin cu trn cho thy:
Th nht, c s hin din cua bn yu t c
ban anh hng n hanh vi la chn va tiu
dung trai cy cua ngi tiu dung ti cac siu
thi, bao gm: Cht lng v c tinh cua san
phm; Thng hiu; Gi bn; v c im c
nhn cua ngi mua va tiu dung san phm.
Th hai, c s khac bit c y ngha trong
hanh vi la chn va tiu dung trai cy ngoi va
trai cy ni cua ngi tiu dung. S khac bit
nay th hin trong bn yu t c ban la Cht
lng va c tnh cua san phm; Thng hiu;
Gia ban; va c im c nhn cua ngi mua
va tiu dung san phm. Trai cy ngoi c li

Trang 64

th hn so vi trai cy ni tp trung cac im


ni bt nh Thng hiu (chnh lch la .88);
Gia ban (.81); cht lng va c tnh cua san
phm (.67); c im c nhn (.49).
Th ba, tri cy pht trin bn vng,
em li nhng gi tri thit thc, lu di cho nh
san xut va ngi tiu dung, trc ht cc nh
quan l, cc nh san xut ti ia phng cn
phai giai quyt ng b bn yu t la cht
lng va c tnh cua san phm (mui vi,
ngon, mau sc, hinh dang bn ngoai, kch c,
trng lng, chn, ti, dinh dng va an
toan); Thng hiu (gn nhn, ch dn ia ly,
bao bi, hng dn s dng, cung cp thng
tin); Gia ca (inh gia phu hp, h tr knh phn
phi, chit khu i ly,v.v...); c im c
nhn (to kinh nghim, nim tin, to s thoa
mn cao va ng lc mua). Trong , nha san
xut trai cy cn tp trung vao cht lng va
c tnh, c im c nhn va thng hiu cua
san phm.
Th t, cht lng san phm va c im
c nhn c mi quan h rt cht che, tac ng
mnh nht n hanh vi la chn va tiu dung
trai cy. Do vy, bn cnh cng tc pht trin
thng hiu, cc nh quan l v san xut trai
cy cn c bit quan tm n cht lng san
phm. Cht lng san phm khng ch l vic
p dng quy trnh san xut theo tiu chun
GAP, n cn l nhng yu t gn lin vi san
phm m khch hng cam nhn c nh: mau
sc ti bt mt; san phm ng u; bao b
hp dn, ch dn ia ly ro rang, thm ngon cua
mi, vi cua san phm,v.v ng thi cn nm
bt cac yu t c im c nhn dn dt hanh
vi cua khach hang nh to nim tin, to s trai
nghim, to s thoa mn va lng trung thanh
cua ngi tiu dung.

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