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9/22/2016

BBCGCSEBitesizeIoniccompounds

Science
Ioniccompounds
Ionsareelectricallychargedparticlesformedwhenatoms[atom:All
elementsaremadeofatoms.Anatomconsistsofanucleuscontainingprotons
andneutrons,surroundedbyelectrons.]loseorgainelectrons[electron:An
electronisaverysmallnegativelychargedparticlefoundinanatominthespace
surroundingthenucleus.].Theyhavethesameelectronicstructuresas
noblegases.
Metalatomsformpositiveions,whilenonmetalatomsformnegativeions.
Thestrongelectrostatic[electrostatic:Anelectrostaticforceisgeneratedby
differencesinelectriccharge(iepositiveandnegative)betweentwoparticles.It
canalsorefertoelectricityatrest.]forcesofattractionbetweenoppositely
chargedionsarecalledionicbonds.
Ioniccompounds[ioniccompound:Anioniccompoundoccurswhena
negativeion(anatomthathasgainedanelectron)joinswithapositiveion(an
atomthathaslostanelectron):Theionsswapelectronstoachieveafullouter
shell.]havehighmeltingandboilingpoints.

Whatisanion?
Ionsareelectricallychargedparticlesformedwhenatomsloseor
gainelectrons[electron:Anelectronisaverysmallnegativelychargedparticle
foundinanatominthespacesurroundingthenucleus.].Thislossorgainleaves
acompletehighestenergylevel,sotheelectronicstructureofanionisthesame
asthatofanoblegassuchasahelium,neonorargon.
Metalatomsandnonmetalatomsgoinoppositedirectionswhentheyionise:

Metalatomslosetheelectron,orelectrons,intheirhighestenergylevel
andbecomepositivelychargedions
Nonmetalatomsgainanelectron,orelectrons,fromanotheratom
tobecomenegativelychargedions

Positivelychargedsodium
andaluminiumions

Negativelychargedoxide
andchlorideions

Howmanycharges?
Thereisaquickwaytoworkoutwhatthechargeonanionshouldbe:

Thenumberofchargesonanionformedbyametalisequaltothegroup
numberofthemetal
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BBCGCSEBitesizeIoniccompounds

Thenumberofchargesonanionformedbyanonmetalisequaltothe
Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group
groupnumberminuseight
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
HydrogenformsH+ions

Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
Example Na
element

Mg

Al

Cl

He

Charge

1+

2+

3+

Note
1

Note
2

Symbol
ofion

Na+

Mg2+

Al3+

Note
1

N3

O2

Cl

Note
2

Note1:carbonandsiliconinGroup4usuallyformcovalentbonds[covalent
bond:Acovalentbondbetweenatomsformswhenatomsshareelectronsto
achieveafulloutershellofelectrons.]bysharingelectrons.
Note2:theelementsinGroup0donotreactwithotherelementstoformions.

Forminganionicbond
Whenmetalsreactwithnonmetals,electrons[electron:Anelectronisavery
smallnegativelychargedparticlefoundinanatominthespacesurroundingthe
nucleus.]aretransferredfromthemetalatomstothenonmetalatoms,
formingions[ion:Positivelyornegativelychargedparticlesegpositively
chargedhydrogen,sodiumandpotassiumatoms.Ionchargehelpsdeterminea
substance'sacidityoralkalinity].Theresultingcompoundiscalledanionic
compound[ioniccompound:Anioniccompoundoccurswhenanegativeion
(anatomthathasgainedanelectron)joinswithapositiveion(anatomthathas
lostanelectron):Theionsswapelectronstoachieveafulloutershell.].
Considerreactionsbetweenmetalsandnonmetals,forexample:

Sodium+chlorinesodiumchloride
Magnesium+oxygenmagnesiumoxide
Calcium+chlorinecalciumchloride
Ineachofthesereactions,themetalatomsgiveelectronstothenonmetal
atoms.Themetalatomsbecomepositiveionsandthenonmetalatomsbecome
negativeions.
Whenanonmetalformsabondthenameendingchanges.Inthesereactions
theendingisideshowingonlythatelementispresent.Iftheendingwasateit
meansthatoxygenisalsopresentaswellastheelement.
Thereisastrongelectrostatic[electrostatic:Anelectrostaticforceisgenerated
bydifferencesinelectriccharge(iepositiveandnegative)betweentwoparticles.
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Itcanalsorefertoelectricityatrest.]forceofattractionbetweentheseoppositely
chargedions,calledanionicbond.Theanimationshowsionicbondsbeing
formedinsodiumchloride,magnesiumoxideandcalciumchloride.
Therearemanyionicbondsinanioniccompoundsuchassodiumchloride,
arrangedingiantlattice[lattice:Alatticeisaregulargridlikearrangementof
atomsinamaterial.]structures.Ioniccompoundshavehighmeltingandboiling
points.

Commoniconiccompounds
Youneedtobeabletodrawdotandcrossdiagramstoshow
theions[ion:Positivelyornegativelychargedparticlesegpositivelycharged
hydrogen,sodiumandpotassiumatoms.Ionchargehelpsdeterminea
substance'sacidityoralkalinity]insomecommonioniccompounds[ionic
compound:Anioniccompoundoccurswhenanegativeion(anatomthathas
gainedanelectron)joinswithapositiveion(anatomthathaslostanelectron):
Theionsswapelectronstoachieveafulloutershell.].

Sodiumchloride,NaCl

SodiumionshavetheformulaNa+,whilechlorideionshavetheformulaCl.You
needtoshowonesodiumionandonechlorideion.Intheexam,makesurethe
dotsandcrossesareclear,butdonotworryaboutcolouringthem.

Magnesiumoxide,MgO

MagnesiumionshavetheformulaMg2+,whileoxideionshavetheformulaO2.
Youneedtoshowonemagnesiumionandoneoxideion.

Calciumchloride,CaCl2

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Nameofion Formulaandcharge

CalciumionshavetheformulaCa2+.ChlorideionshavetheformulaCl.
Youneedtoshowtwochlorideions,becausetwochlorideionsareneededto
balancethechargeonacalciumion.

Formulaeofioniccompounds
Seawatercontainsanumberofdissolvedsalts.Whenthesesaltsdissolvein
water,theionsseparate.Seawaterthereforecontainsamixtureofions.The
mostcommonionsinseawaterareshowninthetable:

Nameofion Formulaandcharge
Chloride

Cl

Sodium

Na+

Sulfate

SO42

Magnesium

Mg2+

Calcium

Ca2+

Potassium

K+

Carbonate

CO32

Bromide

Br

Itispossibletodeducefromthetablewhichsaltsdissolvedtoformthemixtureof
ions:
Whensodiumchloridedissolvesitformssodiumionsandchlorideions
Whenmagnesiumchloridedissolvesitformsmagnesiumandchlorideions
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Whenmagnesiumsulfatedissolvesifformsmagnesiumionsandsulfateions
Whenpotassiumchloridedissolvesitformspotassiumionsandchlorideions
Whenpotassiumbromidedissolvesitformspotassiumionsandbromideions
Youcanusethechargeontheionsshowninthetabletoworkouttheformulae
oftheioniccompounds.
Sodiumionseachhaveasinglepositivecharge.Chlorideionseachhave
asinglenegativecharge.Forthechargestocanceloutintheneutralsalt
sodiumchloride,theymustbeinarationof1:1.Sotheformulaofsodium
chlorideisNaCl.
Magnesiumionseachhavetwopositivecharges.Chlorideionseachhave
asinglenegativecharge.Forthechargestocanceloutintheneutralsalt
magnesiumchloride,theymustbeinarationof1:2.Sotheformulaof
magnesiumchlorideisMgCl2.
NowtryaTestBite.
Readonifyouaretakingthehigherpaper.

IonicstructureHighertier
Theionsinacompoundsuchassodiumchloridearearrangedinalattice
structure.Thisregulararrangementresultsintheformationofacrystal.
Thediagramshowspartofthecrystallatticeofsodiumchloride:
Thispatternisrepeatedinalldirections,givingagiant
threedimensionallatticestructureinsodiumchloride
crystals.
Becauseofthestrongelectrostaticforcesbetween
them,ittakesagreatdealofenergytoseparatethe
positiveandnegativeionsinacrystallattice.This
meansthationiccompoundshavehighmeltingpoints
andboilingpoints.
Solidioniccompoundsdonotconductelectricity,
becausetheionsareheldfirmlyinplace.Theycannot PositivelychargedNaions,
movetoconducttheelectriccurrent.Butwhenan
negativelychargedClions
ioniccompoundmelts,thechargedionsarefreeto
move.Moltenioniccompoundsdoconductelectricity.
Whenacrystalofanioniccompounddissolvesinwater,theionsseparate.
Again,theionsarefreetomove,soasolutionofanioniccompoundinwateralso
conductselectricity.
BacktoRevisionBite

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