Glass,
Book.
COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT
"The dexterous hand and the thoughtful mind
find their strength in union alone"
ROGERS' '^
Drawing and Design
An Educational Treatise
RELATING TO
LINEAR DRAWING; MACHINE DESIGN; WORKING DRAWINGS; TRANSMISSION
METHODS; STEAM, ELECTRICAL AND METAL WORKING MACHINES AND PARTS;
LATHES; BOILER AND PARTS; INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USE; TABLES,
THEO. AUDEL &
CO.,
72 FIFTH AVENUE,
PUBLISHERS
Etc.
NEW YORK
35 3
COPYRIGHTED
THEi.
BY
AUllL
NEW YORK,
1913
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
^0.
(M3
_CI,A85128 5
^"2^
iiniiiiiiiiiiiiiitt
"
One
peculiar feature of the draftsman's opportunity
of all the mechanical occupations,
It is not in the least
is
that
and of one almost as much as
monopolized by the machinist, and
of his
shop more than of the others.
much
to
The
pattern
do with working drawings, and why not
it is
maker
the young
immense advantage
man
a most presumptive
to read drawings, but to
of the
make them."
of the other.
certainly has quite as
also the molder, the blackall
workers in any of these
means
takes hold
not the necessity
smith, the boiler maker, the carpenter, the coppersmith and
will be to the
it
the rest?
lines,
It
and to
of advancement, to be not only able
American Machinist.
PREFACE
made
In a report to the Bridge Commissioners, as to the progress being
steel cables
in
the construction of the
designed to support the immense weight of the (N. Y.) East River Suspension Bridge,
Chas. G. Roebling, C. E., used these impressive words, quoted, as printed in The
Sun :
" Further, Mr. Roebling said the work of placing four cables nineteen inches in diameter across the river, was one that
REQUIRED A CERTAIN DELIBERATION. No ERROR OP ANY KIND MUST BE MADE. Although all the men that could be utilized
in the work have been employed, yet the progress made appears to be slow.
Laymen might, from this, infer that the work is
lagging, but the Commissioners should know that this was not the case. The work will proceed, Mr. Roebling says, and be
finished to the perfect satisfaction of the Commissioners."
These emphasized words have been frequently
drawing and design.
in the
mind
During the long months required by
been taken to avoid error of any
sort,
of the author of this work, relating to
its
preparation the greatest of care has
and the utmost deliberation has been given
to the careful
presentation of each subject.
This has been called "the age of
from the daily
illustrated
of whatever nature
linear
its
illustration ;"
newspaper to the blue print
we come back
drawing as the foundation of
to the L. B.
all
&
the truth of the saying
in
is
evident on every side
the hand of the iron worker.
T. elements
In illustrations
length, breadth and thickness and
drawing whether industrial or
artistic
for linear
to
drawing has for
object the accurate delineation of surfaces and the construction of figures obtained by the studied
combination of
lines.
back to the hand of the
upward.
We
must come back
skillful
to first principles in all
thrower, so that on the next attempt
it
knowledge, as the
may be
projected
ball
still
comes
further
PREFACE.
The
draw
ability to
engineers and others
part with
"
its
An
knowledge
powers
in
memoranda
which they would
of a contemplative brain often forms the nucleus of. a
idea thus preserved at the
moment
of
its
birth
may become
of incalculable
the desultory train of fancy and treated as the sober offspring of reason."
a written thought at midnight will
its
" Thou hast not
lost
an hour whereof
redeem the livelong day."
closing page the main idea of the author has been to instruct, to impart
his
aim has been to educate, or to draw
to train to a certain result the various processes
mind
the student's
corn appears
for
those
drawing and design with special reference to a considerable degree of method and
of
completeness
would name the sum of money
if
for
inception to
its
art,
from the one who wrote also the noble sentence
is
a record
From
an added sense whose value could be somewhat determined,
are skilled in the
when rescued from
is
like
sketch the jotted
chance
This quotation
there
who
knowledge
splendid invention.
value
is
"
of a noble
and ancient
out,
and develop harmoniously the mental
described and to nurture an abiding interest
"First, the blade, then the ears, then the ripened
art.
expresses what has been the attempted order of instruction.
The power
to
draw
is
akin to that, and, to the engineer and mechanic, second only to the power to
read ; one needs not only to read the printed page but also to read a blueprint or a rightly drawn and
porportioned sketch
before there
is
there should be
many thousand good draughtsmen
one professor or regular instructor
looked upon as a help
in his daily
the art
for to the
scattered about and around
average
man drawing should be
avocation rather than as a staff to lean upon for lifelong employment.
PREFACE.
There
States
the
home
draughting room
in
Opportunity
of
is
but a stage
than
sees an old draughtsman."
older countries
in
its
This
meaning
more
is
true in the United
that the position in the
is
the development of the Engineer, the Superintendent, the
in
Manager
engineering works.
good knowledge
working knowledge of
attainment
to
"one never
a current saying,
is
in
remember
of draughting
tJie
is
a round on the ladder of preferment
mathematics and theory of mechanism, for the foundation of
drawing and design are
laid in these
two fundamental
this
may be added
was not created
helped
drawing
is
may be
It
accurate
well always
to
do
his
;
;
that makes a lumber room of it
and no man is educated unless
but in learning how
his brain is a factory,
that the helpful value of a teacher or instructor cannot be overestimated
appointed work alone, he needs
the universal law of progress, and especially
afterwards the student
sciences.
all
a fair
is
that
" Education does not consist merely in storing the head with materials
that makes a factory of it
to turn those materials into useful products
^vith storeroom, machinery and material complete."
To
a second round
may be supposed
all
is
assistance
and aid possible
this true in the first
man
to help and be
beginnings
in the art of
to have acquired a real interest in his stimulating
and useful endeavors.
It is
written
an odd thing that the preface, which
last,
book ere
most excellent and
With
always understood as something going before,
is
often
hence these few long paragraphs are prepared to close the long and rather pleasant task
of the author of the
its
is
it is
delivered
iyt
toto to the Printer,
Binder and to the management of
reliable Publishers for its introduction to those for
whom
it is
designed.
these views and to further such ends this book has been prepared, and with such aims
or less successfully attained, the
volume
is
now committed
to the kind favor of its patrons.
more
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGES
PAGES
Plan of the
Work
Physics and Mechanics
212228
2526
Material Used
2740
Screws, Bolts and Nuts
4151
Rivets and Riveted Joints
Lettering
5264
Power Transmission
253255
Shade Lines
6577
Shafts and Bearings
256266
778
Belts and Pulleys,
Abbreviations and Conventional Signs
Useful Terms and Definitions
Drawing Board, TSquare and Triangles
Section Lining
Geometrical Drawing
83110
in
Machine Construction

Cabinet Projection
121127
Dies and Presses
128161
Drilling AND Milling Machines
162179
The Lathe
181187
Engines and Boilers
Development of Surfaces
Working Drawings
"
Tints and Colors
188
Tracing and Blue Printing
Reading of Working Drawings
Machine Design
243251
266277
278304
Metal Working Machines
Gear Wheels
111120

Isometric Projection
Orthographic Projection
228242
214215
305332
308314
31S319
320332

Electrical Machines
189195
Drawing Instruments
196198
Logarithms
199228
Tables and Index
333389
....
391407
408426
435460
461486
THE SCOPE AND PLAN OF THE WORK,
The special mission of this book can almost be gathered from its title page and the preface. It
intended to furnish gradually developed lessons in linear drawing applied to the various branches of
the mechanic arts.
is
The work
comprised within some twelve divisions or general subjects the first of which consists
of Abbreviations and Conventional Signs, Useful Terms and Definitions with illustrations.
The second section relates to the Drawing Board, Tsquare and Triangles and their use, lettering,
shade and section lining, etc.
The third division is devoted to Geometrical Drawing the subject is preceded by many valuable
definitions, axioms and examples of postulates and followed by many illustrations, largely based upon
the problems solved by Euclid more than twentytwo centuries ago.
The fourth division relates to the Development of Surfaces and Isometric, Cabinet and Orthographic
projections.
The fifth section relates to Working Drawings embracing Tracing, Blue Printing,
Dimensioning, Reading of Drawings, etc.
The foregoing portions comprise "Part One" of the work and relate almost exclusively to
Drawing and Definitions. "Part Two" is devoted to Machine Design, Transmission Methods,
Metal Working Machinery, Engines and Boilers, Electrical Machines, etc., which embrace the subis
divisions six to ten.
Each one
of these sections
is
preceded by explanatory matter, and accompanied by illustrations of
the different machines, with working directions for proportioning and designing.
"Part Three,"
in addition to Drawing Instruments and their U^^e and the Index, contains
utmost value, for use in connection with the preceding sections, especially so, as the
basis of the work is planned to be largely mathematical.
tables,
of the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
The making
any considerable scope and value is either as in olden times the life
work of a single author, or as, at the present, the combined efforts of several individuals, whose
united efforts produce it in a much shorter time, and it must be hoped, in greater perfection.
Although no more than a year has elapsed from the opening subject of "Abbreviations and
Conventional Signs" to the closing reference Index pages, in no sense should the work be
considered as being hasty or superficial, for the outcome of the combined efforts of those named below,
is worthy of praise for having produced a thoroughly scientific and helpful book.
First of all, to Mr. John Weichsel, M. E., instructor in drawing and design in one of the foremost
technical institutes of New York City, is due the credit of furnishing most of the drawings and
diagrams used throughout the work, with the text accompanying each the book itself is the highest
testimonial to the admirable and thoroughly technical character of Prof. Weichsel's work.
Mr. Henry E. Raabe, M. E., has been the technical editor throughout the period of the preparaMany of the
tion of the text and the arrangement of the illustrations in their appropriate places.
drawings, explanatory notes, and "cuts" are also his own production.
Messrs. Sutherland & Graham, Engravers, and George Byron Kirkham, Artist, are entitled to
thanks for many designs and illustrations, as well as for professional advice and suggestions in several
details of the "layout" of the volume.
Mr. P. Hetto, of the U. S. Navy, an accomplished draughtsman and scholar, has read the "proof" of each separate page with critical care, and to him should be
accorded praise for the almost perfect freedom from errors of any kind which marks the completed
of a
book
of
volume.
Mr. H. Harrison, of the L. Middleditch Press, has used his wide experience in the typographical
arrangement of the work; in this he has been aided by Mr. Henry J. Harms in overseeing the final
and printing of the book the excellence of their work is evident on every printed page.
It may be added that the kind and experienced editorinchief has combined and added to, and in
some cases, taken from, the "matter" submitted by the foregoing named persons and others and the
result of the whole, is now ofTered with confidence to the patronage of the Mechanical World, by
issue
The
Publishers.
ABBREVIATIONS AND CONVENTIONAL
In
order to simplify the language or expression of arithmetical and geometrical opera
tions the following conventional signs are used
The
sign
f
The
sign
signifies
minus or
Example
The
sign
4
less
sign
by
or (as
it
is
3, is
3,
that
4 added to
is,
4 minus, that
3, is 5
letters,
x b
indifferently,
The
\ plus
3,
is,
taken from
and placed between two terms, indicates
quantities are expressed
placed between two or more terms to indicate
3, is

signifies multiplied by
is
or
7.
and indicates subtraction.
Example
When
plus or more and
signifies
Example:
addition.
two
SIGNS*
multiplied
sign
the
by
may be
3,
or
4,
or
i.
multiplication.
15.
suppressed, thus
we
write
or ab.
more commonly used)
4
signifies divided by, and, placed
between
quantities, indicates division.
Example
The
sign
cate their equality.
signifies equals or
Example
12
or 12
4,
equal
6
to,
and
2
12 divided
by
7
4 or
is
placed between two expressions to indi
8,
meaning that 6 plus
is
4.
2 is
equal to
8.
ABBREVIATIONS AND CONVENTIONAL SIGNS.
The union
of these signs
Example
The
sign
/^Z
::
of the root.
The
6,
meaning that
indicates the extraction of a root
interposition of a numeral
Thus:
signs
y/
The
indicates geometrical proportion.
3,
3.
meaning that the square root
3^4 =
and
pi.,
plate.
to 6.
this sign,
of 9
is
equal to
smaller than 4 and, reciprocally, 4
3.
3.
V, indicates the degree
is
equal to
and greater than.
greater than
Fig. signifies figure
is
expresses that the cube root of 27
indicate respectively, smaller than
as,
between the opening of
^^27
< and >
Example
2 is to 3 as
>
=4
3.
AND
USEFUL TERMS
Lines, Angles, Surfaces
LINES
surface
and breadth
is
and
Solids constitute the different kinds of quantity called geometrical magnitudes.
AND ANGLES.
line
An an^le
tude
it
is
is
Fig.
the difference in the direction of
ture being the
said to have position without magni
irreo^tilar
line
curved
its
entire length
line has not the
same
an
degfree of
waved line, shown
in Fig. 3,
may be
either
considered as length without breadth
is
or thickness
points.
same throuohout
curvature throughout, but varies at different points.
small dot
2.
of the circumference of a circle, the degree of curva
generally represented to the eye by a
is
a portion
in length,
proceeding from the same point.
A point
2, is
only.
solid is that which has extension
breadth and thickness.
lines
often called simply a line, and a curved line
is
a curve, a regular curved line, as Fig.
that which has extension in length
two
DEFINITIONS.
it
denotes the direction between two
Lines are principally of three kinds
right lines, (2) curved lines, (3)
FiQ.
(i)
regular or
mixed lines.
irregular;
the
3.
illustrat.on
shows the
former, the inflections on either side of the dotted
line
FiG.l.
right line, or as
a straight line
is
the
it is
shortest
drawn between two given
curved line
ever small,
is
is
more commonly
line
points, as
that
above
called,
can
in Fig.
Note.
it is
straight line connecting the
There
are other lines used in
be
i.
same
usually representing a visible
wide as the ordinary full line.
a straight
27
line
therefore longer than a
points
common drawingroom
defini
tions, viz.: Broken, etc.
Bi oketi One composed of different successive straight lines. Center
Conshuction
line used to indicate the center of an object.
working line used to obtain required lines. DoUed A line composed
Dot and
Dash
line composed of long dashes.
of short dashes.
line composed of dots and dashes alternating. Dimension
Dash
one of which no portion, how
straight
being equal.
upon which a dimension
placed. Full An unbroken line,
edge. Shade A line about twice as
is
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
28
Mixed lines
are
composed
of straight
and curved
across the paper
a vertical line
FiQ.
a drawing
is
drawn up and down
the paper
or at right angles to a horizontal line, as
in Fig. 7.
represented by a line
lines, as Fig. 4.
in
4.
Parallel lines are those which have no inclination to each other
Figs. 5 and 6 being everywhere
equidistant consequently they never meet though
produced to infinity. If the parallel lines shown in
Fig. 6 were produced they would form two circles
having a common center.
HORIZONTAL
Fig.
7.
or oblique lines occupy an intermediate between horizontal and vertical lines as
shown in Fig. 7 two lines which converge towards
each other and which, if produced, would meet or
Inclined
Fig.
5.
intersect are said to incline towards each other.
Fig.
Horizontal lines
zon, as in Fig.
6.
are lines parallel with the hori
7.
Vertical lines are often called plumb lines as
they are parallel to a plumb line suspended freely
in a still
ing
is
atmosphere.
shown by a
line
horizontal line in a draw
drawn from
left
to
right
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Perpendicular lines. Lines
when the angles on
to each other
point of meeting are equal.
to each other, but perpendicular lines are
they may be
always vertical and horizontal
at any inclination to the horizon, provided that the
dicular
not
angles on either side of the point of intersection
XY
and Z
in Fig, 8.
right
angle
formed when two straight
formed are equal,
is
lines intersect so that all angles
as
Vertical and horizontal lines are always perpen
are equal, as
are perpendicular
either side of the
29
shown
in Fig. 10.
An obtuse angle
is
greater than a right angle,
\,^o^'"^'^f^
Fig. II.
An
actite
angle
is
smaller than a right angle,
Fig. U.
Fig. 12.
Obtuse and acute angles
s.
oblique angles ;
9
1
i
i
f
/
r
7
^*> e^
Fig.
a.
<>
10.
is
the point
in
Angles. Two straight lines drawn from the
same point, diverging from each other form an
the angle is the differangle, as shown in Fig. 9
:
the
in
the direction of two lines proceeding from
same
Note.
point.
Mechanics' squares,
including lines meet.
angle
is
commonly
true, are
always rightangled.
desig
Fig.
12.
nated by three letters and the letter designating
is
always placed
in
middle.
The magnitude
does
length
their
if
parallel
other
which the
the point of divergence
ence
which are neither
each
The vertex or apex of an
angle
An
Fig.
lines
called
also
are called oblique lines.
and
nor perpendicular to
are
other.
not
of
of
upon
depend
the
sides
divergence
an angle
the
but upon
from
each
Fig.
13.
the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
30
STRAIGHT SIDED FIGURES.
surface
is
plane
a surface such that
a magnitude that has length and
breadth without thickness; as a plane surface, or,
the imaginary envelope of a body.
is
if
any two of
When
is shown in Fig. 13.
bounded by three straight lines they
triangle
faces are
sur
are
called triangles.
its
points be joined by a straight line, such line will be
Every surface which is not
wholly in the surface.
a plane, or composed of plane surfaces,
is
a curved
surface.
Fig.
ir.
An
equilateral triangle has all its sides of
equal length, and all its angles equal, as appears
in
Fig.
Fig.
14.
Fig.
15.
A plane figure is a portion of
on
all
sides
by
the illustration. Fig.
13.
18.
a plane terminated
lines either straight f)r curved.
rectilinear figure
is
a surface
bounded by
straight lines.
Polygon
is
the
rectilinear figures but
name applied to all
commonly applied to those
general
is
having more than four sides. A regular polygon
one in which the sides are equal.
is
Fig.
An
two
of
18.
isosceles triangle has two of
its
angles equal, as illustrated
its
sides
and
in Fig. 14.
ROGERS DRAWING AND DESIGN.
rightangled triangle has one
Fig. 15
right angle,
the side opposite the right angle
the hypothenuse
called
the other sides are called respec
and perpendictilar.
tively the base
The altitude of a triangle
perpendicular
is
let fall
from
its
31
A parallelogram, in which the four sides are equal,
and form right angles with each other, is called a
square. Fig. 16.
There are three kinds
is
the length of a
vertex to
its
of
quadrilaterals
The
trapezium, the trapezoid, and the parallelogram
as above.
base.
The trapezium has no two
of
its
sides parallel,
its
sides parallel,
Fig. 17.
The trapezoid
has only two of
Fig. 18.
There are four
iTia.
n.
Fig.
rhomboid, the
varieties of parallelograms
rhombus, the
rectangle
The
and
the
20.
square.
The square
an equilateral rectangle,
is
Fig.
16.
A rhombus
19,
one
in
is
a parallelogram as
shown
in Fig.
which the four sides are equal, but none
of the angles are right angles.
Fio.
Fio.
21.
quadrilateral
straight lines.
rilateral
If
is
a figure
bounded by four
the opposite sides
are paralleled
it
22.
quadis* called a parallelogram.
Note. The superficial conlents of a triangle
multiplying the altitude by one half the base.
rectangle
is
a parallelogram which has
posite sides parallel, and
all its
its
op
angles right angles,
Fig. 20.
of a
may
be obtained
A rhomboid
is
a parallelogram in
which the
adjacent sides are unequal, and none of the angles
b}'
are right angles, Fig. 21.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
32
diagonal
is
a straight line, which joins two
opposite angles of a polygon, Figs.
A heptagon
straight
17, 22.
a polygon
is
bounded by seven
Fig. 26 illustrates a regular hep
lines.
4agon.
A pentagon
straight
Fig.
lines,
formed by them
tilar
is
a
23.
polygon bounded by five
If the sides and angles
are equal the figure
is
called a
reo
pentagon. Fig. 24.
An octagon
straight
a a polygon
In
lines.
Fig.
decagon
lines.
Fig.
23.
24.
Fig.
is
Fig. 28 illustrates a regular decagon.
2.).
A dodecagon
straight lines.
A hexagon
lines.
Fig.
26.
is
is
a polygon bounded by ten straight
Fig.
Fig.
27
bounded by eight
shown a regular
octagon.
Fig.
is
Fig.
27.
a polygon
bounded by
is
29.
a polygon bounded by twelve
In Fig. 29
is
shown a regular
dodec
agon.
2/i.
six straight
Fig. 25 illustrates a regular hexagon.
Note.
Polygons of more
chanical drawing.
than eight sides are rarely used in meTheir most frequent application occurs in laying
out of the hubs of large sectional wheels.
ROGERS"
DRAWING AND DESIGN.
A convex surface
without
is
is one that when viewed from
curved outward by rising or swelHng into
a rounded form, Fig. 30.
diameter
are also
the radii
the circle
is
any straight
of the circumference
CONVEX.
Fig.
the diameters of a circle are equal, as
all
all
33
drawn
line,
is
any portion
which
about
the fixed point
an arc of a
;
circle is
called the center
drawn within the
of the circle ;
circle,
connect
30
double convex stirface
regularly protuberant
is
or bulging on both sides.
Fig.
31.
Concave means hollow
or curved inward
said
of an interior of an arched surface or curved line in
opposition to convex, Fig. 31.
CIRCLES
AND THEIR PROPERTIES.
ing any two points
circle is a plane figure bounded by one uniformly curved line, all of the points in which are at
the same distance from a certain point within, called
the center
the circumference of a circle
is
the
curved line that bounds it the diameter of a circle
is a line passing through its center, and terminating
at both ends in the circumference
the raditis of a
circle is a line extending from its center to any
point in the circumference
it is onehalf of the
;
the circumference without
is
called a chord.
semicircle is the half of a circle and is
bounded by half the circumference and a diameter
a segment of a circle is any part of its surface cut off
a sector of a circle is a space
by a straight line
included between two radii and the arc they intersect.
See Fig. 32.
;
in
passing through the center,
Note.
vergent
Radius
line,
plural term
is
is
derived from the Latin word ray, meaning a diis radii ; the English word for the
the plural in Latin
radiuses.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
34
quadrant
the circle
is
a sector equal to onefourth of
the two radii bounding a quadrant are at
tangent
to a circle or other curve
is
a straight
which touches it at only one point. Every
tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius
line
drawn
to the
equal to
always the same, a degree being
part of
jiirth
a circle
the semicircle
is
The sine of an arc is a straight line drawn from
one extremity perpendicular to a radius drawn to
the other extremity of the arc, Fig. .32
of an arc
point of tangency.
shown
as
degree. The circumference of a circle is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts called degrees
and marked (). Each degree is divided into 60
minutes, or 60'; and for the sake of still further minuteness of measurement, each minute is divided into
60 seconds, or 60".
In a whole circle there are,
therefore,
is
equal to 180 and the quadrant to 90.
right angles.
of the division
360X60X60^1,296,000
annexed diagram, Fig.
32,
seconds.
The
exemplifies the relative
is
in
the cosine
the sine of the complement of that arc,
the same figure.
The tangent of an arc
is
the arc at one extremity and
is
a line which touches
terminated by a line
passing from the center of the circle through the
the cotangent
other extremity of the arc, Fig. 32
of an arc is the tangent of the complement.
;
For the sake
contracted thus
we
write
cos.;
of brevity, these technical terms are
:
for
we write sin.; for cosine,
tangent, we write tan., etc.
for sine,
positions of the
Tangent,
Sine,
and
CoSine,
of an angle
simply
The
the co
number
cosine
CoTangent
and cotangent
is
an abbreviation of the word, complement.
circumferences of
greater
all circles
contain the
same
of degrees, but the greater the radius the
is
the absolute measures of a degree, and
every circumference
same
in
is
the measure of precisely the
angle.
Thus
if
the circle be large or small, the
number
Fig.
33.
Concentric circles are those which
scribed about the same center, Fig. 33.
are de
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Mccentric circles
are those which are described
about different centers, Fig.
35
other's circumference, while the former circle
of the latter, as in Figs. 38
Fig.
may
be either wholly or partly within the circumference
34.
Fig.
34.
and
39.
Sj.
Eccentric circles are two or more circles whose
of one or
do not form a common
center about which they could all be described.
centers lay
more
within the
circumference
Fig.
Fig.
38.
39.
of these circles, but
Figs. 34, 35 36.
In another instance the center of one circle
lay
Fig.
The
Fio.
36.
centers of eccentric circles
side of each
may
may
in Fig. 40.
37.
may
other's circumference,
or the center of one circle
on the circumference of the other, as
Fig.
40.
also lay out
as in
Fig. 37,
lay outside of the
The
distance between the centers of eccentric
circles is called the
radius of eccentricity.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
36
If
two
circles
lay in a position as indicated in
Fig. 41, they are not regarded
as eccentric circles,
Parabola
moving
is
so, that its
point
is
called the Directrix,
and the
called the Focus of the parabola
is
line
fixed
a straight
drawn at right angles to the directrix, and
ing through the focus, is called the Axis.
but are treated as two independent figures.
Fig.
Straight line
pass
41.
a curve, described by a point,
distances from a straight line,
and a fixed point are always equal, Fig. 42
the
A Hyperbola
is
a curve from any point of which,
be drawn to two fixed points,
their difference shall always be the same.
See
if
two straight
Fig 43
lines
Fig.
An Mllipse
ing
so,
points
Fig.
42.
that the
is
is
sum
by a point, movfrom two fixed
of its distances
always constant
called. the Foci,
44.
a curve, described
Fig. 44.
the two fixed points are
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
A hexagonal prism
SOLIDS.
37
solid has the parts constituting
its
substance
is
a prism with hexagonal
bases. Fig. 48.
so compact or firmly adhering as to resist the im
pression or penetration of other
it is
bodies
is
hard, firm
conic section
is
intersection of a cone
a curved line formed by the
a term used to de
is
scribe the condition of solids virhich are
fitted to
liquid
and a plane.
Intersection of solids
and
has a
it
and unHke a fluid or
not hollow, hence sometimes heavy.
fixed form,
so joined
each other as to appear as though one
passes through the other
By the envelope
of a solid
which encases or surrounds
A prism
is
is
meant the surface
Fiu.
45.
cube'is a quadrangular prism
sides ar
'
all
whose
4T.
b;ises
and
equal and form perfect squares, Fig. 49.
a solid body whose ends or bases are
are parallelograms.
The shape
expressed by the form of
of a prism
is
sidt s
always
bases.
its
triangular prism is a prism with the
gular bases, as shown in Fig. 45.
quadrangular prism
is
trian
a prism with quad
rangular bases. Fig. 46.
Fli:.
Fic;. 4S.
cylinder
is
pentagonal prism
tagonal bases, Fig. 47.
is
a prism
with pen
surface, Fig. 50.
41),
Flti.
.ill.
bounded by two equal
and one continuous curved
a solid,
circular surfaces or bases,
Fio.
4U.
it.
equal and parallel plane figures, and whose
Fig.
All cross sections of a cylinder
are equal to the bases.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
38
cone
a solid bounded by a circular base,
surface, extending from the circular
is
and one curved
base to a point opposite
it,
If
of
a cone
its
is
PiQ.
51.
Aright cone.
Fig.
52.
If
by a
the cutting plane, as
Fig. 51.
of the section
Fig.
cut
is
2.
shown
in Fig. 56, the outline
parabola. Fig. 57.
53.
droppedfrom
a perpendicular,
plane, parallel to the outline
surface, vertically opposite the center line of
Fig.
54.
Fig. M.
the apex of the cone to its base, meets the center
of the base circle, the cone is called a right cone,
The
Fig. 52.
the
Axis
perpendicular
in
this
case
is
called
of the cone.
An oblique
cone.
If
the perpendicular
alongside the center of the base
outside of
its
circle,
circumference, the cone
falls
or entirely
is
called an
oblique cone. Fig. 53.
A truncated
cone.
cone, cut off in the
man
ner shown
in Fig. 54, is called a truncated cone,
an oblique cone is cut in the above manner, it is
called an oblique truncated cone. Fig. 55.
If
Fio.
57.
ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.
If
the cutting plane forms a smaller angle than
the parabola, with the outline of the side on which
the cone
s?ction
is
is
39
cut in the
an
manner shown
60, the
in Fig.
ellipse, Fig. 61.
pyramid
whose base is a polygon,
and whose sides are formed by triangles.
t^
The
is
a solid,
point in which
sides meet,
is
all
called the
the lines of the triangular
apex of the pyramid.
APEX
Fig.
it is
cut, as
shown
in Fig. 58,
the section
59.
is
a hyperFig.
Fig.
62.
Pyramids are
lar,
63.
Fig.
Fig.
64.
65.
quadrangupyramids, depend
classified as triangular,
pentagonal, hexagonal,
etc.,
ing upon the shape of their base, Figs. 62, 63, 64.
If the base of a pyramid forms a regular polygon,
and a perpendicular dropped from the apex, to the
base, passes through the center of the base, it is
called a right pyramid. Fig. 65.
The altitude
FiG.
bola. Fig. 59.
Fig.
60.
If the
61.
cutting plane forms a greater
angle than the parabola, with the surface, so that
pyramid or a cone, is the perfrom
pendicular distance
the apex to the base. Figs.
66, 67.
The
of a
altitude of a prism or a cylinder
is
the per
pendicular distance between the bases, Figs. 68, 69.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
40
truncated pyramid
after the apex
truncated
cone
is
is
the part remaining,
cut away, Figs. 54 and 70.
or pyramid is also called
A
the
frustrtim of the cone or pyramid.
A polyhedron
There are
five regular
tetrahedron
lateral triangles,
is
the
bounded by polygons.
polyhedrons
as follows
a solid, bounded by four equi
Fig. 72.
A hexahedron
squares
a solid,
is
is
solid,
common name
bounded by
for this solid
is
six
cube,
Fig. 49.
An octahedron
is
a solid, bounded by eight
equilateral triangles. Fig. y^
Fig.
Fig. 67
tj6.
Fig.
Fig.
68.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
70.
71.
Fig.
72.
dodecahedron
is
73.
a solid, bounded by twelve
regular pentagons.
sphere
is
a solid,
bounded by a uniformly
curved surface, any point of which
from the center, Fig. 71.
is
equidistant
An icosahedron
equilateral triangles.
is
a solid,
bounded by twenty
DRAWING BOARD, TSQUARE AND TRIANGLES.
The problems
explained
in
the following para
instruments described hereafter
graphs are but a small part of the great number of
problems that may be executed with the aid of
the teesquare and triangles.
need to be em
ployed.
The paper on which
drawing,
is
intended to
is
it
make
generally fastened, by means of thumb
tacks, to a specially
made board
called a drawing
board, Fig. 74.
The drawing board should be made about
inches longer and
should be
made
free
from
pine,
inches wider than the paper.
It
of wellseasoned, straightgrained
all
knots
the grain should run
lengthwise of the board.
The edges
board should be square to each
other and perfectly smooth in order to provide a
good working edge for the head of the teesquare
of the
to slide against.
A
Fio.
pair of hardwood cleats
quarter inch
In
fact, all
drawings, embracing straight lines only,
may be drawn
with the aid of
for greater accuracy
straight ones.
in
thickness.
is
The
cleats,
the back of the board, at right angles to
the above instru
est
ments, provided the nature of the drawing does not
call
screwed to the back
The board should be about three
of the board.
74.
side,
may be about two
fitted
its
at
long
inches wide and one
inch thick.
Such cleats will keep the board from
warping through changes of temperature and moist
or for lines other than
In the latter case, the mathematical
ure.
4i
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
42
All lines parallel to the longer edges
of
the board are called horizontal
For drawing such
lines
lines.
an instrument
is
used, called a teesquare, Fig. 75.
A teesquare consists of two parts, the head
and the blade, which should be square to
each other.
The
Fig.
blade should be as long as the
'
drawing board.
It
should be made of
hard wood,
finegrained
wellseasoned,
and as light as its proper use will permit.
The head may be made of any kind of
wellseasoned wood.
The blade should
be laid on the face of the head and there
fastened to
The
it
with four or five screws.
teesquare should be used with
its
head held firmly against the left hand
edge of the board. Any number of horizontal lines may be drawn by sliding the
teesquare up or down, Fig. 76.
Another kind
in Fig.
is
'J 'J.
The
of a teesquare
blade
blade of this teesquare
may be
flynut.
square
is
The
so adjusted as to form any
desired angle with the head.
76.
shown
fastened to the head by means of a
squarenecked bolt and a
Fig.
is
This
tee
called the adjustable teesquare.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
43
After setting the blade at the desired angle
to the head,
we
can draw any number of
parallel lines at that angle,
by
sliding the
teesquare up or down. Fig. 78.
For drawing
Fig.
ones,
set
They
are
cut
lines other than horizontal
squares
made
in
or
triangles
various styles,
are
used.
some being
out of a single piece of wood, while
77.
others are framed together of three or
more
pieces.
Two
be required for ordiOne should have one angle
triangles will
nary purposes.
90 degrees, that is a square angle or a
right angle, and two angles of 45 degrees
of
each,
Fig.
78.
that
Fig.
is
79.
equal to onehalf of a right
Fig.
80.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
44
angle
the two short sides of the triangle are of
equal length, Fig.
The
first
triangle
called the 45degree triangle,
is
the second, the 30degree triangle or the 60 degree
79.
The other triangle should contain one angle of
90 degrees, one angle of 30 degrees (that is equal
These triangles may be made of wood,
hard rubber, or celluloid, of which materials it is
triangle.
also preferable
for
many
to
reasons.
make
the
Triangles
teesquare
made of
wood
straightgrained wellseasoned hard
will
be found most satisfactory.
By placing the
teesquare in position on
the drawing board, with
its
head against
the lefthand edge of the board, and placing either triangle with
its
short side to the
edge of the teesquare, we may draw lines
parallel to the short side of the drawing
board, which we will call vertical lines. Fig.
81.
Any number of vertical lines may be
drawn by sliding the triangle in this position along the edge of the teesquare.
The manner
square
its
Fig.
square
to onethird of a right angle)
and one angle
degrees
(that
angle.)
In this triangle the shortest side
to just
is
equal to twothirds
one half the longest
side, Fig. 80.
of
a
is
is
adaptability or otherwise to the use
made
81.
which the head of a teeunited to the blade determines
of
it
blade mortised into
right
tailed
equal
let into
in
some the head
of a tee
rectangular in section, and the
is
of 60
and
in
it
in
others the blade
is
dove
the head of a teesquare for the
whole of its thickness the method spoken of on
page 42 is, however, the most approved.
;
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Keeping the teesquare
against
its
45
position and placing
with
a horizontal line, or simply a
blade one edge of the 45degree angle,
Fig.
83,
we may draw
a line
with a horizontal
in
making an angle of 45 degrees
Such a line is called
line, Fig. 82.
30degree
line,
may be drawn in a similar manner a
line may be drawn with the 60degree
;
60degree
angle of the triangle.
By combining the two
triangles as in
Figs. 84, 85, a 15degree line
degree
We
line
and a
75
may be drawn.
may draw
a line or lines parallel
any given line in our drawing, by the
use of the two triangles in the following
to
manner
Place one of the triangles with one of
edges exactly on the given line place
the longest edge of the second triangle
against the longer one of the two remaining edges of the first triangle; then hold
the second triangle in place and slide
its
upon
Fig.
a 45degree
line,
or
we may
small circle at the top,
82.
write
it
45
placed after the
line,
the
number
meaning degree.
By
angle to
angle
triangle
triangle.
on the board, a
line
the 30degree
making an angle
of 30 degrees
first
triangle. Fig. 86.
Place one edge of either triangle exactly on the
against the blade of the teesquare, held in position
of
the
Using the triangles in a similar manner
we may draw a line or lines at a right
anv triven line, thus
given line
placing one edge
it
turn the
place the longest edge of the second
exactly
to
the longest edge of the
Hold the second
first
triangle so that
triangle in
one edge
first
place and
will
form a
ROGERS' DRAWING
46
right angle with the given line, as
in
By
Fig. 87.
placing one edge of the right angle of either
angle on the given
first
line,
as the
first
tri
operation, the
AND
By
DESIGN.
sliding the
any number of
first
lines
upon the second one,
will
be
at
right angles to the given line.
With a knowledge
trianele will not have to be turned.
triangle
may be drawn which
of the preceding rules a great
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
variety of figures
may be drawn.
In the following
GIVEN
47
LINZ
show how a square, an equilateral triangle,
a hexagon and an octagon may be drawn by these
we
will
simple means.
Flu.
86.
Fio.
87.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Let
it
be required to draw a foursided plane
which are equal and all its angles
figure, all sides of
right angles.
If
Such a
figure
is
called a square.
the sides of the required square should be
edges of the drawing board, we then
draw a horizontal line by means of the teesquare.
Fig. 88.
On this line we mark two points, the distance between them being equal to the side of the
required square.
By means of either triangle draw
vertical lines through the two points on the first
parallel to the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND
line
make one
first line,
that
of the vertical lines equal to
equal to a side of the square, by
is
drawing a 45degree
from the foot of one of
to meet theother vertical line, and
the vertical lines,
move
the
line
49
DESIGN.
the teesquare held in place, draw two lines through
the ends of the given diagonal with the other short
the square.
These
form two sides of
Bring the triangle back to its first posi
edcre of the trianole.
will
the teesquare to the point of intersection of
these two lines, where a horizontal line
meeting the other vertical
line
is
drawn,
and forming the con
cluding side of the required square.
be drawn on any given line,
which is neither horizontal nor vertical (such lines
are called oblique lines) we will proceed as follows
Fig. 89, on the given line mark two points, the distance between them being equal to a side of the required square.
Through these two points draw
Make one of
lines at right angfles to the first line.
these sides equal to a side of the required square
If
a square
is
to
and draw through the end of
the
first
line.
This
line will
it
a line parallel to
form the concluding
line of the square.
Let
it
length of
be required to draw a square, when the
its
diagonal only
is
FlG.
given, Fig. 90.
tion
Place the longest edge of the 45degree triangle
exactly on the given diagonal.
with an edge of
its
Place the teesquare
blade against one of the short
sides of the triangle.
By
90.
sliding the triangle
upon
upon the diagonal, hold
now
it
in place
and remove
against the other short
the teesquare, placing
it
edge of the
triangle.
Sliding the triangle upon the
teesquare,
draw
two remaining sides of the
square, as before.
the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
50
To draw an equilateral triangle upon a given
The angles in an equilateral triangle are 60line.
degree angles, Fig.
91.
Fig.
91.
parallel lines
Place the edge of the blade of the teesquare exactly
on the given
line.
Place one edge
of
60de
the teesquare, and draw lines making an
angle of
60 degrees with the teesquare, through both ends
of the given line.
These lines, with the given line,
will form the required triangle.
Draw
a regular hexagfon
line,
AB,
Fig.
set
off
from any
O, on the line AB, two distances, AO
and OB, each equal to a side of the required hexagon.
Through the points A, O and B draw six
point,
three lines,
To draw
the given
BE
AE,
and the other
DOC
three,
a hexagon on a given
line.
Draw
Fig. 93.
and
CB,
EF
line.
AB be
AC and
Let
the lines
an angle of 60 degrees to the given line, in
one direction, and the lines AF and BD, at the
92
of 60 degrees with the
FB in one
and AD in
the other direction.
Join the points E and C and
D and F. A E C B F D is the hexagon required.
line
direction,
gree angle of the 60degree triangle to the edge of
To draw
AB
making angles
at
same
angle, in the other direction.
and B on the given
angles to this
and AF,
at
line,
line,
draw two
At the
lines
these lines cutting the
the points
E and
F.
Join
at
points
right
lines,
EB
E and F
ROGERS' DRAWING
and through the points E and F draw the Hnes
and FD at 6odegree angles to the given Hne,
cutting the line AC at C and FD cutting the
BD
at D.
Then
AC E F D
is
EC
EC
line
the required
AND
DESIGN.
51
AB. Through C draw the line CF parallel to
and through H the line EH parallel to AC.
Draw lines through C and through H at right angles
the line
BH
to the given line
CD
the line
cutting the line
BD
hexagon.
Fig.
To draw
Let
AB
an octagon on a given line
be the given line, Fig. 94. At the points
:
and B draw
criven
line,
lines at angles of 45
AC,
other direction.
in
degrees to the
one direction, and BH in the
AC and BH each equal to
Make
94.
and the line HG cutting the line AG at G.
Through D draw the line DE parallel to CF and
then draw through G the line
cutting EH at E
GF parallel to EH and cutting CF at F. Join EF
the required octagon.
and
at
ACDEFGHBis
52
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
ALPHA BETA ANTiqVA
2rasE5?;Siso
Fig. 95.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
LETTERING.
simple and others
be said that lettering is intended to convey
to the mind of the observer a simple but attractive
impression of what the drawing is to express.
When the information necessary to the reading
of a drawing cannot be expressed by lines and
scale dimensions, it must be indicated in the form
Let
53
difficult, especially in
an ornamental heading
is
cases where
required, but
it
must be
it
remembered that a drawing is primarily made
idea, and not for an ornament.
to
convey an
The
character and size of the letters on
of printed explanations, remarks, etc., as explained
working drawings should be in harmony with the drawing on which they appear.
It is desirable to have
all lettering on a drawing made in the same style,
and
only differing
illustrated in the following pages.
Whole volumes have been
When
most fascinating subject.
mode
universal
of expression, that
vention of printing
the
fine
whose
scarlet,
the art of
writing was the
is,
before the
lettering
was one
in
of
Many
manuscripts are now extant
are made upon vellum in inks of gold,
arts.
titles
published upon this
blue and other gaudy colors
these have
books and aided in
their preservation through the long centuries. The
illustration upon the opposite page is given as a
specimen of one of these ancient {^'antique")
added vastly
to the value of the
To do good
lettering
is
not an easy task, and
is already experienced he should
devote much time to practicing the art, working
slowly and bearing in mind that much time is
unless the student
required to
make
Lettering of various styles are
in use,
letters
some quite
should
always
ings
is
usually of the simplest character, the letters
being composed of heavy and light strokes only
for headings, titles of large drawings, where comparatively large lettering is required, it will be most
;
appropriate to use large
so
letters.
should be conspicuous, but not too much
subtitles should be made smaller than the
The
title
maintitle.
"
and general remarks placed in the
margin of the drawing or near the title should
come next in size. All explanations and remarks
"
Scale
on the views should not be larger than oneeighth
inch.
The examples
wellfinished letters.
or finish of details.
be sketched in
pencil, especially by the beginner, and inked in
afterwards the lettering used on mechanical drawCapital
The
alphabets.
in size
all
of lettering given as illustrations
are briefly explained on page 63.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
54
"
hv
"
''
:::5
"IS
.S
"]a:_:_!.__
:[?3i: ::3i::::i:
I 3tiC
"^t
::::: ::ii:::2::i5
^1^
"
II
11^
;^
U1
!SI
IS
^~^
tzt
Fig.
:s^:f3:::::::::::
TTUn^
III
::
::
zzlAz S.i:i:: i:::^:::: :::ii
::::
>
FW ?
s
IS
Ia
I
iii
90.
ZuS
Fig.
97.
SB
z
E
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
98.
55
(See page 63.)
a
Fig. 99 shows one of the devices in use for facilitating the laying out
this instrument is known as the lettering triangle and may be
of letters
made of metal, hard rubber, celluloid, etc.
The broken line a a contains lines of
different inclinations
the slanting parts of those letters, shown on the triangle,
The
letter
the inclined
line,
laid out.
may
be used for the slanting strokes of the
situated next to the highest is intended to be
highest inclined line
;
may be
by which
used for the letters N, X and Y; the next inclined line is to be used for
and V and the lowest inclined line is
the drawing of the letters A,
used for the letter W.
Other triangles and templates have been made for laying out lettering
of different character, of which the example given is one of several in com
^
Fig.
99.
mon
use.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
56
motion of the pen
a b produces a fine line
are
made by means
the direction of the line
in
;
all
of the
only one edge of the pen
strokes, light or heavy,
whole width and not by
heavy strokes are made
with the pen moving in the direction c
move smoothly over
d,
Fig. lOo,
The pen should
with the whole width of the pen.
the paper without any special
pressure being brought to bear on
it.
by a downward motion
not be quite so wide as the line c d.
Vertical strokes produced
pen
of the
Fig.
The above
100.
will
All strokes should be executed with an unaltered
shows a pen made specially for round writing upon drawings
while nearly
all lettering is executed by a common writing pen
figure, loo,
position of the
to
allel
pen "nibs," which must remain
par
the direction of the line ad and inclined
about
Letters containing circular curves are
this device deserves a description.
The
" nibs " of
the pen are
short, straight line at the point
point
is
cut
;
off,
leaving a
the width of this
equal to the greatest thickness of a line
which may be desired for the letters these pens
are manufactured in various widths and numbers
No. I is made for a stroke of about ys" in thick;
ness
the highest numbers are
made with
a point
nearly like the ordinary writing pen point.
The No.
45.
the pen
in
the same position
should not
be made by one continuous motion of the pen
'
It is
well for the beginner to lay out a
it
number
of
squares in pencil and to practice the circular strokes
within the squares
contained within
the completed circle should be
the
square.
The
will
at 45, Fig. loo.
the lettering will entirely depend
made with
should be formed of two semicircles, taking care to
smoothly join the two semicircles.
pen may be used for capital letters,
about one inch high and for small letters about }4"
high the pen is always held parallel to the line ad
I
circle
be
parallel
light
strokes
to the diagonal of the square, the
vertical stroke should
sides of the square.
be parallel to the vertical
attractive appearance of
The
upon the
correct
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
ness
connecting the semicircles and straight
of
lines of
The
57
which the
letters are
composed.
A 3 CDEF'GMlJ^LJyrjVOP QRSTU VWXYZ
and thickness of the writing depend on
the width of the pens and cannot be arbitrarily executed by means of the same pen, without distortsize
/S3436?'890
abcdey^hiJklrrirLopqrstuvzoacyJZ
ing the regular form of the characters.
The pen must
at all times
be kept clean, as other
wise no cleancut line can be obtained.
The
ink
COJ^J^ECTJJVGROD.
should be kept only on the outside or upper side
of the pen, and its bottom side should be kept
As soon
draughtsman notices
that the bottom of the pen becomes wet he should
cease writing with it, as it will produce an uneven
perfectly dry.
Fig.
101.
(See page
e,3.)
as the
Letters should be so placed as not to interfere
with the lines of the drawing and should clearly
line.
When
point out the part intended to be described.
The
letters
clearcut lines,
should be made with plain, even,
well proportioned in all parts and
single letters are used, they should be inked in before the shade or section lines are drawn it is a
good plan to start with the middle letter of the inscription and work in both directions.
;
especially well spaced.
special device, called an
" inkholder," is
used in order to keep a sufficient
quantity of ink on the upper side of the pen.
The
Free hand lettering should only be taken up after
the student is proficient in mechanical lettering
pencil guidelines for letters and words should be
drawn larger letters may first be penciled in very
lightly, and an ordinary writing pen may be used
use of both the writing and drawing pen
enables the lettering to be done in a
time
when
the ruling pen
is
much
employed
it is
shorter
in con
nection with the teesquare and the set square.
for inking
them
in.
The appearance of
by a border put on
in
a drawing will often be helped
connection with the lettering.
ROGERS' DRAWING
58
The
ical
four principal styles of letters used in mechan
drawing are Block, Roman, Old English and
each of which will be found illustrated under
Script,
AND
DESIGN.
tendency
letters,
is
in
legibility
of simply designed
being considered of vital impor
the direction
tance.
ABCDEFGHIJKLMN
QRST UVWXYZa.
s^B Cn:rGHI.JKLM
O P
NOPQRS TUVWXYZ
abcdefghi/klmnopgrs t
uvwxyz
J234567a90i 1234567890^
Fig.
this section of the
vestigation
that
work
most
it
will
letters
102.
be found upon inuse today are
in
founded upon one of these four styles
the
modern
(See page
es.)
It will
familiarize the student with the standard
alphabets in
to
Roman,
Block,
Old English and Script
copy the several specimens given.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
The space between the nearest parts of all letters
reasonable space (never less than onethird the
height of the letters used), should be
should be exactly alike ; this rule also applies to the
space between each word ; between the words, of
lines of words.
course, should be wider than the letter spaces.
Fig.
103.
59
(See paae os.)
left
between
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
60
the bottom and then the letters should be
sketched with the utniost care the outlines may be
ruled with a ruling pen, if desired, and the curved
lines drawn with a compass ruling pen.
Mathematical accuracy should be aimed at as
a rule in all lettering executed for mechanical
drawings.
capitalization
for
knowledge of punctuation, spelling,
and paragraphing is essential in
Fig.
104.
(See
page
r,s.)
i.n.ffl.iv:y.vi.vn.Yni.K.x.ix.isx.xL.L.xc.c.D.M.
r
^
5v.
Fia.
this
work
student
if
unfamiliar with these
should acquire
a.
subjects
the
thorough knowledge of
them.
Perfectly horizontal ruled lines
drawn, one for the top of a line of
The heavy
letters,
be
another
first
so
^oc
JHo.
fcee
or shaded stems of letters should
be of the same width
carefully
should
J'^
105.
penned
''brushed"
in
after the outlines
all
have been
may be
unfilled spaces
in, the
with either liquid India ink or very
black water color.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
4
3
JBCDEFGHIJFCULrOPQRSTUF
ffXYZ &.
abcdef'gh ijklmnojjq rfstuvwxyz.
Fig.
lOB.
at 34
Fig.
107.
61
6
7
S
62
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
''Mlf^
Fig. 108
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Figures 96 and 97 are examples of block
letters and numerals.
In
distinct
The squares
are laid off in fine pencil lines and
the desired letters
in pencil
when
can be
This
is
in with pen and triangle
completed all the pencil lines are
a rudimentary form of letter that
In the lower part of the figure (102)
Italic letters
angle for their slant
and numerals; the proper
is 23.
In Fig. 104 are shown ornamental letters based
is
made with
shown
be sketched on the drawing
and then inked
the inking
erased.
may
and readily executed by the aid of the
drawing pen.
are
63
the aid of cross section paper.
upon the Roman
the
Roman
square
taken as the basis of construction;
takes the
whole square, its height and width being equal I
is onequarter as wide
A fivesixths, etc.
;
in
is
letters the
In Figs. 98 and 103 are shown two styles of freelettering.
The vertical letters are more diffi
hand
draw than the slanting ones. When making
these letters two fine pencil lines should always be
drawn, one at the top and one at the bottom of the
letters and sometimes it is very convenient to rule
a third guide line midway between the two others.
cult to
shown the form and proportions
of the Roman numerals and their value in the Arabic
method of expressing numbers.
In Fig. 105 are
In
Fig.
letters
These examples exhibit a form of lettering known
round writing ; the easy way to master it and
its artistic appearance, combined with the rapidity
In Figs.
as
with which
it
can be written,
are
its
principal
106
is
given another example of
Italic
and numerals.
107 and 108 are given illustrations of
script letters
the student
and
still
Figs. 109 and
other forms.
10 will suggest to
merits.
The
In the upper part of Fig. 102, page 58, is shown
another example of the block letter this is very
;
letters shown in Fig. loi are constructed
simple form convenient for remarks, etc.,
needed to be placed in the margin of the drawing.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
64
ffl
i i
^^
1^
C^
<
s
I
5
Fro.
[F
\P
(S)
[^
109.
d
T
gj
OD
q]
It
Da
J)
[L
Od
DD
1
IG 110.
Ds
\w
S)
^
(D
DQQ
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
SHADE
LINES.
65
the plane of the paper, and also with
In instrumental drawings shade lines are used for
making the reading of a drawing
the
easier than
direction of the light being indicated
lines
were of the same thickness.
edge of the 45 triangle as shown
By means
draughtsman knows without referring to any other view of the object whether
the part looked at is above or below the plane
1
for instance, the rectangles in Fig.
represent square projecting pieces, whereas the
Fio.
m rt^ig.
II 2 reprcisent sc
uare
h(ales
In ore ler th;it the shadingy on diawlngs
uniform, and
such a
w ay
13.
in parallel lines.
t(3
Fio.
an gle of
I15
112.
lines.
may be
COl ne in a single invaria Die dire ction, in
mak 2 an
edges of such surfaces as
the
avoid confus ion the rays of light are
as to
lines are the
111.
made appan;nt by t he sha de
differenc e bein y
assumed to
All the rays of light are not supposed to be
emanating from one and the same point, but from
a large and distant source of light and are thrown
The shade
rectangle s
in Fig.
of these, the
of the surface
1
and
come from
upper lefthand corner of the drawing
the
by the slanting
the purpose of
if all
all vertical
horizontal lines of the drawing, and to
deg rees with
" relief "
and aid the reader or the student
standing the true character of the
in
object
underwith
greater facility than could be done on drawings with
all lines
of one
and the same thickness.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
66
The
following rules should be strictly adhered to
by the student
(fl).
The
in
shading drawings
block or
rays of light are assumed to
make an
angle of 45 degrees with the plane of the paper and
to come from the upper lefthand corner, at an
angle of 45 with
all
horizontal and vertical lines as
abed,
of the subject should be consid
ered as a top view for the purpose of shading
top part will thus be exposed to the
prism.
In
the
top view,
upon the rear side of
the object, b c, upon the top, abed, and upon the
left side, a b
the light does not reach the front and
right sides, a d, and, d c
hence they are dark surfaces the edges a d and d c, separating the light
fall
surface,
Each view
rectangular
the rays of light
previously mentioned.
(b).
114 and 115 show two views of a square
Figs.
its
light.
Lines representing edges which cast shadows
are to be drawn in heavy lines.
(c).
abed,
from the dark surfaces are there
fore shade lines.
The
explanations given in regard to the top view
can also be applied to the other view of the same
object and the lines e h and h
tained as shade lines.
edges formed by the intersection of
a light and dark surface or two dark surfaces, are to
be shaded.
(d). All the
Fig.
113.
will
thuS be ob
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
c,
and 117 represent a hollow squaretop view shows the shade lines a d and
ii6
Figs.
prism
67
its
that
is,
the right and bottom sides of the view
upon which the rays
of light
do not
fall
the lines
a
Fig. U4.
a
Fui.
116.
9
i
^
8
n
Fiu.
e
Fig.
115.
and
g are
lines.
r p,
iir.
also shade lines for the
the vertical section
and bottom
m
M
p shows the
same reason
right side
also the vertical line k
1,
p
as shade
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
68
Another example
ii8 and
of shade lines
is
given
in Figs.
119; in this case the top view shows a
hexagonal hole, offering a good opportunity to consider the shading of objects with inclined planes.
It will be plainly seen that the lines c d and b c
must be shade lines and the lines a f and f e, situ
ated directly
in
the
way
of the rays of light, are
light lines.
The two remaining
and d e of the
hexagonal hole cannot readily be put down as
shade or light
sides b a
In order to find out^ their
lines.
nature draw a number of 45" parallel lines oVer the
figure in question
and those faces
of the hexagonal
hole reached by the rays of light, represented by the
45 lines.
be seen that the edge b a intersects the arrows of light the face a b will therefore be a dark
surface, and consequently must be shaded.
It will
also be noticed that the rays of light fall directly
upon the face, an edge of which is the line e d, thus
making this latter a light line.
In order to illustrate more clearly the shading of
lines belonging to planes, which are inclined in vaIt will
Fig.
118.
Fig.
119.
rious degrees to the direction of the light, the top
view of a cube placed
shown
in three different positions is
in Figs. 120, 121
and
edge a b makes an angle
122.
of
In Fig.
120 the
more than 45 with a
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
horizontal line
drawn
parallel lines
at an angle of
than 45 degrees with a horizontal
observed that the side of which a b
It will be
an edge cannot receive any direct light, as the rays are broken
by the edge of which b is the highest point; hence
45 representing the rays of the light will strike the
side of which a b
is
an edge
this side
must there
and the line will be a light one.
thelineab forms an angle of 45 degrees
with a horizontal line showing that the side of the
cube of which a b is an edge is placed in a position
fore be a light surface
In Fig. 12
the edge b a
Fio.
is
a shade
line.
is
line.
shown the front and bottom views
the shade lines on the front are easily
In Fig. 123 are
of a cylinder
Fig.
120.
69
Fig.
121.
122.
every case in which
a similar manner to foregoing cases
where a drawing has been made of a rectangle.
Many draughtsmen, however, will only shade the
the line in question forms an angle of 45 degrees
with a horizontal line.
The same is true for the
plane sides of the cylinder, claiming that shade
lines are intended to represent edges only; ac
parallel to the direction of the light
said side
is
is
a light
line c d,
considered a
line.
which
This
is
is
ligrht
done
for this reason
surface and the line a b
in
parallel to a b.
In Fig. 122 the edge a b forms an angle of less
determined,
in
cording to this view the bottom line of the elevation of the cylinder should only be shaded.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN,
70
At times
a tendency has been noticed to give the
As shade
shade lines a more general application.
found on all right and bottom sides
of those parts situated in front of the surrounding
circle,
and
being careful not to run over the
to stop
when
first
one
the two lines coincide.
lines are always
very easy to recognize this condition
every similar case, whether the part in question
surface,
in
it is
be bounded by plane or by cylindrical surfaces.
It is
drawn
therefore
recommended
that shade lines be
each case, independently of the character
very few exceptions, when a rigid
adherence to this rule will tend to produce a bad
in
of surface, with
effect.
The shaded
portion in the bottom view of the
shows the manner in which circles
when they represent projections of
cylinder, Fig. 123,
are to be shaded
cylinders or circular holes.
shows that the circle is shaded between
the points of tangency of the two 45degree lines
a b and f g the heaviest part of the shaded circle
is near the 45degree line c d e, passing through the
Fig. 124
center of the
circle.
The
thickness of
the
lines
should gradually decrease from e toward b and toto obtain the best result with neatness is
ward g
to shift the center point of the
compasses along the
Fig.
line c
e,
123.
a distance equal to the thickness of the de
sired line.
With the same
the original circle describe
radius used to describe
now
part
of
another
The shade
line
drawn too heavy
made
in
this
way must
not be
to assure the success of this
op
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
eration
it
is
necessary to have a very sharp needle
point in the compass in order not to cause too large
a hole
shifting
in
of
the
drawing the shade
When
The
may be avoided when
the center of the original
center
line
the
in
the original circle
FlG.
is
circle.
circular hole.
The
71
directions for this operation are
the same as for shading the projections of a cylinder
base, except that the opposite half of the circle is
following manner:
drawn keep the
center
121.
point in the center and without changing the radius
put the pen point
in
motion
in
the direction of the
part of the circumference to be shaded.
sure
upon the pen
is
The
gradually increased as
proa'ches the heaviest part of the shade
pres
it
ap
line
and
then gradually diminished.
Figs. 125
and 126 show the manner of shading a
FiQS. 125
shaded, which
is
AND
126.
done by shifting the center
opposite direction.
in
the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
72
In order to
in
shade
make
the conventional
way
of putting
more easily understood, a few illusadded for the benefit of the student.
127, the position of the shade lines in the
lines
trations are
In Fig.
top view
is
quite plain
in
throws a shadow upori the corresponding part of the
front face of the larger block and the line a b is
therefore a shade line.
Similar cases are given in
Figs. 133 to 138.
the front view, Fig. 128,
the bottom line a b of the smaller block placed in
In the front view. Fig. 136, a portion a c of the
bottom
line a
is
shaded and
in Fig.
138 the whole
Ui^J
1
a
Figs. 127
and
Figs. 139
128.
the middle of the top face of the larger block
is
light line.
In Figs. 129 and 130, the small block placed on
top of the larger one so that the front faces of both
are in one plane shows a light line a
b.
In Figs. 131 and 132, the smaller block is moved
forward so that its lower face a b is the front edge.
and
Figs. 131
130.
and
132.
bottom line a b is a shade line.
Fig. 139 shows the front and top views of a prism.
The shading of the top view does not present any
new points. In the front view the face e b c f is
dark
the edge e b separating the light face c^a b c
from the dark one and consequently e b must be a
shade line e f is also a shade line for reasons ex
of the
ROGERS' DRAWING
AND
DESIGN.
73
brings out such surfaces
much
stronger.
various examples given above
it
From
the
be seen that
will
no special rules can be given for shading, that
would cover all cases likely to arise.'
is,
rules that
The conventional practice introduces a great
variety of exceptions to any rules designed for this
7^
FiciS. 133
AND
VU.
Figs.
1.3.5
and
136.
b
plained previously.
a c should also be
The
shaded
this
would make part
the
straight
The
heaV
line
of
a c
heavy and the greater
part light, which would
produce a very odd
effect and therefore the
whole line, in similar
cases, is drawn light.
L_
1.37
}'
f
)'
is
made
many
draughtsmen, as the
surrounding of dark
surfaces by heavy lines
Figs.
line c
and
138.
upper base
line b c of the
e
Fid.
purpose.
139.
The draughtsman
has to keep
in
mind
the true purpose of putting in shade lines and place
such lines where and whenever, in his opinion, they
will
serve as an aid
drawing.
to the
understanding of the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN,
74
which does not receive any direct light. The heavy
lines become lighter gradually and are drawn very
fine near the midd'e of the cylinder; after this the
lines are again dra.vn slightly heavier up to the side
of the cylinder, which is nearest to the source of
PARALLEL LINE SHADING.
Plane surfaces are shaded by a number of parrunning parallel to the length of the plane
allel lines
which
is
to be shaded.
sented very
light,
it
with very fine parallel
dark plane
is
shaded
If
left
shown in Fig.
number of heavy
lines, as
iiy
is to be repreblank or coveretl
the plane
may be
140.
the
of the
is
If
the plane
is
140.
parallel to the plane of the paper,
the shading lines should be drawn with equal spaces
between them throughout the full width of the plane.
If the shaded plane is inclined to the plane of the
paper it is shaded by a number of lines, with the
spaces between these lines graciually increasing,
while the thickness of the lines gradually decreases
may be
seen in Fig. 142.
is shaded by a number of parallel lines,
whjch are heaviest near to the side of the cylinder
as
cylinder
The
shadintr lines near the liofhter side
cylinder should never be as heavy as the
heaviest lines on the dark side of the cylinder
parallel
lines, Fig. 141.
Fig.
lis>ht.
Fig.
illustrated in Figs. 143, 144
and
145.
Fio.
141.
near the middle of the cylinder
is
this
The surface
142.
often left blank,
it is difhcult to produce the effect of a light tint
which is desirable at that place.
A hollow cylinder or a concave surface is shaded
as
similar to a cylinder, as
The view
shown
of the sleeve
in Fig. 146.
nut shown in Fig.
147
which conical surfaces are
illustrates the manner
shaded.
Some draughtsmen do this by drawing the
in
shading lines parallel to the outside elements of the
cone.
A somewhat better result is produced, how
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
ever,
the
75
by drawing the
vertex
Wherever
of the
lines slanting
cone,
virhich
is
possible an ordinary pin
and tapering
to
may
l^e
to
shaded.
be put into
the board exactly in the vertex of the cone.
Tlie
Fir.. 146.
ruling
edge of the triangle
is
thus
easily
kept
against the pin, securing the proper direction for
the tapering shading lines.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
76
shown a cylinder placed in
is slightly rounded at
This Is
the end, so as not to have any sharp edge.
also indicated by shading lines drawn at right angles
In Fig. 148 at a b
is
a horizontal position, which
to the
shading lines of the cylinder.
FiQ.
U"
Fig.
Fig.
148.
Fig.
151.
150.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
77
shows how this may be done by the aid
however the time .required for this
method does not recommend it for ordinary working drawings the same figure includes a spherical
surface and shows how such surface may be shaded.
Fig. 149
of curved lines
Fig. 150
shows the shading of a curved
Fig. 151
shows a method
rule,
figure.
be noted that the best effects
produced by the fewest lines draw
In conclusion
are, as
of
of the inclined lines
being closer near the sides of the
varies,
ings
of representation
The spacing
knurled surfaces.
cylinder.
executed
let
it
to small scale will look best with a
shading that does not include any very heavy lines
larger scale drawings require the use of very heavy
;
shading
In ordinary
rule,
but very
times done to
bolts
Fju.
lines.
as well
working drawings shading is, as a
employed it is, however, someshade the surface of shafts and even
little
as
other cylindrical
parts
diameter by a few conveniently placed
of small
lines.
SECTION LINING.
sometimes necessary to make use of a section in order that certain details, which would
otherwise be hidden, may be shown in a plain.
It is
ir,:;.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
78
The method used
and
the best for most purposes, consists of drawing
parallel lines within the section, which lines are
usually inclined 45 degrees.
By changing the
direction of these lines a clear distinction may be
made between different pieces in the same view,
which may be in contact.
concise manner.
difference in material
of the
and
shown by a variation
is
character of the sectioning, see Figs.
153.
left to
in shops,
The
section lines are best
right or from right to
left,
152
drawn from
usually inclined
45 degrees and about onesixteenth inch apart. For
large drawings the spaces between them may be as
much
Fig.
154.
Fig.
155.
as oneeighth inch.
Placing the lines too near together makes the
work
of sectioning
not be drawn
much harder
first in pencil,
the lines should
but only
in ink, as
the
neat appearance of the drawing depends largely
upon the uniformity
of the lines in the section
these lines are to be spaced by the eye only.
process consists simply
in
ruling
one
line
and
The
after
another, sliding the triangle along the edge of the
teesquare for an equal distance after drawing each
section line.
Figs. 154162 inclusive,
lining quite generally used.
are examples of section
ROGERS' DRAWING
AND
DESIGN.
79
c
Fig.
Fig.
lot).
157.
Fig.
15s.
Fig.
159.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
80
Cast iron
of
medium
is
indicated by a series of parallel lines
thickness, equally distant apart as
shown
Wrought iron
is
sectioned
in
the same
manner
as cast iron except that every alternate line
line, Fig.
Cast steel
medium
or board
is
represented by lines run
ning similarly to those of the grain
in
an oak board.
Fig. 160.
in Fig. 154.
heavy
A beam
is
is
Brick and stone
Figs. 161
and
are represented as
shown
in
162.
155.
sectioned by drawing two lines, of
thickness close together, and the third line
Xbin strips of metal Vikc the stct'ion of boiler
plates may be sectioned in the ordinary way by the
about one and onehalf times as far from the
second as the second is from the first and so
on as shown in Fig. 156.
Brass is
sectioned by parallel lines similar
to cast iron, except that every other line
broken; see Fig.
Babbit
directions,
is
157.
sectioned like cast iron in both
forming
Wrought
is
steel
little
is
squares, Fig. 158.
sectioned by two light
Fig.
and one single heavy line. The light
lines should be drawn similarly to those in Fig. 156
for cast steel, and the heavy line should be about
one and onehalf times as far from the light lines as
the distance between them, as shown in Fig. 159.
160.
lines
Wooden beams
rines
and radiating
are sectioned
by a
series
of
lines in imitation of the natural
appearance of a cross section of an oak
tree. Fig. 160.
usual
section
lines
but as this requires consider
able
work and produces an
It is
often better to
fill
ill
in the
effect in the drawing,
whole sectional area
with solid black.
In this case a white line must be left between the
adjoining pieces
this
method
is
for small sections, see Figs. 163
recommended only
and
164.
ROGERS' DRAWING
AND
DESIGN.
81
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%^.^%^^^^^%%^^
^m^^m^^M^MM^
Fig.
Fia.
Fig.
163.
Fio.
164.
161.
162.
s&.
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IIMIIIIM^^
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^^^^^
GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.
Geometry
issue
the science of measurement
is
it
is
from which all mechanical drawings
the fundamental bases of all instruthe shop, where great accuracy is required.
the root
the principles involved in the following problems,
"laying out" of work in
elementary conceptions of geometry relate to the simple properties of straight
mental drawing, as well as
The
make up
all
lines, circles,
bounded by plain surfaces, the sphere, the cylinder and the right cone.
Higher geometry is that part of the science which treats of the relations of these to lines, circles,
Some geometrical terms have already been described, to these are now added a few
surfaces, etc.
relating to the more advanced parts of this oldest and simplest of sciences.
plain surfaces, solids
An axiom
a selfevident truth, not only too simple to require, but too simple to
is
admit of
dem.onstration
A proposition
is
something which
is
either proposed to be done, or to be demonstrated,
and
is
either a problem or a theorem.
A problem is something proposed to be done.
A theorem is something proposed to be demonstrated.
A hypothesis
a supposition made with a view to
is
draw from
it
some consequence which
establishes the truth or falsehood of a proposition, or solves a problem.
A lemma
more
is
something which
is
premised, or demonstrated,
in
order to render what follows
easy.
corollary
is
a consequent truth derived immediately
from some preceding truth or demon
stration.
A scholium
A postulate
made upon something going before
is
a remark or observation
is
a problem, the solution of which
8.1
is
selfevident.
it.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
86
EXAMPLES OF POSTULATES.
Let
it
be granted
That a straight line can be drawn from any one point to any other point
That a straight line can be produced to any distance, or terminated at any point
That the circumference of a circle can be described about any center, at any
I.
n.
in.
distance from that center.
AXIOMS.
Things which are equal
equals are added
When
When
When
When
n.
in.
IV.
to the
same thing are equal to each other.
two or more wholes are equal.
to equals the
/,
equals are taken from equals the remainders are equal.
equals are added to unequals the wholes are unequal.
equals are taken from unequals the remainders are unequal.
Things which are double of the same thing, or equal things are equal to each other.
Things which are halves of the same thing, or of equal things, are equal to each other.
VII.
VIII. The whole is greater than any of its parts.
IX.
Every whole is equal to all its parts taken together.
Things which coincide, or fill the same space, are identical, or mutually equal in
X.
V.
VI.
all
their parts.
All right angles are equal to one another.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
Two
The
straight line
is
the shortest distance between two points.
straight lines cannot enclose a space.
tools used in geometrical
pen, straight edge and scales
in
drawing are the compass, with pencil and pen points, the ruling
the following pages will be found a series of exercises which have
been selected with a view to their importance
in their
application in problems of accurate drawing.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
EXERQSES IN GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.
a given straight line; that
into two equal parts.
Let AB be the given line, Fig. 165.
To
it
bisect
is,
to
line
1C2 and
it
87
divide the line
will
AB
two
into
equal parts at the point C.
divide
To
bisect
a given angle ; that
is,
to
divide a given
angle into two equal angles.
/
/
/
/
;c
Fig.
From
as a center with
onehalf of
2,
]&5.
From B
the given line
as a center,
Let
a radius greater than
AB,
describe the arc
and with the same
radius,
and 2
then through the points of intersection draw the
describe an arc,
cutting the former at
ACB
With
;
be the given angle. Fig.
the vertex
as a center,
166.
and any
radius,
describe an arc cutting both sides of the given angle
at
and
radius,
2.
From
describe
arcs
and
cutting
as centers, with
each
other
at
any
3.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
88
Through
and
it
this point of intersection
will bisect the
draw the
line
3C
angle as required.
To divide a given angle into four equal parts.
Let
ACB
be the given angle, Fig.
To
trisect
a right angle ; that
is,
to divide it into
three equal parts.
167.
Bisect
ABC
be a right angle, Fig. 168, that is, an
angle with the sides perpendicular to each other.
From B as a center with any radius, describe an arc
cutting the sides of the angle at i and 4.
Let
B
With
the
Fig.
16S.
'4
same radius and with 4
describe an arc cutting the former at
*^
as a center,
2.
From
the given angle as described in Problem 2 by the
line 3C.
Bisect the angles 3CB and 3CA by the
lines C4 and C5 and these lines divide the angle
as a center with the same radius, cut the arc at
Through the points 2 and 3 draw the lines
into four equal angles as required.
equal parts as required.
and 3B and they
will
3.
2B
divide the angle into three
ROGERS' DRAWING
To draw a
line
perpendicular
to
a given straight
line from
AND
DESIGN.
89
To draw a perpendicular
a given point in that line ; that is, to erect a
perpendicular to the given line at a given point in that
from a given point without
line.
out
Let
AB
be the given line and
in that line, Fig.
the given point
a perpendicular
to
line to a straight
that line ; that
a given line
from a
is,
to
line,
drop
point with
it.
Let
AB
be the given
line
and C the given
point,
Fig. 170.
169.
3.
/
1
B
C
FUi.
radius set off on each side of the point
Ci and C2. From the points
with any radius greater than Ci
C, equal distances, as
I
and
or
2 as centers,
C2,
describe
Through
which
will
arcs
cutting
Fig.
IfiH.
From C
With any
^^.
each
other at
3.
the point of intersection draw the line 3C,
be perpendicular to the line AB.
170.
as a center with any radius extending
below the line AB describe an arc
2, cutting AB
at I and 2.
From i and 2 as centers, with the same
or any other equal radii, describe arcs cutting each
other at 3.
Through the point C and the point of
intersection 3 draw the line 3DC
then the line CD
will be perpendicular to AB.
i
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
90
To drop a perpendicular to a given linefront a point
which is nearly over the end of the line, Fig. iji.
Let
From
AB
be the given line and C the given point.
any point i on the line AB as a center, with
Let
Fig.
AB
arc
to
draw a
straight line
line.
be the given line and
the given point,
17:2.
From C
CE.
the radius iC describe the arc
Through a given point
parallel to a given straight
I, 2,
as a center with any radius describe the
cutting the line
AB
at
2.
II
7^
y'
z'
\
V\
>
\:i
\
Fig.
172.
/
Fig.
171.
With the same
on the line AB as a
former arc at C
and E. Draw a line through the points C and E
and the line CE will be the perpendicular required.
From any
other point
center, describe arcs cutting the
the arc C3.
On
radius and
the arc
2,
chord of the arc 3C, cutting
as a center, describe
set off
i,
it
at
C and i draw a straight
be parallel to AB.
points
will
i.
line
from
the
Through the
DiCE
and
it
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
To divide a straight
of equal parts
(^say
line into
any required number
y equal parts\
AB be the given line, Fig. 173.
From A draw a straight line AC forming
angle with AB and being of any length.
Set
any
the
convenient distance and set off
seven equal divisions on the line AC beginning at
to the point
AB into
three
and a half
AB
be the given line, Fig. 174.
Draw a line AC forming any angle with the
Let
dividers to any
up
line
equal parts.
Let
To divide a given
91
given line AB.
ginning at
Upon
up
AC
set off 7 equal parts, be
to the point
7.
7.
Jf
/
>
^
'
U
I
.^
X
Fig.
Join the points
draw
5,
6,
parallels to
and these
into the required
7
it
1T3.
and B by a straight line and
through the points i, 2, 3, 4,
lines will divide the given line
number
of parts.
AB
Join the points 7 and B and through the alternate points, 5, 3, I, draw lines parallel to 7B.
These
lines will divide the given line
equal parts, as required.
AB
into
3^
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
92
To draw upon a straight
be
equal
to
line
an angle which shall
To construct an equilateral
triangle, the length
of
a side being given.
a given angle.
Let 1E2 be the given angle and AB the line
upon which we intend to draw an angle equal to the
given one, Fig. 175.
Let the straight
line
AB
be the given
side, Fig.
176.
B
Fig.
175.
Fio.
176.
From E as a center describe an arc i, 2, with any
convenient radius. From any point on the line
AB, say from
C, as a center, and with the
radius describe the arc
with a radius equal to
i,
3,
2,
4.
From
same
4 as a center,
intersect the arc
4, 3,
A line drawn through the points 3 and
3.
form with the line AB the required angle.
at
will
From
AB
the points
and B with a radius equal to
describe arcs cutting each other at C.
the lines AC and BC
then will the triangle
be the required equilateral triangle.
;
Draw
ABC
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
To
cojisiruci
an equilateral
height or altittide being given.
Let
AB
to
be the given vertical height, Fig. 177.
the point B draw a straight Hne CD
Through
perpendicular to
To construct an
triangle, the vertical
AB.
93
with a base equal
and each of the two angles
isosceles triangle,
a given straight
line,
at the base equal to a given angle.
Let
be the given line and
the given angle,
Fig. 178.
Through the point
EF, parallel to CD.
draw another
From B
straight line,
as center with any
convenient radius describe a semicircle cutting
CD
Fig.
178.
at I and 4.
From
and 4 as centers, with the
same radius, cut the semicircle at 2 and 3. From
B and through the points 2 and 3 draw the lines
BG and BH then GBH will be the required
and B construct angles equal to the
the points
Continue the sides of the angles
given angle E.
then ABC will be the reuntil they meet at C
triangle.
quired triangle.
Draw
a line,
AB, equal
to the given line D.
At
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
94
Two
sides
and
the angle between them being given
to construct the triangle.
Let
and
spectively to two
and
Two
given
be the two given lines equal
sides of
the given angle, Fig.
the
i
required
re
triangle,
79.
Let
sides
to
and the
(Lngle opposite one
of them being
construct a required triangle.
and
be the two given sides and let E be
is to be formed
the side opposite which the angle
equal to F, Fig. 180.
Fig. 181.
Fig.
Draw
179.
and at the point A
construct an angle equal to F and make AC equal
to E.
Join the points C and B by a straight line,
and ABC will then be the required triangle.
a
line,
AB, equal
to D,
Draw a line, AB, equal to D. At the point A
form an angle equal to F. With the point B as a
center and a radius equal to the given line E describe an arc cutting AC at C.
Join the points C
and B. ABC is the required triangle.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
To conslruct a square, the
equal
to
a given
AB
Let
line.
of which shall
(See definition, page 31.)
be the given
At the point
page 89) equal
A
in
sides
line, Fig.
To construct a square
Let
181.
BD
its
diagonal being given.
be the given length of a diagonal, Fig.
182.
erect a perpendicular
length to
be
95
AD
(see
AB.
Bisect the diagonal
straight line
BD
at
the point P by the
AC.
1
c_
k"
\
\
\
N
^'
\
\
\
y
/P\
\
\
'\B
^AV
Fu;.
1S2.
Fig.
From
the
points
radius equal to
AB,
11.
B and
the required square.
centers,
with a
describe two arcs cutting each
Connect D and
and B and C by a straight
other at C.
as
C by
a straight line
line,
and
ABCD
is
From P
PD,
as a center with a radius equal to
cut the line
the points
AC
AB, BC,
CD
be the required square.
PB, or
and C. Join
and DA, and ABCD will
at the points
ROGERS' DRAWING
96
sides shall be equal
To construct a rectangle whose
to
two given
AB
Let
Draw
and
CD
(See definition, page 31.)
be the given
a straight line
EH
draw
lines.
EF
penpendicular to
EF
DESIGN.
To construct a parallelogram when the
sides
and
one of the angles are given. (See definition, page 31.)
Let
lines, Fig. 183.
equal to
AND
AB, from E
and equal to CD.
AB
and
CD
be the given sides and
given angle, Fig. 184.
Draw a straight line, EF, equal to AB.
draw an angle equal to the given angle O.
HE,
the side,
of this angle equal in length to
the
At E
Make
CD.
B
Fig.
183.
B
Fig.
From
and
and F as centers with
radii equal to
CD describe arcs intersecting
FG and HG; then EFGH
points
rectangle.
at G.
is
AB
Join the
the required
From
the point
and from
with
tersecting at G.
184.
with a radius equal to
CD
AB
as a radius describe arcs in
Join
HG and
required parallelogram.
FG.
EFGH
is
the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
To construct a parallelogram when
one of the diagonals are given.
CD
be the given diagonal and
the lengths of the two sides.
Let
the sides
and
Fig. 185.
AB
To find
given.
and
EF
97
Let
the center of a given arc,
(See definition, page 33.)
AB
be the given arc and
its
radius being
the radius, Fig.
186.
EAFig.
185.
Fig.
Draw a line, GK,
CD. From G and K
length to
AB
and
as centers, with radii equal in
EF
describe arcs intersecting at
KH
and H.
is
the required parallelogram.
Join
186.
equal to the given diagonal
GL, LK,
and HG.
GHKL
From any two
points
and B on the given
arc,
as centers, with a distance equal to the radius
describe arcs intersecting at
required center.
then
will
be the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
98
To find the center and to describe the circle, three
of whose points are given ; that 7S, to describe the
circumference passing through three given points.
With A, B and C as centers and any convenient
radius, draw arcs cutting each other at D and E
and at
and L, and through the points of their intersection draw lines KO and DO the intersection
;
of these lines at
as a center
quired
and
is
OA
the required center.
With
as a radius, describe the re
circle.
Fig.
188.
To draw a tangent to a circle, passing through a
given point on the circumference.
(See definition,
page
34.)
Let
be the given point on the given circum
ference, Fig. 188.
Fig.
Let A, B and
187.
C be
187.
the given three points, Fig.
From A to the center O of the circle, draw the
radius AO.
Through A draw the line BC perpendicular to AO. The line BC is the required tangent.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
To draw a tangent
to
a circle from a given point
without the circumference.
Let
given
Case
be the given point and
circle.
To draw
the center of the
I.
Fig. 190,
lines tangent to
draw any radius
With
circle.
.scribe
EG
circles.
the circle
OE
on which set
circle,
off
from
equal to the radius of the smaller
and OG as radius deand draw tangents PH and
as a center
GHI
Fio.
Fin.
two given
From O, the center of the larger
E, a distance
Fig. 189.
99
Ifll).
1X9.
PI to this circle from the center P of the other
(See the preceding problem.)
circle.
AC
Join
and bisect
with a radius equal to
circle,
it
From
at O.
OC
or
OA
cutting the given circle at D.
tangent
is
a line passing through
as center,
describe a semi
The
and D.
required
From
and P draw perpendiculars to these tangents and continue them until they cut the given
circles at AB and CD.
Join the points. The lines
AB and CD are the required tangents.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
100
To draw
Case II.
lines tangent to
two given
To
circles
From O, the center of one of the given
circles, Fig.
it
191,
draw any radius OE and lengthen
making the distance
outside of the circle up to G,
EG
equal to the radius of the other
inscribe a square in
draiv a square within the
a given circle; that is, to
with all the vertices
circle,
of its angles resting on the circumference.
Let
ABCD
be the given
circle. Fig. 192.
circle.
From O
as center
and
OG
as radius, describe
GHI draw tangents PH and PI to this
from the center P of the other circle.
Draw
perpendiculars to these tangents from O and P and
the circle
circle
they cut the given circles at the points
The
lines joining the points
are the required tangents.
A BCD.
and B and C and
Draw two
diameters,
to each other.
DA,
Draw
AC
and BD,
the lines
at right angles
AB, BC, CD, and
joining the points of intersection of these
ameters with the circumference of the
ACBD
is
the required square.
circle
di
ACBD.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
To
describe
Let
a square about a given
EGHF
be the given
Draw two diameters,
to each other.
To inscribe a hexagon in a given
page 32.)
circle.
At the points
Draw
From
at right angles
EGHF,
circle.
(See
definition,
circle, Fig. 193.
FG and EH,
101
where these
a diameter
AB in
the given
circle, Fig. 194.
and B as centers, with a radius equal
the radius of the given circle,
to
describe four arcs
DEF and
ADEBFG
cutting the circumference of the circle at
G.
is
Join these points by straight
the required hexagon.
lines.
F
Fig.
F
Fig.
193.
194.
To divide the circumference of
diameters intersect the circumference of the given
circle draw lines perpendicular to these diameters.
These
which
is
lines will intersect
the required square.
each other at
ABCD.
the circle into six
equal parts.
We
set the dividers to equal the radius of the
and get the required result by stepping the
radius six times around the circle.
circle
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
102
To construct a hexagon upon a given
Let
AB
be the given line and
let
line.
it
equal
in
length a side of the required hexagon, Fig. 195.
From A and B as centers describe arcs cutting
each other at G, the
radii of the arcs
To describe an octagon
page 32.)
in a given square.
(See
definition,
Let
ABCD
Draw
be the given square, Fig.
196.
the diagonals of the square cutting at E.
being equal to
AB.
Fig.
195.
Fig.
From
as
scribe a circle.
center
with
the
With the same
cutting the circumference at
same radius
radius set off arcs
CEF
and D.
19K.
de
Join
From
ABC
and
as centers, with a radius
describe arcs cutting the sides at
these points by straight lines and they will form the
the points
sides of the required hexagon.
octagon.
so
found
to
GH,
complete
the
AE,
Join
required
etc.
ROGERS'
To
describe
an octagon on a given
litte,
DRAWING AND DESIGN.
one side of
AB
be the given
Lengthen the
side, Fig. 197.
AB both ways.
at A and B.
line
diculars to this line
AE
at E,
and from
with the same radius cut the perpendicular
the octagon being given.
Let
the perpendicular
103
Erect perpen
as center
BE
at F.
Complete the octagon by joining GEE and D.
To draw a regular polygon of any number of sides
on a given line. (See definition, page 30.)
Let C5 be the given side of the required polygon, Fig. 198.
/p
"n
c
Fig.
19S.
Lengthen the line C5 to O. With C as center
and a radius equal to C5 describe the semicircle
O 2345, and divide this into as many equal parts as
I
there are sides in the required polygon.
Fig. 197
with
by the line AH,
and the external angle at B by the line BC. Make
and CD parand BC equal to AB. Draw
allel to AE and equal to AB.
Bisect the external angle at
HG
AH
From
as center, with a radius equal to
AB,
cut
2,
3,
4,
etc.,
by straight
C5
With
center and a radius equal to
cutting the line
C3
at
D.
lines.
With
Join
2
as a
describe an arc
as center,
and
with the same radius draw an arc cutting the line
C4 at E, and so on. Join the points C2D,
form the required polygon.
etc., to
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
104
To inscribe a regular pentagon in a given circle.
(See definition, page 32.)
Draw two diameters AC and DB at right angles
to each other,
a radius equal to
DB
at
OB
A
at
I.
straight line joining
required
as center
and
di
and
pentagon.
J is
equal to one
With
arcs
of a
on the circumference the
AJ
points where the sides of the pentagon will terradius equal to
minate.
circle.
J.
199.
the
With
describe an arc cutting the
Fio.
side of
within a given
Fig. 199.
Bisect the radius
ameter
To inscribe a regular polygon of any number of
sides,
Fig.
200.
set off
Draw two
diameters
circle. Fig. 200, at
AC
and
D7 within the given
right angles to each other.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Divide the diameter
D7
into as
many
equal parts
as there are sides in the required polygon.
be seven
Let
it
the points 123456.
in this case, at
Lengthen the diameter
AC
AK
making
equal
to threefourths of the radius of the given circle.
Through
and
draw a straight
circumference at L
straight line,
and
it
equal
in
on CD lay off the distance
Oi equal to Og and draw hi through the points
and g draw the lines Ri and gR parallel to gh and
hi.
With Cg as a radius and the points g and
as centers, draw the arcs jCm and nDp
with RA
From
the center
line cutting the
and I by a
length to one side
Join the points
is
105
of the required polygon.
this side,
and
set off
Set the dividers to equal
the other sides around the cir
cumference.
To describe an octagon in a circle.
Draw two diameters at right angles
these diam
eters divide the circumference into four equal arcs.
Bisect these arcs to complete the octagon.
To drazv an oval by circular arcs.
Let CD be the major axis and
AB
the minor
axis of the oval, Fig. 201.
Find the difference of the semiaxes and set it off
from O to e and f on CD and AB. Bisect ef and
set off onehalf of it from e to g and draw gh
jAn and
j
R and h as centers draw the arcs
meeting the small arcs in the points
The figure AnDpBmCj
and n and m and p.
parallel to
is
the required oval.
ef.
as a radius
and
mBp
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
106
y^
^^\
"^
MECHANICAL METHOD.
Draw
^^
% ^^^'''^
A
/
//
^^
\
\
\\
^^
""x
^^
^^^
^'1
at E.
Make
At
ED
draw a
equal to
line
CD
EC
//
^ r
y^
\.
^^"^^^
Trace a curve with the point of a pencil H
pressed against the string so as to keep it stretched.
The
curve thus traced will be the required
/
^
AB
AB.
loops.
\
\
""^N
equal to the major axis of the
and
equal to onehalf the minor axis.
Set the compass
to a distance equal to AE or EB, and with C or D
as center, describe an arc cutting the major axis at
F and G. F and G are the foci of the ellipse.
Fasten the ends of a string, whose length is equal
to the length of the major axis, AB, at thfe foci F
and G. This may be done by fixing pins at the
foci and by providing the ends of the strings with
perpendicular to
^^
AB
Bisect the line
to
\
\
a line
required ellipse, Fig. 202.
^^^.^
Draw
GEOMETRICAL METHOD.
a rectangle ABCD enclosing the
To draw an ellipse, the major and the minor axes
being given. (See definition, page 36.)
axes of
the ellipse, Fig. 203.
Let
axis.
EF
be the major axis and HJ the minor
Divide AB, DC and EF into a like number
making the number an even one.
The greater the number the more accurate will be
the resultant ellipse.
Let the number in this case
of equal parts
Fir.. 202.
ellipse.
be
8.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
On
107
BC construct the rectangle
with an altitude or height EF, Fig. 204.
From F the middle point in BC erect the perpenthe given line
ABCD
dicular
EF
divide
AB and BF
ber of equal parts, say four.
same nummanner divide
and 6 on AB
into the
In like
DC
and FC. Draw lines from 2, 4
and from corresponding points on DC to E from
5, 3 and I and from corresponding points in FC
draw lines parallel to EF, meeting the lines drawn
to E from 2, 4, 6, etc.
;
Through
and
with
the intersection of
2
curve of the parabola.
From
2, 4, 6, and from corresponding points in
draw lines to H. From tlie points placed on
KB and FC draw lines to J. From J and H draw
lines through 5, 3 and i and through corresponding points on LF to meet those already drawn.
DF
Through the
etc.,
J3,
intersection of
draw the outline
of
carefully in pencil, freehand,
2H
with Ji,
the ellipse.
and then ink
4H
with
Finish
in
with
aid of an irregular curve.
To
tude
describe a parabola, the base
EF being given.
BC and
the alti
(See definition, page 36.)
and corresponding
with
6, 3
ooints,
with 4
draw the
ROGERS' DRAWING
108
To describe a hyperbola, the transverse axis, the
and the base being given. (See definition,
altitude
page 36.)
Let FI be the axis
tude and BC its base,
EI
its alti
its
'
i
I
'
'
Fig.
AB
and
equal parts, say
5.
BE
ABCD
into the
Divide
20fi.
To construct a spiral composed of arcs of various
20.5.
construct a rectangle
with EI as
altitude.
Divide
7,
\\ \
1
Fig.
On BC
6 with 5
curve of the
intersection of 8 with
>\\
'
Through the
1\\
/'/111
'
DC
From F draw lines to the points of diviBC. From the points of division on AB
draw lines to I.
hyperbola.
///I
sion on
and corresponding points, draw the
Fig. 205.
////
'
DESIGN.
manner.
and
of the hyperbola,
AND
DC
same number cf
and EC in like
radii.
Let
ABC be
Note
A spiral
makes any number
into itself.
a small equilateral triangle, Fig. 206.
is
a curve described about a fixed point, and which
around that point without returning
of revolutions
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Lengthen the sides AB,
BA
as a center,
meeting the
BC and CA.
as a radius,
line
BC
With B
describe the arc
prolonged
at G.
AG
With C
as
109
22' as radius, describe the arc 23';
and from
draw the
in
points
I,
arc 34'
2,
and so on, taking
3, 4, etc.,
order the
as centers.
CG as radius, describe the arc GE meeting the line AC prolonged at E. With A as center
and AE as radius, describe the arc EF meeting BA
center and
prolonged
points
F,
at
BCA
By using any
ner, that
and so
on, using successively the
for centers.
is,
regular polygon in the same man
lengthening
its
sides
and taking the
angular points of such figure for centers successively in order, as in the
spiral
may be
above problem, a different
formed.
To draw the
of a snail by circular
outline
arcs.
Let C be the axis or center of rotation upon
which the snail is fixed, Fig. 207. The point B
nearest to the center and the point A most distant
from the center being also given.
From
the center
describe a circle whose diam
eter shall be equal to onethird of
the circumference into
as
I,
any number
AB
and divide
of equal parts,
3. 4. etc.
Draw through each
Then from
of these points tangents to
the point i as center, lA as
12'
radius, draw the arc
and from 2 as center,
this circle.
Note.
The
.<;nail is
a mechanical
movement
of purposes, as in timepieces, rlrop ii\otions, etc.
u.secl
for a great variety
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
110
To draw the outline of a heartwheel.
Let C be the axis or center of rotation, upon
which the heartwheel is fixed, Fig. 208, and let AB
be the required extent of the rectilinear motion,
A being the nearest point to the center and B the
most distant.
From
the center
with a radius equal to
CB
describe a circle.
Divide this circle into
any number of equal parts, say 12, and
through the points of division draw radii Ci,
C2, C3, C4,
etc.
Divide the line AB into half the number of
equal parts, the circle is divided into (in this
case six), as
ter
i,
Then from
2, 3, etc.
with the distance Ci on the line
describe an arc cutting the
point
line
D
AB
first
then take the other divisions on the
in succession with them from
C draw
arcs, cutting their respec
tive radii Ci, C2, C3, etc., at the points
and H, which are the points
heartwheel curve,
The
volves
6
No'rE.
The
Fig.
heartwlieel
is
uniform reciprocating motion.
SOS.
a popular mechanical device producing
its
AB,
radius at the
and
the center
and
the cen
its
in
DEFG
the required
highest point being
lowest A.
construction of various
many problems
these will be introduced
of mechanical
similar
when
machine parts
to
the
in
preceding
treating of the design
motion and the construction of parts
of various machines.
AND ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
ISOMETRIC, CABINET
AND
DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES.
The word projection means to throw forward, and in mechanical drawing it is the projecting or
throwing forward of one view from another in drawings the lines in one view or plan may by this
system be used to find those of others of the same object, and also to find their shape or curvature as
they would appear in other representations.
;
Isometric projection is that in which but a single plane of projection is used.
Cabinet projection is somewhat like isometric projection; the cabinet projections
horizontal line
off parallel to
2,
a vertical line and
these axes
3,
a 45degree line
cabinet projection
Orthographic projection.
is
hence
Drawings made up in this manner will be
the special methods of drawing generally used
Development of surfaces
are
measurements on the drawing must be
i,
laid
one of several systems of oblique projection.
The primary
''of or pertaining to right lines or angles,"
all
all
geometrical meaning of the word orthographic
is
the projecting lines are either horizontal or vertical.
understood by many people unacquainted with
mechanical branches.
easily
in
be defined and illustrated under its own chapter, page 162.
Objects represented as thus described give a clear understanding of all their dimensions, and
approximately show them as they appear to the eye of the observer the method of representing objects
as they really appear to the e\ e is called perspective drawing.
This latter method, however, presents
will
so
many
difficulties of construction,
that
various other
means have been
devised,
all
aiming
the advantages of perspective, and avoiding at the same time the difficulties of construction.
to give
These
and
methods, also called false perspective, are described under the heading of isometric projection,
will be further explained in the following chapter under the title " Cabinet Projection."
113
ROGERS' DRAWING
114
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION.
Figure 209 shows
its
corners
the
ab and ag are called isometric axes ; these
axes form an angle of 20 degrees with each other.
lines ac,
DESIGN.
They may be drawn by
a solid figure, a cube, with
equal sides and resting on one of
AND
the 30 and 60 triangles
horizontal line
ag
is
a vertical
line.
All the lines in this figure are parallel to these
axes, viz.: all the lengths are parallel to ab
the widths are parallel to
Fig. a.
the lines ac and ab forming angles of 30 with a
Fig.
ac.
210.
and
all
DRAWING AND DESIGN.
ROGERS'
The method of
thus representing objects
is
called
; drawings made in this manner
show very clearly, with one view, the object as it
all the sizes of the
appears when looked upon
object are drawn full size, or made to one scale,
isometric projectioti
parall(;l to
the isometric axes.
With these
mind
To draw a rectangular frame made 0/ wood y^'
thick, the outside dimensions being 16" long, 8" wide
and 2"
First
deep, as
shown
in Fig. 211.
draw the isometric axes
line
represented in isometric projection in order to ex
width.
First
is
4 by 2" by 2" Fig. 210.
,
draw the isometric
and ad
axes, ab, ac
ab
a vertical line whereas ac and ad are lines form
ing angles of 30 with a horizontal line
make ab
and ac equa
to 2 inches; from c draw cf, parallel and equal to
ab, and from d, draw dh, also parallel and equal
equal to
inches, ad equal to 4 inches
to ab.
Join the points b and
and the
be equal and parallel to ac.
points b and h and the line bh
line bf will
Then
join
the
be equal and
draw the line fg
will
from the point f,
parallel to ad
equal and parallel to bh, then draw the line gh,
which will be equal and parallel to bf from the
;
point of intersection g draw the vertical line gk,
from c and d draw the lines cb and dk, respectively,
and
parallel to
ad and
ac.
make
2",
the
16" or the length desired for the
plain its principles.
block,
ad and ac
ad equal to
and finally the line ac equal to 8' or the
frame,
To draw a square
ab,
the line ab equal to the depth required, or
several objects will be
rules in
115
FlG.I'll.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
116
Now
draw the lines cf and de equal and parallel
to ab and then draw the lines fb and eb, equal and
From the point
parallel to ac and ad, respectively.
f draw ft equal and parallel to ad.
Next join the points e and t and the line et will
be parallel and equal to ac.
Now make mb and bn, tq and tr, each
^" for
equal to
To draw a right cylinder in a horizontal position,
as
shown
in Fig. 212.
Draw a square
length as the diameter
face
Within
square draw a
direction
ac
of
in
mp
diame
base of the cylinder.
Next draw the diagonals ad
and
g and
h,
the circle at the
be, cutting
points eghf
h and
and extend these
f,
join the points e
and
lines
and
g,
by straight lines
until they meet the
f
sides of the square.
These
the
lines cut off equal lengths of the sides of
the square in
Fig.
212.
four corners, so that
Now
For
objects as represented in figures 210 and 211 an isometric projection is desirable, but when the objects to be drawn contain
curved surface lines the application of the above described method is
limited.
its
ai^a2=d3^
d4, etc.
cutting said line.
Note.
its
ter equal to that of the
line
and
tangent to the
square and
and equal to ab.
From u draw a line
parallel to ad in the
direction of ac and
parallel to
circle
'
efgh,
vertical linesu, parallel
draw from u a
this
der.
also
to
is
of the required cylin
cutting this latter line
whose surbe the base
of a circle
the thickness required
example
same
the
exactly
draw the lines
mp and gr parallel to eb and
also draw the lines qk
and hn parallel to bf.
The two lines gr and
qk intersect at s from
this point s, draw a
in this
abed,
Fig. 213, with sides of
in
suppose that the required cylinder is placed
a square prism, so as to exactly enclose the cyl
inder as
shown
in Fig. 214.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
It is
in Fig.
evident that the prism will have two ends equal to the square shown
213, and that the length of the prism will be equal to that of
the cylinder.
Then draw the prism in isometric projection as explained
on page 115; draw the diagonals
and BC in the end
ABCD of the prism and lay out the isometric projection of the circle which is to form the base
of the required cylinder.
Set off on the
AD
line
AC
a distance
Ai
equal to ai
\
/
/
/h
N
V
/
\f
in
)
\
k
Fio.213.
from the point
D on the line
set off the distance
D4, equal to
Fig. 213;
DB,
ai, in Fig. 213, or
214.
equal to
Ai
in Fig.
C,
117
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
118
draw a line parallel to AB,
cutting the diagonals AD and BC at the points e
and f through the point 4 draw also a line parallel
Through the point
to
CD
intersecting the diagonals at the points
mn
through o, parallel to AB,
draw a line parallel
cutting AC at m and BD at n
to AC through the same point O, cutting the line
CD at 1 and the line AB at k.
h, n and f are points
The points k, e, m, g,
through which the required circle drawn in isometric
The curve thus obtained is
projection will pass.
evidently not a circle, but has the form of an ellipse,
This
its minor axis being eh and its major axis fg.
and h
draw the
line
1,
ellipse
may be drawn by any method
explained in
the section pertaining to Geometrical Drawing.
The
other end of the cylinder, which
scribed in the figure
same manner
GF
KLMN, may
is
to
be drawn
and the
as already explained,
be
in
in
the
ellipse
be obtained.
In order to complete the isometric projection of
the cylinder draw the lines Gg and Ff, joining both
faces of the cylinder
these lines are to be drawn
through the ends of the major axis of both ellipses
and they are tangent to these two curves.
will
To draw a pattern of a crank, shown in Fig. 21^,
isometric projection.
The
pattern consists of two cylinders joined by a
The
board.
will
fit is
larger cylinder into which the shaft
3" in
diameter and 25^" long; the smaller
be fitted, is 2"
The distance between the
cylinder to which the crank pin
in
diameter and
2
"
long.
center lines of the two cylinders
is
to
is 5".
Proceed as follows
Describe a circle 3" in diameter, as in Fig. 216,
and draw a square around it, and within the square
draw two diagonals and other lines as in Fig. 213
draw the isometric projection of a prism having
Fig. 216 as a base and a length equal to 21^"; said
prism is marked ABCDdab and its hiddqn parts
are not shown.
In this prism lay out the isometric projection of
the larger cylinder, whose front face will be the
ellipse klNcjM.
:
Fig.
218 shows only a small part of the ellipse
forming the rear end of the cylinder and
visible part is represented by mi.
Through the center
MN
line
AD
parallel to
this small
of the first ellipse
CD
and the
line
draw the
kc parallel to
then draw the line eg through the point c and
parallel to
The
Aa and
point
equal to
indicates the place
connecting both cylinders,
cylinder.
t^/^".
The board
ing an additional
is
where the board,
fastened to the
first
intersects the cylinder, form
ellipse,
or
more
properly, a part
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
of
an
21S by uge this part of the
exactly equal to the part jcN of the ellipse McNk,
ellipse,
ellipse is
represented
119
in Fig.
f
";"
Fm.
217
/
.i.._
r^
FlQ.
zi'
Fio.
216.
215.
and may be constructed by drawing from different points of
the curve, jcN, a number of lines parallel and equal to eg.
Fio.
218.
ROGERS' DRAWING
120
The
line uj is a
From
tangent to both of these curves.
the point g draw the Hne gf parallel to ck and equal to
f draw the line hp parallel to
so that hf is
CD
2^'; through
equal to
fp,
each of these being equal to one inch
hp draw the isometric projection
The base
of the latter
by the
218
Fig.
length of the prism
When
drawn
the
in isometric
shown
in Fig,
The
vfvv.
to be equal to
is
small
is
ellipse
cylinder
2".
has been
projection within this
prism draw the line
vw through
the cen
vfw and parallel to hp
through the point v, the
distance vr being made equal to one
inch and through the point r draw the
line rm, tangent to the ellipse mi.
ter of the ellipse
draw the
The
line vr
lines
wu and
to the ellipse uge.
ve are both tangent
The hidden
parts of
the object are not indicated in Fig. 218.
Fig. 219 represents a tool chest
in isometric
as an
projection
example
It
is
drawn
given here
of a large class of objects
adapted for representation by
method.
well
from the line
which is
of the prism hpsnto,
to enclose the smaller cylinder.
in
AND
this
DESIGN.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
CABINET PROJECTION.
Cabinet Projection
metric Projection
its
three axes to which
are
drawn
parallel
is
somewhat
similar to
Iso
difference consists in selecting
all
measurements of the object
see
a, b, c,
Fin.
following
length of the object must be laid off parallel to the
horizontal axis, in their actual sizes.
All vertical measurements, parallel to the
b.
height of the object, must be draAvn parallel to the
vertical axis, in their actual sizes.
Fig.
zontal line
shown
for cabinet projection
2,
in Fig.
a vertica
ime; anc
are
the object must be laid off on lines parallel to the
line, as
45 axis, in sizes of only onehalf of the actual cor
parallel to the
responding measurements.
It is not essential which side of the object should
be considered its length and which side its thickness.
i,
a 45'
above.
be remembered that
All horizontal measurements,
All measurements parallel to the thickness of
a hori
It is to
a.
221.
iSS.
c.
The axes
121
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
122
To draw a cube in cabinet projection, as^hown
in
The remaining
Suppose each side of the cube to be 3" long.
the three axes: ab=horizontal axis,
vertical axis,
and bc=axis inclined
45.
On
bd^
the line
from the point b, the distance b]=3"; on
from b, lay off b2^3"; and on the line
A vertical line drawn
be measure off f'^ij^".
ab set
and complete the side b254
of the cube.
Fig. 221.
Draw
intersect at the point 5
off,
ner, parallel to
intersecting at
drawn in a similar manthe axis, from the points 3 and 5,
the point 6 and showing the top of
lines are
the cube 3625.
the line bd,
Fig.
through point
a horizontal line
222.
parallel to the vertical axis
drawn through point
bd and
2 parallel to
the horizontal axis ab will intersect at point 3 and
thus complete one face of the cube b231.
Now, through
the point 4 draw a vertical line
bd and through point 2 draw a line inclined 45 with the horizontal
these two lines
parallel to
Fig.
223.
Next draw through tlie point 4 a horizontal line
and parallel to ab and through the point i a line inclined at 45 and parallel to be
these two lines cut
;
join the points 6 and 7 by a straight
at the point 7
line and cube is complete.
;
\^
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
In Fig. 222
shown
is
frame represented
in
cabinet projection the
in
Fig. 211.
The
length of the
frame, 16 inches in actual measurement,
is
repre
sented here on the 45 axis by only onehalf of
actual size or 8 inches long
all the
its
zontal axis
in
3,
123
parallel to the vertical axis, that
is,
a standing position.
The
first
position of the cylinder being the most
convenient for drawing it in cabinet projection
will be considered here before the others.
it
other measurements are equal to the
actual sizes of the object, as described
on page
122.
m
(e
\
\
\
p(
^
n
Fig.
B
Fio.
224.
To draw a right cylinder in cabinet projectioti, its
base to be the circle shown in Fig. 22^.
The cylinder may be placed in the following positions
I,
Draw
I.
2,
parallel to the hori
in
prism abcgfedh. Fig. 22j,
cabijiet
projection,
enclosing the cylinder
the
the
face of the prism, abcg, will contain the visible base
of the cylinder;
parallel to the 45 axis;
ExAMPLE
a').
circle kl,
which
is
which
is
equal to
shown
it.
in Fig.
223 by the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
124
nm
In the rear end of the prism draw the circle
Through the point
end of the cylinder, and draw the lines
kn and Im tangent to both circles this completes
and
the cabinet projection of the cylinder.
will
for the other
It is
advisable to select this position for
much
as
ders,
drawn
in
as
possible,
when they
the circles repre
cabinet projection, as
senting the faces of the cylinder
circles
and the dra\/ing of
Example
all cylin
are to be
ellipses
may be drawn by
is
avoided.
Describe the circle forming the base
II.
ABDG,
AD,
Fig. 22^,
and draw
BG
and
line ehi
and
ihe diagonals
cutting the circle at the points hefg.
Through the points
and h draw the
be one end of the prism from the points a and
draw the lines ah and fg, each equal and parallel to
be then draw the line gh equal and parallel to af.
;
The
figure afgh thus obtained
to the
square shown
length of which
draw
this
prism
in
Fig.
224 and the
Lay out
eb, set off
be the distance bi
line
Ai in Fig. 224 and
on the same line be, Fig. 225, point off the distance
2c from the point c and equal to bi.
equal to onehalf of the distance
Through
will
the points
and
draw
intersect the diagonals eb
vertical lines
and cd
the
points of intersection thus obtained together with
points
4,
are
5,
found
and 6
it
define
cylinder,
curve which
in
cabinet projection as
shown
one face of the cylinder as
the axes ab, bd and be
of the prism, that
length of the required cylinder;
AB
from b on the
equal to that of the
in
the cylinder within
will
represent
is
the
position
the
it
how
evident
circle
appears
in
of
these
the
forming
cabinet
projection.
to the length
AG,
of
is
Fig. 225.
the other end of
In order to do this draw the diagonals dc
bdec.
and
lay out one face
the points
equal
is
the prism.
within a rectangular prism, each end of which
is
d and e by
which
vertical line ce equal
parallel to bd, then join the points
through the points fg the \\n^ fg2 ; the distance Ai
be equal to the distance B2.
Now, assuming that the cylinder is contained
will
draw a
a straicfht line thus forming the figure bdec, which
Now,
of the required cylinder. Fig. 22^, within the square
Fig. 224,
and be equal
In Fig. 224.
to
is,
make ab equal
equal to the
make bd equal
to
}4 of the distance
The
is to be drawn in a similar
end of the cylinder. Two
horizontal lines, each tangent to
both these
curves, will complete the cabinet projection of
curve within afgh
manner
the
for the other
cylinder.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN,
Example
III.
From
the
drawing
in this figure
226, it is evident that the construction in this case
exactly the same as in case
From
125
is
2.
the above problems
will
it
\ :^,<"
be seen that
^=::^^^ ==^ \
^^
\
Fig.
226.
PiG.
objects with circular forms which are to be
in
cabinet projection should be
with
all
or most of
its
drawn
placed preferably
circles as in the cylinder rep
resented in
Example
previously stated,
all
23T.
in this position, as
circles
in
already
the object will be
represented by their actual sizes in the cabinet pro
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN
126
and
in this
cult curves
may be
jection
manner the construction
of
diffi
avoided.
Isometric projection does not offer this advan
tage as
will
in that
method,
appear as ellipses
all circles,
;
without exception,
consequently, cabinet pro
jection has a distinct advantage,
oftener employed
when a drawing
and
therefore
is
of an object in
false perspective is required.
As an
illustration of the principles explained in
the preceding pages the cabinet projection of the
pattern for a crank,
in Fig. 215, will
At
a glance
it
shown
be given
will
in
be seen that the cabinet pro
jection of this object can be
time than
its
isometric projection
in Fig. 227.
drawn
isometric projection.
in
It
is,
necessary to bear in mind, that, whereas
urements
in
much
less
however,
all
meas
isometric projection are equal to the
actual sizes of the object, those in cabinet projection which are parallel to the 45 axis are
equal to y^ of their actual
Figs. 228, 229, 230, 231,
drawn
size.
and 232 represent addidrawn in cabinet pro
tional illustrations of objects
jection.
Note. The thorough knowledge of cabinet and isometric projections will be of great advantage, both to the student and the mechanic,
as they will thereby be enabled to represent different objects in drawing
in such a manner as to be easily understood by persons who would not
understand a mechanical drawing executed in another, though perhaps
a more generally approved manner.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fia.
187
229.
Fui.
Fig. 230
Fig.
231.
232.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
128
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION.
dently,
Isometric drawing and cabinet projection, while
showing the object as
really appears to the eye
it
of the observer, are neither of
them very convenient
employ where it is necessary to measure
every part of the drawing for the purpose of repromethods
ducing
it
to
placed so that the rays of light from the
is
object will pass through the glass in straight lines,
The
to the eye of the observer.
object,
and
by
its
in this
outline,
manner
front side of the
may be
a figure
traced upon the glass,
drawn on it (in this case
in the shop.
All shop drawings, or working drawings as they
made by
are usually termed, are
as orthographic projection
method known
in isometric or
one view, while
in a
drawing made
in
projection, but one side of the object
cabinet
shown
projections, three sides of the object are
in
orthographic
is
shown
in a
single view.
To
illustrate this, a clear
pane
of glass
may be
placed in front of the object intended to be represented.
is shown on a table
in front
one face (the front face) of the
In Fig. 233 a cube
of
it,
parallel
to
cube, the pane of glass
placed.
is
Now, when the observer looks
Fig.
2:.
directly at the
front of an object from a considerable distance, he
will
see only one side, in this case only the front
from the
side of the cube.
The
upon the cube are rethe observer, and in this
rays of light falling
flected into the eyes of
manner he
a square) which
sees the cube.
The pane
of glass, evi
front.
is
the view of the object as seen
This view
is
tion.
front
eleva
One
real
called the
view, however,
form of a solid
is
not sufficient to show the
figure.
In a single view
two
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
dimensions only can be shown, length and height
hence the thickness of an object will have to be
shown by still another view of it, as the top view.
Now,
pane in a horizontal position
above the cube which is resting on the table, Fig.
place
the
129
cube, as seen from above.
is
This square on the glass
the top view of the cube, or
In Fig. 235
is
its
"//aw."
shown the manner
in
which a side
view of the cube may be traced the glass is placed
on the side of the cube, which rests on the table as
;
before,
and the outline
of the cube
on the glass
in
this position, is called its ''side elevation.''
Usually either two of the above mentioned views
will suffice to show all dimensions and forms of the
object.
In complicated pieces of machinery, however,
more
views, three
and even more may be
re
quired to adequately represent the proportions and
form of the different
parts.
drawing which represents the object as seen
by an observer looking at it from the right side is
called the right side elevation and a drawing showing the object as
at
it
from the
it
appears to the observer looking
left side
is
called the left side eleva
tion.
Fig.
234,
and looking
at
it
ast.
from above, directly over
the top face of the cube, trace
pane
glass,
its
as a result, a square figure
upon the
drawn upon the
outline
is
which corresponds to the appearance of the
view of the object as seen from the rear is
called the rear view or rear elevation, and a view
from the bottom, the bottom view.
The different views of an object are always arranged on the drawing in a certain fixed and generally adopted manner, thus
The front view is placed in the center the right
side view is placed to the right of the front view,
;
ROGERS' DRAWING
130
AND
DESIGN.
and the left side view to the left the top view is
placed above the front view and the bottom view
below it. The different views are placed directly
opposite each other and are joined by dotted lines
may be
called projection
top view.
lities.
transmitted from the front view to either
one of the side views in like manner the length of
different parts of the object may be transmitted by
the aid of projection lines, to the bottom view and
;
It
often desirable to
is
show
lines
belonging to
an object, although they
may
In Fig. 236 the top view
and the bottom view show
plainly that the
object
is
not be directly visible.
hollow
looking at the
object from the front or from the sides, however,
the observer could not see the inside edges of the
except
object,
were made of some transparent
it
material.
For mechanical drawing, we may assume that all
objects are made of such material, transparent
enough to show all hidden lines, no matter from
It is the genwhich side the object is observed.
eral practice to draw the hidden edges by lines
made of dashes dash lines as in Fig. 236.
In the following articles the student will find a
Fig.
number
23.1.
of exercises
on the application of ortho
graphic projection.
By
the aid of projection lines, leading from one
Note.
Mechanical
drawing
is
used mainly to represent
solids,
view to the other, measurements of one kind may
be transmitted from one view to the other
for in
solids are
stance, the height of different
surfaces, according to the principles of orthographic projection.
parts
of
an object
but
bounded by surfaces whicb in turn are bounded by lines
which by themselves are limited by points ; views of a solid can therefore be found hy drawing the views of its limiting points, lines and
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Tof3 Vi
Lefl 'SideVitu/
ew
Front View
JBoitom View
Fig.
131
236.
HigJii Side
Vteu
133
Draw
ROGERS' DRAWING
the front view, left side view
and
top view
of the rectangtilar prism showji in .Fig. sjj.
Fig. 238 shows the drawing of the prism in the
three required views the lines showing the dimensions are made by long dashes drawn very thin.
;
AND
DESIGN.
open near the middle, where the figure denoting
the measurement is placed.
These figures should
be written very plainly and placed so as to read
along the dimension line for horizontal lines from
;
/v
<
1,
y"
FlO.
outside of a view, short auxiliary dotted lines are
employed to join the part of the object to which the
refers.
237.
It is important to remember that dimension lines
must be drawn parallel to the distances, the size of
which they are intended to show. The dimension
lines terminate in arrow heads drawn with an ordinary writing pen.
If a dimension line is carried
dimension line
The dimension
line
is
left
i^G.
S38.
bottom of the drawing, and for vertical lines
from the right hand side of the drawing.
The inch is marked " the foot
for example
i
foot, 3 inches is represented by i' 3".
More information concerning dimensions will be found in the
chapter treating on working drawings.
the
'
ROGERS' DRAWING
Draw
a front view, top view and right side view
of the wedge showji in Fig. 2^0.
Draw
the front view
first.
Lay
off
a straight
on which mark two points 3" apart through
the point on the right erect a perpendicular, which
make one inch long two sides of the rightangled
line,
AND
DESIGN.
triangle forming the
133
front view of the
239.
are
Join the two ends of these sides by a straight line
and the front view is complete. The student will
draw the side view and the top view in corresponding positions to the right side and above the front
view, as in Fig. 239.
Fig.
Fig.
wedge
thus found.
240.
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
134
Draw
a front view, both side views and top view
will
shown in Fig. 2^1.
shows the required views of the object.
The edge ab which is visible in the right side view
of the
DESIGN.
not
make
object
Whenever
Fig. 242
is
more
is
so complicated that any
would only tend
to obstruct a clear
conception of the object, it is advisable to carry the
dimension lines outside of the view.
Fia.
hidden in the left side view and therefore
represented by the dash line cd.
the view
additional lines
Dimension
is
the understanding of the view
difficult.
lines
must necessarily be of
three
241.
kinds:
i,
parallel to the lengths of
the different
lines within the views,
width of these
2,
The dimension
parts, and 3, parallel to the height.
the
line
parallel
to
or edge whose
must
always
be
line
complicated nature,
length
It
may
often be possible to put in the dimension
when the object is not of a
and when the dimension lines
parts of the object
it
represents.
parallel to the
ROGERS' DRAWING
ANQ
DESIGN.
135
; V
...^
a
>
P
^
Jf
t
\
Fig.
243.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
136
Draw a front view, side view and top view of the
model shown in Fig. 24J. As the object to be
drawn has the same appearance from either right or
left side, it does not matter which side view is to be
Draw
two elevations {a front view and a side
long
top view of a hexagonal prism
and 2y2" between any tivo parallel sides.
view^
and a
drawn.
X""
V.
Fig.
Fig.
The construction of the views is so obvious that
no explanation need be offered with the drawing
shown in Fig. 244. It will be noticed that this
figure,
as well as
shown with
all
others in this chapter,
are
lines representing the sides of the dif
ferent parts of the object.
;244.
243.
It is evident that a hexagonal prism has six faces
and of these three are parallel to the remaining
three faces. The distance between any two parallel
the same in this case it is equal
the top view of the prism first
draw
us
faces or sides
to 23^
of
all.
";
let
is
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Draw two
lines,
AB
horizontal and
each other at the point O.
intersection, O, of these
view which
is
Make
CD
in
CO
the line
a and
OD
equal to
is
the
very extensive.
and each equal
to 1%", so that the
equal to 2j4", the distance between the parallel sides of the
is
then through the point
the lines
intended, as in this case, that the
should coincide with the center of the
projection drawing
Through C and
prism.
is
it
lines
vertical, Fig. 245, intersecting
to be drawn, then these lines are called center lines
use of center lines
line
If
two
CD
137
eCd and aDb
D
O
draw the lines eCd and aDb parallel to AB
draw two 60degree lines eb and ad, cutting
;
at the points
e, b,
d.
Through
these
points
draw the
re
maining sides of the hexagon, parallel to
The hexagon,
the lines eb and ad.
aAedBb shows the top view of the prism.
To draw
lows
the front view proceed as
fol
Through
Aab and B draw
AE, aH, bj and BF.
horizontal line NGP, make
the points
the vertical lines
Draw
PF
the
equal to
5",
the height of the prism
and through the point
zontal line
FPG
is
KEF
F draw
the hori
then the figure,
EHJ
the front view of the prism.
be noticed that the front view
shows three faces of the prism HEGS,
and
HSRJ and JRPF, the faces
It will
HEGS
Fig.
245.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
138
JRPF
appear narrower than the face HSRJ, the latter being situated
right in front of the observer and parallel to the plane of the paper is
seen in its true size, while the other two faces seen in the front view
being
in
an inclined position relative to the front face appear narrower
than their true width.
The
tance
side view
KM
is
KNTLM
equal to
marked by the letter
parts, KL and LM.
shows only two faces of the prism. The disthe edge LT corresponding to the edge
the top view, cuts the line
into two equal
CD,
in
KM
To draw the top view, front view and side view of
pyramid 5" high, each side of the hexagonal base being equal to i%".
The top view of
the pyramid must be drawn first.
a hexagonal
The top
246 shows the required views.
view appears as a regular hexagon, in which all
Fig.
diagonals are drawn by lines as heavy as the sides,
as these diagonals
the pyramid.
The
show the edges
of the faces of
center of the hexagon where
the diagonals meet represents the vertex
of
all
the
pyramid.
The
front view and the side view are
drawn
in
the manner explained in the construction of these
views of the hexagonal prism, the edges of the faces
in this case all meeting in the vertex which is
placed 5" above the middle of the line representing
the base.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
To draw a top view ajid a front view of an octagLet each side of the octagonal bases
be equal to one inch and let the height of the prism
onal prism.
be
Draw
side of
a,
To complete the front view, intersect these lines by
two horizontal lines 8" apart. The side view of this
figure
is
identical with the front view.
8".
the top view
The
quired views.
is
139
which
is
first.
Fig. 247
top view
is
equal to one inch.
shows the
re
an octagon, each
The
front view
drawn by projecting vertical lines from the points
b, c, and d of the octagon.
These vertical lines
form the
vertical
edges of the faces of the prism.
Fig. 248 shows three views of a sphere, each of
which appears as a circle.
The lines, AB, CD, EF and GH are center lines.
They are composed of long and short dashes, alternating, and are usually extended indefinitely beyond
the outlines of the views.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
140
Center lines are drawn through the middle of the
view in all cases where such a line will divide the
view into two perfectly equal parts so that one part
will have all its details situated opposite the corresponding details of the other part, so that if the
paper on which the view is drawn is folded along
the center
line, all
cover exactly
all
continued from one view to the other show
lines
that the views belong together, just as projection
lines
would indicate the same.
parts in one half of the view will
corresponding parts
in
the other
half of the view.
We
say then that the view (or object)
is symwith
regard
to
the
center
metrical
line.
In Fig. 245
the top view and the front view are symmetrical
with respect to the center line
CD.
The top view, however, may be folded along the
line AB, and in this case the lines of the hexagon
on one side of the line
AB
lines in the other half of the
that the
hexagon
center line
In
all
spect
to
AB
cases
two
is
will exactly
hexagon
symmetrical
in
we
cover the
see then,
regard to the
also.
where a view
lines,
is
symmetrical
in
re
both of these lines must be
Wherever the view is symmetrical to one
only, not more than one center line must be
Pig.
248.
drawn.
line
drawn
in Fig. 248 all views are symmetrical to
both horizontal and vertical center lines
center
;
A
line,
line
center line should never be used as a dimension
but such lines may be
on both sides of it.
laid off
from the center
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
141
In Fig. 2^g is shown the top view (or plan) and
front view {or elevation) of a cylinder, j" high and
i%" in diameter. The top view is a circle ij^" in
diameter, the front view a rectangle 3" by i^". All
side views of the cylinder are the same.
As
in all figures
lar shape,
standing on a base of an irregu
the top should be drawn in this case be
fore the front.
The width of the front view is
determined by projection lines from the top view
observe that the top view has two center lines, a
horizontal and vertical one
the front view has
only one line of symmetry, the vertical.
;
Draw
the front view and side view of a cylindrical
8"
pipe
long^ outside diameter f, inside diameter j" ;
250 the required views are shown.
The two dash lines in the front view show the
inside walls of the pipe, which are represented in
the top view by the smaller circle.
in Fig.
may also represent two views of a pipe
which a cylinder has been inserted. We have
here an interestinof illustration of a case where two
views of an object, a front view and a top view, do
Fig. 250
into
not define sufficiently the true character of the
object represented.
similar difificulty
with most hollow objects,
Fro.
249.
and
some method must be devised
it
to
is
may
arise
evident that
overcome any
Fig.
230.
ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.
142
such misunderstanding as to the true nature of the
object represented.
This
may be done by
of the pipe as
if it
representing the front view
were cut
Fio.
shown
in Fig. 251
in half is
shown
a whole pipe.
2r,i.
a front view of such a pipe cut
in Fig.
The
in half like the cylinder
252
line
the top view
12 shows the
is
that of
manner
in
which the cylinder is supposed to be cut, and is
called the line or plane of section.
The front view in Fig. 252 we call the section
view or section on 12.
The line of section should
be mads up of dashes alternating with two dots.
cSection on /%.
Fio.
252.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
The
143
inner part of the material of the
posed by cutting,
is
pipe ex
covered by lines about xVth
I
inch apart and inclined 45 degrees. Fig. 253 shows
the same pipe with only a portion of its upper half
cut
away;
in Fig.
255
is
of the pipe.
Fig.
Fig. au.
2.56.
shown
this partial section
ROGERS' DRAWING
144
In Fig. 254
the pipe, and
is
in
shown
still
another way of cutting
AND
DESIGN,
Draw
two views of a cylindrical ring.
Fig. 256 appears the corresponding
front view, with a similar partial section.
Within
pipe
the
de
the preceding
scribed in
problem {8" long, ^" outside
and j" inside diameter^ is
placed another pipe 8"
long, j" outside diameter
and 2"
inside diameter.
Draw
the top view and
section
of
pipes.
The
these
top
two
view
shows three cir3"
and 2" in diamcles, 4',
eter the section on the
line AB shows onehalf
of one pipe within the half
(Fig. 257)
of the other pipe.
section
lines
pipe run
the other
in
Fig.
257.
from
direction
;
this
The
the one
in
different
those
is
in
done
in
order to show more
dis
tinctly that there are
two
separate pipes.
Fig.
Fig. 258 shows the plan
258.
and section of such a
ring.
The drawing does not require any special explanation.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Draw two views of the cylinder
with square Jlange
shown in Fig. 2^g.
Let the side of the cylinder be lo" long (entire
outside diameter 4", inside diameter 3",
and the flange 6" by 6" and ^'2" thick.
The flange has four bolt holes, each i/^" in diamlenoth)
eter.
The
in Fig,
top view and section of this figure are shown
60.
Fig.
259.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
146
Fig.
261 shows the top view and two sections of a
bed plate.
a section parallel to the short side of the bed
view,
is
plate
and
is
called a cross section or a lateral section.
^22\
Y^zz
Jiongitudina? <Seci'ion on JiS.
V/VXA/^//.
Fio.
The
of the
longer section which shows the appearance
bed plate when cut
longest side of
The
it,
is
in a
plane parallel to the
called the longitudinal section.
other section, placed to the right side of the top
2(il.
In Fig. 262 is shown a top and front view, and
lateral section of a hexagonal nut.
The figure shows an arrangement of views which
is frequently adopted in order to economize space.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
261
is
an illustration of the same principle.
In that figure the advantage of this
ranofement
is
even more striking
considerable, as
dent
line
that,
if
compared
method
of ar
the breadth beine
to the height,
it
is
evi
the lateral section had been placed
147
the plane of the paper, or
it
may even
be desirable
to place the object in such a position purposely.
Drawings made in
more difficulties
offer
this
to
manner,
will
as a rule,
the draughtsman, as most
in
with the longitudinal section, the three would
have occupied more space than with the arrangement shown.
which we derive the
different views of an object, we have placed it in
Figs. 233, 234, 235 on a table, and in front of the
object (a cube in this case) we hold a pane of glass
and in all the illustrations, we have placed the pane
of glass parallel to one of the faces of the cube.
In explaining the
way
in
In the exercises in projection so far taken up, we
have placed the object in a similar position that is,
one of the faces of the object was supposed to be
parallel to the table or paper on which the drawing
was to be made, the sides of the object were either
;
horizontal or vertical and the center lines were also
either horizontal or vertical
it
is
always desirable
to select such a position for the object which
be drawn.
is
to
Small parts of machinery, shown in detail drawings, are nearly always drawn in this manner.
It
may happen, however that some parts of a machine
will
appear with their sides
at different angles to
Fig.
:X2.
views will appear more complicated when the object is placed in
ing exercises will
now
an inclined position.
The
show the objects drawn
placed at different angles.
followbefore,
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
148
Draw
do
this,
the top view
(plan)
first
to
ABCD 4"
the line CD
draw the rectangle
long and i wide, so that
forms an angle of 30 degrees with a
horizontal
line, Fig. 263.
To draw
the front view, draw the
EH and KN 2" apart
from the points ABCD in the top view
draw vertical lines cutting the lines EH
and KN at the points E, K, F,and L,
G and M and H and N.
horizontal lines,
The
figure
KEFGHNML
the
is
FL
being the vertical edge of the prism
nearest to the observer, designated in the plan by C,
and the most distant (hidden) edge, corresponding
front view,
to the point
in the plan is
MG
shown
in
dash
lines.
The
side view
is
placed opposite to the top view
the construction of it
in this case, as in this position
is
Fig.
263.
Drazc a front view, top view and right side view
of a prism ^"x ^"x /" standiiig with its face ^"x /" on
a horizontal plane, and the long vertical side of the
prism forming an angle of jo degrees with the lower
edge of the
drawing
board.
much
easier.
The, vertical edges
of the prism will
appear hori
zontal in this position of the side view.
They
are
drawn from the points ABCD in the top view
and the edges TRO and PSU, being the lower
and the upper faces of the prism, are two inches
apart.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Draw
a front view, side view
and
top view
Draw
of the
first
it is a rectangle 4". long
long side of which forms an angle
of 45 degrees with a horizontal line.
The figure shows plainly how the top view may
be constructed by projecting vertical lines
from the front view. In the same manner
prism described in the last exercise, placed so that the
face forming the base of the prism, f'si. i" is inclined
45 degrees to the paper and the front face, fx 2" remains vertical to
the paper and parallel to
the front view
149
and
'
the lower
2" wide, the
the side view
may be drawn, when
edge of the drazv
placed opposite the front view, as
ing board.
264.
Fig.
264.
Fig.
264.
it
is
in Fig.
150
riOGERS'
DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Draw
the wedge
shown
in Fig. 26, placed so that
the sides of the square corner
of it form angles of 4^
degrees with the plane of the paper, with both triangular faces vertical to the paper and parallel to
drawing board.
showing the triangular face is
drawn first. The two sides of the triangle, which
form the right angle (the legs) are drawn at 45
degree angles to a horizontal line.
The construction of the top view and side view is
plainly shown in Fig. 265 and requires no special
explanation, as they are drawn in the same manner
described in the drawing of the top and side views
in the two preceding exercises.
the lower edge of the
The
\
^^^
W \j/
FiQ.
L__
265.
front view
ROGERS' DRAWING
The
object
shown
Fig. 266
in
is
placed with
its
base upon a horizontal plane (the plane of our drawing) while the two vertical faces visible to the observ
and
er,
are placed respectively at angles of 30 degrees
t>o
degrees to the lower edge of the drawing board.
Let
it be
required
to
view of tliis object.
Draw the top view
draw
and
the front view
top
first.
this, draw the rectangle A BCD, AD parand equal to BC, 4" long, and DC equal and
parallel to AB, 2" long
AD is inclined 30 and
To do
allel
DC
60 to a horizontal line. Fig. 266.
To draw
the front view, draw the horizontal line
FM, and through
vertical
F,
H,
On
meeting the
and M.
lines
the side
AF
EG
cutting the line
On
the line
MC
BH
NL,
FM
at
the points
FE
equal to
draw the horizontal
line
at G.
set off the distance
and through the point
line
line
C and D draw
set off the distance
through the point
3";
2"
the points A, B,
MN
equal to
draw the horizontal
cutting the vertical line
DK
at L, join the
G and N. This completes the
view; EF and
are the two
longer vertical edges of the object,
being
hidden.
LK and
are the two shorter vertical
edges of the object, both visible.
points
required
and
L,
GH
front
GH
MN
AND DESIGN
152
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
In Fig. 267
is
shown the
front
view, top view and side view of
the object just drawn.
In this instance the object
placed with
longer vertical
its
edge nearer to
otherwise
object
is
described
the observer
the position
exactly the
in
is
the
of
same
as
the preceding exer
cise.
_/
The
side view
manner
is
drawn
in
similar to the front view,
by lines projected from
alt
points
(corners) of the top view.
No
doubt the student has noticed that
in
drawing an
object placed at an angle to the lower edge of the drawing
board, but having two faces parallel to the plane of the
paper,
we draw
the top view
first
which being parallel to the board,
outline, with all lines
tion.
drawn
that
will
is,
the view of
appear
it,
in its simplest
in their true length
and
posi
ROGERS' DRAW1NC3 AND DESIGN.
153
To draiu the front view and
top vieiu
of a hexagonal prism, standing upon a horizontal plane and
having two of its parallel vertical sides, parallel to
the lower edge of the drawing.
Let each side of the hexagon forming the bases
of the prism be equal to one inch and the height of
the prism be 4"; the top view is drawn first it is a
regular hexagon, length of each side being i", Fig.
;
268.
The
drawn by projecting lines from
the corners of the hexagon shown in the top view,
these lines making the vertical edges of the prism,
and then intersecting these lines by two horizontal
lines 4" apart, thus forming the top and the bottom
front view
is
of the prism.
be drawn, placed so that it is
inclined to the plane of the paper, but having its
front face parallel to the lower edge of the drawing
If
an object
is
to
board, the front view
As
is
drawn
first.
be observed that that view is
draivn first, which is drawn easiest, and especially
the view which shows the object in its true form
the other views are drawn by projection from the
different points of the view completed.
a rule
it
will
Fig.
288.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Let
it
be 7^equired to dratv the
and front view of the
same prism as in the same exertop view
but placed so that tivo of its
parallel vertical sides are paralcise,
lel to
the lower edge of the draw
ing board and tlie base inclined
to
the plane of the paper at an angle
of 30".
Draw the front view agd top
view of the prism, Fig. 269,
showing the prism standing in a
vertical position
front view and
WVZY
TORSU
is
is
this
the
corresponding top view.
To draw
the front view of this
hexagonal prism with its base
inclined at an angle of 30 degrees, draw a line AF making
an angle of 30 degrees with a
horizontal
Upon
line.
this line erect the rect
angle which
is
exactly equal to
the front view of the
hexagon
shown
in its vertical position, as
in the
same
figure
by
WVZY.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
To draw
155
the top view, extend the
horizontal lines of the top view RS,
TU
E;
then draw vertical
through the points B, C, D and
indefinitely
lines
tliese lines intersect
tal lines
RSK
OGNP
center line
LGJINM
and
the horizon
TULO
in
the
and the
points,
forming the upper face
of
the prism in the required top view.
To
complete the top view draw
through H and F cutting the line JK at the point K, the
line GP at the point P and the line
vertical lines
LO
at the point
O.
To draw a hexagonal pyramid,
having the sizes of the hexagonal
prism in the preceding exercise, and
placed in the same position.
The
construction
exactly the
cise
Fig.
drawing.
same
in
this
case
is
as in the last exer
270 shows the required
Fig.
270.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
156
S
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
To draiv the fop
z>ica' and fro)it vieio of a cylinder
axis makes an angle of 60 zvit/i a horizontal
line and u</iic/i lies in a vertical plane parallel to t/ic
and
loiver edge
through the points
7^'/iose
of the board.
In Fig. 271
ABCD
is
top view of the cylinder,
the front view and
when
its
axis
is
EF
the
The
Ik
the line 3'h at 60 to the horizontal and let
this be the center line of the cylinder in the required inclined position, corresponding to the
center line in the front view of this cylinder in
lines passing
through the points d
center line of the top view
c cut the horizontal
the points
in
vertical.
Draw
vertical
157
in
and
the points
i",
The
k.
i',
2',
cut the center line
2", 3", etc.
Through the points E and F draw two horizontal lines
cutting the line 3"3'
Through
the points
IVI
in
and
the points e and
draw two
zontal lines intersecting the line
i"i' at
vertical position.
u and
at
Make abed equal to ABCD for
front view. The top view is drawn in
and
the
its
required
the followino
manner divide the horizontal diameter KL into
any number of equal parts, say six. Through the
points of division, i, 2, 3, 4 and 5 draw vertical
lines MN, OP, EF, RS and UT.
:
Divide the line dc into the same number of equal
marked by the division points i',
and draw vertical lines through all these
well as through the points c and d.
parts,
2',
3',
drawn
vertical lines
etc.,
3',
and cutting the
line
"5'
hori
the points
the points
n.
Through the
points
O and
P draw two horizontal
lines cutting the vertical lines 2"2'
points
s,
r,
o and
and \
/(
at the
p.
A
k,
f.
curve traced through the points
u, s, e, p, n,
m, o, f, r, t will be the required projection of the
I.
upper base of the cylinder.
etc.,
points, as
The lower
the
base
same manner.
may be
constructed
in
exactly
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
158
^\
^^.^<7
/\
/
//
""v
X
\
/
\
".
v.
X
i.X.^>...
V
>
^T
^.
''
_^^ ^
s2l
^v
/\
/
^J<^
>
"
:::/
^
/^
7<
fx\ M^vYv
y^
\ ^
\
^\^
^^
*^^
1
\.
\
T^~"\"
1
**^\"
made by an
^x
V
V\
^'^<
^''
\
'
'^'
'
y
'^
\\
section of a cylinder
'
^^"\''''
^.
>?
"
^'^N
X
^\
!5c
To draiv the
dined filane.
^v'^
^^^
y'
^/K^
'yTy^'^
\^^_j__,><x
"^
Fig.
273.
Jb
tn
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
The
Fig.
2"]
front view of such
2 by abc6', where the line
clination of
Above
c6'
is
makes the
the plane which
the front view
shown in
shows the in
a cylinder
section.
shown the top view
is
Lay
To draiv the form of the section, divide the hoi'izontal diameter d6 into any number of equal parts.
In Fig. 272 this diameter is divided into 6 equal
parts.
Through each one
draw vertical
at the points
and n
and
of the division points thus ob
which intersect the circle
g and h, i and j, k and 1, m
lines,
e,
the same vertical lines will cut the inclined
line c6' at the points
i',
2',
3',
etc.,
which points
will
divide the line c6' into six equal parts.
Through
the points
c,
perpendicular to the line
i',
2',
c6';
4', 5', 6' draw lines
any convenient dis
3',
at
tance from this line draw the line 6"A parallel to
and
this line will
the points
i",
six equal parts
Bi" equal to i"C each equal to if;
the same distances set off from the point 5", making
KL equal to BC.
set off
of the
cylinder as the circle dgmne.
tained,
Now
159
it,
be cut by the perpendiculars at
thus being divided into
2", 3", 4", 5",
the same as the parts of the line
c6".
2"E equal to 2"D and each equal to 2g,
and the same distances set off from the point 4",
making JH equal to ED then make 3"G equal to
3"F and each equal to 3i so that ii is equal to FG.
This line FG is the minor axis and the line A6" is
the major axis of an ellipse, which may be traced
through the points ACEGJL6"KHFD and B and
which forms the required section.
off
be noticed that the section of a cylinder
made by a plane which does not intersect any of the
bases of the cylinder, and which is not parallel to
the bases (that is, perpendicular to the center line),
is
It
will
an
ellipse ;
when
the cutting plane
the bases the section produced
the bases
when
the cylinder.
parallel to
circle, just like
the cutting plane passes through
is a rectangle, two oppowhich are equal each to the height of
the center line the section
site sides of
is
is
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
160
An ellipse may be produced also by cutting a
cone by a plane which does not intersect the base
of the cone, as in Fig. 273, where the line ab indicates the cutting plane.
Fig.
273.
When
the cutting plane, ab, Fig. 274, is parallel
to the line cd, then the figure produced in section
is
a curve
shown
known
as the parabola.
in Fig. 275.
Such a curve
is
Fia.
275.
ROGERS' DRAWING
AND
Any
DESIGN.
161
point, P, of the parabola
from the
line
DD
its
is
plane.
plane intersects the base of the
produced
in
a section
is
called
In Fig. 276 ab indicates the cutting
hyperbola
is
shown
Fia.
The
F, so that
not parallel to any one of the lines on
surface, the curve
a hyperbola.
equally distant
and from the focus
FP is equal to PA.
When the cutting
cone and
is
in Fig. 277.
2T7.
distance between the distance PF' of any
point in the hyperbola from one of the
foci,
and the
distance, PF, the distance of this point to the other
must always be equal to a given line.
In the chapter on geometrical drawing several
methods have been explained in which an ellipse
may be drawn the way to draw a hyperbola has
Of these curves the ellipse is
also been shown.
focus,
ofttimes encountered in mechanical drawing.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN,
163
ABCDEFGHIH'G
Fig.
Figs. 279
278.
and
280.
F'
E'
D'
B'
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES.
The
principles of projection just explained
Now,
may
be readily applied to the very important problem
of development of surfaces.
to
163
draw the development
ceed as follows
of a cylinder, pro
Divide the circumference of the cylinder into any
of equal parts, and through the points of
number
draw
Whenever it is necessary to make an object of
some thin material like sheet metal, as in the case
division
of boiler connections, etc., the surface of the desired
On these parallel lines mark the points which belong to the curve of intersection with another cylinder, or any other figure as happens to be the case,
and then roll out the surface of the cylinder into a
object
pieces
is
laid out
on sheet metal,
in
one or
in several
these are called the patterns of the object
the pattern being
first
and then cut out
when
laid
out on the sheet metal
this
is
done the separate
lines parallel to the center line of the
cylinder.
flat
plate.
The
rolledout surface will be equal in
pieces are ready to be fitted together to form the
length to the circumference of the cylinder, and
required object.
will contain all parallel lines,
The method by which
laid
out on a plane
object.
the surface of an object
is
called the development of the
few exercises will sufficiently acquaint the
is
student with the methods used in problems of this
character.
To draw the development of a right
elboiv,
Fig.
^78.
A right elbow is made by joining two pieces of
pipe for the purpose of forming a right angle.
It
an
of two cylinders of equal diameters ; the center lines of the two cylinders meeting at one point, and as the joint is to be a right
elbow, the center lines must be perpendicular to
is reall)
each other.
intersection
it
which were drawn upon
the cylinder, with spaces between them just equal
to the actual space between the parallel lines which
were drawn upon the surface of the cylinder.
By marking the points of intersection on the parallel lines in the rolled surface, the development of
the cylinder or
In Fig. 278
is obtained.
circumference
of
the pipe is
the circle showing the
its
part
divided into any number of equal parts by the
sions
I,
2,
3, etc.
divi
Lines are drawn through these
divisions parallel to the center line of the vertical
These
portion of the joint.
lines are ak, bl, cm,
dn, etc.
The
allel
points k,
lines
1,
m,
n,
o are the points on the par
designating the curve
of
intersection.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
164
The development
two branches of the right
Figs. 279 and 280; the length
elbow are shown in
of the development,
VW
all
AA')
(or
circumference of the figure
obtain this length
shown
spaces,
i,
is
equal to the
2, 3, 4, etc.,
circle in Fig.
278 are set
points
laid
The
out
off
through the points A, B, C, etc. The perpendicular
and K'A' in Fig. 280 are each equal to ak in
The second lines on each side of the
Fig. 278.
development, the lines BL and B'L' are equal to bl,
AK
required
curve
the development
is
traced
AA'K'K
the part aksi of the right elbow
To
in Fig. 278.
upon a straight
line
these spaces are marked in Fig. 2S0 by A, B,
C, etc., perpendiculars AK, BL, CM, etc., are drawn
upon the
The
of the
279.
other part of the elbow
It will
is
through these
the pattern for
shown
is
in
Fig. 278.
developed
be readily seen that the figure
in Fig.
TVWU
laid out in the manner in which the first development was obtained in this figure the shortest paris
above the longest parallels in the
first development.
This arrangement gives the advantage of cutting out both branches of the right
elbow from one square piece of sheet metal wij;hout
any waste of material.
allels are laid off
Fig. 278.
The
the lines
CM
CM'
and
are equal to the third line
cm, Fig. 278.
The
fourth
lines in
the development are
made
equal to the fourth parallel in the elevation. Fig.
and in the same manner all other lines in the
development are made equal to the corresponding
278,
parallels in the elevation of the pipe in Fig. 278.
The middle
equal
the
SI
line,
to the line
KLMSM'L'K',
of
be noticed that the patterns shown in Figs.
279 and 280 do not provide for the lap by which
the two branches are held together.
A lap of any
desired width may be added to the pattern, after it
is constructed by drawing" an additional curve, parallel to the curve of the above pattern, the distance
between the two curves being equal to the width of
It will
third lines on each side of the development,
si
etc.,
in
in the
the elevation
is
made
the points
thus found, define the position
curve of intersection
of the cylinder.
development
in
the
development
the desired lap.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
To draw the pattern of a
branches are of cqtial diameter.
of
The
which all
is
two cylinders of equal diameters; the section
tal lines
view
of
Fid.
the cylinders
is
represented
in
the front view by
two 45degree lines, ad and dg.
To develop the pipes divide the circle in the end
view, Fig. 282, into any number of equal parts, in
this case let it be twelve parts.
greater the
number
more accurate will be the
Through the divisions
shown the front view and the side
It is made by the intersection
a teepipe.
In Fie. 281
view of
teepipe in
165
in
of these divisions the
resultant pattern.
i,
2, 3, etc.,
draw horizon
cutting the horizontal cylinder in the side
the points
i"i', 2"2',
^i'
t>\
4',
5"5', 6"6', 7"/'
2H1.
the line 4"4' just meets the lines of the section in
The line 5"5' cuts the lines of the
the point d.
section in the points e and
section lines in the points
c,
the line 6"6' cuts the
and b and the
cuts the lines of the section in the points
line
g and
""7'
a.
ROGERS' DRAWING
166
Draw
e,
all
vertical lines
through the points
After
these lines are drawn
and
g.
that
is
all
AND
DESIGN.
the opening, into which the vertical cylinder will
a, b, c, d,
we have
fit.
The
necessary to complete the development
rectangle
ABCD
has one side
2
3"
6^
N.
!J
;k
1;
cylinder
inder surface.
The
C
m
ABCD is
curve ODGL
the rectangle for the joint which
equal to the
is
is
H
9/
/\
\6
^"^
trr^J.
1
!
shows the development of the horizontal
the rectangle
ia\
Fig.
Fig. 283
^.^^
\^
>; g
the
ii\
6'
/I
5'
b/
....
^^
/^
c/
5"
equal to
the length of the horizontal cylinder, Fig. 282
of the cylindrical surfaces.
AB
cyl
cut out within
the outline of
282.
other side
AD
is
equal to the circumference of the
showing the end view of the horizontal pipe,
Fig. 282.
The twelve divisions marked on the circle are set off on the straight line AD (Fig. 283) so
circle,
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
cl
167
et
^^
ot
Fig.
283.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
168
There
that together they are equal to the circumference of
remains to be drawn the development
still
outline of the opening for the intersection
this is found
of the vertical branch of the teepipe
in the same manner as the horizontal part, i. e., by
the horizontal pipe with the vertical branch is
in
laid out in the middle of the rectangle
laying out the surface of the vertical cylinder that
circumferis, by making it equal in length to the
the circle.
The
of
ABCD
the following
manner
set off the distances
On
aj
l[
6G
6'0 and
cylinder.
each equal to g;'
6l
5
4
showing the end view of the
The development is shown in Fig. 284.
ence of the
the middle line 6'6 are
circle
7
to
12
1
~^
/n
D\
'^ J
"~^
^1
K\
X^
/g
E\
""E*
l"
.
Fig.
(or a;") in Fig. 282, on the lines 5'5 and ;'; are set
off the distances 5'P, 5F, 7'N and 7H each equal to
the distance
4'R, 4E,
6'f,
Fig.
8K and 8'M
m\
^4.
ry
282 (or b6").
The
distances
are set of? on the lines 8'8 and
44, to equal the distance es' (or C5") of Fig. 282.
The lines 3'3 and 99 are touched by the curve of
intersection in their center at points
and L.
On
the line
AB
are set off the twelve parts of the
circumference and in each one of these divisions is
erected a perpendicular to the line AB; on these
perpendiculars are laid off successively the length
lines
of the vertical
vertical
and 6J
branch
in
Fig.
drawn on the surface of the
the lines
284,
AC, iD, 2E,
3F, G4,
5H
are equal correspondingly to
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
the lines ah,
Thus
bi, cj,
fm and gn in Fig. 282.
the development ACJ6 is con
dk,
onehalf of
structed
the other 6JP12
is
exactly equal to the
first part.
The method employed
plied to nearly
faces
it
all
in these cases
is
then developed and
is
be ap
developments of cylindrical surdrawing on the surface of the
to be developed, any number
The
of equidistant parallel lines.
face
may
consists in
which
cylinder,
cylindrical
all parallel lines
sur
drawn
By
setting off the exact lengths of the parallel
lines a number ofpoints are obtained, through loliich
in
it.
may
It
has been noted in Fig. 282 that the intersec
two cylinders of equal diameters
intersecting each other
their arcs
If
one cylinder
always appear
in
the
the other then the intersection will be a curve.
Now,
let it be
required
to
two cxUndrical surfaces when
of
such
The
the smaller cylinder
and end view
cylinders is shown in
front view, top view
two intersecting
Fig. 285.
The
all
larger cylinder
is
marked by the
views, the smaller one
t,
u, v,
Divisions exactly like those
of
points
w,
x,
y and
made by
z.
these points
be set off now on the small cylinder in the end
view by the points a, b, c, d, etc., through which
will
drawn cutting the larger cylinder in
Extend the line u 12 downg, h, etc.
Ward until it meets a horizontal line drawn through
These lines give the point k at their intersection.
g.
vertical lines are
the points
The
e,
f,
point
downward
is
until
it
obtained by drawing the line v
intersects with a horizontal line
drawn through the point f the point m is obtained
by cutting the line 10 w, extended downward, by a
horizontal line drawn through the point e.
bv the
letter
letter A.
Thus
as
find the intersection of
passes through the larger one, their axes intersecting
each other.
Through these
lines cutting the small cylinder in the
side view in the points
of a smaller diameter than
is
marking the divisions
2, 3, 4, etc.
i,
will
side view as straight lines at right angles to each
other.
numbers
draw vertical
tlie
view into any number
circle in the top
of equal parts, say twelve,
of the desired development.
be traced the outline
tion of
Divide the
el,
169
in
it
points
p
in
is
onehalf of the required line of intersection,
appears
s,
k,
I,
m
m,
exactly the
the side
is
view, indicated
by the
obtained, the other half, m,
same
as the first
n, o,
and may be drawn
a similar way.
Note. Such a line of intersection is one which is frequently
encountered in mechanical drawing and it is advisable to retain a good
In drawing joints or intersections of this kind, it will
idea of its form.
not be required, as a rule, to lay out the section in the above accurate
manner. Keeping in mind the true section of two cylindrical surfaces
of different diameters, the student should be ready to sketch the
required section freehand, approximately true to suffice for practical
purposes. This is done first in pencil and then in ink.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
170
The
intersection
this
in
case, as well as in similar cases,
where
the
precise
form
is
required,
should be traced
through the obtained points
carefully and then inked in
with the aid of an irregular
curve for ordinary purposes
the section may be represented
by an arc of a circle, somewhat approaching the curve
;
laid out in pencil.
The development
the
of
upper branch of the smaller
cylinder
The
is
line
shown
AC
in
Fig. 287.
contains twelve
equal divisions, each equal to
one division
in
the circle in
top view, Fig. 285 the
length of the line AC is therethe
fore equal to the circumference
of the circle,
which represents
the top view
of the smaller
cylinder.
Through these
the line
diculars
AC are
divisions on
drawn perpen
which are made suc
Fiu.
285.
ROGERS' DRAWING
cessively equal to the lines
and pz
in this
manner
development
desired
of
st,
ku,
onehalf,
ment
in
is
the second half
the rectangle
ADEB
of the
of the cylinder
cylinder
an exact duplicate of the
The development of the larger
Fig. 286.
The surface of this
first half.
shown
represented by
cylinder
is
is
equal to the length
VW
and
to its circumference. It may
be divided into two equal parts, one for the upper
is
of the develop
171
VWUT, VU being
nx, oy,
the smaller
BEFC
DESIGN.
mw,
Iv,
Fig.
obtained
AND
286.
Ub
b]
one opening for the
upper branch of the smaller pipe, and the otherhalf
an exact duplicate of the first one, containing an
opening for the lower branch of the smaller cylinder.
half of the cylinder, containing
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
172
To
draw the cen
find ihe outline of the opening,
ter line
C M'
at right angles to
for
HD
both halves, and the line
in the middle of the first half
CM
On
the line
hg, gf,
HG,
and
VW
below the point
GF" and
FE
set off the
equal to the distances
fe in Fig. 285; the
same distances are
above the point H, on the same line, so that
HG'=HG, G'F=GF and F'E'=FE.
through the point E, F,
Draw lines parallel to
G, G', F', and E' and on these lines set forth the
distance H S equal to h's (in Fig. 285) GK and
G'K' each equal to g'k in Fig. 285 FL and F'L'
each equal to f'l in Fig. 285 and the distances
and E'M' each equal to e'm in Fig. 285. Thus onehalf, MLKSK'L'M' of the opening is obtained.
laid off
HD
EM
other half of the opening
first,
and
is
laid
PRDQO
is
same
exactly the same
same way on the
The
the complete
branch of the smaller cylinder.
of the
is
the
off in
other side of the line M'M.
L'M
of the cylinder.
distances
The
as the
figure, a similar
curve
MLKSK'
opening
for
one
In the other half
NN'
opening
is
laid
with the
two
out for the other branch of the smaller pipe.
The
rectangular
openings.
MM'
piece,
and NN',
VWTU,
the required pattern of
is
the larger cylinder.
To draiu the development of a fourpart elbow.
A fourpart elbow is a pipe joint made up of four
parts,
the
such as
four
is
parts
KXTS, XYZT
used for stovepipes
forming the elbow
and YZfd
in Fig. 288,
are
AKSI,
of these four parts the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
two larger parts, AKSI and YZfd are equal.
same is true of the two remaining smaller
KXTS and XYZT.
A
^y
173
To
lay out these parts in the elevation a right
^\
angle abc
y\_
sy/^
It
is
drawn, the sides of which intersect at
two largest branches of the
right angles, the
/\U^<J=
The
parts,
joint.
evident that the point b must be equidistant
is
from both pipes.
The
right angle abc
is
divided
first
into three
equal parts and then each one of these parts
divided in turn into two
angle
Kba
is
is
equal
parts
is
the right
thus divided into six equal parts, of which
one
part,
KbX
equals two parts,
XbY
equals
two parts and Ybc one part. It will be noticed
that this construction does not depend on the
diameter of the pipe.
The problem
hTI
of developing the fourpart
resolves itself into developing two only of
its
elbow
parts,
one large branch and one smaller part of the elbow,
the remaining parts being correspondingly equal to
these.
The
circumference of the pipe.
Fig.
288,
vided into sixteen equal parts by the points
is dii,
2,
3. 4, 5. etc.
Through these
points are drawn lines parallel to
the center line of the pipe which
Fig.
288.
is
to
be developed.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
174
lu
In Fig. 289 the vertical branch of
AKSI, will be taken up
the elbow,
The
parallels
upon
the surface of this branch are
AK,
for the purpose.
HR
BL, CM, DN, EO, FP, GQ,
and IS. Through the points K, L,
M, N, O, P, Q, R and S draw parallels for the part KXTS, which will
be next developed some of these
parallels are ST, RU, OV, PW.
;
To
develop the vertical branch of
off,
upon a
289,
sixteen
the fourpart elbow set
straight
equal
line
parts,
Fig.
aa',
which
altogether are
equal to the circumference of the
*'
cylinder,
S
J'
e,
which
is
to
be developed.
Let the division points, a, b, c, d,
f, etc., correspond
to the division
points,
I,
2, 3, 4, etc.,
upon the
Through the
Fig. 288.
b, d, e, etc.,
draw
circle,
points,
a, c,
vertical lines equal
to the parallel lines
drawn upon the
surface of the vertical branch of the
joint
thus
(Fig. 288)
is'
'
Fig.
289.
g
to
CM
aj is
made
bk equal
and so on
to
equal to
BL
until
equal to SI (Fig. 288).
ri
AK
cl
equal
is
made
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
The
ment
The
part
evident that
is
tt'ss'
center line of
The
it,
RU, OV, PW,
It
tt'ss',
is
of the part,
Fig. 288.
plain
is
uu'vv'
must be equal
ts,
lines in the pattern,
and bisected by
etc., drawn
upon the surface
KXTS,
the development of the small part of the elbow.
length,
its
the elbow.
is
irj'a'
same way.
laid out in the
in
ajtclmnopgri.
This is onehalf of the developbeing exactly the same as the first one, may be
part laid out so far
the other half,
that
equal
the
the
to
part,
part
with the difference that
the small parallels in
are laid
it
out above the large parallels
in
the other part
manner,
the
in the
pfe.rt
equal to the part
same
yy'ww'
Laying out the pattern
this
is
aja'j'.
manner makes
it
in
possible
complete elbow
from one square piece of metal, aya'y'.
The spaces between
to cut out the
the patterns are left for laps,
which are necessary for
ing
all
parts.
join
it,
are
It is
to the circumference of the pipe
tt'ss'
made
drawn
at right angles
equal to the parallel
to the
lines,
ST,
175
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
176
To develop the dome of a
part of the boiler
respectively to the parallel lines
boiler.
shown by A, Fig. 290, to
fastened by riveting.
The
The
dome, B, is
shows also the side view of the boiler
and dome the top view of the dome C is drawn
above the dome in the side view.
This problem is exactly the same as the one explained on page 170, where the intersection of two
cylinders, of different diameters, was considered
the
this
dome
method emploved
for the
development
in this
consequently, the same as in the previous
problem.
case
is,
The
circle C is divided into any number of equal
through the divisions of v/hich parallel lines
are drawn on the surface of the dome.
The development is shown in Fig. 291 its length
parts,
equal to the circumference of the dome.
The
parallel lines in the development are made equal
is
must be allowed
the boiler by riveting.
to
for fastening
the
To develop the slope sheet of a boiler, shown in
Figs. 2g2 and 2gj,
The slope sheet which is to be developed is shown
in Fig. 293 by ABCD.
This sheet is of an irregular
the
dotted lines around the development show
the lap which
illustration
Fig.
drawn upon the
surface of the dome, Fig. 290.
is
291.
shape.
The
side view
by EF4'G
is
shown drawn
to a larger
294; the same figure shows
onehalf of the end view of the same slope sheet
scale
in Fig.
UW4.
To prepare for the development divide the arc
U4 into any number of equal parts, say four;
horizontal lines drawn through the divisions,
will cut
the line F4' at the points
i',
2', 3'
these points draw lines parallel to G4'
i,
2, 3
through
these
lines
ROGERS' DRAWING
are 3'M, 2'N and I'O
these lines.
line
all
LH
draw the line FP,
Through point L on
draw the
perpendicular to
the slanting parallel lines just drawn
these lines
are cut by the perpendicular at the points H,
I, J,
a horizontal line
the point
aa' lay off
Fig. 294.
on the line M3' lay off the
from the point J on the
distance 10 equal to 3Z
the point
FlO.
'
UW
slope sheet.
it.
On
the distance
Then
295
through
ij
each side of
and
ji'
j,
HQ,
each equal to
lay off the .distances
kl
on the line
if
and
i'f
on
line,
lay off fe
Fig.
N2' lay off the distance JR equal to 2X. From
the point K. on the line O
lay off the distance KS
equal to Vi and from the point L on the line PF
lay off the distance LT equal to
through the
points thus obtained draw the curve HORST.
It
is now possible to draw
the development of the
Fig.
each equal to QR, Fig. 294.
and f'e', each equal to RS, Fig.
294, and lay off the distances eb and e'b' each equal
Next
21)2.
line
aa',
near the center of this line draw
perpendicular to
the same
and L.
From
177
DESIGN.
Draw
parallel to
this line
PF and
perpendicular to
AND
293.
ST, Fig. 294 through the points, b, e, f, j,
f, e', and b' draw lines perpendicular to the line aa'.
Lay off the distances jk and jl, equal to GH and
H4' respectively, Fig. 294 then lay off the distances
ih equal to h'i' and iq equal to i'q' the distances hi
and iq being equal respectively to the distances MI
and 1 3', in Fig. 294.
to
i,
i',
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
178
same manner the distances NJ and J 2',
Fig. 294, are laid off on the lines gfpand g'f p' the
distances OK and Ki', Fig. 294, are laid off on the
lines deo and d'e'o' and the distances PL and LP",
Fig. 294, are laid off in the same way, on the lines
and m' by two other arcs, drawn from the points c
and c' as centers, with a radius equal to the distance EP, Fig. 294.
Join the points m and c, m and n, do the same at
c'm' and n'm' and in this manner the pattern or
cbn and
templet of the slope sheet
In the
c'b'n'.
Fig.
Now
trace a curve through the points
d'
and
c,
d, g, h,
and another curve through the
points, n, o, p, q, 1, q', p' o' and n'.
From the points n and n' as centers, describe arcs
k, h', g',
with a radius
Fig. 294
c'
nm
equal to n'm' each equal to EF,
and intersect these arcs
in
the points
in
is
obtained.
294.
The dotted lines around the templet show the lap
which must be allowed for riveting.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
295.
179
WORKING DRAWINGS.
in
The purpose of a working drawing is to give the shopman information necessary to be known
order to construct the object or mechanism which is represented in the drawing.
The drawings of the different parts of the machine are called " detailed drawings ;" in these
each detail is represented in the most unmistakable manner, with all the dimensions of the parts written
in, containing also, all further information concerning the part In question, that may be important for
the purpose of
making the patterns or
forglngs.
The drawings of the complete machine are called general drawings, or general plans, or
"assembled drawings;" they show the whole arrangement of the machine, indicating the relative
position of its parts they may also be made to show the motions of the movable parts.
In preparing a detail drawing the first point is to decide the number of views required to Illustrate the shape of the object and its parts in a complete and at the same time in a simple and
easily understood manner.
After deciding on the manner of views, the selection is decided upon of such a scale that will
;
enable the placing of
all
the required views of the object within the space of the paper.
As to the number of views required for an object no definite rule can be laid down it Is
dependent upon the form and character of the figure and must be decided by the best judgment of the
draughtsman.
After ascertaining the most important dimensions of the mechanism a general drawing of the
whole should be executed, omitting the smaller parts after this particular drawings are made. The
larger and more important parts are first produced, next, the smaller parts which are to be attached to
;
the larger parts.
The
indicated,
made should be shown either by sections or by
work which are to be followed by the workman should be
pointing out what machine tool is to be used for the work.
materials of which the parts are to be
special remarks, notes, etc.; the
methods
sometimes to the extent of
of
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
184
from which the work
is
and also with
laid out,
reference to center lines.
DIMENSIONING DRAWINGS.
All figured dimensions on drawings must be in
plain,
round
vertical figures, not less than oneeighth
This interesting subject has been referred to and
illustrated upon pages 132134; in these the student will find much valuable matter relating to the
inch high, and formed by a line of uniform width
subject.
figured
dimensions below two feet are best ex
pressed
in inches.
Putting the dimensions on a drawing correctly
is
not only one of the most important but also most
work
draughtsman the
latter will put in those dimensions only which will be
required by the shopman; the manner in which this
is done must depend upon the method to be used
by the workman in constructing the part to which
difficult
parts of the
of a
the dimensions refer; for this reason, an acquaintance with the methods adopted in shop practice as
well as with the tools to be used is essential.
Every dimension necessary to the execution of
work should be clearly stated by figures on the
drawing, so that no measurements need to be taken
in the shop by scale.
All measurements should be
given with reference to the base or starting point
the
Note.
It
must be understood that the
given for a shopman to
must all be taken from
the chief draughtsman's
also for the use of other
scale
heavy to insure printing
suiificiently
ting
thin,
all
sloping
or
doubtful
well, omit
figures.
All
It may be put down as a rule that the draughtsman must anticipate the measurements whi'ch will
be looked for by the workman in doing the w(^fk, and
these dimensions only must be put on the drawing.
Surfaces which are
plainly
marked
to
" finished."
be
finished
When
should
be
a particular tool
is to be employed in finishing is
mentioned, by putting the name of the tool, in small
or machine which
letters,
word
near the surface which
" finished "
When
is
to be finished, the
need not be added.
an object
is
to be turned in a lathe, the
dimensions of the turned surfaces must be given by
their diameters.
"
Near the outline
of the surface
word turned should be plainly marked. For
some purposes it may be desirable to put in the
radius for turned work if such a case may be foreseen by the draughtsman, the dimension should be
the
on a drawing is not
take his dimensions from
such dimensions
the dimension figures the scale is given for
use, or whoever may check the drawing, and
draughtsmen who may make at some future
time alterations or additions to the drawing.
and
"
inserted.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Wherever the ends
of a piece of
work
lathe are to be finished, as, for instance,
in
the
the two
ends of a hub on a pulley, the word "face" should
be plainly marked near the surface which is to be
finished in this manner.
The dimensions
zuritten on
always give the actual finished
mattej' to
what
scale the object
All dimensions
sizes
may
of the drawing. The arrow heads should
be put inside of the lines, from which the distance,
as given in the dimension, is reckoned.
hand side
VZ2^ZZ^
drawifig should
the
185
of the object, no
drawn.
be
which a shopman may require
should be put on a drawing, so that no calculation
be required on his part.
For
instance,
it is
not enough to give the lengths
of the different parts of the object, but the length
which is the sum of
should also be marked as shown
over
all,
all
these lengths,
in Fig. 296.
The figures giving the dimensions should be placed
on the dimension lines, and not on the outline of
the object.
The dimension
lines
should have arrow heads at
each end and the points of these arrow heads should
always touch exactly the
which
is
lines,
the distance between
indicated by the dimension as illustrated in
Fig. 297.
The
When
figure should be placed in the middle of the
dimension line at right angles to that line, and so
as to read either from the bottom, or from the right
the space between these lines
is
too small
for the figures, the lines being very close together,
as
shown
in
Fig.
298,
the arrow
heads
may be
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
186
placed outside and the figures also be put outside,
When a
which case an arrow should be put in to indicate
the proper position of the figures.
The dimension lines should also be put in the
drawing, very near to the spaces or lines, to which
be repeated in
in
they
refer.
dimension
is
given in one view,
it
need not
another view, except when such a rep
etition is essential to locate the size in question.
For must shop drawings blueprints are used
the
dimensions on the print
do not cc rrespond with the scale this is due to the
shrinkin'3^ of the blueprint paper after it has been
washed as the dimensions on a blueprint are generally shorter than the scale by which they have
beginner
will
find that the
When
"the view" is complicated, dimension lines
drawn within it, might tend to make it still more
obscure and difficult to understand in such a case
;
been meiisured.
In
'^
many shops
there exists a rule
that every
draughtsman must mark plainly on his drawing in
some place where it is easily seen by the workman,
^
4"
'V
"
do not scale drawing."
_L"
When
Fig.
297.
Fig.
298.
drill is to
near the hole
be used,
advisable to write
it is
question the word
in
'
drill."
Should
the dimension lines should be carried outside of the
the hole be provided with a thread to be produced
view and extension lines drawn from the arrow
heads to the points, between which the dimension is
by
tap, write " tap,"
size or
When
the dimension includes a fraction, the nu
merator should be separated from the denominator by
a horizontal line and not by an inclined line ; care
should also be taken to write the figures in a very
and legible manner and crowding should be
avoided.
adding to
this
one word,
its
number.
When
given.
clear
a.
the hole
eter, so that
it
is
of a comparatively large diam
can be finished only in the lathe by
by boring, the words
"turn" or "bore" respectively should be put in
turning, or in the boring mill
near the circumference of the hole.
also,
In this case,
the diameter of the hole, and not the radius,
should be given.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
When a number of holes are to be laid out in
one piece of work, the distance from center to
center should be given, and not the distances between the circumferences of the holes.
When
number
of holes are at equal distances
from a central point, or when their centers are
cated in the circumference of a
ference should be
circle, this
lo
circum
drawn through the centers
of the
and the diameter should be given as a dimenThe distances between the centers of the
holes measured on a straight line, or measured as a
part of the circumference, on which their centers
holes,
sion.
are located, should also be noted.
In practice, at times, instead of dimensions refer
ence letters are used, thus
It is
preferable to give the diameters of turned
and bored work on a section, instead of an end
drawn separately confusion is sometimes caused
by a number of radial dimensions.
;
The following are quoted from A.
admirable Office Rules
L
^T?
Every drawing, whether whole or halfsheet,
shall have the title, date, scale and number of the
sheet stamped in lower righthand corner, and the
quarter and eighth sheets printed on top.
"
is
The name
^ ^J
t
The
state the general
name
name
first
division
D=diam.
299.
of shaft, 2j4 inches.
L=length of bearing, 3)^ inches.
T=thickness of collar, J'^g inch,
d^diam. of collar, 3^ inches.
to
is
of the thing or machine,
and
to clearly designate the part
is
The wording
if
a general view should so
of titles should be submitted
head draughtsman for ap
proval.
"
Each drawing
shall
bear the
name
drauofhtsman and examiner, the surname
Fig.
title,
invariably to consist of two divisions in one line
to the chief engineer or
of the drawing, as given in the
separated by a hyphen.
state).
5T
Robinson's
"
or parts represented (or
^m
W.
the second
)K
187
without
of
the
being used
initials.
Drawings of piping details should be made
diagram form, using standard symbols.
"
in
"All detail parts for standard or repetition work
shall be shown unassembled as far as possible."
ROGERS' DRAWING
188
AND
DESIGN.
Cast Iron
TINTS AND COLORS.
digo,
sometimes found necessary to prepare a
highly finished and shaded drawing of the work in
hand, and for special purposes, they are also tinted
and colored such elaborations, in fact, are much
admired by the uninitiated, although no criterion as
It
Brass
is
Neutraltint
mixed with a
little
made
of India Ink, In
Carmine.
Gamboge or Chrome Yellow.
Emerald Green sometimes
Babbitt
light mix
ture of India Ink.
Copper
Purple
Lake.
to the scientific value of the object
is
represented.
Mechanical drawings are seldom tinted, but are
mainly produced in India ink. Where, however, a
fine effect is desired, working drawings are colored,
so as to show at a gflance the material of which the
different parts are to be made.
The
colors required are few but should be of the
Besides India ink the following water
best quality.
colors are generally used
I,
Neutraltint;
Yellow
7,
4,
5,
Raw
Blue;
Sienna
8,
Certain colors and tints represent
and materials as follows
g.
3,
6,
Chrome
Carmine
Steel
Iron
Sepia;
10,
different metals
Pruss'an Blue.
Carmine and
Prussian Blue, mixed to give
a purple shade.
Steel Casting
Venetian Red.
Same
when the moist
paper must be exover its surface
all
tint is
applied the paper
wrinkle and get out of shape
will
to
do
this cut
the paper at least half an inch less in size than the
drawing board lay the paper face down, turn up a
margin or edge of about threefourths of an inch
;
round, then
all
and clean water
it
is
dampen
;
allow
the paper with a sponge
it
to
soak for a few minutes
dampened next
evenly and thoroughly
turn the paper upside
down
(face up).
Apply strong paste
Wrought
the
tints,
Vermilion Red;
These come in hard cakes.
Vermilion;
Indigo.
applying the
otherwise
until
Prussian
2,
Gamboge
In
panded and stretched evenly
as the above darkened by
to the under side of the marround rub down, on the drawingboard,
working from the center of the board outwards so
as to exclude the air and prevent creases or furrows.
The board is then inclined and left to dry slowly
make sure that the paper is all well pasted and
every part of the edges attached to the board.
gin
all
If tracings are required to be tinted or shaded,
the color may be applied before the tracing is cut
off, or what is more usual, the color may be applied
on the back of the tracing then there is no liability
to wash out the lines.
;
ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.
TRACING AND BLUE PRINTING.
189
Drawing on tracing paper or cloth is effected by
pencil and drawing pen as in ordinary work.
Whenever it is desired to have more than one
copy of a drawing, a "tracing" is made of it and
from this as many blueprints can be obtained as
over the drawing, by pins or thumb tacks moisture
or dampness should be carefully avoided and the
are required.
drawing done, preferably, on the smooth side of the
When
needed for making blueprints
a piece of tracing paper or tracing cloth of the
same size as the drawing is placed over the original
drawino and fastened to the board.
This tracing
paper or cloth is almost transparent the tracing is
a mechanical copy of a drawing made by reproducing its lines as seen through a transparent
mfdium such as has been described and the lines of
the drawing can be seen through it.
a tracing
is
The
surfaces of the tracing cloth are called the
"glazed side" and the "dull side," or "front" and
" back ;" the glazed side has a smooth polished sur
and the
face
dull side
is
like a piece of
ordinary
linen cloth.
Note.
Many
immaterial which side of the cloth is used in tracing,
however, if any mistakes are made and have to be corrected this can be
done easier on the glazed side on the contrary, if any additiuns must
is
it
be
made
side will
which have to be drawn in pencil first, the dull
be found most convenient, as the pencil marks show plainer
to the tracing,
on the dull
side.
tracing cloth must be fastened to the board,
;
cloth.
When
tracing cloth will not take ink readily a
small quantity of pounce
may be
applied to the sur
and distributed evenly with a piece
face of the cloth
of cotton waste, chamois, or similar material, but
the pounce should be thoroughly removed before
applying the ink.
In
follows:
ink
tracings the order to be followed
making
in
I,
is
as
ink in the small circles and curves; 2,
3, then all the
the larger circles and curves
horizontal lines, beginning at the top of the drawing and working downward 4, next ink in all the
;
and moving
lines
oblique
6,
the
draw
in
5,
the figuring and lettering should be
vertical lines,
back to
concerns have rules of their own, directing their
ilraughlsnien to use either the smooth or the rough side for all purposes
if there are no such rules, it is left to the judgment of the
draughtsman.
While
The
tht'
finishing
in
commencing
right
done with India
"
Erasing,"
ink,
in
at the left
thoroughly black.
case of mistakes or errors, should
be done with an inkeraser or a sharp, round erasing
knife the surface of the tracing cloth must be
;
made smooth
erased
this
in
is
those places where lines have been
accomplished by rubbing the cloth
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
190
BLUE PRINTS.
with soapstone or powdered pumice stone, applied
with a soft cloth or with the finger.
made
When
a mis
cannot be corrected
by erasing, a piece of the tracing cloth may be cut
out and a new one inserted in its place.
A finished tracing should be provided Avith the
take
title
is
so serious that
it
of the drawing, the date, scale
Read
as
things
are
make
blue prints three
serviceable
essential:
i,
good paper;
2,
proper
200.
shown
in Fig.
shown in Fig. 300 when a part to
which a note refers is at an angle to the base line,
the letters should be placed parallel to the part
mentioned.
All the letters should be so placed that
the drawing can be " read " without turning the
drawing completely around.
as possible, as
In order to
initials
302 which is a
representation of a blueprint taken from a tracing.
The letters on a drawing should be placed, as near
of the
printing."
this way.
Fig.
draughtsman
and the
As many copies as may be desired of a tracing
made from it by the process known as " blue
can be
Fig. 301.
chemicals for coating the paper, and
ing frame.
One form
of the latter
good printshown in Fig.
3,
is
back raised the back is made
in two sections and hinged together, this being
done in order to enable the operator to lift onehalf
of the back and inspect the prepared paper, so as to
301, with half of the
ascertain
if
the print
is
of the right color.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
The
springs
shown
the figure are intended to
in
keep the hinged back pressed close against the prepared paper, tracing and /ass, the latter, of course
being invisible in the cut, but which should consist
of good clear, double thick glass of a size to fit the
frame.
191
tween them. This should be done in a darkened
room 4, expose for three to six minutes, according
to the intensity of the sun
5, the sensitized paper
is to be taken out of the frame and quickly washed
in clean cool water
the drawing will appear in white
lines on blue ground
6, the print finally hung up
by one edge so that the water will run off and the
;
The
back or that side which
presses against the prepared paper is always covered
by felt or three or four layers of Canton cotton,
which are glued to it.
inside surface of the
print allowed to dry.
The sun
rays or a strong electric light act
ink lines in the drawing
The "printing"
ratus necessary
is
is
very simple, as the only appa
a blue printing frame one form of
which is shown in Fig. 301, and a trough containing
water for washing the prints
in brief, this is the
;
method
of procedure
the tracing
i,
is
i.
e.,
the inked side, next
"sensitized" side of the paper
the back of
the
cover and fasten
tracing
down
the
3,
to the
is
the frame and washed,
springs
drawing
glass
2,
as explained already,
the
lines of the draw
ing in plain white.
the
the
so
TEST
wooden
that
both
NoTE. Large printing frames are generally mounted on a frame,
which are provided with wheels running on rails by means of this arrangement the frame can be pushed out through a window for exposure.
;
taken out of
is
paper and tracing are compressed firmly against
the glass, permitting no creases or air spaces be
their yellowish
When
paper turns dark blue leaving the
next laid against
replace
and change
color gradually to a dull gray.
fixed in the
frame, with the surface on which the
made,
upon
those parts of the sensitized paper not covered by
To make good
PIECES.
by
edge of sensitized
blueprints, being guided only
the appearance of the exposed
paper, requires considerable experience.
Very
often,
especially on a cloudy day, the edge looks just
about right, but when taken out of the frame and
given a rinsing, it is only to find that the print looks
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
192
it should have been allowed to remain
exposed for a longer period.
Now simply take a small testpiece of the same
paper (say about 4 inches square) and a piece of
tracingf cloth with several lines on its surface and
lay these small pieces out at the same time the real
print is being exposed, and cover these samples
with a piece of glass about 4 inches square.
As a
general rule, we can find a place on top of the frame
for the testingpiece, and by having a small dish of
water at hand for testing the print by tearing off a
small bit and washing same to note its appearance,
pale because
the novice can get just as good results as the exper
ienced hand and without
much danger
of failure.
obtain sharp lines on a blueprint
all lines
on
made heavier than on ordinary drawing paper and a sharp inking pen should
be used.
the tracing should be
Paper which has a glossy or starched appearance
should never be used, as the blueprint solution when
applied to the paper will intermix with the starch
and the
be poor prints.
Drawing paper
or blueprint paper (unprepared) which may be
obtained of any dealer will give the best results.
result will
about to use mix an equal quantity of each in a cup
and apply in a dark room with a soft brush or
sponge to one side of white rag paper, similar to
envelop paper. To complete the process let it dry
and put away
When
one
one
in a
dark place until required for use.
several prints are to be
made
the second
may be
placed into the frame while the first
soaking when the print is properly soaked,
say about ten minutes, lift it slowly out of the water
by grasping two of its opposite corners immerse
again and pull out as before.
This is to be conis
HELIOGRAPHIC PRINTING.
To
The sensitized paper is sold ready for use, but it
can be prepared by dissolving two ounces of cit
rate of iron and ammonia in eight ounces of soft
water; keep in a dark bottle; also, one and onethird ounces of red prussiate of potash in eight
ounces of water keep in another dark bottle when
tinued until the paper does not change to a deeper
blue color.
Hang the
corners to dry.
paper on the rack by two of
In case any spots appear
its
an
indication that the prints were not properly washed.
When
corrections or additions are to be
it is
made
to
a blueprint a special chemical preparation must be
used to make white lines. A solution of quicklime and water is generally used for this purpose.
When white lines or figures are to be obliterated a
blue pencil
may be used
to cover same.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Keep the solutions
BLACK PROCESS COPYING.
This is accomplished by specially sensitized paper
by which a facsimile of the original drawing can be
made that is, black lines upon white ground this
method of printing avoids the objection to the blueprint paptr of shaded drawings which show light and
;
shade reversed.
The
prints
made by
this process are said to
permanent and can be altered, added
the same as original drawings.
be
to or colored
to
make
is
much used
in
separate in dark colored bottles
dark place not exposed to the light. To prepare the paper, mix equal portions of the two solutions and be careful that the mixtures are not longer
exposed to the light, than is necessary to see by. It
in a
is,
work
therefore, a necessity to perform this
in a
dark room, provided with a trough of some kind to
hold water
this should be larger than the blueprint and from six to eight inches deep a flat board
should be provided to cover this trough
there
should also be an arrangement like a towel rack to
;
SENSITIZING.
This term
193
prints
be cut
such a manner as to be a
in
the tracing, in
photography and means
"sensitive" to the action of light derived
from the sun or from electricity. To sensitize blue
printing paper proceed as follows
The paper
should be white, smooth and of good quality, it is
best to purchase such paper as is purposely made
The
hang the
when the
on while drying.
sheets should
larger than
little
order to leave an edge around
tracing
is
placed upon
twelve sheets are placed upon a
From
it.
flat
must be taken to spread them
flat
other, so that the edges are
even.
all
it
ten to
board; care
one above an
The
sheets
for sensitizing.
should be secured to the board by a small nail
through the two upper corners, strong enough to
hold the weight of the sheets when the board is placed
The solution used for ordinary blue printing is
made according to the following receipt
a. One ounce of red prussiate of potash dissolved
vertically.
ounces of water.
One ounce of citrate of iron and ammonia
solved in 5 ounces of water.
inclined, only as
in 5
b.
dis
Place the board on the edges of the trough with
one edge against the wall and the board somewhat
much
light as
is
absolutely required
should be obtained from a lamp or gas
down very
low.
The
solution
referred
jet,
turned
to
above
ROGERS' DRAWING
194
should be applied evenly with a wide brush or a fine
sponge over the top sheet of paper. When the top
AND
TO
DESIGN.
SENSITIZE PAPER FOR BLUE LINES
remove it from the board by pulling
at the bottom of same and tearing it from the nail
which holds it place said sheet in a drawer where
it can lie flat and where it cannot be reached by the
yields a photographic paper giving blue lines
light.
white ground
sheet
is
finished
ON A WHITE GROUND.
The
Treat the remaining sheets
the
in the
same way
After an exposure of
margin protruding beyond the tracing cloth changes its original
minutes
ounces.
Acacia
35^ ounces.'
25 ounces.
Water
100 ounces.
in bright sunlight, the
light yellow color to a dull reddish
is
8 ounces.,
Tartaric acid
paper may be substituted.
five
salt
Ferric chloride
In place of blue printing paper bj'ozun printing
on a
Common
as
one.
first
following process, credited to Captain Abney,
brown.
The
print
Dissolve the acacia
the other ingredients
The
then immersed in the waterbath and thoroughly
soaked and rinsed on both sides the back ground
immediately changes to a brown color the lines coming out in perfect white. The prints are then placed
in a fixing solution and washed again during fifteen
or twenty minutes.
sized
liquid
and
is
in half
in
the water, and dissolve
the other half
subdued
The
The paper
light.
should be dried rapidly to prevent the solution sinking into
its
pores.
When
dry, the paper
is
ready
for exposure.
In sunlight, one or two minutes
then mix.
applied with a brush to strongly
wellrolled paper in a
coating should be as even as possible.
ficient to
Note. There is a method of copying drawings on thick paper and
even on cardboard it consists of using a kind of sensitive paper known
as " gelatine " or "bromide"; this is covered with a sensitizing com
is
is
generally suf
give an image, while in a dull light, an hour
necessary.
pound made
gelatine.
chiefly
from the bromide of
silver
put on in a layer of
To
immediately
after leaving the printing frame upon a very weak
develop the
print,
it
is
floated
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
None
solution of potassium ferrocya^iide.
of
the
developing solution should be allowed to reach the
back.
The development is usually complete in less
than a minute.
The paper may be lifted off the
solution
when
the face
wetted, the development
is
proceeding with that which adheres to the print.
t\
blue coloration of the backofround shows insufficient
exposure, and paleblue overexposure.
When
the development
floated on clean water,
is
placed
in
a bath,
and
made
is
complete, the print
after
two or three minutes
Hydrochloric acid
8 ounces.
Water
is
as follows
Sulphuric acid
ounces.
loo ounces.
removed
It
all iron salts not turned into the blue compound.
Blue spots
is next thoroughly washed and dried.
may be removed by a 4 per cent, solution of caustic
In about ten minutes the acid will have
potash.
MOUNTING BLUE PRINTS FOR THE
SHOP.
The shop foreman
is
often put to a great deal of
inconvenience because of
either through
becoming
of the tracing
must be placed
in
contact
with the sensitive surface.
The sensitized paper, when not in use, should be kept in a
dry and airtight place, as with age and exposure the paper
becomes deficient in quality the best way to preserve the sensitized
paper is to have made a tin c^dinder about 3>2 inches in diameter and
an inch or two longer than the paper it is desired to keep and with a
tight cover to fit over the outside at one end.
dark,
the
rapid
destruction,
soiled or torn, of blueprints
which are used at the machines. Some damage is
undoubtedly due to careless handling of the prints,
but the greater part of the wear and tear cannot be
avoided, even with the greatest care, and the spotting and creasing soon make the print unusable.
To obviate this
common sheets of
board
itself
the blueprints can be fastened on
pasteboard, but
becomes broken and
in
time the paste
hence
oilspotted,
the frequent adoption of the idea of using thin sheet
iron as a backing.
The
common
prints in
use in the shop are
first
pasted on pieces of sheet iron, then both sides are
varnished over, so as to
The back
Note.
195
waterproof.
After being
the prints can be
make
the paper
oil
filed
By
hung up near the machines.
thus mounting the prints they are clean and
and can be
and
subjected to this treatment,
away
in
a small space
when
clear,
not
in
moreover, they are practically indestructible,
because when soiled they can be put under the hose
use
and washed
off.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
196
Sheets that are likely to be removed and replaced,
for any purpose, as working drawings generally are,
can be fastened very well by small copper tacks, or
the ordinary thumbtacks, driven in along the edges
at intervals of 2 inches or less.
The paper
can be very slightly
fastening in this manner, and
dampened before
if
the operation
is
performed the paper will be quite as
smooth and convenient to work upon as though it
were pasted down the tacks can be driven down so
as to be flush with, or below the surface of, the
If
paper, and will offer no obstruction to squares.
a drawing is to be elaborate, or to remain long
upon a board, the paper should be pasted down.
carefully
TO MAKE DRAWINGS FROM THE PRINTS.
To
accomplish
over with
"
this,
may be inked
and when thoroughly
the blueprints
waterproof ink
"
dry washed with a solution of oxalate of potash,
treated thus the ink lines will remain, and the blue
ground
and become white and appear
will fade
similar to an original drawing
bleached by washing them
in
the prints can be
a saturated solution of
oxalate of potash, as above.
To do
it
I
this, first
prepare thick mucilage, and have
ready at hand, with some
in.
or so, wide.
Dampen
slips of
absorbent paper
the sheet on both sides
with a sponge, and then apply the mucilage along
the edge, for a width of
some
if
^ s/g
in.
difficulty to place a sheet
the board
is
set
on
its
It is
a matter of
upon a board
but
edge, the paper can be
Then, by putting the
strips of paper along the edge, and rubbing over
them with some smooth hard instrument, the edc/es
o
of the sheet can be pasted firmly to the board, the
paper slips taking up a part of the moisture from
the edges, which are longest in drying.
applied without assistance.
MECHANICAL DRAWING AND ITS RELATION TO PRACTICAL SHOP WORK.*
The
relation of
shop work
is
the drafting
a vital subject that
upon the attention
of all
room
is
to practical
constantly forced
by the occurrences
of daily
work, but each department, the drafting room and
the shop, has its welldefined place.
In mechanical
work we must have
or conception of what
is
first
the zdea,
wanted, whether the idea
comes from the inventor, the draughtsman or the
machinist;the draughtsman, by means of the drawing,
becomes the interpreter
*NoTE.
of the idea to the shop.
From
an address delivered by L. D. Burlingame, Chief
Draugtitsman at ttie Brown & Sliarpe Manufacturing Company, before
the Eastern Manual Training Association, at the coiivention held at
Boston.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
The
important relations hereafter dwelt
three
upon can be stated
First
briefly thus
The drafting department as the interpreter
the shop the drawing making plain the meaning
and requirements of the designer to the workman.
Second The drafting department as the interpreter of the shop
the draughtsman, through consultation and discussion, making available the
practical experience and suggestions of the shop
man.
Third The drafting department as the recorder
for the shop the records of all data and information
being so compiled and kept as to be reliable, and
/^
quickly available
First.
when needed.
separately detailed, and in
all
many
shops, each on a
particulars of oiling
and venting
holes must be shown, grinding limits given, the
There must be an
be allowed for fitting,
and of the special kinds of finish on machined surfaces.
All special tools used in manufacturing the
piece must be listed below its name, and perhaps
a list of operations given either on the drawing or
depths of tapped holes figured.
indication of
in
if they become draughtsmen, one of their important duties will be so to get in touch with the
shop as to make this knowledge available, even
though it may come to them in crude form from
a mind not trained to analyze, to classify and to put
ideas upon paper
in other words, that they learn
to be the interpreters of the shop.
a separate
when stock
list.
Third.
is
to
room is
here we touch upon the
Briefly the ofhce of the drafting
the recorder for the shop
In preparing drawings each piece must be fully and
sheet by itself;
instilled into the
that
Let us consider the drafting room as an
interpreter to the shop
oil
would earnestly recommend that there
minds of technical students the
importance of taking advantage of the great mass
of mechanical knowledge and the ideas stored up in
the minds of the mechanics of the country, in the
minds of the men that are actually doing the work,
and that the students have it impressed upon them
Second.
be
197
important work of tabulating,
listing and classifyexample thousands of special tools accumulate in a large shop
pro ninent among these are
taps, reamers, drills and counterbores, cutters, gauges,
etc.
there are many things to be preserved for ref
ing
for
erence that naturally find their
way
to the drafting
room, such as trade catalogues, photographs, copies
The treatment of
of patents and technical journals.
these
in
indexing makes
they are valuable
on
of
all the difference whether
growing value as time goes
or nearly as worthless.
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
198
The importance
of the shop side has perhaps
been
emphasized in what has been said, but I
would not belittle the draughtsman, even aside from
the high position he often holds as designer and
I agree with the statements made by
constructor.
''The workman
Prof. Charles L. Griffin; he says:
of today is not permitted to assume dimensions or
certainly
shapes
it
his business to execute the draughts
is
man's orders
it is,
however, often his privilege to
choose his own way of doing it, but further than
modern practice does not allow him to go.
The drawing
this
must be
It might be added
plain, direct and all sufficient."
draughtsman
must mentally
the
make
it
so
that to
put himself in the place of the shopman, and anticiis
pate his needs.
draughtsman and
supreme,
it
is
ofificial
The workman
will
and
will
mind
of the student, so that he
imagination the parts designedly
in
then respect the
TO READ WORKING DRAWINGS.
drawn
in,
that he
may
Even
is
in full size
incomplete
in
as
see, mentally, the whole.
drawings
not objectionable.
It
to," for
it
this
system of figuring
a system which should
workman
allows the
is
to
made
" to
work
comprehend at a
glance the size of his work and the pieces he has to
Figuring makes a drawing comprehenget made.
In
even to those who cannot make drawings.
some
figures
it is
necessary to show end views,
also section views, to enable all
thoroughly understood.
In studying a drawing, the object it is intended to
represent should be made as familiar as possible to
compound
is
be followed whenever a drawing
working drawing should be made, primarily, as
by the draughtsman second, the
should
patiently
and carefully study it, so
workman
it is
out
Drawings are almost always made "finished size,"
that is, the dimensions are for the work when it is
completed.
Consequently all the figures written on
the different parts indicate the exact size of the work
when finished, without any regard to the size of the
drawing itself, which may be made to any reduced
and convenient scale.
read from the drawing.
that
fill
a gear wheel where only two or three teeth are
sible
plain as possible
left
may
it
be willing to follow implicitly the instructions given on his drawings.
his work,
the
DESIGN.
measurements
to
be
Fig. 302 represents a blueprint of a bracketbearing, constructed
oil
from the drawing, for the Raabe
the front, end view and plan,
engine
with dimensions, are shown
2"== I ft.
1
the scale
is
full
size
MACHINE DESIGN,
The
study of mechanical drawing not only consists
grams by accurate measurements and
operation of the mechanism designed
The designing
fine finished lines,
;
i.
e.,
in
copying drawings of machinery and diait includes the purpose and practical
but
drawing as a means to an end.
machines requires an extended acquaintance of parts and of similar mechanisms which have been found suitable for the work required and thus have become standard elements
of construction
to utilize this knowledge is ofte' the lite task of the draughtsman and designer of
machinery.
of
It is a matter of common acceptance that machine design depends more upon an acquaintance with mechanism and siiop practice than upon a knowledge of the strength of materials and other
kindred subjects making up the science of mechanics; this is the reliance, however unscientific it
may
be, that
today,
is
depended upon
and there
It
is,
machines
struction
it
will
in perfecting
the designs for the machinery that
probably never be another system
that,
on the whole,
will
is
being produced
be more satisfactory.
however, not sufficient to limit our education to observation of completed working
is just as necessary to know the theoretical principles and laws of mechanical con
these have been classified as
Theoretical Mechanics or
Theory
of
Mechanism
a few
necessary definitions and general considerations will be found on the succeeding pages
Note.
upon
"The
correct forms to be given to the raatenais
employed
in
the construction of tools or machinery depend entirely
Natural form consists in giving each part the exact proportion that will enable it to fuifiU ts assigned duty
with the smallest expenditure of material, and in placing each portion of the materials under the most favorable conditions of position
that circumstances will admit of.
" Such natural form is not only the most economical but, strange to say, it is always correct in every :'espect, and is invariably
Liatural principles.
beautiful
and
lovely in
its
outlines."
Andrews.
?05
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
206
The most
with a love for mechanics and a measure of inventive
appear as afterthoughts, are the principal elements
of mechanical beauty.
added a
In reference to the particular case in hand, the
ability
if
retentive
successful designer
is
no doubt born
to these inherent qualities be
memory, a mind trained
to observe closely,
deliberate carefully and decide wisely, he should be
a success.
avail
but
Technical education
if
in
itself is of little
allied to these other qualities, perfect
and round them out, smoothing the way over places
that would be otherwise well nigh insurmountable.
so
The cost and results of special machinery depend
much on the ability of the designer that it may be
well to consider
what
his attainments should
should be able to clearly illustrate his ideasessarily a finished
be
he
not nec
draughtsman and he should have
in machine shop practice so that
a practical experience
ought
designer
to
familiarize
methods before employed,
previously
made
occupied,
size,
power required, and number likely
to
weight,
be made,
All notes, deductions, sketches and the like should
be carefully preserved, at least until the machine
;
a designer can be highly successful
perience the
It is
inconceivable that without shop experience
better,
To
the
more
several.
the structure, and sufficient taste to realize that true
calculation or blunder of
machinery does not consist of imitating architectural embellishments
for beauty, as well as for
strength and cheapness, castings should be of the
simplest shape possible rounded corners, especially
interiors, straight lines where permissible, with all
projections provided for originally, rather than lo
vexation for some one, and possibly a serious
succeed requires determination and
painstaking hard work
a mistaken figure, a wrong
any kind
is
Finally, always study simplicity of
avoiding as
wrenches,
iron
and
far
etc.,
as
possible
all
sure to bring
loss.
construction,
special
shaped
and using "more than enough" of
and
steel in all designs, to assure strength
durability.
ex
not in one shop alone but
should also know enough of machine design
no
illyproportioned parts disfigure or weaken
that
art in
is
completed that is, actually built, for these sketches
may prove to be proof of the most convincing character should questions arise as to mechanical elements
considered, even at the time unapproved.
with the patterns or in making castings from them.
He
the
should be carefully considered.
know that the elements of his design can readily
be machined, and that no unnecessary trouble be had
to
with
himself
the product has been
quantities of product expected from
the machine, space to be
speed,
if
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
207
Elasticity is the property possessed by most
DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL
CONSIDERATIONS.
bodies, of regaining their original form
after the
Attraction. This is an invisible power in a
body by which it draws anything to itself the power
in nature acting naturally between bodies, or parthe attraction
ticles, tending to draw them together
gravitation
acts
at
all
distances
throughout
the
of
universe adhesive attraction unites bodies by their
solid
or shape,
removal of a force which caused a change
of form.
adjacent surfaces
affinity, is that
tary
of
chemical attraction, or chemical
peculiar force which causes elemen
atoms or molecules
of expansion ; X\\^ coefficient
offriction ; the word generally means, " that which
unites in action with something else to produce the
same effect!'
dition as the coefficient
that force which binds
is
bodies together.
It is
potential energy
its
motion.
energy
it
work
has
in
someenergy
stored up as that existing in a spring or a bent bow,
or a body suspended at a given distance above the
;
upon by
kinetic
pressing the ratio of the useful
work performed, which
is
is
gravity.
The efficiency of a machine
is
work
a fraction exto the
whole
equal to that expended.
is
A Factor is one of the elements or quantities
which when multiplied together form a product.
Force
is
body
in the
that which tends to produce or to de
stroy motion
is
Ductility \s that property by which some metals
can be drawn out into wire or tubes.
direction of
the energy
two or more
together.
a force which acts on a
is
times called actual energy
tends to put
is
body
virtue of being in motion
that force which the neigh
boring particles of a body exert to keep each other
Mffort
the capacity for performing
is
earth and acted
to unite.
Coef&cient is a number expressing the amount
some change or effect under certain fixed con
Cohesion
^Energy
the kinetic energy of a
it
if
in
that by which
body
motion
all
centripetal
is
is
at
anything which
rest
a force
centrifugal force
bodies moving around another
a curve, tend to
in
motion
a body
is
ffy off
from the axis of their
that which draws, or impels a
body toward some point
alent ^.o push or pull.
as a center
force
is
equiv
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
208
Fatigue of Metals.
many
In
cases materials
are subject to impulsive loads and a gradual diminu
observed in part this deterioration of strength may be due to the ordinary action
of a live or repeated load, but it appears to be more
tion of strength
is
often due directly to the gradual loss of the power
the force required to hold
keep it from
weights are nothing more
it
back, or to
descending hence, also,
than measures of the force of gravity
;
in
different
bodies.
of elongation in
consequence of the slow accumulation of \\i^ permanent set ; the latter may be defined
Inertia is that property of a body by virtue of
which it tends to continue in the state of rest or
motion in which it may be placed until acted on by
as the fatigue
some
Friction
is
of metals.
that force
which acts between two
bodies at their surface of contact so as to
resist
on each other, and which depends on
the force with which they are pressed together.
their sliding
Gravity.
what it does,
We
can not say what gravity
namely, that
is,
but
something which
gives to every particle of matter a tendency toward
every other particle. This influence is conveyed
from one body to another without any perceptible
interval of time.
We weigh a body by ascertaining
it
force.
Kinematics.
The
science that
treats of
mo
in themselves, or apart from their
Kinematics forms properly an introduction to mechanics as involving the mathematical
principles which are to be applied to its more prac
tions,
causes
tical
considered
;
"
problems."
is
LtOad.
is
By the
load on any
member
of a
machine
meant the aggregate of all the external forces in
upon it. These may be distinguished as (i)
action
the useful load, or the forces arising out of the useNote.
appears that in some if not all materials a limited amount of
stress variation may be repeated time after time without apparent reduc
tion in the strength of the piece
on the balance wheel of a watch for
It
and compression succeed each other for some 150 millions of times in a 3ear, and the spring works for years without showing signs of deterioration. In such cases the stresses lie well within
the elastic limits on the other hand the toughest bar breaks after a
small number of bendings to and fro when these pass the elastic limits.
instance, tension
power transmitted, and (2) the. prejudicial resistances due to friction, to work uselessly expended, to
weight of members of the machine, to inertia due
to changes in velocity of motion, and to special
stresses caused in the apparatus by changes in its
ful
parts through variations of temperature.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
There are two kinds of load first, a dead load
which produces a permanent and unvarying amount
of straining action, and is invariable during the life
of the machine
such, for example, as its weight;
and, second, variable or live load, which is alternately imposed and removed, and which produces
:
constantly varying
Everj' load which
amount
of
straining action.
on a structure produces a
change of form, which is termed the strain due to the
load.
The strain may be either a vanishing or
elastic deformation, that is, one which disappears
when the load is removed or a permanent deformation or set, which remains after the load is removed.
In general, machine parts must be so
designed that, under the maximum straining action,
there is no sensible permanent deformation.
acts
The Breaking Load
in
that load which causes
tension equal to the
every case this
is
Modulus
of
Rupture
equal to the force necessary to
tear, crush, shear, twist, break,
or otherwise deform
under which
signification
of
the
Modulus is a measure the modulus of a machine
means the same as the efficiency of it. " The modulus
of a machine is a formula (or measure) expressing
has been constructed";
all
formed from the same rootword and meaning somewhat the same.
Modulus of Resistance is the strain which corresponds to the limit of elasticity, compression and
expansion each having a corresponding modulus.
Modulus of Rtipture is the strain at which the mo
Modulus of
lecular fibres cease to hold together.
Elasticity
the measure of the elastic extension
is
and is the force by which a prismatic
body would be extended to its own length, supposing such extension were possible. The Modulus
of a Machine is the amount of work actually obtained, divided by the work that should be obtained
of a material,
theoretically.
Momentum
means impetus or push
in a moving body
it
quantity of motion
it
is
is
the
always
proportioned to the quantity of matter multiplied
into the velocity.
Moment
The primary
it
the words mode, model, mold are kindred terms
a body.
Modulus.
work a given machine can perform under the
condition
those fibres which are subjected to the greatest
strain, a
in
is
the
809
to
is
the tendency, or measure of tendency,
produce motion, especially motion about a fixed
point or axis.
Motion
signifies
movement
in
mechanics
it
may
be either simple or compound, the latter consists of
ROGERS' DRAWING
210
of motion
velocity of a
is
sufficiently large to allow, not only for unforeseen
the rate of change of the
contingencies and the neglected causes of straining^
moving body,
an increasing
in either
or a decreasing rate.
but also for the difference between the elastic and
ultimate strength. The actual straining action mul
by
tiplied
Power
is
the rate at which mechanical energy
is
exerted or mechanical work performed, as by a steam
engine, an electric motor, etc.
Theoretical Resistance is the
when applied to any body, either as
force which,
tension,
com
pression, torsion or flexture, will produce in those
which are strained to the greatest extent, a
tension equal to the modulus of resistance or, in
other words, it is a load which strains a load to its
fibres
limit of elasticity.
The
Practical Resistance often
improperly termed merely resistance,
is
a definite
but arbitrary working strain to which a body
be subjected within the limits of
Ultimate Strength.
on a bar
is
If
till
for
different
the bar breaks,
is
called the ulti
That ultimate
materials more or less
bar.
roughly proportional to the elastic strength.
may
insure the safety of a structure
termed
factor of safety^
then equated to the ultimate strength of the
is
structure
is still
2.
the value of the factor of safety must be
determined by practical experience.
The
of Safety is the ratio between
the theoretical resistance and the actual load, or,
what amounts to the same thing, the ratio between
the elastic limit and the actual tension of the fibres.
The Factor of Safety is the ratio between the
breaking load and the actual load.
As
Coefficient
a general rule, for machine construction, the
may be taken as double that
used for construction subjected to statical
Coefficient of Safety
which
is
The Strength of Materials
entering into mameasured by the resistance
which they oppose to alteration of form, and ulti
chine construction
is
mately to rupture, when subjected to force, pressure,
load, stress or strain.
We
by taking care
by a factor
to multiply the actual straining action
and
this factor
forces.
the straining action
gradually increased
mate or breaking strength of the
is
may
elasticity.
the load which produces fracture
strength
DESIGN.
The
combinations of any of the simple motions.
acceleration
AND
Stress is the reaction or resistance of a body
due to the load.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Strain
is
the alteration in shape, as the result of
ing speed.
the
the stress.
211
Velocity ratio
movement
of the
is
the proportion between
power and the
resistance, in
the same interval of time.
Tenacity
\?>
the resistance which a body offers to
being pulled asunder, and
strength in
lbs.
is
measured by the
tensile
per square inch of the cross section
ViSVlVa, or living force, is a term formerly used
to denote the energy stored in a moving body
the
term is now practically obsolete, its place being
taken by the word energy.
;
of the body.
Tensile Strength
surface,
is
the resistance per unit of
which the molecular
fibres
oppose to separ
ation.
WorU is
the overcoming of a resistance through
measured by the amount of
by the length of space
through which it is overcome; the Principle of
Work : The footpounds of work applied to a
machine must equal the number of footpounds of
work given up by the machine plus the number
absorbed by friction.
a certain space,
Velocity is the rate of motion in kinematics,
is sometimes used to denote the amount of
;
speed
velocity without regard to direction of motion, while
velocity is not
direction
Linear
and
line,
regarded as known unless both the
and the amount are known.
velocity is the rate of
is
measured
in
(W.
motion
D.)
or per
Circjilar velocity
is
body describes an angle about a
given point, and is measured in feet per second or
per minute, or in number of revolutions per minute,
as is a pulley or shaft.
Uniform velocity takes
place when the body moves over equal distances, in
equal times.
Variab
velocity takes place when a
body moves with a constantly increasing or decreasthe rate at which a
'e
and
is
resistance multiplied
in a straight
feet per second,
minute, or in miles per hours.
I.
the
Note. The simplest possible example of doing work is to raise a
weight through a space against the resistance of the earth's attraction,
that is to sa)', against the force of gravity. For instance, if a hundred
pounds be raised vertically upwards, through a space of three feet, work
is done, and, according to the above, the amount of work done is measured by the resistance due to the attraction of the earth or gravity, i.e.,
one hundred pounds, multiplied by the space of three feet, through
which it is lifted. The product formed by multiplying a pound by a
foot is called a footpound. Thus, in the above instance, the amount of
work done is 300 footpounds. Had the weight been only three pounds,
but the height to which it was raised been 100 feet, the quantity of work
done would have been precisely the same, i.e., 300 footpounds.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
212
PHYSICS.
Physics
ing motion
that branch of science which treats of
is
the laws and properties of matter and the
acting
upon
it
forces
especially that department of science
(known, formerly, as Natural Philosophy) which
treats of the causes that modify the general proper
is
called dynamics.
includes the action of forces on
solid,
liquid,
or gaseous.
It
The term
all
is
mechanics
bodies, whether
usually, however,
used of solid bodies only. Applied mechanics is the
practical use of the laws of matter and motion in the
construction of machines and structures of all kinds.
the bodies.
ties of
The
object of physics
is
presented to us by bodies
added that changes
in
the study of
;
it
phenomena
should, however, be
the nature of the body
PROPERTIES OF MATTER.
itself,
such as the decomposition of one body into others,
are. phenomena,
whose study forms the more imme
diate object of chemistry.
The two essential properties of matter, both of
which are inseparable from it, are extension and
impenetrability.
Extension, in the three dimensions
and thickness, belongs to matter
under all circumstances and impenetrability, ox the
property of excluding all other matter from the space
which it occupies, appertains alike to the largest body
and the smallest particle.
of length, breadth,
MECHANICS.
Mechanics is that section of natural philosophy or
physics which treats of the action of forces on bodies.
That part
of mechanics which considers the action
producing rest or equilibrium is called
that which relates to such action in produc
of forces in
statics
NoTE.
" The mechanics of
liquid bodies
is
also called hydrostatics
according as the law of rest or of motion are considered.
The mechanics of gaseous bodies is called also pneumatics.
The mechanics of 7?a?'rf5 in motion with special reference to the methods
of obtaining from them useful results constitutes hydraulics."
or hydrodynatnics
The
knowledge relating to the
matter may be found in the three fol
limits of useful
properties of
lowing definitions
(a) "
An atom
is
an ultimate indivisible particle
Webster's
International Dictionary.
of matter."
(b)
"
An atom
is
an ultimate particle of matter
not necessarily indivisible
a molecule."
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
(c)
"An atom
is
a constituent particle of matter,
which belong not to matter universally, but only to
made up
certain classes of bodies, as elasticity, malleability, or
or a molecule supposed to be
nate particles."
As no one
W.
I.
of subordi
the power of being extended into leaves or plates
D.
knows what matter is in the
abstract, not even the most powerful microscope
having shown it, it were wise to rest here.
The
called
really
Mass ;
the space
it
occupies,
its
and
ductility,
length, as
or the power of being extended
when drawn
The mass
in
into wire.
of a body, or the quantity
it
contains
is
is
a constant quality, while the weight varies according
Volume ;
to the variation in the force of gravity at different
quantity of matter which a body contains
its
813
its
relative quantity of matter
under a given volume,
its
Density.
All bodies have
empty spaces denom
places.
inated Pores.
In solids,
we may
often
see the pores with the
naked eye, and almost always by the microscope in
Huids, their existence can be proven by experiment
there are reasons for believing that even in the
THE THREE STATES OF MATTER.
amount of solid matter is small
compared with the empty spaces, hence it is inferred
densest bodies,
the
Matter
any collection of substance existing by
matter appears to us in
separate forms which however can all be reduced to
itself in
is
a separate form
three classes, namely, solids, liquids, gaseous
a solid
that the particles of matter touch each other only in
offers resistance to
a few points.
always keeping the same size or volume and the
same shape a liquid is a body which offers no resist
There are
which are
belong to all matter, as
and divisibility ; and others still
also several other properties
known by experience
gravity, inertia,
to
The distinction between weight
and moment is one imporWeight, in mechanics, is the resistance against
which a machine acts as opposed to the power which moves it moment,
in mechanics, is the tendency or measure of tendency to produce motion,
especially motion about a fixed point or axis.
Note.
tant to have in mind.
change of shape or shape of bulk,
ance to a change
substance
in
in
shape and a gas or vapor
is
any
the elastic or airlike shape.
Note. The difference between a gas and a vapor is one less of kind
than of degree. It is important to note that experiment proves that
every vapor becomes a_gas at a sufficiently high temperature and low
pressure, and, on the other hand, every gas becomes a \apor, at sufficiently low temperature and high pressure.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
214
THREE LAWS OF MOTION.
As
there are three states of matter already de
scribed,
i.
e.,
solids, liquids, gaseous, so there are three
laws of motion.
Law
I.
"
These are
as follows
Everybody continues
it is
Law
designer should not only
state of rest,
made
for strength,
know what
provi
wear and tear, but
he should also be familiar with the various materials used in machine construction
he should know
what parts of the design are to be cast, forged, cast
in one piece or framed or put together of many
pieces and also how the work is done.
The principal metals used in machine construction are
Cast iron, wrought iron and steel.
;
or of uniform motion in a straight
far as
The
sions are to be
in its
MATERIALS USED IN MACHINE CONSTRUCTION.
2.
line,
except
in so
compelled by force to change that
state."
"Change
is
of (quantity of)
motion
pro
portional to force, and takes place in the straight
line in
Law
which the force
"
To
acts."
every action there
always an equal
and contrary reaction or the mutual actions of any
two bodies are always equal and oppositely directed."
3.
is
The above
means
of studying directly the
transference of energj* from one body or system to another.
The
iron.
;
first
smelting of the iron ore pro
Pig iron
as a rule
it is
the kind of iron required
Law two tells us among other things, how to find the one force
which is equivalent, in its action, to anj* given set of forces. For,
however many change of motion may be produced by the separate
forces, they must obviously be capable of being compounded into a single change and we can calculate what force would produce that.
three furnishes us with the
portions.
duces pig
construction
are " Newton's Laws."
Law one tells us what happens to a piece of matter left to itself, i. e.,
not acted on by forces; it preserves its " state," whether of rest or of
uniform motion in a straight line. The first law gives us also a physical definition of " time," and physical modes of measuring it.
Law
Cast iron is a mixture and combination of iron
and carbon, with other substances in different pro
Experi
ment, however, was required to complete the application of the law.
qualities of cast iron
is
very seldom used
in
remelted and made into
for
construction.
The
depend upon the proportion
of
carbon contained therein.
There are different trades of cast iron
1st. White cast iron contains only a very small
proportion of carbon it is very hard and brittle, it
is mostly used for manufacturing wrought iron and
:
steel.
2nd.
Gray
cast iron contains part of the carbon in
chemical combination and the rest
is
mechanically
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
mixed with the
cast iron
is
iron in the
form of graphite.
according to the quantity of carbon
graphite
it
Gray
divided into several kinds (mainly three),
contains
these are Nos.
the shape of
in
i,
and
3.
No.
contains the largest and No. 3 the smallest percentage of graphite. The first kind has a great fluidity
when melted and casts well; it has but little strength.
The las.t kind has considerable strength and makes
the mo.st rigid and massive castings.
The
sired
great facility of casting this iron into any de
mold
is
the principal reason for
application and
its
unlimited
its
great utility in machine construc
It
and
Steel is refined or nearly pure iron, chemically
combined with a certain per cent, of added carbon.
Its great elasticity and strength make it the most
suitable material for machine construction.
Steel is
divided into different varieties,
according to the
amount
it.
cannot be welded or riveted,
it
has but
it is
very brittle
of carbon contained
Steel can be
forged like wrought iron and it is fusible.
Its hardness depends entirely upon the per cent, of carbon
contained therein.
According to its quality it may
be used for cutlery,
in
and so forth.
In selecting materials for machine construction,
the most important properties that must be consid
ered, are
tion.
215
bility,
ease
tools, springs
strength, stiffness, elasticity, weight, dura
of manufacture and cost.
little elasticity.
These disadvantages cause the designer oftenThis iron
times to select more expensive materials.
is mostly used where rigidity and weight are of the
utmost importance, as for instance in bed plates,
frames, hangers, gears, pipes, etc.
MACHINES.
Machines are divided into simple and compound;
and machines when they act with great power, take
the name, generally of engines, as the pumping engine.
Wrought iron
produced by decreasing the
it cannot
quantity of carbon contained in cast iron
be cast but can be worked into form by rolling or
it can be welded, punched, riveted, etc., it
forging
For shafts it is "cold
is
flexible and malleable.
rolled," thus adding to its strength and elasticity.
is
The simple machines are six in number, viz.
The lever. The wheel and axle. The pulley.
The inclined plane. The screw. The wedge.
:
These can in turn be reduced to three classes
A solid body turning on an axis. 2. A flexible
cord.
3. A hard and smooth inclined surface.
I.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
216
of the wheel and axle and of
the principle of the
combines
the pulley, merely
For the mechanism
lever with the tension of the cords
the properties
and velocity to the motion as will enable the machine to do the required work.
The study of machines is divided by Reuleaux
of the screw depend entirely on those of the lever
and the inclined plane and the case of the wedge
is analogous to that of a body sustained between
two inclined planes.
into the following parts
All machines, however complicated they may be,
are combinations of simple mechanical devices; the
stituted.
1.
object in combining
Note.
them
is
to give such a direction
Man as a Machine. " The human body forms an example of
a machine.
work done by the body in foot
work being represented by the energy required to
Physiologists calculate the
tons, a foot ton of
one ton weight one foot high. A hardworking man in his day's
labor will develop power equal to about 3,000 foot tons, this amount
representing both the innate work of his frame involved in the acts of
living and his external muscular labor as a hewer of wood and a drawer
raise
in
The study
of
machinery
in general,
looked
connection with the work to be performed
teaches what machines exist and
2.
The theory
how they
at
this
are con
of machines, which concerns, itself
with the nature of the various arrangements by
means
of
which natural forces can best be applied
to machinery.
The study of machine design, the province of
3.
which is to teach how to give the bodies constituting
the machine the capacity to resist alterations of
form.
of water.
"A man's heart, in twentyfour hours, shows a return equal to
that is, supposing he could concentrate all the work
120 foot tons
of the organ in that period into one big lift, it would be capable
of raising 120 tons weight one foot high. The breathing muscles, in
twentyfour hours, develop energy equal to about 21 foot tons, and
when are added the actual work of the muscles and that expended in
heat production 3,000 foot tons are arrived at as the approximate daily
;
expenditure of energy.
All this power, moreover, is developed on about eight and onethird
pounds of food a day, the supply including solid food, water and oxygen.
No machine of man's invention approaches near to his own body, thereand this for the practical reafore, as an economical energy producer
son that the human engine gets at its work directly and without loss of
'
'
power entailed in other appliances that have to transmit energy through
ways and means involving friction and other untoward conditions."
4.
T+ie study of pure mechanism, or of kinematics,
which relates to the arrangements of the machine by
which the mutual motions of its parts, considered as
changes of position, are determined.
Upon
these foundation principles have been con
many thousands of machines instances are
on record where the number of tools and machines
have run into the tens of thousands used in a single
shop, in another more than three thousand "jigs"
were in use from this may be perceived the possibility of describing but few of the many examples.
structed
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
STRESSES, STRAINS
The
2.
Compressive or crushing strain or stress,
which produces a tendency to shorten or crush the
AND LOADS.
great variety of materials employed in ma
chine construction
precludes a complete table
maloads and for machines
under dead and live
subjected to sudden and frequent strains of short
duration,
We
known
as shocks.
give here only a few of the most important
materials showing the
practice
factors
allowed
in
general
Dead Load.
Load.
Material
subject to
shocks.
1015
1520
12
MATERIALS.
Varying
Cast Iron
Wrought
Iron
Steel
Copper
Timber
Masonry and Brickwork
stresses to
constructions
mainly
I.
15
810
1015
10
15
15
25
30
the direction of the load.
Shearing strain or stress produced in a piece
is distorted by a load, tending to
3.
of material which
cut
across.
it
Various metals have a different strength to resist
compressive and tensional stresses. Stress is usually
measured
in
pounds per square
inch.
As mentioned above, when a part is not loaded
beyond its limit of elasticity, the stress produced is
by the
to
the
strain
is
so
strain,
same material. This constant quantity is
modulus of elasticity. The modulus of
elasticity is found by dividing the stress by the strain.
The modulus of elasticity is also called the coefificient
If
of elasticity.
a cross section of a given bar
square inches and
if
is
equal to
this bar is subjected to a load
the
or stress, which
pounds per square
determined by the formula
pounds which may result in tensile or compressive stresses, and if the modulus of elasticity
material
in
the given bar
is
inch, then the strain
in
the
called the
of
has a ten
that
a constant quantity
for the
subjected are of three kinds,
Tensile strain
proportional
stress divided
which constructions and parts of
may be
directly
of
dency to lengthen the body
load.
in
FACTORS OF SAFETY.
The
body
of
factors of safety for use in practice for various
terials
217
the direction of the
Strain
=E WA
X
equal
to
produced
E
is
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
218
We
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY.
Pounds per
Materials.
Cast Iron
Wrought
Iron (in bars)
"
"
30,000,000
(wire)
"
increase
length of
= original
length of bar
in
Strain
bar
26,000,000
(in plates)
Brass (cast)
Copper
express this in the following formula
8,000,000
29,000,000
Steel
"
may
sq. in.
For instance
9,000,000
elongated by jV
of an inch when subjected to a load, the strain is
4,000,000
equal to tV divided by 96
(in sheets)
15,000,000
(wire)
7,500,000
It
is
a bar 8
if
ft.
long
is
rsiTT
be remembered that the relation of the
to
proportion between the stress and the strain
The
stress or load per sq.
For
the unit stress.
to a load of 2,000 lbs.
bar
is
equal to 4
would be 2000
As has been
in.
instance,
of section
if
a bar
is
is
of the
the unit stress of the bar
sq. in.,
lbs.
said before, strain
is
the
amount
of
form of a piece of material produced
If
by a stress to which the piece is subjected.
a wrought iron bar is subjected to pulling stress
and is, as a result of this, lengthened titVt of an
inch, this change in its form in length or area, as
may be the case, is called the strain.
unit strain
is
form per unit of form.
and then it
of length,
unit of length.
the
amount
It is
is
The
true
limit.
smallest load which will cause the rupture of
a piece of material
that piece, that
alteration in
The
only within the elastic
ip
subjected
and the cross section
^4=500
called
of alteration
of
usually taken per unit
called the elongation per
can
the piece
is
is
called the ultimate strength of
the stress in
sustain
just
lbs,
per sq.
before
in.
which
rupture takes
place.
The
following
is
a table of ultimate strengths
ULTIMATE STRENGTH IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH.
Material.
Cast Iron
Wrought
Steel
Wood
Iron...
Tensile.
Compressive.
Shearing.
19,000
90,000
20,000
52,000
52,000
50,000
50,000
70,000
100,000
10,000
8,000
600
to 3,000
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Example
A
to
219
and as the given
Let us employ a factor of safety, say 5 for cast
iron.
That is, we will suppose that the load which
is
to be sustained will be 5 times greater than
80,000, i. e., 400,000 lbs.
As the piece of material
in question is subject to a compressive stress, we
find the ultimate strength of cast iron in compression, go,ooo per sq. in. of section.
To find the re
bar measures 4 sq. in., in section, the
load required is 52,000x4^208,000
quired area of a section, divide the load, 400,000,
by the ultimate strength, 90,000, ViriW= 4444
i,
wrought
Fig. 303.
iron bar 2" by 2" in section
tension by the action of a load ;
find the weight which
The
zvill
cause
it is
its
foregoing
subjected
to
rupture.
table
strengths shows 52,000
as the tensile stress,
is
required
lbs.
of
ultimate
per
sq.
in.
This
square inches.
lbs
for the block
is
the square section required
so to find the length of a side, take
root of 4.444 which
or about 2^^ inches.
the square
From
this
said above,
The
is
2.1081
inches,
example, as well as from what has been
we draw the following conclusions
resistance to compression, of a piece which
short,
lated
is
compared with
its
cross section,
by the following formula
is
calcu
Load
Area of Section x Compressive Stress.
The compressive strength of materials is generally much more difficult to determine when the maFig.
terial is of
Fio. aM.
308.
them
Example
2,
square cast iron block
load 0/80,000
side
Fig. 304.
lbs.
of this block ?
a soft and plastic character which causes
to spread out
The method
is
required
What must
to
sustain a
be the Icjigth
of a
when under compression.
here described for the calculation of
the compressive strength of materials
in
the case where the given piece
short.
Longer pieces
is
is
true only
comparatively
of material, subjected to com
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
220
much more
pressive stresses are
difficult to calculate
It is
evident that a
beam may have
as
many
neu
because of other strains arising from the action of
tral
the load.
beam. The bending stresses occurrino in a beam
supported at both ends will depend not only upon
the magnitude of the forces acting thereon, but also
on the distances of the line of action of the given
forces from any section of the beam under consider
The
example.
first
of
resistance to tension
a piece having a cross section
square inches
by the action
sile
If
calculated as in the
is
is
subjected to a tensile stress
of a load of
W pounds, and
strength in pounds per sq.
in., is
tributed over the cross section, and
then the load
W = A (area)
Resistance to shearing
is
The
the ten
is
equal to
At any
ing action
by the same
namely
calculated
ation.
f,
f (slre"ngt'h).
formula as the resistance to tension,
W=A
if
uniformly dis
axes as there are cross sections taken in the
is
shearing
strength
of
metals
is
sum
of
all
external forces
expressed generally as follows
the bending action must be measured by the
is
beam
the forces acting on the
The moment
100 per cent, of their ultimate
moments
relative to the
direction of
Stresses induced by bending.
When
beam
supported at both ends, the load
in the upper part, to be compressed and that in the lower part to be stretched.
We may imagine a horizontal surface separating
the compressed part of the beam from the stretched
a
is
causes the material,
We
shall call this surface the neutral surface
beam.
The
of
a force
is
equal to
the
force
multiplied by the length of the perpendicular to the
tensile strength.
of the
This
given section.
ultimate
usually from 70 to
part.
the length of the beam, the bend
in
equal to the
at that point.
of
point
line in
which
sects a transverse section of the
neutral axis of that section.
this surface inter
beam
is
called the
the force, from a point in which the
beam is supposed to be fixed. In Fig. 305 the
moment of the force induced by the weight of 20 lbs.
is
equal to 20 times 10 ^= 200
In Fig. 306, the
moment is
pounds.
equal to 20 x
ft.
9= 180
ft lbs.
The resultant moment
beam on one side of
the
to that section,
the
beam
fixed at
is
of
the forces acting
on
a given section, referred
called the bending moment on
at that section.
For
one end and loaded
instance, in a
at
beam
the other with a
ROGERS' DRAWING
AND
DESIGN.
221
weight of lOO pounds, Fig. 307, the bending moment
at a cross section at a distance of 5 ft. from the free
end of the beam
is
x 5=500
100
ft.
lbs.
In Fig. 308, a beam supported at both ends is
shown, and where a uniformly distributed load of
pounds per unit of length and a concentrated load
pounds at a distance a from one end is given,
of
R'^
X
Y
>
iVJC
Fig.
a
306
w
Fig.
308.
Jft
be required to find the bending moment at g
First detersection, a distance x from one end.
let
it
mine by the principle of the lever, the reactions R
and R' of the points of support. The forces to the
and w X x. The
left of the given section are R,
Fig.
307.
moments
of these forces relative to the section are
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
222
R X
X,
W X (x 
resultant
and
this
ment
moment
is
^ and the
Form of
Section
RxW X (xa)  ^^
Section.
MODULU.S.
a)
and
Section
Modulus.
the required bending mo
at the given section.
i }3D'
_.
The combined compressive stresses
3.W6 r>^.
on one side of the neutral axis of any
cross section are equal to the com
^B^
I'll:.
;ji('i.
bined tensile stresses on the other
These two equal
side of that axis.
and parallel forces form a couple,
whose moment is the moment of
fJB'
6^
beam to bending of
The moment of resist
resistance of the
that section.
ance
equal
is
the
to
bending mo
ment.
Suppose that the greatest compressive or tensile stress at a given
section of a
we may
beam
is
express the
equal to
moment
ance by the product of
f,
then
>,
o.//sB^
..lJ
of resist
where z
is a quantity called the modulus of
the section, depending upon the form
fz,
i^tFiu.
S].5.
Fig. 311.
of the section of material in consideration.
The modulus
modulus
is
3./W6
of section or section
is.
9)
sometimes called resisting
inches of a section.
Fig.
312.
j^.,
i
''"3
i.
Fj(i. 31B.
^^
DRAWING AND DESIGN.
ROGERS'
Form of
Section
Modulus.
Section.
Section
Modulus.
223
The relation between the
bending moment and the moment of resistance may be expressed by the formula M=fz.
It
must be remembered that
this ratio
is
only true as long as
the elastic limit of the
Kii;. :11T.
beam
has not been reached.
The formula
\X
J f6<idtL7i^)
is
based on the
supposition that the stress being
greatest at the
of
cross
top or bottom
diminishes
section,
X
Fig.
318.
d
gradually to nothing at the neu
)i
tral axis of
The
the section.
following
illustrations,
Figs. 309324, give the value of
the section modulus
sections.
drawn
Fig.
in
The
horizontal
line
each section represents
Jzl.
safe resisting
moment
is
equal to the safe stress of the
material multiplied by the section modulus.
3).
various
the neutral axis.
:ilH.
The
Fig.
z for
ROGERS' DRAWING
224
Example
What
is
B and
3.
6,000
1
2"
deep
moment
the safe resisting
beam, the extreme
per
lbs.
AND
fibre stress of
sq. in.,
when
the
of a
which
beam
is
is
lo"
wooden
equal to
wide and
Take a factor of safety equal to 6.
The section modulus for the given
according to the table ^21
'"^^'t"
DESIGN.
is
equal to
L, the weight of the load
5.
In Fig. 326
is,
= 240.
There also exists a shearing force equal to the
magnitude of the load W, which force is to be taken
equal from end to end of tlie beam.
Example
section
multiplied by the length of the beam.
is
carrying a load
shown a beam
uniformly distributed.
imwMB
The
y//////A////
one end,
vmrn
^:
fixed at
fy/Mm^
,,
J.
>
Lt
m^r<i<
Ftg.
Fig.
325.
The extreme stress for the given material is equal
to 6,000 lbs.
As a factor of safety equal to 6 has
been taken into account, we divide 6,000 by the
6^1,000 lbs.
Then the safe resisting moment of a section of the
beam is equal to 240 x 1,000=240,000 inch pounds.
factor
Useful examples of bending moments.
Example 4,
The beam is
at the other.
The
one end while the load acts
greatest bending
to
moment
is
again at
B and
is
equal
% WL.
Example
6.
we have
beam supported at each
end and loaded exactly in the middle. The greatest bending moment in this case is at B and it is
equal to ^
X L. There also exists a shearing
In Fig. 327
Fig. 325.
fixed at
greatest bending
326.
moment
is
at
force
equal
throughout.
o
to
W,
this
force
being uniform
ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.
The
in Fig. 328 is supported at each
The greatest bending
uniformly.
loaded
end and is
moment is at the middle of the beam and is equal
to 5^
X L When compared with the bending
The beam shown
greatest shearing force
supports and
225
is
equal to yi
Example
8.
When
beam
the
is
is
at the
ends near the
W.
fixed securely at each end,
and
B
it
FiG.
.'If
32T.
y 4
Fig.
moment in the preceding example, we see that a
beam may carry a load two times greater when the
load
is
distributed uniformly throughout the beam.
'1
328.
loaded at the center, as in Fig. 329, the greatest
bending moment is at the center and at each end,
and is equal to i/^
x L This is based on the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
226
supposition that the cross section of the
beam
should be made as short as possible and the depth
as great as circumstances will permit. With the same
is
uniform throughout its full length.
The bending
moments at the ends are contrary to the bending
moments
at the center,
bottom of the beam
be subjected to
will
tension, while at the
ends
will
bottom
the
that
is,
\y//y////A
^^^
f///^M(^
area of section, the deeper the
at the center, the
it
will be,
^^\
'y///X^///^^
>V
\\\\\\\\
.
the stronger
lateral breaking.
Various
princi
ples of strength of
compression.
materials
9,
applica
the
tion of
be subject to
Example
beam
provided the breadth of the beam is sufprevent
ficient to
will'
be
discussed in connec
Fig.
Fig.
330.
tion with the design
329.
beam,
uniform
cross section from
of different parts of
end to end
fixed
for
both
signing
When
having
machines.
securely
is
at
Another requisite
ends, the load which
the
beam
carry,
is
being
made
to
ties
Flu.
materials
of
machine
bending moment
is
greatest at the
moments at the ends.
If a beam is required
bility
to
be very
stiff,
the length
to
the
adaptability
are to be subjected
form.
construc
In selecting materials for machine parts the
tion.
designer must consider their properties
is
at the center
for
;J30.
equal to tV WL.
The bending moment
is equal to yi of the moment at the
ends, that is, equal to 5V WL, and is contrary to the
ends and
a knowl
commonly used
distrib
Fig. 330, the
is
de
edge of the proper
uted uniformly, as
in
successful
for
;
the
work
to
in
regard
which they
the strength, stiffness, dura
and convenience of working into the necessary
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
machine properly constructed, must be able to
withstand the stress to which its various parts are to
be put, and this depends entirely on their action and
endurance, as conditioned by the forms of the parts
By
of the machines.
the word stress
we mean a force
acting between two bodies or two parts of the
same
body when subjected
This
to the action of a load.
understood to resist the load in preventing it
from changing the form of the machine or its parts.
force
is
The combination
of
all
we
itself,
and
new
force
this resisting force
call stress.
All the external forces are called the load of the
machine.
The
When
under the influence of a load the piece of
material is permanently deformed
that is, does not
return to its original form when the load is removed
we say that the
limit of elasticity of the material
has been reached.
Up
to the limit of elasticity the stress
proportional
to
the
strain
beyond the
elasticity the strain increases taster
until rupture
is
is
directly
limit of
than the stress
produced.
external forces acting on
a part of a structure calls into e.xistence a
within the structure
2Ji7
effect of the load is the strain
pro
duced in the machine the strain is the tendency to
change the form of the machine part under the
The resistance which is
influence of the load.
offered by a material to the change of form resulting
from the application of a load, combined with its
natural power of returning to its original shape after
the load is removed, is called its elasticity.
When a piece of material deformed somewhat
The loads to which material can be subjected may
be divided primarily into two classes a dead load
is one which is applied slowly and remains steady
and unchangeable a live load is one which constantly changes, being either alternately imposed and
removed, or varying in intensity and direction.
:
when subjected
original
form
to
load
returns exactly to
as soon as the load
piece of material
is
in certain limits of
is
its
removed, the
said to be perfectly elastic with
a load.
To
avoid the danger accompanying an unforeseen
intensity of strain, which
may produce
undesirable
deformation or rupture, as may be caused by imperfect workmanship, poor quality of material or other
resist
machine are usually made to
a much greater load than will be brought on
them
in the regular course.
causes, the parts of a
The expected
load
is
supposed to be greater, and for this reason is multiplied by a number known as the factor of safety.
The
factor of safety varies for different materials
according to their structure and application, as well
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
228
as for the
ditions to
same kind
which
it
of material according to con
may be
The proper way
to
draw a screw thread as it acis by laying out a
tually appears in a finished screw,
subjected.
liable to
curve or curves upon the surface of the cylinder,
change, the factor of safety must be larger than for
forming the body of the bolt.
This curve is called
a helix ; the helix may be defined as a curve generated by progressive rotation of a point around an
axis, remaining equidistant from the axis through
For
materials,
the quality of which
is
is more uniform and
change through atmospheric exposure
materials the quality of which
less liable to
or varying temperature.
happens that in some structures the whole load
cannot be ascertained with accuracy in such cases
the factor of safety must be increased as a safeguard
against unexpected straining action.
It may also
happen that in some machines the working load may
be suddenly increased for such accidental strains a
factor of safety must be allowed.
It
out the length of the motion.
When
a machinist desires to cut a thread upon a
cylinder, he will first
change the gears of the Lathe
to produce the desired
number
inch of length of the screw
of threads toreach
being done, the
cylinder is put in place on the centers of the lathe
and the thread cutting tool is then set to its proper
;
this
angle.
SCREWS, BOLTS AND NUTS.
In
all
Before proceeding to cut the thread, the tool
working drawings consideration should be
given to the manner of uniting the different parts of
the machine.
Screws play a most important part in
machine design, particularly as a means
the different parts together.
The
for fastening
representation of
and screw threads is consequently of such importance that a knowledge of their proportions and
the usual method of drawing them, is of great consideration to machine draughtsmen
the exact representation of a screw thread is somewhat difificult it
takes both time and care.
bolts
moved
close to
tiic
is
work, so as to trace a fine line
upon the surface of the cylinder when the machine
is put in motion
the fine spiral produced upon the
;
surface of the cylinder in this manner,
is
the helix of
the screw.
To dram a helix, the diameter and
height of one turn being given.
The heiijht of one turn of a helix is called its
Problem
pitch.
Let the diameter of the cylinder be
pitch
2".
3"
and the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Draw
ABCD
tion
to
the elevation of the cylinder
bottom view
its
229
2, 3, etc.,
i,
may be
AB
equal to
12
eleva
and
is
equal
helix.
the pitch from the point
off
above
The
four inches high, that
two complete turns of the
Lay
ABCD
Fig. 331.
upon the
Divide the pitch
12 B.
line
12
any number of equal parts, for instance in this
case 12.
Divide the circle into the same number of
into
Through
equal parts.
circle,
draw
the points of division on the
lines parallel to the
tend them through the
line
AB
and
ex
height of the front view
full
ABCD.
Through the point
draw
line
ii'
I
parallel to
in
i'
the point
quired helix.
sions,
i'
Through
draw the
of the divisions of the pitch,
AD,
intersecting the vertical
which
is
a point
the point
line 22' parallel to
secting the vertical line 2
the re
AD
at the point
and interwhich is
2',
helix.
Through the point
3 of
draw the
line 33' parallel to
AD
another point of the
the pitch divisions
2'
in
of the pitch divi
and cutting the vertical line 3 3' in the point 3',
which is a third point of the required helix. Proceed in this manner until the sixth point of the helix
is found
it will be situated on the line DC.
The
points A, i', 2', 3', 4', 5' and 6' determine the position
:
of onehalf of a turn of the helix,
through these points,
first in
which may be traced
and then inked in.
pencil
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
330
same mariner the second half of the first
The accompanying illusturn may be completed.
repetition
of the above explanarenders
a
tration
In the
tion unnecessary.
The second
half of the turn
is
drawn dotted, as it is on the other side of the cylinThe second turn may be
der and cannot'be seen.
laid out by the aid of the points of the first turn of
Set the comthe helix in the following manner.
passes to a distance equal to the pitch and lay ofi
the points i", 2", 3", etc., above the corresponding
point
i!,
2',
3',
etc.,
of the first turn of the helix.
cannot be employed
in
the shop in drawing machin
ery, where, as a rule, the
is
number of
bolts
and screws
very considerable.
The
numerous on some
customary to make separate dol^
sheets, showing all screws necessary for one machine,
in all their different sizes and forms.
bolts,
machines, that
nuts, etc., are so
it is
The square thread shown
when drawn by straight
appear,
334,
in
Fig.
333,
and the Vthread shown before would be drawn
as in Fig. 335.
A thorough understanding of the above problem is
of considerable use, not only for drawing large sized
screws, but especially for drawing a
gears,
which
worm
for
worm
will be explained later.
screw with a Vthread, drawn with exact helical
curves
It is
is
shown
made
of
in Fig. 332.
two
one for the top of the
thread and the other for the root of
it.
shows a screw with a square thread. An
examination of the drawing will show that the thread
two helices upon the
is drawn with four helices
outside of the cylinder, the top of the thread, and
two for the root of the thread. It is evident that
the method of drawing screw threads with helices
Fig. 333
while producing an exact representation of the screw
v^
We
have so far considered only righthanded
righthanded screw is one, which passing
through a fixed nut and turned in the direction of
the motion of the hands of a clock, will advance into
screws.
the nut.
helices,
would
lines only, as in Fig.
which to pass through
a fixei nut^ must be turned in a direction opposite to
Such a thread is
the motion of the hands of a clock.
shown in Figs. 336 and 337. Screws maybe either
lefthanded screw
is one,
singlethreaded or doublethreaded.
If
we assume
that a screw consists of a cylinder with a coil form
ing the thread
wound around
it,
we may easily
define
a double screw as a cylinder with two parallel coils
To avoid the difficult and tedious operation of drawing the
screw threads are generally indicated by straight lines only.
Note.
helices,
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
333.
Fig.
33:3.
231
Fig.
334.
ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.
232
of thread
wound around
it.
Generally the double
threaded screw is defined as one having two paralled
threads.
A screw having three parallel threads is
called
a triplethreaded
screws are shown
The distance
Doublethreaded
screw.
in Figs.
(Outside)
betzveen the centers
of two
is
successive
called the pitch
340 and 341 the pitch is equal
to the distance tvhich the screw will advance into a
fixed nut during one turn.
Figs.
Fig 341 shows the pitch of a square thread.
It is
equal to twice the pitch of the triangular thread.
Screw threads are generally either triangular or
square in section, although some other forms are in
use.
S.
Standard Screw Threads.
Threads per
Inch.
Diameter at Root
OF Thread.
Diameter op
Tap Drill.
20
0.1S5
18
0.240
h
\
1(5
0.294
14
13
0.344
A
S3
12
0.454
11
0.507
1
rf
10
0.620
1"
0.731
0.837
0.940
M
M
li
If
1.065
Diameter of
Screw.
338 and 339.
threads in a singlethreaded screw
of the screw.
Table of U.
t\
\
h
%
\
1
1
7T
0.4011
il
1.160
lA
1.284
I5V
If
If
5i
1.389
1.491
m
n
Fig. 342.
1.616
i
The U. S. Standard screw, known also as the
Franklin Institute Standard, was presented to that
4i
The
triangular thread
is
called the Vthread.
The
form of Vthread most commonly used in this country,
known as the U. S. Standard thread, is shown in
Institute
him
tute
by Mr.
in 1864.
As
Wm.
this,
i
4
4
2.176
'H^
2.426
h\
2.629
2p
3i
3i
3.100
3.567
H
H
2i
paper read by
^
2
recommended for general adoption by American
engineers the following rules and table of standard
threads
1.712
1.962
the Franklin Insti
Sellers, in a
a result of
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
The
proportion of pitch to diameter
P=o.24
The depth
v/D
of the thread
+ 0.625 o.
is
The
is
FlO.
the root of the thread
is
always meant
The diameter measured
the outside diameter.
is
To
find the
one inch by the number of threads.
Eight threads to one inch give a pitch of ys".
75
0.65 of the pitch.
the term diameter of the screw
table does not give the pitch.
pitch, divide
FlO. 3%.
By
233
at
called the inside diameter.
FlO.
336.
337.
In the foregoing table of U. S. Standard Screw
Threads, the number of threads to one inch of screw
is
given from i^
to 4" in diameter.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
234
The
third
column gives the diameter
of the screw
The
next column
to be used for
any required
at the root, or the inside diameter.
gives the diameter of
drill
They are
ordinarily a
little
diameter of tap or thread.
laroer than the diameter at the root of the thread.
Fig.
338.
drawing screw threads it may be neglected entirely.
For a squarethreaded screw, the number of threads
per inch is equal to onehalf the number on a Vthreaded screw.
Fig.
339.
The screw thread is formed with straight lines at
an angle of 60 to each other. The top and bottom
of the thread are flattened, each to a width of ^^th
form, the width of the thread
of the pitch, Fig. 343.
Fig 344
For small diameters of bolts the amount of flatis not made to any particular measure, and in
tening
In
of the
squarethreaded screw of U. S. Standard
is equal to the width
groove
The depth
of the pitch
each
equal to onehalf the pitch,
of the thread
that
is,
is
also equal to onehalf
equal to the width of the groove.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Figs.
345350 exhibit the conventional methods
of showing; different threads of a bolt.
235
Fig. 346 represents a single squarethr
To draw
the screw,
first
draw the
aded screw.
cylinder.
Lay
off
distances each equal to onehalf the pitch and through
the division points draw lines at right angles to the
axis of the cylinder, and cutting the other side of
the cylinder, the inclination of the parallel lines indicating the thread through the width of the cylinder
being equal to onehalf the pitch.
This method
is
clearly illustrated in Fig. 346.
Fig.
312.
Fig. 345 shows a single Vthreaded screw,
To
draw the screw lay out the outlines of the cylinder
of the bolt and upon one of its sides set off distances
each equal to the pitch.
Do the same on the other
side of the cylinder beginning at a point onehalf the
pitch
from the end of the cylinder,
the lines for the top of the thread.
Figs. 340
and
341.
of division
draw
after
which draw
From
the points
lines inclined to each other 60 for
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
236
the threads, on both sides of the cylinder, then connect the roots by straight
It will
lines.
be noticed
that these lines are not parallel to the lines connect
ing the tops of the thread.
Fig. 347
shows a
still
simpler method of represent
The pitch is laid oft as in
The heavy lines represent
ing a Vthreaded screw.
the preceding example.
the bottom of the thread.
The method employed
rapid in delineation and
for rapid drawing.
in
is,
is still more
recommended
Fig. 348
therefore,
Here the heavy
lines are
used
to represent the top of the thread, the fine lines inFiQ.
343.
dicatinjj the
bottom
of the thread.
In Fig. 349 the fine lines are drawn as long as
the heavy lines, which makes the drawing of the
thread
still
easier.
method
of indicating screw
when great haste is necessary and
shown in Fig. 350.
threads
Pitch
1^
i Pitch
>k
i
k P'fcf*
ing
is
for sketch
In drawing the thread as illustrated in the last
four figures, no particular attention need be given to
the
number
of
threads per inch.
note written
plainly on the drawing, very near to the representa
tion of the screw, gives the exact
to the inch.
Even
this
diameter of the screw
Fig. 3.
is
may be
number
left
of threads
out
when
the
plainly given, with the note
"standard" near it; in this case the workman is
expected to determine the number of threads to
the inch from the table of U. S. Standard Threads.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
The
proportions of bolt heads and nuts
have been accepted
as follows
The
lel
in this
The
which
curve cde
is
237
drawn
to the height of the nut.
country as a standard are
first,
with a radius equal
When
the points c and e
are thus determined, a fine straight line
distance between the paral
and nuts is equal
times the diameter of the
sides of heads
to
Yi
plus
bolt,
y%
inch=i3^
D +
5^
inch.
The
thickness of heads
to onehalf of the distance
is
equal
between
the parallel sides.
i}4
D+
ys inch.
The
thickness of nuts
is
equal to
bolt^ D.
The same proportions are used
the diameter of the
for square
In
all
Fia.
Fia.
:i45.
heads and nuts.
these formula;
D expresses
the diameter of the bolt.
shows the conventional
method of representing a hexagonal
Fig. 351
nut for a 2" bolt,
nut
is
equal to
may be drawn
2".
The height of the
The two views
similar to the
two
views of a hexagonal prism,
ex
plained in the chapter on projection.
Fio.
349.
346,
is
drawn
238
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
351.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
through these points and extended in both directions so as to cut all vertical edges of the nut in both
Arcs are then
views, at the points a, g, h, k and m.
239
with compasses, after a centre is found by trial with
the compasses.
The chamfer at aa and g3 may be
drawn by 45
lines,
from the points a and g respec
tively.
Fia.
Fig.
352.
Fig.
drawn through the points a, b, c and through e, f, g.
The same is done in the other view in passing arcs
through h, k and k, 1 and m. These arcs are struck
i,
354.
Fig.
a55.
353.
This is not the exact construction of the curves as
they appear on a hexagonal nut.
However, the
exact curves are not of any importance on a working drawing, and it will be found that this prac
tical
effects a material saving of time
shop method
particularly as the representation
is
chine drawing.
In drawing a hexagonal nut or head,
it is
of very frequent occurrence in
the general custom to
show three
square nut or bolt head
generally
a
bolt
check nuts.
ient to
is
make both
ard thickness, that
faces of each.
is
faces.
equal to
y^ times the diameter of the bolt plus
inch.
^
The
height
is
equal
the distance between the
parallel faces.
The
arc for the
chamfer of the head is usually
drawn with a radius equal to 2^
times the diameter of the bolt.
A set screw is shown in Fig.
hexagonal
nuts of stand
equal to the
although it
often found that the inner nut
diameter of the
In the illustration the outer nut
y%
to
is
more convenis
thinner.
chamfered on both
The
Fig. 352 illus
with
It is
made
DESIGN.
In Fig. 353 a bolt with a square head is shown.
distances between the parallel faces of this head
ma
shown by drawing one
face of each only.
trates
is
of
and trouble,
heads and nuts
is
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
240
bolt,
354.
The
figure
illustrates all
required proportions, as they are
Fig.
356.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
commonly used. The point of the set screw
usually made with an arc having a radius equal
is
to
four times the diameter of the screw.
is one which is threaded at both ends.
end being screwed into one of the
one
Fig. 355,
studbolt
The
241
way of representing screws with
square heads is shown in Figs, 357, 358. A round
head screw is shown in Fig. 359. The head of the
screw
conventional
is
In the top view the parallel lines
slotted.
showing the
should be drawn at an angle of
45^^ with a horizonal line.
This head is particularly
adopted for countersunk work.
In conclusion a few words are added concerning
the strength of bolts.
Tke weakest part of the bolt
is the section at the bottom of the thread.
The following is a table of the tensile strength of U. S.
Standard Bolts at 5,000 lbs. per sq. in.
slots
Tensile Strength of U. S. Standard Bolts
AT 5,000 LBS. PER Square Inch.
'rd
Diameter of
Screw.
Tensile
Strength.
Diameter of
Screw.
Tensile
Strength.
i...
lU
I
h
1
1^
i
^
FiQ.
Fig.
3oT.
Fig.
358.
%
\
3.59.
pieces of a machine to be connected, while the other
end passing through the other
fastened to the
Fig. 356,
which
first,
piece,
carries an
illustrates
fastened to a cylinder head.
how
which
is
to
be
ordinary nut, as in
a stuffing box
is
\
1
H
li
The figures
134
226
339
465
625
809
980
1,500
2,100
2,750
3,450
3,900
11
H
H
If
i
2
H
H
4
3
3^
4
5,300
6,400
7,650
8,800
10,150
11,500
15,600
18,500
23,000
27,200
37,700
49,500
in the second and fourth columns show the total load
In calculating
bolts of the above diameters.
the strength of a bolt the stress to which it is subjected by the use of
which can be sustained hy
the wrench must be taken.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
242
The
show the
of
second and the fourth columns
load which can be sustained by bolts
figures in the
the
total
respective diameters.
In
resisting strength, the value of the safe stress per
square inch of section must be taken comparatively
low, and it is advisable for the purpose of overcoming all difficulties here mentioned, not to take the
calculating the
strength of a bolt, the stress to which
it is
k
subjected
15D
Q4
*W
0>o
0)b
Fio.
by the use of the wrench must be taken into consideration.
Small bolts frequently break because of
this strain.
safe stress higher than 5,000 lbs. per sq.
in
may
not be
known
as to
its
in.
as given
the table.
360 shows the generally adopted proportions
The wrench may be drawn for any
of a bolt head or nut, with the proportions of
Fig.
necessary to take into account the manner in which the load is applied.
As the nature
It is also
of metal of the bolt
360.
of a wrench.
size
the parts as given in this illustration.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Other injurious
RIVETS AND RIVETED JOINTS.
243
punching are, i, the
spacing by this method, and 2,
the fact that a punched hole is always tapered, the
wider end of the hole being tha't next to the die.
effects of
difficulty of correct
For fastening together two or more comparatively
thin pieces of metal, rivets are generally employed
;
found in boiler work,
plates
by riveting is found to
where the joining of
be the only practical method.
This method of fastening, however, is comparatively expensive and unsatisfactory in many ways
the rivets form a permanent fastening and can only
be removed by cutting off one of the heads this
creates trouble and expense.
The process of punching the holes in the plates
for riveting also has a serious effect by reducing the
tensile strength of the plates by the disturbing influence of the punch on the metal near the riveted
their greatest application
is
joints
work the holes are now generally
this, again, is more expensive,
without the use of multiple drilling ma
for better
made by
especially
drilling
chines.
The
due to punching, when the plates have
may be remedied
by annealing them after punching; the ill effect of
punching may also be removed by punching the
injury
not been cracked by the process,
holes ys" smaller in diameter than the required size
of the hole, which may then be completed by reaming.
Fig.
361.
Rivets are made in different forms
commonly employed being of a spherical
form, as illustrated in Fig. 361
rivet
show the
spherical head.
that most
or cup head
both parts of
this
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
244
The
rivet
shown
in Fig.
362 has a conical head,
the lower part showing a pan head.
The
right pro
In
rivet
in
the illustrations.
is
taken as the unit of
is
The
portions of the parts of the above rivets are given
the above illustrations the diameter of the
all proportions.
all
construction of the spherical head, Fig. 361,
as follows
Fio.
With
rivet,
36.3.
a radius equal to onehalf the diameter of
from the center
on the
vertical center line,
describe a circle cutting the center line at the points
Fig.
Fig. 363
The
usual
shows a
B and
rivet with
proportions
marked on the
382.
figure.
of
this
countersunk heads.
kind of rivet are
C.
Set the compasses to the distance
and from the point B as
center, describe
an arc
BC
cut
ting the outline of the upper plate in the point D.
Make BE
equal to the distance
AD
and with E as
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
center and
CD
as
radius,
describe the arc which
forms the outhne of the spherical head.
The construction of the other kinds of rivets may
be easily understood from the illustrations without
special explanation.
245
The length of the rivet required to form the head
about i^ times the diameter of the rivet.
For
countersunk rivet heads, a trifle more than onehalf
is
of this
amount
is
allowed.
Riveted joints may give way because of the tearing of the plates between the rivets, as illustrated in
Fig.
364,
by breaking of the plates between the
ROGERS" DRAWING AND
246
DESIGN.
and the edge of the plate, as shown in
Fig. 365
by crushing of the plate or by crushing of
the rivet, and by the breaking of the rivet through
shearing, as indicated by Fig. 366.
By the pitch of rivets is meant the distance between the centers of two adjoining rivets, in a
single riveted joint, that is where the seam is
formed by one row of rivets, Fig. 367. When
more than one row of rivets make the joint, the
pitch is the distance between the center lines of
'"
;
rivets in the same row, Fig. 368.
rivet holes
;
Fig.
3fi.
J=>itch
Fig. 3H7
Fig.
368.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
247
Fig. 370.
T^i
Fig.
The
3T1.
distance between the centers of two adjoin
ing rivets, both in the
same diagonal row
is
called
the diagonal pitch, Fig. 369.
The strength of a riveted joint depends upon
the arrangement of the rivets and upon their proportions.
Since a rivet
crushing,
it
is
may
part either by shearing or by
necessary for a given thickness of
plate to find the proper diameter of a rivet having
f/
v^^/'
''^^''
ROGERS' DRAWING
248
equal shearing and crushing strength.
The
AND
DESIGN.
rela
between the thickness of the plate and the diameter of the rivet, calculated for single shear, is
tion
^\
/A
\^
.^
^^
Fig.
Fig.
374.
Fig.
375.
373.
expressed by the following formula;, of which the
first
is
rivets
true for iron rivets
and the second
for steel
vS
d=2.o6
d=2.28
for iron rivets.
for steel rivets.
Fig.
?^
^'k
376.
ft
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
d expresses the diameter of the rivet and
249
stands
for the thickness of the plate.
For
rivet
plates thicker than f ^in. the diameter of the
smaller in proportion to the thickness
nSSr^
may be
of the plate than
The
is
required by these formulae.
proportions
for lapjoints
and
commonly observed
singlestrap buttjoints
in
is
practice
given
in
the following table:
Thickness of plate in inches.
Diameter of rivet in inches
Numerous
14
i\
J_
styles of riveted joints are in
;
Fig.
377.
Fig.
378.
4
H
general
The two classes into which the different styles
may be divided are the lapjoint and the buttjoint.
use.
In the lapjoint, Fig. 370, the plates overlap each
other.
Figs. 371, 372
show other examples
of this
form of riveted joint.
Fig. 373 shows a buttjoint.
Here the plates are
butted against each other and a cover plate or strap
is placed over their junction and the rivets passed
through the plates and strap. Fig. 374 shows a
buttjoint with two cover plates.
The examples of joints thus far illustrated differ
as to the number of rows of rivets that are used for
the seam.
Fig. 370
plate
is
is
a singleriveted joint.
.1 _.
I
Si
U
The
in
pierced by only one row of rivets.
'^
^1.
Figs. 373, 374, are also singleIn a singleriveted joint the edge of each
buttjoints
riveted.
shown
Fig.
3.9.
w ^mim^
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
250
^
^^
Fig.
A
Fig.
similar joint for
S/i'
Here the pitch
376.
holes being made i
380.
".
is
plates
Another
riveted.
the positions of the rivets
in
one row are
opposite the spaces between the rivets in the other
row, the seam
The
staggered.
following illustrations are examples of riveted
joints taken
Fig. 375
plates,
is
from practice
having
in boiler
work.
doubleriveted lapjoint for two
jl"
rivets,
the rivets in this case
is
1/%
holes.
equal to 2^".
The
pitch
also
shown
in Fig.
the rivets ir', the
joint of the same
371
When
is
2^" and
and 372 show doubleriveted joints
here the edge of each plate is pierced by a double
row of rivets. When the rivets are opposite each
other, as in Fig. 372, the seam is known as chainFigs.
,~^
381.
y^,"
of
FiG.
382.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
251
/^Si'.
im*
Fig.
383.
Fig.
character
plates
is
and
385.
illustrated in Fig.
same
rivets are the
the pitch, however,
is
33^
377.
Here
as in
Fig. 376
made
is
fl
',
the rivets
and the pitch
i"
buttjoint with
shown
lyV'.
is
in Fig.
the holes are
is 3".
double cover plates
trated in Fig. 379. Here the plate is
The inner covering strap
i" rivets.
the outside strap
".
In the doubleriveted lapjoint
378, the plate
the
equal
in
is
illus
" steel
is
J^g"
and
thick,
thickness to that of
the plate.
Similar joints are shown in Figs.
382, 383
The
Fici.
3M.
and
joint
frequently.
380,
381,
384.
shown
in Fig.
385
is
not used very
POWER TRANSMISSION.
The
word transmission comes from two Latin words, trans, across, or over, and mittere,
from one place to another; the illustration of a few devices for the transmission
of power from its cause to its place of useful employment is the limit of this section of design.
Prime movers or receivers of power, are those pieces or combination of pieces of mechanism which
receive motion and force directly from some natural source of energy
the mechanism belonging to the
prime mover may be held to include all pieces which regulate or assist in regulating the transmission of
oftrepeated
to send, hence, to carry
energy,
from
the source of energy or power.
Throughout this preliminary sketch, power and energy are used synonymously.
The useful zvor k of the prime mover is the energy exerted by it upon that piece which it directly
drives; and the ratio which this bears to the energy exerted by the source of energy is the efficiency of
the prime mover; in all prime movers the loss of energy may be distinguished into two parts, i, 7iecessary
loss ;
The
2,
zvaste.
sources of power in practical use
Weight
of a prime mover
mals, (b)
Among
of liquids, (c)
is its
useful
Motion
work
in
may be
classed as follows
(a)
of fluids, (d) Heat, (e) Electricity
some given
Strength of
men and
and magnetism.
ani
The duty.
unit of time, as a second, a minute, an hour, a day.
examples of power transmission may be mentioned the case of a man hauling up
weight with a rope or pushing or pulling an oar or capstan; in these instances the man is the prime
mover and the duty performed is the raising of the weight and the moving of the vessel.
The various combinations of mechanical 'povfers produce no force they only apply it. They form
the communication between the moving power and the body moved ; and while the power itself may be incapable of acting except in one direction, we are able by means of cranks, levers, and gears, to direct and
modify that force to suit our convenience. Every one may see examples of this in the construction of
the most common pieces of machinery as well as in the most complicated.
the
first
355
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
256
SHAFTS.
When
a shaft
is
twisting strain
rotated by a lever attached to
it,
is
obtained by multiplying the length
point at which the force
of the lever or to a point at the rim of the pulley or
to R, Fig. 386, then
?;
from the
of the lever, or the perpendicular distance
as in Fig. 3S6, or by a pulley or a gearwheel as in
Fig. 387, and a force P is applied to the free end
is
the shaft, by the force P.
R X
twisting moment and
is
applied to the center of
If this
= T,
expressed
equal to the resisting
moment
For finding the diameter
is
in inch
called the
pounds.
moment must be
evident that the twisting
It is
distance be equal
which
of the shaft.
of a crank shaft of a
stationary engine with cylinders up to 30" in diameter
at the pitchcircle of the
gearwheel a twisting strain
produced on the shaft, this twisting strain causes
combination
of stresses within the fibres of the
a
is
some
authorities
practical rule
recommend
the
following
The diameter
of the crank shaft
is
equal to the
radius of the cylinder minus 5^ of an inch.
In practice many different diameters are found
performing the same work.
Now
T = twisting moment
let
pounds.
per minute.
on shaft
in inch
= number of revolutions of the shaft
H = horse power transmitted, then the
horse power equals
3.1416
XT X N
:
0.00001587
OJ'"
The number
Fig.
38:
which mainly consist of shearing stress. The
shearing stress is equal to nothing at the center of the
shaft and it is greatest at its circumference.
The
shaft,
formula expresses
33,000 foot pounds of work performed per minute,
and this amount of work is called one horse power.
33,000 in
The above formula
this
gives a
method
horse power transmitted by a shaft.
of finding the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Rule
Multiply the
twisting
moment
in
The number
inch
257
of revolutions
pounds by the number of revolutions per minute,
and multiply the product by the number o.oooo1587 the product will be the horse power transmitted by the shaft.
from the same formula
Example
Example
12
^ "2
may
X 33,000 X H 63025.21 X
'^
X 3. 14 6 XT~
T
must make per minute
Solution
produces the twisting moment.
wheel,=i8
inches by the force applied, ^4,000 pounds, and
multiply the product by the number of revolutions
and by the number 0.00001587: Horse power=
18 X 4000 X 100 X 0.00001587=114.264.
Multiply the
From
pitch
radius
of
find the
X
X
of revolutions which a shaft
in order to transmit 114.264
a force of 4,000 pounds acting on
the pitch circle of a gearwheel of 36" in diameter
horse power,
Solution
18
when
The twisting moment in this
X 4,000= 72,000inch pounds
to
of 100.2 or the revolutions per minute.
33,000
3.1416
X N
63025.21
ered
in
which
the same formula the twisting
moment may
be determined when the horse power transmitted by
the shaft and the number of its revolutions are
given.
equal
is
To find the num
power 114.264 by 72,000 and multiply the product
by the number 63025.21 thus obtaining a quotient
is
the twisting
moment
to transmit a given horse
The cube
only
is
to be consid
calculating the diameter of a round shaft,
speed, the following formula
From
case
ber of revolutions required divide the given horse
When
12
number
the
the above formula the following expres
sions are obtained
Find the horse power transmitted by a shaft making 100 revolutions per minute, provided with a
gear wheel 36 inches in diameter (pitch circle), the
turning force being 4,000 pounds.
To
also be obtained
thus,
power
may be used
at a given
:
of the diameter of the shaft or.
Twisting moment
0.196
stress in
pounds per square
inch.
;;
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
258
The
pounds per square inch at
For
the outer fibres of the diameter of the shaft.
steel shafts the stress may betaken at 10,000 pounds
and for wrought iron at 8,000 pounds per square
stress
is
taken
in
inch.
Long
shafts are subjected to
and bending
DESIGN.
pulleys are on the shaft the closer the bearings must
The beams may be
placed about 8 feet apart,
be provided with a hanger on its
lower side. To prevent end motion on shafts a
collar is placed on each side of one of the bearings.
be.
and each beam
combined twisting
actions.
Let B
= bending moment
== twisting moment
JOURNALS.
That part
of a horizontal shaft
= the equivalent twisting moment.
Then Ti = B + V^M^T^
on a journal acts
In practice for long shafts in factories the follow
axis.
Ti
ing simple formula
D^
The speed
upon
it.
in
When
journal.
The
in a direction
the shaft
is
placed
in
depends upon the speed of
machine shops are run from
120 to
is
The more
in
its axis.
and as long as
necessary to keep the pressure per square inch as
small as possible.
This pressure per square inch
is
not measured on a circumference of the journal but
will
should not be great enough to permit a deflection
pressure of a shaft placed
as the required strength will permit
in diameter.
distance between the centers of the bearings
The
The journal of a vertical shaft is called a pivot.
The diameter of a journal must be made as small
by the area of
foot of length.
its
an inclined posi
a vertical position acts in the direction of
more than ^w" per
pressure of a shaft
perpendicular to
axis of the shaft.
of revolutions of shaft.
200 to 250 revolutions per minute. Shafts in woolen
mills run up to 400 revolutions per minute.
Line
shafts should, as a rule, not be less than i^" thick
The
z.
number
of the shaft
Shafts
called
in
tion the pressure acts in a direction inclined to the
150 revolutions per minute; wood
working machinery shafts usually run from about
about
is
which rotates
recommended
125 X horse power
is
bearing
the driving belt or by the diameters of the pulleys
of
to
Example:
its
projection.
journal 3" in diameter and 6" long
have a projected area of
inches.
Now
if
pounds per square inch then the
X 300=5,400 pounds.
equal to 18
X 6=18 square
the pressure of the journal
is
300
total pressure
is
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
Example
If
the total pressure of a 3
"
then the length of the journal
,
If
and 6 inches long and
eter
is
its
3 inches in
total
diam
pressure
is
to be 5,400 pounds, then the pressure per
square inch of projected area
is
To
Wrought
iron pi^ot on
Cast iron pivot
pounds.
found as follows:
find the pressure per square inch of projected
on gun metal bearing, 470
iron bearing
on lignumvitae bearing,
to the latest practice
it seems, howwhich have to run continuously,
the abovementioned pressures should be reduced
ever, that, for pivots
to onehalf.
of pressure per square inch varies
greatly in different cases in practice.
reduced where a greater speed
The maximum
Wrought
According
diameter of the shaft by .7854 and divide the total
pressure of the shaft by the product thus found.
ally
gun metal bearing, 700
1,400 pounds.
300 pounds.
area for a pivot bearing, multiply the square of the
The magnitude
150
pounds.
3.
5,400
X 6
of
for cast iron journals for
factory shafts.
2.
known
allow a pressure
the most desirable.
a given journal
manufacturers
pounds per square inch
1.
Example
259
For pivot bearings the following pressures per
square inch are given by a high authority, as being
= 6 inches.
5,400
^LL
300 X
found thus
is
Some
diameter
journal equals 5,400 pounds and it is desired not to
exceed a pressure of 300 pounds per square inch
DESIGN.
It is
is
BEARINGS.
gener
The
required.
simplest form of a journal bearing for a shaft
on the main
journal bearings of steam engines is 600 pounds per
square inch for slow running and 400 pounds for
high speed engines.
Wherever possible it is advantageous to make long bearings, thus reducing
the pressure by about 200 to 300 pounds per square
or spindle of a machine
inch.
ing.
intensity of pressure
is simply a hole in the frame
supporting the rotating piece.
If it is necessary to
increase the length of the bearing the frame must
be made thicker in this particular place by casting
shown in Figs. 388 and 389. Fig. 389
an end view and 388 is a section of such a bear
bosses on
is
it
as
The above
described form of bearing
is
not
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
260
durable as
it
has no means of adjustment for taking
up the wear, and it cannot be renewed without renewing part of the frame of the machine. It is
therefore better to use the form of solid bearing
shown in Figs. 390 and 391. In this case the hole
is bored much larger than the journal, and lined
with a solid bushing of soft metal, which can easily
be replaced when worn. This arrangement requires
a screw or key to hold the bushing in place in most
cases the bushing is driven into the hole with considerable force to prevent it from turning, see Figs.
390 and 391.
Bearings for horizontal shafts have different
names, which indicate the manner in which they are
;
Fig.
Fig.
390.
391.
used.
HANGERS.
When
ing
it
is
a bearing,
is
suspended from the
called a hanger.
show the various
Figs. 392 to
details of a
ceil
395
hanger made by
Fig. 392 is a side
a leading manufacturer.
the
longitudinal
view
Fig.
section.
394
This design was first introduced by Sellers,
and has been reproduced and modified by
It has a bearing
different manufacturers.
box. Fig. 393, with a spherical center which
is held between the ends of two hollow stems,
;
all
Fig.
38.
Fig. 3m.
these parts are
made
of cast iron.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fio.
395.
Fig.
393.
261
ROGERS' DRAWING
262
AND
DESIGN.
^
These stems,
Fig, 395, are provided with
screw threads at their outer ends, ordinarily
shallow square thread.
The
bosses on the
frame are also provided with a similar screw
into which fits the screw of the
nzj
thread,
stem.
By means
aj
on the stems the
height of the bearing can be adjusted, and
the
of the thread
spherical centers allow a considerable
adjustment
in
other directions.
This construction makes the setting up or
lining up of shafting much easier and the
hangers made as described above enjoy
therefore
the
greatest
popularity
at
the
present time.
WALL BRACKETS.
When a shaft is to be supported by a
bearing fixed to a wall or pillar, a wall
bracket is generally used for this purpose.
In Figures 396 to 398 is shown a form of
a wall bracket of an elegant and most solid
design.
..,._51'_
Figs.
393, 397
and
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
263
with babbit, a soft metal whose composition is as follows One pound of copper, ten pounds of tin and
PEDESTALS AND PILLOWBLOCKS.
The words
pedestal, pillowblock,
bearing and
one pound of antimony.
To hold the babbit in
place recesses are cast in the cap and base, extending
almost across the entire width of the bearino.
The
journal box are used indiscriminately.
bearing designed to support a shaft above a
floor or any fixed surface is called a pedestal or
pillowblock,
hangers as well as the wall brackets shown above
have the bearings babbited in
the same manner.
The babbit
depending upon the
type of bearing, as will be seen
later.
shown
in Figs.
simple pillowblock
399 and 400.
A mandrel,
having a diameter a trifle less
than that of the journal, is placed
is
is
It
consists of two parts, the box
which supports the journal and
the cap which is screwed down to
the box by two screws or bolts,
in
cast in as follows
position
within the bearing
box which the
The
called capscrews.
shaft
is
to occupy.
babbit, in a molten state,
then poured around
bearing
shows
the front view of
a complete pilFig. 399
is
and the
it
bored
is
then
to
the
proper diameter.
lowblock
with
and
bolts.
using babbit for
cap
Instead
of
400 is a top
the friction sur
view of base with
the cap removed.
faces in bearings
other
The
such
Fig.
seats in the
journalbox
usually
ed, that
are
brass,
gun metal or oth
babbitis,
metals,
as
er alloys
lined
used.
Figs.
AND
400.
may be
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
264
The
melting point of these metals, however,
high, that they cannot be
cap
directly, as in the case of a
They consequently
are
called steps or brasses,
and cap
In
in different
some
very
motion
babbited bearing.
made
and are
as separate pieces,
fitted into
the box
where
and
slow
described
cap of the pillowblock.
them from turning with the .shaft.
To prevent the brasses from sliding out endwise,
they are provided with a shoulder on each end,
which
fits
over the ends of the bearing.
well
When
sleeve,
the
brasses
simple
which
is
is
placed
the
in
404.
to~be
a stand
and
both are
together by
case
bolts.
Bearings that are made
up
of wear,
bearing and the cap brass.
often
on
pillowblock,
this
fastened
and
for
in
removing
the shafts, are fitted with two brasses however, the
is
is
This standard may
be cast separate from
This bushing is simply
turned off and
bored,
and
is
then
of the brasses
a shaft
to
ard.
a bushing.
halves, for the taking
402
the pillowblock
floor,
called
forced into the hole.
applica
supported a considerable distance above the
a hole through the cast
of
their
Figs.
in
in
The bearing in this
case is made by boring
and
as
tion are fully illustrated
and 391 may
be employed.
ing,
Brasses of
the octagonal type as
Figs. 390
consist
shape in the box and
This is done to prevent
fitting into recesses of similar
required, the
is
method
so
ways.
cases,
little,
is
poured into the box and
In this case the outside
made square
or octagonal,
Note.
Brasses are made from different alloys
which vary accord
ing to the judgment of the designer. Some engineers recommend the
following composition Six pounds of copper, one pound of tin and to
:
every hundred pounds of this mixture onehalf pound of zinc and onehalf pound of lead are added.
ROGERS
[f^'lr^
'%'
DRAWING AND DESIGN.
V^
*^H
265
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
266
Very
often, however, the pillowblock
dard are cast
one piece and
in
it
is
then called a
pedestal.
A
403
Fig.
Belts most
may be
shown
is
in
Fig.
Figs. 402 to 404.
a front elevation and 402 shows
its
commonly used
single or
cal direction, will
various parts of this pedestal are exactly the
same as
in
made
of leather
top view.
404 represents a side view of the pedestal.
The
are
double
in damp places,
canvas belts, covered with rubber are sometimes
used leather belts are usually run with the hair
side on the outside or away from the pulley.
Long belts when running in any other than a vertithey
pedestal
is
BELTS AND PULLEYS.
and stan
their
the abovedescribed pillowblock with
the exception that the seats or steps in this case are
work better than short
own weight holds them
Fig. 405
shows an open
belts, as
firmly to their work.
belt,
and Fig. 406 a
crossr
belt.
of an octagonal shape.
Pulleys connected by open belts run in the same
connected by crossbelts run
When two pulleys are conin opposite directions.
nected by a belt, the motion of one, the driving
direction, while those
There
is
no established standard of proportions
for the parts of a bearing
blocks
made by
the proportions of pillow
different manufacturers vary con
siderably.
pulley,
If
is
transmitted to the other pulley, the follower.
we assume
that there
is
no stretching or slipping
of the belt, every part of the circumference of the
pedestal for supporting a very small shaft
is
follower will have the
same velocity
as the driving
often obtained by turning a hanger upside down,
pulley being equal to the velocity of the belt passing
reversing, of course, the bearing.
over them.
If
Such small
pedestals
are
usually
called
Jloor
than the diameter of the follower, the latter will
make two complete revolutions for each revolution
stands.
The main
the pulleys are of different diameters, for inif the driver has a diameter two times greater
stance,
bearings of large engines with girder
beds are also often called pedestals.
This ratio between the speeds of two
expressed in the following
of the driver.
pulleys
is
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
267
405.
Fio. 407
Fig.
406.
ROGERS' DRAWING
268
Rule
DESIGN.
the diameter of the driver
are inversely proportional
This may be expressed
Number
found by multiplying
Number
revol.
of
revol.
of second pulley
Example
lutions,
to their diameters.
the following formula
in
number of revoproduct by the number of
the diameter of the follower by
and dividing the
its
revolutions of the driver.
:
For four pulleys connected by
of
of nrst pulley
diameter
pulley
second
of
Y)\2.m^^^v of
making 300 revolutions
pulley 20" in diameter.
second
drives
a
minute,
per
How many revolutions per minute does the second
make
No. of
revol. of
==
second pulley
^
40X300
20
^600 revol.
in
Example
Let the diameter of the drivers be 40" and 30",
the diameter of the first follower 10" and of the
second follower 15".
What is the number of revolutions of the last shaft,
when the
100 revolutions per minute
find the revolutions of the follower
shown
of each of the driver., equals
the num.ber of revolutions of the last pulley, miiltiplied by the diameter of each follower.
pulley
belts, as
Fig. 407, the following rule is to be applied
The number of revohitions of the first pulUy, tnultiplied by the diameter
pulley
first
pulley 40" in diameter,
To
is
The tiumber of revolutions of two connected pulleys
AND
Multiply the diameter of driver by its number of
revolutions, and divide the product by the diameter of
the follower.
first
shaft
makes
Here the speed of the last shaft, multiplied by the
diameter of the followers, 10" and 15', must equal
first shaft, 100 multiplied by the
diameter of the drivers, 40" and 30" that is,
the speed of the
Example
The follower
speed of
olutions.
is
What
driving shaft that
20" in diameter
is
and makes
50 rev
the size of the driver used on a
makes 200
revolutions per minute
Diameter of driver =2
200
i5
inches, that
is,
speed
^
= 100 X 40 X
100 X 40 X ^o
^^ = 800
snait =
10 X
last shaft
f
01 last
When
10
15
30, or
revol.
15
the
number
last shafts are
of revolutions of the
known, and
it is
first
and
required to find the
diameters of the pulleys, apply the following
"
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
RULH
Example
Divide the higher number of revolutions by the
lozver.
In
we
case where four
pulleys are
to
be used,
numbers whose product is equal to
the quotient resulting from the above division of
the speeds.
One of these numbers is taken as the
ratio of the diameters of one pair of the pulleys, and
find the
the other number, of the other pair.
Example
revolutions, the
1,500
revolutions per minute.
required
when
driving shaft
What
following practical formulae
making 300
size of pulleys are
four pulleys are to be used
speeds,
quotient resulting from division of the two
equals
^
5.
Two numbers whose
are 2)^ and
pair of the pulleys
in
the ratio of 2^4
Therefore, the
first
and the other pair as 2 to i.
pair may be 30" and 12" and the other pair 24"
and
to
To
find the
speed of the belt
is
belt
found, by
and
divid
the product by the speed ; or
fijtd the speed in feet
horse pozoer by goo,
width of the
Consequently one
2.
must betaken
transmitted
To find the required width of the belt, multiply
the horse power to be transmitted, by goo, and divide
Example
product equals
to be
multiplying the speed by the width of
ing the above product by goo ; or
To
The
Let the diameter of the pulley be equal to 2 ft.
and the number of revolutions per minute 100.
Then, 2 X 3.14 X 100 = 628 ft. per minute, the
speed of the belt.
The relation between the speed of the belt in feet
per minute, the width of the belt in inches, and the
horse power to be transmitted, is expressed in the
The horse power
required to run the last shaft with a speed of
It is
269
Two
a
belt,
and
per minute, multiply the
divide the product by the
belt.
pulleys, each 2
make 200
ft.
in
diameter, connected by
revolutions per minute.
It is de
sired to transmit 20 H. P.
What is the proper
width of the belt to be used ?
The speed of the belt is equal to 2 x 3.14 x 200
1,256 ft. per minute; consequently the width of
the belt equals
=
:
Multiply the circumference of the pulley by the
number of revolutions per minute.
2
1.256
14.6 inches, or a belt
14^
inches.
ROGERS"
270
The above
formulae are
true of
DRAWING AND DESIGN.
single
Polishing wheels, such as leathercovered
belt.
When
wheels, or rag wheels,
belts
velocity of 7,000
double belts are used, made of two single
cemented and riveted together through their
The speed
entire length, they should be able to transmit twice
as
much power
The above
as a single belt,
formulae
may be
and even more.
applied to the calcu
number 630 is
constant number
lation of double belts, provided the
put
in
900.
the formula instead of the
This
will
give the required proportions for
when used upon small pulleys, in which case
more power is required for the transmission.
belts,
ft.
may
wooden
run with a peripheral
per minute.
of cut for cast iron
minute, for tool steel about 10
ft.
is 20 to 30
per minute.
ft.
per
Cut
machine may be run with a perft. per minute for gun metal
for cast iron
and for machine steel
ters in the milling
ipheral velocity of 80
35 to 40
about 30
ft.
ft.
Example
What
per minute.
is
the proper
number
of revolutions of tKe
spindle of a machine shop grindstone 24" in diameter?
SPEED OF MACHINE TOOLS.
I
n selecting the speed of pulleys, the designer must
be guided by the speed of the machine which is to
be driven.
The speed of different machines varies according
to the work which they perform, as, for example, the
cutting speed of machine tools, or the velocity of
emery wheels.
Grindstones in machine shops, suitable for grinding machinists' tools may be run with a peripheral
speed of about 900 ft. per minute grindstones for
pattern makers' use, run about 600 ft. per minute.
Emery wheels may be run with a peripheral veloc;
ity of
5,500
ft.
per minute.
The
The
2
ft.
usual peripheral speed
is
900
ft.
circumference of the given stone
X 3.14=6.28
^
Example
is
equal to
ft.
r=about
6.28
per minute.
per minute
143
^^ revolutions ^
Let the emery wheel in a grinder be 12" in diameter, and let it be required to run the wheel with a
peripheral velocity of 3,600 ft. per minute.
What
should be the speed of the spindle of this bench
grinder ?
The circumference
wheel is 3. 14 ft.
3,600 by 3.14 and the speed of the spindle
3,600
314
Divide
of the
= about 1,150
revol.
is
found.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
The
following are rules
experience for the use of
recommended by
practical
belts.
Pulleys of small diameter, say of less than
should not be used for double
belts
work better than
used,
it is
belts.
thin ones.
If
i8",
Narrow, thick
wide belts are
This, however,
is
only true within certain limits
among
engineers
is
to
go
in this direction
The weakest
part of the belt
is
fastening does not answer for
ing
is
made very
all
between the shafts
is
bearing,
especially
with
for
carefully
pulleys.
The
angle of the belt with a horizontal line should
not exceed 45 whenever possible.
run advantageously
ft.
for
when
Belts are not
their speed exceeds 2,500
per minute.
the same
beltjoinings.
nected by a belt too near one to the other.
over small pulleys
and
overhung
also increased, causing greater friction
wear on the
not advantageous to place two pulleys con
ft.
must be remembered, that
to the ex
at the joint
according to the most approved methods
of 15
it
reason joints should be
It is
kept very
tight.
In tightening belts
class of
this
stretched leather belts, which must be
while tightening the belt, the pressure on the bear
it depends largely upon the
work the belt is to be used for, and the
only wa}' anyone can claim to be expert in this line
is through practical experience and good judgment.
treme
Running belts in a vertical direction should be
avoided whenever possible.
Machine tools driven
by vertical belts require particularly good well
proper to increase their thickness.
the tendency
271
narrow belts running
good average.
PULLEYS.
A distance
Wider
belts
running over larger pulleys for good work require
The
straight,
rim
of
Fig.
a belt pulley
may be made
either
408, or convex, as in Fig. 409.
It
duce such a pressure on the journals of the shaft
would seem that the belt would remain on the
straight pulley more readily than on the convex one.
Experience shows, however, that the belt always
tends to run on the highest part of the pulley, provided it does not slip, in which case the belt will fall
off more readily from a convex surface than from a
as to injure them.
straight rim of the pulley.
a greater distance between the shafts.
30
ft.
is
The distance between
the shafts should not be made too great, as this may
cause too much of a sag of the belt, which may pro
good average
for such cases.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
272
The
flat
or straight rim pulley
necessary to
kmkkkk^
^^^\\^^
move
is
used where
it is
the belt from one side of the rim
to the other, as in the case
where one pulley drives
a pair of fast and loose pulleys.
Whenever
there
is
of a belt, through a
ance, the pulfey
frequent slipping
off"
temporary increase
the rim
in resist
provided with flanges, as shown
is
in Fig. 410.
The amount of curvature in a section of the rim,
is made greater, the faster the speed at which it runs.
The curve may be an arc described with a radius'
equal to about
Fig.
408.
Fio.
times the breadth of the pulley.
4(S.
breadth of the pulley is generally made a
wider than the width of the belt, Fig. 411.
The
thickness of the rim at the edge
little
The
may be found by
dividing the diameter of the pulley by 200 and adding ys of an inch. For a pulley 25" in diameter, the
thickness of the rim should be
25 inches
V^ inch == i^ inch.
200
The
thickness of the walls in the central part of
the pulley, called the hub.
given by Mr.
Thomas
Thickness of hub
410.
Fig.
411.
found by a formula
Box, as follows
1
96
Fig.
is
^, where
D is
the
diameter of the pulley and d the diameter of the
shaft.
ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Unwin
Prof.
For
For
(
J4!
the pulley.
B up
hub
= 0.14
hub
= 0.18
14 in.
a double belt, the thickness of
V B D
73
gives the following formuls;:
a single belt, the thickness of
V"B"D~ +
273
where B indicates the breadth of
The length of the hub is made from
in.
to B.
The hubs
in
This
is
true for fast pulleys only.
loose pulleys are usually longer than
The hubs
need not
inch beyond
be so thick, and they project about
Fig. 412 shows
each side of the face of the pulley.
loose and fast pulleys
in fast pulleys.
in loose pulleys
Fig.
413.
?^W^??^l////M;22Z^
Fig.
412.
Fig.
414.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
274
The
,m,m;^'^7777m
straightarmed pulley
ance and construction.
the
number
to
18" in
of
arms
The
There
in
no fixed rule for
Usually those up
arms.
si.x
crosssection of the
The
is
a pulley.
generally ovalshaped
shown
simplest in appear
diameter have four arms, and those of
larger diameters,
is
in
is
arms of castiron pulleys
and of the proportions
Fig. 417.
longest
of the oval
a.xis
a,
may be found
from the following practical formula;: the breadth_a
being taken at the center of the pulley, supposing
the arm to be continued through the hub to that
point.
Fig.
The arms
Fig.
415.
of pulleys are
usually
straight,
sometimes they are curved, as shown
416.
in Figs.
4N
but
413
In these formulae
is its
diameter and
for sintrle belts,
for
is
double
and
belts.
the width of the pulley,
the
number
of revolutions per
minute.
The
proportions of the section of the arm near
the rim
in
may be
be noticed that the breadth of the oval is
the cubic power.
To find the actual
breadth a, multiply B by D, divide the product by
4 N and then find the cube root of the resulting
It will
Fig.
417,
It is the general practice in machine
shops to draw the section of a pulley, as shown in
Fig. 416, no matter what shape the arms may have.
and 414.
twothirds of the proportions given
the above formulae.
given
in
number.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
For varying the velocity
are used, Fig. 418.
As
the belt will
to climb a conical pulley,
made
speed cones
have a tendency
of a shaft,
special provision
for keeping the belt in place.
must be
275
pulleys in each one of the
same.
As
three sets
is
also ihe
a result of these conditions the length of
the crossed belt for
all
sets
is
the same.
It is also desir
able to have both cones alike, so that they can be
cast
from one pattern.
Cone
made in
pulleys or speed
pulleys,
shown
a series of steps, as
are
in
frequently
Fig. 419, in
which case they are termed steppulleys.
It is
an established
fact,
that
when two cones
are
placed with their centers at a given distance, and are
sum of their radii remains conan endless crossbelt, containingr both cones
will not change in length in the smallest deeree
during the change in the actual diameter of each
so related that the
stant,
cone.
It is
sum
necessary to keep
in
mind the fact that the
and the distance be
of the radii of both cones
tween their centers remain constant. As a result
of this the sum of the radii of two opposite pulleys
in a series of steps must be the same for all steps,
as only with this condition will a crossed belt fit any
pair of pulleys in the series.
420 shows three sets of pulleys which may
be arranged into a step pulley with three sets or
steps.
The distances between each set of pulleys is
the same, and the sum of the diameters of the
Fig.
L*__
Fig.
418.
The above statement does not hold true
The middle sections of cone pulleys
belts.
for
for
open
open
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
276
belts
must be larger proportionately than
equal the small diameter multiplied by the square
for crossed
root of the quotient of
belts.
shown in Figs. 421 and
and the first one makes N
In the pair of cone pulleys
422, both are
made
alike,
revolutions per minute
let
it
be required that the
Fio.
second pulley should have a range of speed from
m to n revolutions, m beine the greater number.
Then N must equal the square root of the product
of m and n, thus, N
Vm x n.
The
large
diameter
in
the
cone
pulleys
must
As was remarked
divided by
n.
open belts, the middle
diameter of the cone pulleys must be made larger.
If D and d are the large and small diameters of a
before, for
419.
cone pulley, then the proper middle diameter is
D
d
o'o8 (Dd)=
,
r .u Aequal1 to
1
I
where L
,
^^?;
,
is
the dis
tance between the two shafts.
When
the middle diameter
is
thus
found, the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
outline of the cone
is
laid out
by an arc of a
circle
and d
passing through the ends of the diameters
tinuous cone,
vy
A B D C,
into the required
Fig. 423, the cone
number
Figs. 421
lines,
as well as the
it is
ends
oi
the middle diameter.
When
desirable to substitute a step pulley for a con
like
F,
etc.,
of equal parts
and
divided
parallel
422.
drawn
at
These diameters are then taken
the different steps.
is
by
equal
distances.
as center lines for
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
278
have the same ratio of velocity, or as
termed a constant velocity ratio.
GEAR WHEELS.
When
two wheels with
parallel axes, as
shown
In
Fig. 424, are placed firmly together so as to form a
rolling contact, the
no slipping,
will
motion of one wheel, if there is
produce a motion in the other
The number of revohitions of the shafts will
and this
ratio will remain constant, provided there
a point on the rim of one wheel
the same rate of speed as any
will travel exactly at
point on the rim of the other wheel
this
kind
when
in
is
called a positive rotation.
positive
rotation
by
is
it is
ratio,
im.pos
hence, to
424.
secure this condition, the wheels are provided with
423.
teeth which will enable
in this case
surfaces
maintain a constant velocity
Fig.
be
no slipping.
With wheels having smooth
wheel
generally
inversely proportional to the diameters of the wheels,
sible to
Fig.
it is
a rotation of
Both wheels
rolling contact, will
them
to rotate without the
possibility of slipping.
To
avoid a separate velocity for each tooth and
to obtain
an equal speed velocity
in all parts of the
wheel, the teeth are designed with proper proportions,
which
will
be explained and illustrated hereafter.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
425.
279
r
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
280
The
rims of two imaginary wheels which have the
same axes and which would have the same velocity
ratio as two given gear wheels and the same width,
form what are z^\t.d, pitch surfaces ; the circles representing the section of both pitch surfaces, at right
angles to the axes, are called the pitch
The
circles.
If
addendum, and the part
of the outline or curve of the tooth on the addendum
is called the face of the touth, as shown in Fig. 425.
is
called the
That part of the tooth inside of the pitch circle is
called the dedendum, and the part of the surface of
the tooth inside of the pitch circle forming the front or
back of the dedendum
of the tooth.
The point where the flank and the face meet is called
the pitch point and is situated on the pitch circle.
The circle passing through the tops of the teeth is
called the addendum circle and is equal in diameter
to the blank or disc, from which the gear is to be cut.
circle
is
the diameter of the pitch circle
is
equal to D.
The circumference of the pitch circle is equal to
Let the number of teeth in the wheel
3.1416 X D.
3.1416 X D
be N.
Then
is the circular pitch.
part of a tooth in a gear wheel outside of
the pitch circle
The
Example
^y diametral pitch
is
meant the number
the gear per one inch of
in
Example
If
its
pitch circle diameter.
the diameter of the pitch circle
Inches,
of teeth
is
equal to
and the number of teeth equals
N
iy= diametral
then
pitch.
called the flank
passing through the bottom of the teeth
dedendum circle. The distance measured
on the pitch circle between the pitch points of two consecutive teeth is called the circular pitch of the gear
The circular pitch includes one thickness of
wheel.
tooth and one space between teeth the circular pitch
is equal to the circumferetice of the pitch circle
divided by the number of teeth in the gear wheel.
\'s,Z'A\&A\h.&
The diametral pitch expresses
in a direct and simmanner the ratio between the diameter of the
pitch circle and the number of teeth.
Usually it may
be expressed by a whole, number and therefore its
ple
form
is
convenient for expressing the proportions of
the teeth, which are usually dependent upon the
pitch, for this
made
in
Rule
reason nearly^all gear calculations are
terms of the diametral pitch.
To change the diametral pitch
to
circular pitch,
divide J. I ^16 by the diametral pitch.
To change the
circular to diametral pitch, divide j. 1^16 by circular
pitch.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
The proportions commonly adopted for gears
made with precision, are as follows
The addendum equals divided by the diametral
sometimes equal to yV of the circular pitch
good practice only for very rough castings.
pitch.
The
flank
and the dedendum
circle are
this
is
joined by
small arcs, to avoid sharp corners at the root of the
These are
tooth.
ExAMPLii:
If
281
the diametral pitch equals
dum
equals
tivice
the
The pitch
yi.
addendum
then the adden
circle diameter,
plus
equals the blank diameter of the
The dedendun
and are usually made
to oneseventh
between two consecutive teeth,
of the distance
measured on the adden
dum circle.
When
S^ear.
bottom clearance.
called filets
with a radius equal
is
equal
The
to the
addendum, plus the
clearance
to To the thickness of the tooth,
is
generally equal
measured on the
pitch line.
two gear wheels with parallel shafts are
turning one the othelv^the distance between the
centers of the shafts
eq\lal to the
diameters of both gears divided by
sum
of the pitch
2.
The thickness of the tooth and width of space,
measured on the pitch circle, are each equal to onehalf
the pitch, on carefully cut gears ; in practice, however, it is customary to make the width of the space
Example. Let D equal the pitch diameter of
one wheel and d the pitch diameter of the other
wheel then the distance between the centers in this
D + d
u
pair 01f i^ear wheels
is
;
The number of teeth
order to allow for inaccuracies of workmanship and
operating, unavoidable because of the
difificulty of
producing theoretically correct gears.
cast gears.
The
This
is
par
difference
between the thickness of the tooth and the width of
space is called the back lash ; the amount of back
lash necessary for a gear must be left to, the best
judgment of the designer in cast iron gears it is
;
slighth" larger than the thickness of the tooth, in
ticularly necessary in
is
is
found by dividing the
cir
cumference of the pitch circle by the circular pitch.
If the diametral pitch be given, the number of teeth
is
found
by multiplying the pitch diameter by the
diametral pitch.
The pitch diameter
is
found
by multiplying the
num,ber of teeth by the circular pitch
the product by j. 1^16.
and dividing
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
282
If the diametral pitch
ter can be
is
found by dividing
given, the pitch diamethe
number of
teeth by
The diameter of the blank equals the pitch diameter plus 2 divided by the diametral pitch.
If the number of teeth and the diametral pitch are
known, add 2 to the number of teeth and divide by
the diametral pitch.
classified as follows
When
the pitch circle
and the gear
is
them
The
pitch surfaces in this case are cones.
Bevel
gears of the same size connecting shafts at right
angles are called miter gears.
If the shafts are neither intersecting nor parallel,
the pitch surfaces will be hyperboloids of revolution
and the gears are called hyperbolic or skew gears.
gears enumerated up to the present, the
teeth are made with rectilinear elements and the
pitch surfaces touch each other along straight lines.
In
The
all
in
straight line
rack.
of teeth generally used
and
according to the methods of producing
cycloidal system of gearing was, for a long
is
of late, however, the
rapidly gaining in popularity and
engineers advocate
its
general application
in
cases.
well with their centers at varying distances and
transmit uniform velocity.
The
still
chief objection that
has been raised against involute teeth
is
of action, causing increased pressure
upon the bear
the obliquity
ings.
wound around a
and
the part which is off the circle is kept stretched and
straight, any point in it will describe a curve which
If
is
a flexible line be
the involute of the
To draw
circle,
circle.
the involute to a given
circle,
PABCO,
circle into any number
by the points P, A, B, C, D, etc.,
through which points draw tangents to the circle.
Fig. 426.
Gears are used for connecting shafts
which are at right angles to each other and which
do not meet when lengthened indefinitely in either
a diameter
become a
Involute teeth are of greater strength and will run
all
Worm
will
in spiral lines.
these are involute teeth and cycloidal teeth.
many
meet
made with
is
termed a
There are two kinds
classified
involute system
for shafts
it
time, used almost exclusively
which are parallel in this
case the pitch surfaces would be cylinders.
A gear wheel with a comparatively small number
Bevel gears for conof teeth is termed a pinion.
necting shafts which intersect when lengthened.
Spur Gears
pitch surfaces
definitely increased,
the diametral pitch.
Gears may be
The
direction.
Divide the given
of equal parts
Make
the length
Aa
equal to the length of one
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
AP, the length Bb equal to two such divisions Cc to three divisions, Dd to four and so on.
Through the points P, a, b, c, d, etc., draw the
division
required curve, which
is
a portion of
the circle's
called
the
283
line of
intersect the line
action).
HH
Let the base
at the point
W.
circle
From
this
base circle the involute is drawn, passing through
the point
and extending to the point V on the
involute.
The outline of an involute gear tooth is
made with a single curve, the involute of an
especially selected circle which
base
lies
The
circle.
in
base
is
called the
center of the base circle
the center of the pitch
circle
is
circle,
and the
always smaller than the pitch
circle.
manufacturers make the base
of an involute gear of different diameBrown and Sharp make the diameter
Different
circle
ters.
of the base circle equal to 0.968 of the pitch
circle.
The ordinary method
base circle
If
is
is
as follows:
the center of the wheel and P the
pitch circle,
dum
of finding the
draw the addendum and deden
circles, Fig. 427.
Take any
Fig.
426.
point O, as the pitch point on
the pitch circle and draw a radial line
HH
through
Draw a line EE making an angle of
this point.
radial line HH.
with
the
The base circle is
75
found by drawing inside of the given wheel, a circle
tangent to the inclined line, EE (which line is
addendum
circle.
The
the base circle and the
and
is
No
part
between
of the flank
dedendum
circle
is
straight
part of the radius of the circle.
wheel having
rectly together
less
when
than 12 teeth
the base circle
will
is
gear cor
laid out in
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
384:
this
manner
in
practice a curve wliich approximates
is generally employed.
Sharp system the line of action
is drawn so as to make an angle of 75 3^, Fig. 428.
This is true for gears having more than thirty teeth
for gears having a smaller number of teeth,
the required involute curve
Brown
In the
&
special rules are followed.
&
The Brown
Sharp method explained
above cannot be used for involute gears
having less than thirty teeth, as the space
left at the root is too narrow for the free
motion of the mating gear. In such cases
the curve is drawn from the base circle to
the addendum from the base circle to the
dedendum circle, the flank is drawn parallel
to a radius of the wheel through the middle
of the space between two adjoining teeth,
the dedendum circle by ah arc or fillet.
;
being joined to
In an involute rack,
straight lines passing
in Fig. 429.
The
in
many
shops,
the
teeth
through the pitch points of the
are
made with
teeth, as
shown
direction of the straight edges of the teeth
right angles to the line
of action,
angles of 75 with the pitch
line.
that
is
is
at
generally lines making
For racks which are
to run with
pinions having fewer than thirty teeth, the outline of the teeth on
the rack near the
addendum
the flank of the pinion tooth.
Fw.
427.
outline of a tooth
is
are rounded to prevent interference with
In the cycloidal system of gearing the
made by a double curve
here the face
is
a por
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
the generating circle rolls along a straight line
If
it
285
will describe a cycloid.
along the outside of a
rolls
and when
epicycloid,
circle,
it
The
the generating circle
If
circle
will describe
it
an
rolling along the inside of a
will describe a hypoc\'cloid.
construction of these curves
and 432,
draw the cycloid
is
shown
in Figs.
430, 431
Fig.
tion of an epicycloid
both joined
If
in
a circle
428.
To
and the flank a hypocycloid,
the pitch point.
is
made
it
to roll along a straight line,
always remaining
in the same plane, a point in the
circumference of the rolling circle will describe a
cycloidal curve.
The
rolling circle
erating circle or describing
line
is
called the gen
Fig. 430,
in
Describe the generating
any number
into
From
3, 4, etc.
of equal parts
draw a straight
and divide
circle
by the points
i,
2,
B, the point of contact of the gen
erating circle with the straight
equal to the portions of the
distances
line, set off
BC
so that
be
length to onehalf of the circumference of
rolling circle and will be divided into the same
equal
thfe
circle.
AC.
will
in
number
of equal parts
Through
.cf/'/^v"
circle,
ABC.
generating circle
;
Through the center of
draw a line parallel to the
this line will cut the
points
2',3',
i',
etc.
these points draw lines perpendicular
to the line
AC
by the points
a, b,
c,
d,
e,
etc.
perpendicular
With these
the
line
in the
points as
centers, describe arcs of circles with a diameter
equal to the diameter of the generating
These
i',
2',
arcs will touch the line
3',
4',
429.
circle,
Through
circle.
in the points
the point
draw a line parallel
ting the arc which passes through i'.
generating
Fig.
etc.
AC
to
on the
AC,
cut
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
286
through the point 2'.
Through the points 4, 5, 6,
etc., in the generating circle, draw parallels to meet
radial lines extended outside of the base circle AC
and cutting them in the points a, b, c. d, etc., by a
circle having one common center with the base
circle and passing through the center of the gener
the arcs cutting the points
ating circle O.
Through point
line parallel to
The
draw a
and cutting the arc which passes
3 in the generating circle,
AC
3', 4', 5',
etc.,
respectively.
With the
intersections of these lines with the arcs deter
points
a, b, c, d,
etc.,
draw
as centers,
mine the required curve.
Fig. 431.
To draw the epicycloid, describe the
arcs with a radius equal to the radius of the gener
generating circle tangent to the circumference of the
given circle at the point B.
Divide the generating
the points
circle into
any number of equal parts by the points
1,
etc.
2,
3,
4,
Set
ofi
ating circle, these arcs touching the base circle in
etc.,
the equal portions of the
generating circle on the circumference of the given
circle
by the points
i',
2', 3',
etc.,
etc.
3',
AC,
the points
etc.,
430.
Through the
points
i, 2,
3,
the generating circle draw arcs concentric
i',
points
epicycloid.
Fig.
2',
with the base circle
these
through which draw
in
1',
2',
of
3',
to
meet the
respectively,
intersection
draw
arcs touching
and through
the
required
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
288
The
hypocycloid
shown
in Fig. 432.
To
is
drawn
in the
same manner,
as
same generating circle should
be used for both face and flank of the teeth in the
mating gear.
flank of one wheel, the
lay out the outlines of a cycloidal gear,
the pitch
circle, Fig. 433,
and divide
of equal parts, corresponding to the
required.
Each one
of these parts
is
it
into a
draw
number
number of
teeth
equal to the
cir
Bisect each one of these
cular pitch of the wheel.
pitch distances to obtain the thickness of the tooth
and the width
the space
of
Wherever necessary make
thickness,
thus
between the
teeth.
the space larger than the
providing for back lash.
draw the addendum and dedendum
the proper describing
circle.
circles,
The
Next,
and
profile
select
of the
dedendum and the pitch circle,
tooth, is made by an epicycloid gen
tooth between the
the face of the
erated by the generating circle as
it
rolls
along the
circumference of the pitch circle.
The flank, that
the outline of the tooth between the pitch circle
When the outline
one tooth is found, a template
to one of its sides and by
attaching this template to an arm of suitable length,
which may be held to the center of the wheel by a
pin, we can swing it around and bring it in position
to draw the profiles of the rest of the teeth.
of thick paper
of
may be cut
would be too much to describe all teeth
by tracing for each one of them the proper cycloidal
curves, it is usual to approximate these curves by
means of circular arcs. We find an arc which very
Since
it
closely coincides with the proper curve for the face,
and the same
is
done
for the flank.
until the
proper arc
is
circle,
is
a hypocycloid of a
generating circle equal to the above generating circle,
or, if convenient, with a generating circle having a
is found to be the center
In Fig. 435, the point
which very closely coincides with the flank
of an arc
of the tooth ab.
tric
different diameter.
Draw
with the pitch
a circle through A, concen
circle.
The
for the flanks of the rest of the
For two gears which are
to run together, as in Fig.
434, the faces of the teeth in both wheels must be
described by one generating circle.
Wherever one
generating circle
is
used for the face as well as the
centers of
found.
is
and the dedendum
The
these arcs are found by trying with the compass
will lie in
centers of
all
teeth in this
the circumference of this
circle,
arcs
gear
and the
To draw
radii of these arcs will equal in length Aa.
the flank d on the tooth cd, set the compasses to a
radius equal to Aa, put the needle point in d and
^. .
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
438.
*^.~
289
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
290
J)e5cribit\g C/rc/e
^pjcycloid
Fig.
433.
"',
'^^
c/
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
291
rxpxiFh^
(^^]
^^ ^
^ry^
r~~~.
\'
f/
f\
/S.
O/
"""\//x
\ \_3t
)
P<('"V
r~^
cl
^p
}p
\i
'bAcf
/""^^^
\
V'^
^^^
\^
I
434.
^
/^>. ^
^\/^^\\ y^^ C
h
/ V y c
^^_^ ^\y s\
\
^
CA.
s
.^
\
Fig.
(\^
X)^"^
h/\fkj
^7
^
r\A
^
yi
Sf
ROGERS' DRAWING
292
A2 by
cut the circle
the arc at the point
this
point will be the center for the arc of the flank
way
In this
When
all
flanks
may be
d.
drawn.
the center of an arc, which as closely as
found, the circle of centers for the faces
and all arcs for the faces of the teeth will
is
drawn,
is
lie in this
circle
circle equals onehalf of the pitch
15
tooth
12
circle
may
be,
within
certain
any diameter, so long as it is not greater
than the radius of the wheel on which it is used.
When the diameter of the generating circle is equal
to the radius of the pitch circle, the path of any
limits, of
point in the circumference of the generating circle
a straig^ht
According
line.
to the
diameter of a
According to other practice a
pinion.
is
In Fig. 436,
taken as the base.
is
shown a
and pinion.
cycloidal rack
The
curves of the teethprofiles for the rack are
generated by rolling the generating circle along each
side of the pitch line,
set
The generating
DESIGN.
tooth pinion
possible coincides with the face of the tooth ab
is
AND
on which
all
pitch points are
off.
in which the teeth are on the inside
termed an annular or internal gear
In such a gear the teeth correspond with the spaces
of an external gear of the same pitch circle, as do
spur gear
of the rim
is
also the other proportions of the teeth.
consequently designed
the
in
manner
They
are
described
above as involute or as cycloidal gears.
Brown
&
Sharp system,
in cy
diameter of the generating circle
of a 15tooth gear of the pitch
radius
the
to
is equal
The
required, this being the base of the system.
have
double
curves,
this
system
rack
of
of
the
teeth
cloidal gearing, the
One
particular rule
the diameters
great as the
must be observed
internal gears
epicycloidal
of the pitch
sum of
in
regard to
the difference between
circles
must
the diameters
be at least as
of the
desci'ibing
which may be traced by the base circle, rolling alThe same
ternately on each side of the pitch line.
generating circle is used for all gears of the same
circles.
pitch.
cases the shafts are at right angles with each other.
According to the prevailing
the
practice, the flank of
15tooth pinion in cycloidal gearing
radial
is
made
accordingly the diameter of the generating
Bevel gears are used to connect two shafts which
intersect when lengthened indefinitely.
In most
The
pitch surfaces of bevel gears are cones which
have a
common
vertex, the point of intersection of
the axes of the shafts. Fig. 437.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fio.
435.
293
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Before proceeding to draw a pair of bevel gears
draw a section through the shafts of both gears,
thus showing a section of onehalf of each gear.
Draw the two axes of the shafts, OA and OB meeting at O, Fig. 438 shows the two axes at right angles
with each other.
Determine the diameter of the largest pitch
cir
gears proportionate to the required
corresponding to the circles which
cles in the bevel
velocity
ratio
form the bases of the two pitch cones.
Let
be the
ef
larger,
maximum
pitch diameter of
from and
parallel to
An
indefinite
OB draw the
the line gh parallel to
OA,
draw
"
awaj'
then draw
Through the
OA
lines parallel to
h lines parallel to OB.
distance
line ef
each one of these lines
being bisected by the axes.
f
the
and gh the maximum pitch diameter of the
smaller bevel gear.
and
The
points e
and through g and
lines intersect in the
F and H. Connect the point O by straight
F and H. The resulting
points E,
lines with the points E,
triangles
EOF
and
FOH
are sections of the pitch
Make FG equal to the
cones of the bevel gear.
From the point G
width of the face of the teeth.
draw the
lines
respectively.
IG and GJ
Each one
parallel to
of the gears
EF
is
and
FH
then com
pleted separately with the required proportions for
the teeth.
The manner
in
which
this
is
done
is
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fio.
438.
295
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
296
In this figure,
illustrated In Fig. 439.
ABC is
a part
of the pitch cone laid out according to the principles
maximum
pitch circle
is
This view must be drawn first. K are the outline's of the teeth of a spur gear laid out for a pitch
then divided Into a number
Through each one
required.
explained with Fig. 438.
Is
of equal parts corresponding to the
drawn to the center
the teeth.
lines of
shown
at
number
of teeth
of the divisions a line
these lines are the center
The
proportions of the teeth
are then set off from each center line
diameter equal to the maximum pitch of the bevel
gear.
The proportions of the teeth on the bevel
for the purpose of forming the projection of
from these outlines. EB and BD
the line ED
are the addendum and dedendum
the
line
AB of the
being drawn at right angles to
dendum
gear are laid
off
pitch cone.
BF
is
made
equal to the length
of
a line perpendic
the teeth on the bevel gear at
B is drawn, and the addendum and dedenular to
;
The
teeth.
distance a
is
set off
the distance b oA the
circle,
the
on the largest de
maximum
pitch
on the addendum circle. All
these lengths are set off so as to be bisected by the
center line of the tooth for which they are incircle
projection
of
the distance
tended.
dum
of the smallest outline of the tooth
is
deter
The
mined by the intersection of the line GH with
Next the other view is
the lines EA and DA.
tooth
drawn.
addendum
Is
the smallest
profile of
the
obtained by drawing radial lines from the
points at the
addendum
circle
to
of the large profile to the
the smallest
addendum
cir
cle.
perpena line drawn parallel to BC.
OJ
dicular to this line dropped from the point B determines the maximum pitch circle and a perpendicis
ular
from the point
the
minimum
The
pitch
points of
drawing radial
pitch circle.
tooth for the projec
the
tion of the smallest profile at
lines
L,
is
obtained by
from the pitch points of the
large profile to the smallest pitch circle, and
In the same manner the
dum
addendum and deden
circles for the largest as well as for the smallest
profiles of the teeth
may be found by dropping
pendiculars from the points
and G,
per
D and H. The
root of the smallest profile
manner by drawing
is
obtained in the same
radial lines
from the dedendum
points of the large profile to the smallest
circle.
the
dedendum
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
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fe
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fe===:z^
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Fig.
439.
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X^^V \
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^v^""^^
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III
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7^^
p
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W;;:
III
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1
::sA
:%^^>^
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A.
p""^ W^"^^^r :"
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297
"^h^^.~.
DESIGN,
^feSSi^ J^^
^^
1A \\
!
'
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ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
298
When made by
In speaking of the diameter of a bevel gear, the
largest diameter of the pitch cone
The
is
teeth will be straight.
meant.
by the
between the pitch diameter of a
number of teeth and velocities are
the same as for spur gears, and all calculations are
made in the'same manner.
relations
shown
The worm may be drawn
The worm may
aid of helices like a screw.
Figs. 443
gear.
worm
and 444 show the outside views of a
Fig. 446 also shows tl)e outside view
of a complete tooth.
views of a
The drawing of
the outside views of
at riofht anofles to
it,
when
shaft to another
worm
gear and
worm shown
in Figs.
443 and 444 are used. The section of the worm
shown in Fig. 445 is of the same outlines as a rack
of corresponding pitch, and may be of either the
involute or cycloidal form.
generally adopted,
duce.
The worm
The diameter
as
is
of the
its
The
involute form
teeth are
is
easier to pro
cut in a lathe like a screw.
worm
is
ordinarily taken about
5 times the pitch, although it could be made of any
convenient diameter. The worm must always be
the driver.
It is not well adapted to the transmis
sion of
heavy power, as the tooth action
is
purely a
slidingf one.
Fig. 446
made by
shows a
partial section
of a
worm
gear
a plane perpendicular to the axis of the
worm through
the axis of the gear.
worm
gear
is wholly unnecessary for the purposes of machine
shop construction, to make complete outside views
it
the axes of the shaft do not
;
intersect, the
'i
Fortunately, however,
involves considerable labor.
For transmitting motion from one
worm
also be single, double, etc., like a screw.
bevel gear pitch,
In Figs. 440, 441 and 442 are
completed bevel gear.
the involute system the
of
worm
gears.
of bevel gears.
The same
is
also true in the case
most generally
The wheel is usually
sectional view
is
adopted to show the wheel.
made to embrace about onesixth the circumference
of the
worm.
vVhen the diameter of the worm is increased and
approaches the diameter of the wheel and when the
worm is given a multiple thread and the number of
teeth in the worm wheel is comparatively low, then
both worm and worm wheel take the shape of spiral
gears.
To add strength to spur gears, the rim is made
wider than the teeth, and is carried outward, as
shown in Figs. 447 and 448. This is called shrouding of the teeth.
If two wheels gearing together
do not differ greatly in diameter, each may be
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
440.
Fig.
UL
299
Fig.
442.
ROGERS' DRAWING
300
shrouded to the pitch on both sides but when one
is very much larger than the other, it is usual to
shroud the smaller only.
;
For
shown
light spur gears the rim
The
in Fig. 449.
is
section
made
generally
shown
in Fig.
as
Sections of arms for gear wheels are shown
For
number
is
The
of
Fig. 453
light spur gears the
arms
is
diameter of the pitch circle
nearest even number may be taken.
of the
following manner.
X width
arm
is
equal to
of tooth
diam.
The
thicknes of hub
The
length of the hub
The
cir
circular pitch
0.2
pitch diameter
in
is,
most
cases, equal to
may vary up
it
pressure on one tooth
to i}4 times
then,
may be
taken, for mqat
purposes, to equal  of the whole pressure that is
of the driving force at the pitch line, calculated from
;
the horse
power and the speed.
=H
inches.
arms may be calculated in the
In the arm shown in Fig. 451
the greatest breadth of the
1.6
in
1.6
4 when
approximately
the
The width
The
for bevel gears.
is
is
the width of the tooth.
shown in Fig. 451 is used. For heavy spur
wheels the sections shown in Fig. 452 is adopted.
section in
thickness of the
in
section
The
hub
practical rule for finding the
the width of the tooth
terms of the circular pitch of the gears.
and 453.
DESIGN.
450
shows the rim of a heavy spur gear. The proportions marked on the sections in these figures are in
Figs. 451, 452
AND
where
ity of
the spur gear.
wheel
is
33,000
the given horse
The
power and
velocity
the veloc
of the given
found by multiplying the circumference in
feet by the number of revolutions per minute.
The
thickness of the tooth on the pitch line may be found
from the following formula,
c,
is
?'.
cular
2
and
pitch
pitch
X number
of teeth
Square of thickness=
3 times pressure
for the other sections,
T53
X pitch diameter
X number of teeth.
width of tooth
2
on one tooth
safe stress
For
cast iron gears the safe stress
to equal 4,000
pounds per
sq. in.
may be
taken
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fia.
443.
Fia.444,
301
302
ROGERS' DRAWING
AND
DESIGN.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
FlO. Hi.
Fig.
303
4i8.
Fig.
451.
rS
f ^M
*
047
Fig.
452.
Fig.
453.
B
FiQ.aa.
ITiO. 450.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
304
F shall make 50 revolutions, then
value of the train is equal to 50.
said that the
it is
That is, the value of a train of gear wheels is
equal to the number of revolutions in the last follower in a given time, divided by the number of
revolutions of the main driver in the same time.
teeth, the
Suppose that the first wheel had
second B, the third C teeth, the fourth wheel D
then,
teeth, the next E and the last F teeth
Fig.
454.
Example
If
the whole driving force at the pitch circle
^== the velocity ratio between the
equal to 12,000 pounds, then the pressure on one
tooth will be
11
thickness
The
01
8, coo
1
the
pounds, and the square of the
111
wul
tooth
8,000
equal
^
the square root of
6,
i. e.,
2.449
">
^^Y '^%
and the
second axes upon which are fastened the wheels B
and
 =
=6.
4,000
thickness of the tooth must then be equal to
first
is
the velocity ratio between the second and
third axes
JE ^^ velocity ratio between third and fourth axes,
\nc\\
T
and
TRAINS OF GEAR WPiEELS.
When
a train of gear wheels
machine, the usual arrangement
is
is
employed
to
gear wheels of unequal size upon every
in
D X
the train.
except
Example
axis,
first
Let
==
,^
two extreme
fasten two
and the last, and to make the larger wheel
of any pair engage the smaller one of the next pair.
If the wheel A in Fig. 454 is the driving wheel,
and the wheel F the last follower, and if it be determined that for each single revolution of A, the wheel
the
C
X
the velocity ratio
between the
h
axes, that
is, it
will
equal the value of
have 120
teeth,
15 teeth,
150 teeth and F 30 teeth.
Then, the value of the train is equal to
50 teeth,
120
100
X
15
50
150
80
100 teeth,
METAL WORKING MACHINERY.
The
discovery of metals and the means of working them are
among
the
first
stages in the develop
of primeval man
the earliest evidence of a knowledge and use of metals is found in the primitive
implements of the socalled Bronze and Iron Age. Attention is called to the interesting note below.
The Old Testament mentions six metals gold, silver, copper, iron, tin and lead ; the old Greeks in
addition to these, and to bronze, came also to know mercury ; the same set of metals without addiabout
tions seem to be the only ones known until the Fifteenth Century when atitimony was discovered
arsenic
and
cobalt
were
discovered
in
in
the
A.
D.,
discovered,
nickel
and
manganese
were,
1730
1774;
meantime something had become known in a general way of zinc, bismuth diXxA platinum.
Since the date last mentioned the discovery of many rare metals has become frequent, aluminum
being among the last most useful and interesting discoveries of metals unknown at the beginning of the
Nineteenth Century.
The following pages deal, in text and illustrations, with iron working machinery, as agamst those
machines devised to work i7i luood, etc., and few as are the cases named they show vividly the progress
made in the methods of working the metals named.
In designitig machines it is well to keep in mind, i, that each machine ought to be made of as lew
parts as possible, 2, as simple as possible, 3, the strength of every part should be made proportional to
the stress it has to bear, 4, all superfluous weight which clogs the machine's motion should be avoided,
5, all parts should be contrived to last equally well, 6, in wheels with teeth, the number of teeth that
play together ought to be so constructed that the same teeth may not meet at every revolution, but as
seldom as possible.
ment
Note.
" Some recent analyses of the iron of prehistoric weapons have brought to light the
interesting fact that
many
of the prehistoric
specimens of iron manufacture contain n consiilerable percenlage of nickel. This special alloy does not occur in any known iron ores but is
It thus appears that iron was manufactured from meteorolites which had fallen to the earth in an almost
invariably found in meteoric iron.
pure metallic state, possibly long before prehistoric man had learned how to dig for and smelt iron in any of the forms of ore which are found
on this planet." Enc. Briiannica.
307
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
308
DES AND
The
has an opening exactly equal to the form of the
punch.
PRESSES.
use of dies and presses has increased in
recent years to an almost marvelous extent, and a
numberless variety of articles are now being pressed
out easily and rapidly by the aid of dies, which in
former times involved great labor as well as a long
special training.
The number and
are so very large that
book
to give
it is
list
is
preferably
made
in
one piece with the punch.
variety of dies
beyond the
even a partial
Fig. 455 shows a punch and die for a circular
The narrow part of the punch, the shank,
blank.
limits of this
or classification of
these useful tools.
In this section
we
shall limit ourselves to a
few
examples of the most frequently employed forms of
dies, so as to give the reader an opportunity to acquaint himself with this importamt part of modern
mechanism sufficiently to understand further special
literature upon this subject, if it should be the
desire of the reader to make a thorough study of
this branch of machine shop practice.
The
simplest form
Blanking dies are
of a
made
die
for the
is
a blanking
Fig.
purpose of cutting
out various pieces of metal from a comparatively
thin sheet of metal, cardboard, etc., leaving the cut
out piece perfectly
flat
this piece
is
called a blank.
set of blanking dies consists of a
punch, and the lower or female
die.
male
die, or
The lower
455.
die.
die
The shank
is
fastened to the
ram of the press,
while
secured to the bed of the press.
The
taper of the lower die gives the clearance, required
the die
is
purpose of facilitating the dropping of the
blank from the die as soon as it is cut the clearance is made from
to 3' for average work.
for the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
For the purpose
of greater rapidity of
309
work and
uniformity in the matter of spacing the holes, dies
and. punches are grouped; that
Fig.
is,
several punches
456.
are fastened to one shank, while several separate
openings are worked out in the lower die to correspond with the number of required separate dies, if
the work were done by single dies.
Fig. 458.
V
Fio. 457
shows such a gang die, as it is called,
made for cutting out washers of the shape shown in
Fig. 459. One stroke of the die produces two holes,
as shown in Fig. 4^7.
The metal is fed into the
Fig. 458
KiG.
459.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
310
die from
punch
The
the side of the smaller hole.
will cut
a hole in
it
small
equal to the inside diam
eter of the washer, as shown
in
Fig. 456
the metal
then advanced and at the second stroke the large
punch will cut out the complete washer, while the
is
which is made very sharp for that
purpose.
The diameter of the punch is equal to
the diameter of the die, minus two times the thickoff
by the edge
P,
ness of the blank.
small punch pierces the metal for the next washer at
the
same
stroke.
The
plate
S,
Fig. 458,
is
the
stripper which takes the metal off the punches on
Fig.
460.
upward stroke. It is evident that the metal
must be fed below the stripper.
Fig. 461 shows the simplest form of a drawing
punch and die. The flat circular blank. Fig. 460,
is placed upon the die so as to fit the set edge S,
and is pushed through the die by the punch. While
the punch returns upward, the finished shell is pulled
their
Fig.
461.
Fig. 462 shows the shell.
This simple form of a
drawing die should be used only on shallow work,
to avoid crimping around the edge of the shell.
When the blank is held firmly while being drawn,
the crimping even on deeper work may be avoided.
ROGERS' DRAWING
AND
DESIGN.
311
(O;
r^
tr
\^
Fig.
%J'
tr
Fig.
463.
Fio.
464.
Fig.
465.
466.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
312
Another gang
die
shown
is
in Figs.
463 and 465.
Fig. 466 is the blank, Fig. 465 the top view of the
lower die and stripper Fig. 464, a sectional view of
;
the
same
and Fig. 463 shows the punch
Fig.
In Fig. 468
relative
is
in section.
469.
shown a type of a die, which by its
when compared with the work
simplicity
produced, will always stand as a beautiful example
of mechanical ingenuity.
T^G.
468.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
It is
erall)
a singleaction cutting
and drawing
die,
called a singleaction combination die;
genit is
continues until the drawing punch C is drawn down
on the drawing die D, when the blank is drawn into
the required shape.
combination of a blanking and a drawing die in one
it cuts the blank and draws it up into the shell shown
In descending the
in Fig. 467 at the same stroke.
blank is cut by the edge of the blanking punch B,
meetinor the edge of the blanking die A.
Fig. 469
Fig.
470
is
shows a sheet iron dynamo armature disc.
a section on a larger scale of a set of
dies of latest construction, designed for cutting such
The blank
Fig.
313
These
discs.
dies are
made
to cut discs
up to 100"
470.
then held firmly by the blank holder ring E and
forced down together with it, by continued downward motion of the blanking punch B. The blank
diameter, and it is claimed that when the press is
run at a speed of 55 revolutions per minute, nearly
6,000 sheets 20" in diameter may be produced in ten
forced up by the elastic force of the rubber spring barrel R upon which the ring sets, through
the medium of six pins passing through the bolster or
The descent of the blanking punch B
die holder.
hours.
is
is
holder ring
is
in
Fig. 471 shows a wellknown type of punching and
shearing machine.
It will be noticed that the ma
chine
is
powerfully geared.
The machine
is
really
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
314
a form of a press and contains
all
essential parts of
such a mechanism.
It will also
be noticed that the machine
with a stop clutch, operated by a footlever.
tion of a stopclutch
to suddenly
constantly
make
following
is,
is
equipped
metals, as
The func
Drill
is
table
sizes
of
of drills
the
and
speeds
of
for different
recommended by the Cleveland Twist
Company
at the will of the operator,
Table of Drill Speeds.
a driving connection between the
revolving gear wheel and the tempor
ary stationary main shaft.
Its further
purpose
is
to
members again automatically, after
has made exactly one revolution and when
disconnect these
the shaft
The
drills for different
the punch has reached
its
Diam
Speed
Speed
Speed
Diam
Speed
Speed
Speed
eter of
for Soft
for Soft
Steel.
for
Brass.
eter of
Drill.
for Cast
Iron.
Drill.
Steel.
for Cast
Iron.
for
Brass.
1,824
2,128
3,648
ItV
108
125
"215
912
1,064
1,824
102
118
203
608
710
1,216
lA
96
112
192
456
532
912
li
91
106
182
365
425
730
101
174
355
608
ItV
If
87
304
260
228
83
97
165
304
520
lA
80
93
159
266
456
76
89
152
lA
78
85
146
70
82
140
highest open position.
DRILLING MACHINES.
mechanism of the greatest importance in a
machine shop is the drilling machine. The ordinary
machines are genercomplicated
machine
tool, presenting
ally called, is a
a great number of interesting mechanical principles
It is, however, not within the scope
to the student.
of this book to take up extensively the construction
of this machine the figure on page 317 is an example of this class of machinery the drawing shows
a bench drill, which embodying, as it does, all the
parts essential to any drilling machine, will enable
the student to understand the favorite types of the
drill press, as the larger drilling
1
t'h
1
203
182
166
236
405
213
194
365
332
^\
68
79
135
152
177
304
If
65
76
130
fF
140
164
280
63
73
125
I
If
130
152
260
60
71
122
122
114
142
243
in
59
69
118
133
228
57
67
114
tV
5
w
f
drilling machine.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN,
316
shows a side elevation of a bench drill
and practical design, suitable for drilling
small holes.
A front view of this machine is illus
The number
Fig. 472
of a neat
trated in Fig. 473, while
view of the same.
The
474 exhibits a top
Fig.
principal parts of the
driving cone pulley, as well as the fast and
loose pulley are
at the
The
mounted upon one horizontal
back of the frame near
its
shaft,
is
led
in this
presses
drill
type the work
is
is
which
known
is
particularly
as the radial
drill
not shifted, after drilling a
more holes
be drilled into the
same surface
the drill spindle, with its entire
mechanism is mounted upon a heavy cast iron ai^m,
which swings horizontally upon the frame of the
hole,
there are
if
to
the
arm may be lowered or
raised to suit
the work, and the spindle carriage can be
moved
in
or out on the arm, to suit conditions.
to the
point.
The lower end
of the spindle
is
receive the drilling tool.
The weight of drill,
move down
ward or upward together with these parts are
counterbalanced by a weight which is hidden in the
hollow frame.
For the upward and downward
motion of the spindle a pinion and rack motion is
The
table m.iy also be lowered or raised
according to the requirement of the work.
The Milling Machine may be
is
chuck, spindle and other parts which
provided.
THE MILLING MACHINE.
provided with a
thread for the purpose of holding a chuck which
to
of
cone pulley, which
mounted upon the vertical spindle near its highest
in a horizontal direction
is
class
adapted for larger work
machine
lower end.
upward from the cone
pulley over two horizontal guide pulleys, and then
driving belt
also for
machines is
Large drilling machines are used
tapping holes and are generally provided
of varieties of drilling
rapidly.
with automatic feed.
machine are the vertical
spindle, holding the drilling tool, a table upon which
the work to be drilled is held, and a rigid frame to
which all parts of the machine are fastened.
The
growing
classed as a combi
nation of several other machine tools used for cutting
metals
is
the work that can be done on this machine
not limited to either straight or curved surfaces,
or drilling of holes
machine does not
in
general construction this
differ greatly
drill press, in fact it
In this machine the table
held
is
movable
from an ordinary
can often be used in
in all
its
place.
upon which the work
is
directions, without disturbing
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
317
3ji'
Fio.
Fig.
472.
Fig.
473.
474.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
318
the adjustment of the work, which
is
fed either auto
hand feed, while the rotating cutter
removes the superfluous metal.
matically or by
In illustrations Nos. 475 and 476 are illustrated
an approved form of a vertical spindle milling
machine.
shows the front view of this machine,
and Fig. 476 shows the side elevation. The whole
machine is an advanced type of a modern milling
machine and produces an impression of strength
and neatness of design.
Fig. 475
The
vertical spindle of this
diameter
fully 3" in
machine
is
made
the lower end of the spindle
provided with a thread for large
mills,
working
is
in a
horizontal plane.
77^1?
are 5
platen as well as the saddle of this machine
1]/^'
long.
All feed screws are provided with
dials, thus enabling accurate work
ient
in a
most conven
manner.
The
platen
largest distance between the spindle
is
2ii/^".
The extreme
and the
distance between
table and the vertical spindle is 16".
There are fully eight changes of feed for the table
and sixteen changes for the rotary attachment.
the rotary
The dimensions
follows:
Height
machine over all, are as
width 65" and depth 88}4"
of this
81",
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
476.
319
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
320
>
^
i^S
\
rsr
en
Fig.
FlO.
4TT.
478,
DRAWING AND DESIGN.
321
THE LATHE.
The most important machine
shop
tool in a
is
undoubtedly the lathe.
It is used for a great variety
of purposes and for this reason it is made in many
different special forms and designs.
The simplest
to 479.
It
kind of a lathe
work which can be run
small
The
parts
lathe
is
shown
called a speed lathe
is
composed
is
in Figs.
and
is
477
used for
at a high speed.
of the following principal
I.
2.
345
By means
The bed.
The legs or supports.
The head stock.
The tail stock.
The tool rest.
of the steps in the
cofie
pulley on the
head stock different changes of speed of the spindle
The tool rest, V\^^. \%o and 481,
is adjustable in all directions, but it is not provided
can be obtained.
with automatic feed connections.
The
ordinary engine lathe, used for heavier and
more accurate work, has the same main
speed
with
lathe.
its
In this lathe, however, the carriage
tool support
is
moved over
bed by the lead screw and
screw
is
parts as the
its
the shears
connections.
splined and the feed
mechanism
of the
The
is
lead
driven
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
322
from a collar which has feather engaging the spline
and slides over the lead screw. The form of thread
used on lead screws is somewhat similar to a square
thread with sides forming an angle of 14^ degrees.
2^.
The
lead screw
is
driven from the spindle of the
head stock by gear wheel connections.
The head stock of an engine lathe, in two views, is
shown in Figs. 482 and 483. Fig. 482 shows an elevation of the head stock, and Fig. 483 represents its
plan or top view, the back gears being plainly shown.
Large engine lathes are also provided with a
screw
separate feed shaft besides the lead
shaft
is
driven by a belt
the stud, and
is
upon
is
fitted
it
can slide on
splined lengthwise
this
it
shaft
in
lengthwise,
this
pulleys,
from
a splined
worm
and cone
but
is
held by two
turn with the feed shaft.
worm engages
in a
be run with the back gears
idle,
with the spindle gear; in this
by locking the cone
way
the spindle has
only the changes in spindle speed depending upon
the steps of the cone pulley as in the speed lathe.
The gear wheels at
the back of the head stock reduce
the speed of the spindle and a double
number
of
speed can thus be obtained.
Figs. 486 and 487 show the mannfer in which the
spindle gear may be connected with the lead screw
gear, for producing different feeds.
changes
in
CHANGING GEARS FOR SCREW CUTTING.
The problem
of cutting a screw on a lathe resolves
connecting the spindle of the lathe with
the lead screw by a number of gears in such a manitself into
wormwheel, connected
by a clutch to a gear, which meshes with a rack
under the front edge of the lathebed. By means
of this clutch the feed can be engaged or disengaged. The wormwheel also connects with a
clutch, which will operate the crossfeed of the tool.
Both clutches are operated by knobs at the front
of the apron.
484 shows the longitudinal section and Fig.
a cross or lateral section of the tailstock of a
485
lathe of the usual form.
All backgeared lathes can
is
such a manner that
projections on the apron of the carriage, so that it
will slide with the carriage and at the same time
This
Fig.
ner
that
the
carriage,
moved by
the lead screw,
advances exactly one inch during the lapse of time
required for the lathe spindle to
revolutions equal to the
inch in the
The
lead
thread, and,
desired
number
make
number
of
of threads to the
screw.
screw has,
nearly
therefore, to
move
always,
the
a single
carriage for
ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.
CenferLine
3" td.m S/ideTTest
Ufi
I
^
Fig.
481.
323
324
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fto.
482.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fio.
483.
325
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
326
ward
just
one inch
revolutions equal to
inch.
know
It
the
is,
it
its
must make a number
own number
consequently,
number
first
of
of threads per
of all necessary to
of threads per inch on the lead
that the gear on the spindle has double the
screw.
The
Number
spindle of the lathe
provided with a gear
is
with the lead screw
or cotnpoujid gearing.
In simple gearing the motion of the stud gear
is
on stud gear
Number of turns of spindle
Number of turns of stud
by
Number
It is
multipled
of threads on the lead screw
Divided by number of threads per inch
on required screw.
Problem
The connection of the stud
may be accomplished by simple
of teeth
Divided by number of teeth on lead screw gear
which transmits the rotary motion of the spindle to
the stud gear, below the spindle, by means of intermediate gears, situated within the head stock. There
are two of these intermediate gears, one being an
idle gear, for the purpose of changing the direction
of the motion of the stud and through this the lead
screw.
number
on the stud.
The following formula will give the required ratio
for the gears on the stud and on the lead screw
of teeth than that
required to cut a screw with i6 threads to
the inch
the lead screw has 8 threads to the inch
and the spindle makes 20 turns
to
40 turns of the
transmitted either direct or by means of an inter
stud.
One
mediate gear to the gear on the lead screw.
or more intermediate gears, which simply transmit
Solution
the motion received from one gear to another, do
Number
of teeth
on stud gear
20
Number
of teeth
on lead screw gear
40
16
not affect the
resulting ratio of a train of gears.
Consequently, the intermediate gears
ing will be disregarded in
all
in
simple gear
calculations for screw
stud gear
required ratio
is
one to
four,
i.e.,
when the
stud gear will have 16 teeth the lead screw gear will
cutting.
The
The
is
usually equal to the driving gear
on the spindle; it may, however, be of a different
size and in the following problem it will be assumed
have 16 X 4^64 teeth; now if the stud gear will
have 20 teeth the lead screw gear will have 20X4
80 teeth and so on.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
, .ftfN}}WW?^.V/?f
Fig.
484.
327
ROGERS' DRAWING
328
AND
DESIGN.
In compound gearing, as in Fig.
487, the motion of the stud gear
is
transmitted
lead screw
to the
by two gears keyed together on
intermediate
an
case
there
gears and
are
In
stud.
four
this
changeable
consequently a wider
range of changes than
in
simple
gearing.
Of
the
two gears working
to
gether on the intermediate stud
one which works with the
is called the first gear
and the other working with the
lead screw gear is termed the secthat
spindle stud
ond gear.
Now
assuming that the spindle
gear makes
20 revolutions to 40
revolutions of the stud gear
and
that the lead screw has 4 threads
be necessary to
find the velocity ratio between the
stud gear and the lead screw gear
for cutting a screw with 50 threads
to the inch
it
will
to the inch.
Fig.
^imhla Qearing.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
329
Number
of teeth in stud
Number
of teeth in lead
20
_a;ear
40^50
25
screw gear
that
is,
if
the gear on the stud should have
16 teeth then
tlie
would have 400
gear on the lead screw
teeth, or
ratio for simple gearing.
the required
For compound
gearing this ratio can be divided into
tors,
for
instance,
iX=5V'
that
is
fac
the
velocity ratio for the spindle stud gear and
the
first
made
intermediate stud gear could be
i, and the same velocity
two other gears. For instance, if the stud gear will have 16 teeth
the first intermediate stud gear must have
5 X 16^80 teeth; the second intermediate stud gear could have 16 teeth and the
Or 15 and 75
lead screw gear 80 teeth.
could be taken for the first pair and 16 and
80 for the second pair, or in fact any pair of
gears having the desired velocity ratio.
equal to
ratio for the
Figure 488 represents a modern shafting lathe, built by the Springfield Tool
Company, and which can be used both for
ordinary lathe work and especially for
Fio.
487.
Comhound
(^eartny.
turning shafting.
330
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
im
rm
ffitf
fq
(ml
Q_s
Fig. 488a.
Trk.
ROGERS' DRAWING
no.
laaB.
AND
DESIGN.
Fig,
489.
331
Fig.
490.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
332
may be
This lathe
fed by a friction feed or by
Slightly below and
the lead screw.
midway between
the shears in the bed, passes a splined shaft, which
tail stock face plate by means of an intermediate gear, shown in Fig. 490. This small gear
can be thrown out of action by the wormwheel sec
drives the
tion
shown
made
The
in Fig. 489.
tail
stock face plate
purpose of driving the shaft by a
done by the head stock. It is very
convenient for turning the end of the shaft for which
the head stock dog has to be removed.
is
for the
dog, exactly as
The long
is
centers are a necessity in this lathe in
view of the fact that they must reach through a
bushing in the rest. This bushing is depended upon
to support the shaft during the cutting
it is made
;
to
fit
The
the shaft exactly.
special rest for shaft
when the comThe pump and tanks for
by this rest. The pump is
ing slides into place on the saddle
pound
rest
is
removed.
lubricants are carried
driven by a gear wheel seen
in
Fig.
491, which
engages with a pinion sliding upon a shaft this
extends the entire length at the back of the
lathe.
Fig. 491 also shows the lower tank into which
all the lubricant collects, from where it flows by
;
latter
gravity to the pump.
ENGINES
The study
AND
BOILERS.
of the steam engine involves an acquaintance with the sciences of heat, of chemistry,
and
and applied mechanics, as well as a knowledge of the theory of mechanism and the strength of
many other things are needed to be known, as the student will find as he progresses in his
materials
researches, the first of which should relate to the safe and economical production of the steam itself.
Nearly the whole of the Eighteenth Century passed in experiments made to reduce the energy,
at its earliest point of progression the boiler
latent in coal and other fuels, to the service of mankind
and the engine were substantially one and the combined engine and boiler were known as the fire engine.
At a little later period when scientific research had shown clearly the source of the power which gave
vitality to the newly invented mechanism the name changed to the heat engine, it having become known
that heat accomplishes work only by being let down from a higher to a lower temperature, a certain
amount of heat disappearing when changed into work.
The modern Steam Engine is now considered as apart from the Steam Boiler and the classification
and variety of each and the successive steps of advancement, while full of interest are too voluminous to
consider in this volume, but some account of their early history is given in the note below.
of pure
About
Thomas Newcomen, ironmonger, and John Cawley,
glazier, of Dartmouth, in the county of Devonshire,
put up an engine, operated by steam, which acted successfully. The progre.ss made
was very rapid and it is recorded that in the year 1737 there was a pumping engine of the Newcomen construction working a succession of
pumps each 7 inches in diameter and 24 feet apart, and making 6feet strokes at the rate of 15 per minute, whereby water was pumped from cistern to cistern throughout the whole length of a shaft 267 feet deep, by steam at or near the atmospheric pressure.
The construction of the Newcomen engine was greatly improved by Smeaton, who designed and erected an engine for the ChaseWater
mine, in Cornwall, which had a cylinder of 72 inches in diameter, with a 9feet stroke, and worked up to 76 horse power. There were three
This was the last effort on a system then about to pass away, for the engine was set up in 1775 no less
boilers, each fifteen feet in diameter.
than six years after the date of Watts' patent, and we are told that when " erected it was the most powerful machine in existence."
Note.
made
the year 1710,
several experiments in private,
and
in the year 1712
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
336
plates riveted together, the ends of the cylinder be
STEAM
A
BOILERS.
closed vessel in which water
the purpose of generating steam
boiler
the boiler
is
ing closed by
may be heated
is
partially filled with
this purpose, the level of the
water
for
called a steam
water for
in the boiler be
its water line ; the space above the water
termed the steam space.
ing called
line
is
plates called the heads
of the boiler.
The furnace is arranged at the front end of the
boiler, the fuel being placed on the grate through
the furnace door, the ashes falling through the
grate into the ash pit below. Behind the furnace
is built a brick wall, called the bridge wall, which
flat
keeps the hot gases
in close contact
with the under
side of the boiler.
That part
of the surface of the boiler,
exposed to
and of the hot gases, is called
the heating surface of the boiler, and its measurement is usually given in square feet.
the heat of the
The
may be
often
is
classified
according to their
construction and form, or according to their appli
Thus, we have horizontal and vertical boilers,
externally and internally fired boilers, plain cylin
is
drical shell boilers, firetube
hot gases
and watertube
boilers.
Boilers may be stationary o'c portable ; there are
locomotive boilers and marine boilers semiportable,
All portions of the brick
plain cylindrical boiler, Fig. 492, consists of
shell,
made
of iron or steel
furnace over the
Within the chimney
made
work exposed
of firebrick.
to the action
It is
not desir
able to allow the upper portion of the boiler to
in
come
contact with the hot gases, and for this reason the
boiler
above the water
Water
is
line
is
lined with fire brick.
forced into the boiler through the feed
pipe leading to the lower end of the boiler, by the
aid of an injector or a pump.
To prevent the steam
from rising above a certain pressure, a safety valve
is
placed at the top of the boiler.
From
etc.
a long cylinder called a
flow from the
placed a damper regulating the flow of these gases.
of the gases, are
cation.
The
second bridgewall
is built.
The
bridge walls into the chim,ney.
generated is called
the furnace ; the surface upon which the coal is laid
is called the grate surface, and its dimensions are
also given in square feet.
boilers
boilers of this class a
fire
space in which the heat
Steam
For long
the highest part of the boiler also, the main
steam pipe leads the steam to the engine or any
apparatus for which the steam is to be used.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
V//^^/////////////////////7^^
''
'^^'':^: ^^X' : '^<
Fig.
493.
t'.
''<
<y:^
337
ROSERS' DRAWING
388
The
pressure of the steam in the boilers
cated by
which
the steam space
level,
DESIGN.
indi
Figs. 493 and 494, attached
passes through the front head into
/"/z^ i'/!'^?^^
to a pipe
is
AND
^azit^^,
of the
boiler.
To
determine the water
the front head of the
gauge cocks are placed in
There are, commonly, three of them
boiler shell.
d
To SfeamSfjac^
Gauge Glasb
^
Top
of l/^Joer Tfou/
of Tubes
Fig.
Fig.
493.
491.
one vertical line the level of the water may be
found approximately by opening these gauge cocks,
in
shown
in Fig. 495.
The
water
level of the
glass,
water
may
shown by a
Valves at the
also be
illustrated in Fig. 496.
top and bottom.allow the steam to be shut
glass breaks or needs cleaning,
and
2i
off if
I^ater6pace
cie:
^^To Ashpit
the
pet cock at the
Fig.
495.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
bottom allows the water to be blown out of it. The
brass fittingrs of the water glass are often screwed
when this cannot be
directly into the boiler plates
done, the water glass may be put on a water column
;
shown in Fig. 495.
The boiler must also be provided with a
like that
pipe,
in
through which the water
may
blozuoff
be discharged
339
A nianhole,\g. ^g/, is constructed in the front head
or on top of the boiler, to allow a person to enter
purpose of cleaning, inspecting or repairing.
At the lower side of the boiler a handhole is generally sufficient, as in Fig. 498, for cleaning it out and
removing the accumulated sediment.
for the
Fig. 492 the feed pipe, as well as the blowoff
may be
seen at the rear of the boiler.
FIQ.4W.
y//////////^.
Fig.
496.
w/yyyy/yyyyy.
\\\\V\\\\\\^\\\\\\\\^L^^^^^
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
340
ii_i
Fig.
Plain cylindrical, or plain shell boilers, may be
made from 30 to 40 inches in diameter and from 20
to 40 feet lono^ they are not considered economical
on account of their small heating surface.
The jiue boiler. Figs. 499 and 500, differs from
;
498.
having a diameter of three or four inches.
About twothirds of the boiler is filled with water
ally
the other third being the steam space.
level
row
running lengthwise through the shell, below
the water level.
The hot gases pass from the furnace over the bridge walls and then through the
flues to the smoke box and chimney.
This type of
boiler is more economical than the plain shell boiler,
as the flues considerably increase the heating surface.
used wherever the water is bad, even
may not be as economical as some other
It is
though
it
types of boiler.
The
cylindrical tubular boiler. Figs. 501, 502, 503
is a development of the flue type.
It con
sists of a cylindrical shell,
flat
closed at the ends by two
tube plates and of numerous
firetubes,
usu
above the highest
fiietubes
hold the
two ends of the boiler
rigidly together, acting as stays, but as these are
placed only below the water line the upper parts of
by through rods or stays,
or diagonal stays, similar to that shown in Fig. 505.
The boiler is supported by the side walls by means
of brackets riveted to the shell, similar to the one
shown in Fig. 506.
the
flat
plates are braced
The Cornish
with
and 504,
six or eight inches
of firetubes.
The
the plain shell boiler in having one or more large
flues
must be
The water
or
flat
flue,
507.
boiler consists of a cylindrical shell
ends, through which passes a smaller tube
containing the furnace as shown
The
furnace
built of fire brick.
is
in
Fig.
terminated by the bridge wall
The hot
gases flow over the
bridge wall to the end of the furnace tube, then they
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
return on both sides of the boiler shell through the
and again pass to the
back end of the boiler by the flue running along its
bottom to the chimney. The figure shows a longiflues on the side of the boiler
FlG.
much
It has been found that this method of draft
heated the plates unequally and thus weakened the
boiler.
For this reason the products of combustion
are led through the bottom flue first and then only
lects.
199.
tudinal section of the boiler.
341
Fig.
The
gases part with
of their heat before reaching the
the boiler, and therefore are less liable
bottom of
to unduly
heat the bottom plates where sediment usually col
through the side
500.
flues, this
method being
called the
split draft.
A Cornish boiler having two internal furnace tubes
is
called a Lancashire boiler.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
342
5r
^rtS==
"
ill
s^
5
^
g^rN
^0
o"^
3 ^o
Fig.
501.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
502.
343
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
344
The Galloway
will
be
stood from the part section shown
underin Fig.
Here water tubes are placed within
50S.
the furnace tube
each other
joints
in
holes are cut opposite
the furnace tube, and the
made good by
riveting the flanges
of the water tube around the hole
they
pass directly across the furnace tubes, so
that the hot gases have a
considerably
increased heating surface to act upon.
Instead of extending through the whole
length of the boiler, the two furnace tubes
unite just behind the bridge wall in one
large flue, which extends to the rear head
of the boiler.
locomotive or fire box boiler of a semiportable character is shown in Figs. 509
and 510, which exhibit a half end elevation and half cross section through the
fire box.
The rectangular fire box which
constitutes the furnace of this boiler
is
riveted to the front part of the cylindrical
boiler.
shell
2^
to
space called the water leg
around the
left
this space,
is
box and the boiler
which is usually from
fire
inches to 4 inches wide,
filled with water.
be
v^'^^^^^^^'.^^v^^<^^^^^^^'^^^^^^^^'^'^s^^^^^'^^
boiler
is
intended
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
345
fy^.
4
f
'i'^/'
Fio.
501.
7"^
///'/////f/yy///'/
/ // /, / /f ^////^/, ///,//////, //\///'//'// y///y'//,//// /' / //^ y / / / /v\
yyyyy'y/''y
y "
y y /y^y' ' y ' y ' ' ' ' y ' ' ' ' y ^^^jyyjfy ^frffy/^i^f/f^ ,/>/.y/,/ ^,,^ ///,,/\i\
L^_^_iJ
''
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
346
and shell are
liable to bulge underpressure, they must be securely
braced or stayed the illustration shows the s^aj/ bolts
which are there for that purpose. The top of the
fire box is strengthened in a similar manner, as is
Since the
flat
sides of the furnace
seen
in
An
example of
shown in Figs.
interesting
this type of boiler con
is
511, 512 and 513; this
It
design has given excellent economical results.
struction
may be observed
that there are
no
flat
surfaces
the longitudinal section of this boiler, Fig.
number
510;
boiler
and are secured
large
of
tubes pass through the
to a tube plate at the rear
end
000
000
000
Fig.
and
tOo.
box
end a
cylindrical smoke box is fastened to the rear end of
the boiler the gases of combustion pass directly
from the furnace through the tubes to the smoke
box and thence to the smoke stack.
of the boiler
to the fire
at the front
FiQ.
506,
Vertical boilers have the advantage of taking up
comparatively small floor space.
many
They
are
made
in
and are used
par
ticularly for fire engines, hoisting engines, etc.,
and
a great
varieties of designs
wherever space
is
limited.
which require staying, the top of the shell, as well as
the upper plate of the fire box, are of hemispherical
shape, giving the
weight of material.
maximum
strength for a given
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
347
products of combustion pass from the fire box
through the inclined ovalshaped flue, into a com
The water is contained in a large number of small
lapwelded tubes, connected in various ways to each
bustion chamber and thence through a very large
other, as well as to the cylindrical
The
number
of horizontal tubes to the
The water
smoke box and
thence to the chimney.
Fig.
As may be seen
chamber
lined with
is
Whenever
steam
in
in
the illustration, the combustion
fire brick.
the generation of a large quantity of
comparatively short time
water tube boilers are
now
is
required,
the tubes and a part of the drum.
furnace of the usual form is placed under the front
507.
end of the tubes, the products of combustion circulating around the tubes and the under side of the
drum. An illustration of this type of boiler is shown
in Figs. 514, 515.
In this type of boiler the
extensively employed.
steam space is limited to a cylinwhich forms only a part of the boiler.
drum above them.
fills all
In these boilers the
is
drical shell
to
made comparatively
and above
the
drum
large,
network
and
of
for the
is
steam space
located parallel
tubes,
which are
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
348
inclined, as well as the
drum,
at
an angle with a hori
zontal plane, so as to bring the water level to about
onethird the height of the
drum
in
the front and
about twothirds of its height in the rear. The ends
of the tubes are expanded into large water legs made
DESIGN.
and is terminated by a bridge wall air
admitted through a channel at the bottom of the
space behind the bridge wall, and is heated in passof the boiler
is
ing through the wall.
wrought iron, flanged and riveted to the shell,
which is cut out for a part of its circumference to
of
Fig. m&.
receive them.
The two ends
of the
drum
hemispherical form and are not braced as
is
are of a
the case
heads are used. The water legs form the
ntural support of the boiler.
where
Fig.
flat
The
setting
boiler
;
is
by a brick work
situated below the front end
entirely enclosed
the furnace
is
The
feed water
509.
brought through a feed pipe
leading to the front head of the drum within the
main drum is suspended a mud drum below the water
is
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Z' 7/i
349
8>%
Fig.
510.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
350
line.
The
which
is
in this
feed water
enters the
mud drum
submerged into the hottest part of the water
manner the impurities of the feed water are
largely extracted.
of tubes are placed
layers of fire brick, acting as baffle plates, forcing the
hot gases to circulate back and forth between the
finally
flow
out through the chimney
placed above the rear end of the boiler
drum
part of the main
is
the upper
protected by a lining of
When several of these boilers are used together,
forming a battery of boilers, an additional steam
drum is usually placed at right angles and above the
steam drums already described.
DESIGN A STEAM BOILER.
In designing a steam boiler an engineer has to
bear
in
may
serve to
show how
may be calculated.
be required to design a 60 horse power
horizontE multitubular boiler, to carry a working
pressure of 150 lbs. per square inch, and which will
be capable of sustaining a test pressure of 225 lbs.
Let tbt: length of the tubes be 15 ft. and each
tube havi;: an internal area of 6.08 sq. in., i. e., about
the parts of a boiler
Let
it
inches outside diameter.
should
b<;
mind the following considerations:
required strength;
2, its
for inspection, cleaning
durability;
and repairs
3, its
;
i,
its
accessibility
4, its ability
to
perform the work 5, the special laws of the locality
in which the boiler is to be used, as well as the rules of
insurance companies; and 6, the type best adapted
;
to existing conditions.
"
"
"
"
The
heating surface
about 37 times the grate surface.
Let the area of the grate
fire brick.
TO
following example
Between the horizontal rows
tubes and
The
first,
'
equal
in sq. ft
the lieating surface in sq. ft
the area of smoke passage through the
tubes in sq. ft
the water space in cubic feet.
the steam space in cubic feet
"
"
G
H
C
"
"
According to the standard recommended by a
committee of the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, it is customary to rate boilers by their
horse power, considering jo potmds of water evaporated from feed water at 100" F., under pressure of
70 lbs. by the steam gauge, is equivalent to one horse
power ; this is equivalent to 34^ lbs. of water evaporated from feed water at a temperature of 212 F.,
into steam at atmospheric pressure.
Now, as 343^ lbs. are evaporated for ihorse
power, for a boiler of 60 H. P. 34.5 X 60
2,070
lbs. must be evaporated to meet the conditions.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
ee<5> * ^Se @% !f}^^> {^ ^sfe

f
C# :@;oS iS:^!;^'^S & 6^  oe,,^
 *  vfro
0^ 
6 a> * >
351
>;
3r
;!
lb
"K3
'
e
^ ^ffi&
f(&^<3<g;*#3>#;
ffi
o
Ftg.
512,
Fig.
Fio.
511.
813.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
352
Evaporation per
quality of the coal
also, 3,
depends on the
the rate of combustion, and
of coal
lb.
2,
the construction of a boiler.
The
Style of Boiler
Plain Cylindrical
following
Evaporation per
sq.
ft.
coal.
ing surface.
6
8
10
10.5
10.4
2.52
333
10.
12
95
8.9
8.2
4.04
456
498
of surface.
14
16
The evaporation per pound of
(n the different
Hutton,
is
is
525
5 to
Vertical
5 to
10
25
25 to
35
50 to 100
as
pound
of coal will evaporate 9
pounds
12 pounds,
will
pounds
square foot of grate
evaporate
12
9^108
Dividing the number 2,070 by
of water.
108 gives the reqttired area of grate.
6 to 11
8 to 12
Locomotive Boiler
8 to 13
^ = 19.16
108
area of heating surface of each type of boiler
is
Now,
surface,
to 11
Multitubular
Below
20 to
water at 212 F.
As we have found, 2,070 pounds of water will have
to be evaporated in this boiler to give us the required 60 H. P.
of water, the coal contained in
Plain Cylindrical
30
For the boiler which we have taken as an example, we will assume that 12 pounds of coal can be
burned per square foot of grate, and that one pound
of anthracite coal will evaporate about 9 pounds of
of heat
coal that takes place
nearly always in a constant ratio to
area
ft.
types of boiler, according to Prof.
as follows
Watertube
Cornish
The
sq.
15
5 to
Flue
Cylindrical Tubular
Locomotive Tubular
Cylindrical
according to tests with a boiler, which had a ratio
of 25 to I of the heating surface to the grate surface.
Evaporation
per lb. of
12 to
Cornish
table illustrates the effect of the rate of combustion,
te of combustion in
ounds of coal per
Ratio of Grate Surface
to Heating Surface
i,
the grate
given a table showing ike ratio
be
tween the grate surface and the heating surface, generally observed in the several types of boiler
:
The
sq.
^
ft.
grate surface,
of ^
smoke passage through the tubes to
the grate area, C G, is according to good practice,
made equal to
8 for this type of boiler.
The
3"
in diameter may be found
number of tubes, each
in the following manner
area of
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
19.16
8
6.08
Adding the steam space and the water space
144 == about 56 tubes.
353
gether,
we get 309 cu. ft.,
for the
volume
of both
to
this
Here 6.08 is the internal area of one tube.
Suppose our boiler is designed for a steam engine
which is to use 40 pounds of steam at a pressure of
70 pounds per horse power per hour, and that the
steam space shall hold enough steam to supply the
volume would determine the capacity of the shell,
were there no tubes passing through it and taking
up part of the space within in this case, therefore,
the space taken up by the tubes must be added to
the above volume.
nearly
have already found that the boiler will conThe outside area of one tube of the
tain 56 tubes.
given size, is 7.107 sq. in., consequently
engine 30 seconds
the absolute pressure
is
85 pounds and the specific volume of steam at this
The space which will be taken
pressure is 5.125.
by steam required
^X
12
60 X 60
for
one horse power
We
56
is,
5125 == 1.706 cubic feet.
be
60
X
102.36 cu.
1.706
That is, the steam space,
say 103 cu. ft.
S, should hold 103 cu.
be taken to equal two
space
may
water
the
As
ft.
times the steam space, the water space, W, will equal
2
S, or 2
15
41.45 cu.
ft.
= the
space
Adding this to the volume
taken up by the tubes.
found above, 309 cu. ft. plus 41.45
350.45 cu. ft.,
the entire
P. will
7.107
144
Let us assume that this amount of space is taken
up by the steam required for one horse power then
the total space required to contain the steam for the
60 H.
103 == 206 cu.
ft.,
ft.
As
is
of the shell.
to
be 15 feet long, the area of
its
head must be ^^
'^^
ing this by 0.7854,
we get
the square of the diameter
3362.3
of the shell;
D^=
zz.^
3362.3 sq.
g^_
j^^
0.7854
for the space occupied by the stays,
take D equal to 67".
JJoTE. The steam space required by a given boiler depends upon
the purpose for which the steam is to be used. Where the steam is
under high pressure and comparatively small quantities of it are withdrawn at very frequent intervals, the steam space need not be so large
as in cases where large quantities are withdrawn, even though less
frequently.
Where the boiler supplies a steam engine, it is the general
practice to have the steam space of such dimensions that it shall contain
sufficient steam to supply the engine for about a half a minute.
volume
the shell
in.
Divid
Allowing
etc.,
we may
Onehalf of the outside surface of the shell equals
_Z
314
i^
131.4 sq.
ft.
The
inside surfaces
12
of the tubes equal
^
12
^
61
1.8 sq.
ft,
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
354
Allowing for the heating surface, onehalf the sur
and all of the
have
we
131.4 + 6i 1.8
face of the shell,
the tubes,
H.
= 743.2
We
sq.
inside surfaces of
= 743.2
sq.
ft.
equal to 19.16
sq.
conditions given in
'^^"
1
9.
Dividing the heating surface
are to get, according to the
the problem, the ratio of 2)7
ft.
surface,
As was
stated before, the evaporation of 30
of water per hour,
ft.
have already found the grate surface to be
by the grate
HORSE POWER OF THE STEAM BOILER.
we
38.7, or
very nearly as required.
lbs.
from a feed water temperature of
100 F. into steam at
gauge pressure
of 70 lbs.
is
the value of a commercial horse power, adopted by
the A. S. M. E.
Different boilers will generate
steam at different pressures, receiving also the feed
In order to comwater at different temperatures.
performances
of
different
boilers,
pare properlj' the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
their actual evaporation
must be reduced
Rule
From the total heat of steam at pressure
actual
evaporatioji,
subtract the observed temperaof
ture of the feed water and add J2
multiply the
an
to
The
equivalent evaporation from and at 212 F.
problem may be stated differently as follows
It
necessary to find what would be the evaporation
:
is
,
result by the actual evaporation
if
Fig.
and divide
by g66
i.
515.
the feed water would be at 212 F., and the deliv
Example:
ered steam at o gauge pressure.
To find the equivalent evaporation of a boiler,
j
proceed as follows:
355
If
a boiler generates 2,000
steam per hour at a pressure of 100 lbs., and
temperature of the feed water is 70, what
equivalent evaporation of the boiler?
lbs.
of
if
the
is
the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
356
From
the steam pressure table given below, the
total heat corresponding to a pressure of lOO lbs.
gauge is 1184.5; consequently the equivalent evap
oration
is
(1184.570
+ 32)
^^^^^

2,000
^\
^^
To
power of the boiler, divide the
equivalent evaporation by 34.5. In this case, the horse
(1184570 + 32) X2.000
^g_g ^^^^jy_
power
find the horse
g66.i
Let
evaporation
alent
or
966.1
3:
is
equal to
(H
^
32)^
r^
966.1
W
H
32
10
[I54.6
15
[I57.8
95
100
[182.4
ti835
20
[I60.5
105
[162.9
[165.I
110
115
1167.1
120
1[
169.0
125
170.7
130
172.3
135
140
25
45
50
212 F.
The
is
called the factor of evaporation.
equivalent evaporation
is
equal to the actual
evaporation of the boiler, multiplied by the factor of
evaporation; knowing the actual evaporation, and
having a table of factors of evaporation, we are easily
able to calculate the equivalent evaporation, or
the horse power of the boiler.
Total
Heat\
[i8u4
evaporation to equivalent evaporation from and at
966.1
Gauge
90
which changes actual
quantity
Pressure by
Heat
85
40
The
Total
[I5O.9
35
required to generate
[I46.
30
t
one pound of steam from water at 32 F. under
Gauge
"
.
is
constant pressure.
Pressure by
observed temperature of the feed
then, according to the above rule, the equiv
a table of steam pressures the
table gives the pressure of the steam by gauge and
following
total heat
"
The
34.5
W equal the actual evaporation
H
water
TABLE OF GAUGE PRESSURE AND TOTAL HEAT.
the corresponding total heat
966.1
'
1I
55
60
65
70
75
80
1738
1752
176.5
177.9
179.
180.3
145
150
155
160
[184.5
[185.4
[186.4
1187.3
1x88.2
[
189.0
189.9
190.7
[1915
192.2
[192.9
1937
194.4
ROGERS" DRAWING AND DESIGN.
SAFETY VALVE RULES.
The safety valve
Let
provides for the safety of boilers,
by allowing the steam
to escape
represent the length of the lever
its
pressure
its
in
by a heavy weight placed directly over
in inches.
the distance between the center
of valve
when
exceeds a certain limit. The valve is kept in
seat, either by a weight at the end of a lever, as
Fig. 516, or
AB
AC
357
and A, also
in inches.
the weight in pounds.
the weight of the lever in pounds.
the pressure of the
steam per
sq. in.
Let a
the area of the valve in sq.
"
in.
the weight of the valve in pounds.
weight
and valve be
neglected, we have, when the steam reaches the
limit of pressure, for which the valve is intended,
If
the
of
downward pressure
the
of
lever
AB

and
same time an upward pressure equal
When
sures
the valve
may be
P X a; from
Fig.
fast as
it
The
seat.
lever,
may be
all
To
AB,
good
safety
excess of steam to escape as
generated.
valve shown
considered equal
this,
W:
lift,
P X a X
P X
a.
AB
AC
^
=^
pounds.
Taking into consideration the weight of the valve,
which should be done for accurate practice, we have a
downward pressure
516 rests on a circular
find the weight, W, or the length of the
then
AB
to
these two pres
~~ in
516.
the valve, or by a strong spring.
valve must allow
just about to
is
at the
of
AB
W X ~
the pressure due to
in Fig.
for a given pressure of
steam
the weight W, plus
w X AB
=;,
2 1\\^
the pressure due to the
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
358
weight of the lever, assuming that the weight of the
lever acts
downward
in its middle,
and plus Y, the
weight of the valve.
The upward
pressure remains, as before,
Here
again,
w X ^^ + V
AC
AC
P X
=P
compared with that of a steam pump, we
come to the conclusion that even if the injector may
consume a little more steam than the pump, the heat
injector
is
a.
DESIGN.
is
returned to the boiler, by being imparted to the
feed water.
a.
Let it be required to find the weight,
Example
when the lever AB is equal to 36 in., AC equals 4
in., w equals 5 lbs., V. equals 3 lbs., P equals 80 lbs.
is tapped
at the highest point of the
steam space, and a pipe leading downward is inserted
boiler
and a equals 6 sq. in.
The weight of valve and lever must be taken into
account.
According to the above formula,
= 80 X
Wx 3^+ x2^^
2X44
W X + X + = or
W 480255
3
4.5
The
injector
is
6,
The
steam
it
a tank, well,
etc.
live
chamber, where
it
acquires a velocity equal to that
and being thus
enabled to overcome the pressure within the boiler,
of the jet
of the entering steam,
by its momentum, it is forced through an opening
and a check valve, into the boiler.
While the pressure within the boiler may be taken
INJECTOR.
an instrument, by the aid of which,
boiler,
stream of water into the
boilers, for
receives through a special
the feed water pipe, allowing the water to enter the
is
boiler.
injector has largely replaced other appliances
for feeding
it
pipe fr^m the source of water, be
steam which enters the injector and is
given the shape of a pointed jet, forms a partial
vacuum within a chamber in the injector just above
or
480,
the energy of. a jet of steam from the
utilized in forcing a
the feed water which
The
50.5 lbs.
THE STEAM
To the open end of this pipe is
attached the injector, which again is connectec^ with
the lower part of the boiler, into which it is to force
into the opening.
when the work
of an
to
be pretty nearly equal
in all
its
parts, the partial
vacuum caused by the condensation
steam meeting the colder water
in
of the jet of
the injector, com
pels the jet of steam to rush into the injector at a
much higher
velocity than
if it
were discharged into
ROGERS' DRAWING
Fig.
517.
AND
DESIGN.
359
ROGERS' DRAWING
360
AND
DESIGN.
the atmosphere.
Consequently the high velocity
and the resulting momentum of the entering feed
driven into the (4) delivery nozzle, through which
it enters the boiler.
The delivery nozzle is usually
water.
made with
The accompanying
518,
show
illustrations,
Figs.
517 and
an outside view and a longitudinal section
Referring to the sectional view,
of an injector.
it
be seen that the injector consists of a case with
its upper part, water inlet directly
below the steam inlet, delivery outlet to the boiler
will
a steam inlet at
and an overflow opening
at the
bottom
of the injec
Separate handles are provided to regulate the
tor.
flow of steam, of feed water and delivery.
The
nozzles within the injector
according to their purpose
The steam
may be
termed,
through which the steam
enters into the chamber of the injector.
It is bored
out straight in the middle and slightly conical towards its ends.
(i.)
The combining
(2.)
steam nozzle
come
the
together.
first
(3.)
nozzle,
nozzle
is
nearest to
the
here the steam and the feed water
This nozzle
is
placed in line with
one.
nozzle,
is
the next one
it
forms the vacuum, upon which is based the velocity
of the feed water
from this nozzle the water is
;
in
all
the nozzles.
The
the delivery nozzle determ
the volume of water which may be forced
through it into the boiler. The size of an injector
is always given by the diameter of the smallest part
of the bore in the delivery nozzle, expressed in millimeters thus a No. 6 injector has an opening of 6
ines
millimeters in diameter.
To start the injector, open the water valve first.
When the water appears in a solid stream in the
open the steam valve, situated directly
above the jet, and close the jet valve. The steam
valve must always be opened slightly before closing
the jet valve, so as not to break the vacuum of the
overflow,
injector.
be noticed that the injector is put together
in such a manner as to render feasible all repairs
within by unscrewing the connected parts.
The
nozzles may have to be replaced from time to time,
It will
as they have to withstand the great velocity of the
flow
The condensing
the smallest bore of
diameter of the bore
of
water,
which
because of
its
impurities,
occasions considerable wear on the nozzles.
account of
hard metal.
this,
all
nozzles are
made
On
of a special
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
518.
361
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
362
STEAM
ENGINE.
which
The steam engine is a machine designed to transform the energy of steam, underpressure, into actual
energy in the form of continuous rotation.
For this purpose the steam is made to move the
piston in the steam cylinder backward and forward,
by bringing the steam into the cylinder, alternately
from one side of the piston and then from the other,
thus imparting a reciprocating motion to the piston.
The mechanism which regulates the direction of
the steam into the cylinder is called the valve
meclianism or valve gear of the steam engine.
When the piston, or the area which receives the
pressure of the steam, travels in a circular path continuously in one direction, the engine
is
termed a
rotary steam engine or the steam turbine.
The
to the
which the pisand forth, is the ordinary form of
this important motor.
It has been found to be
the most convenient and most economical design,
hence we shall take up for illustration and explanation this form, only, of the steam engine.
The reciprocating motion of the piston may be
transformed into a continuous rotary motion in
various ways the crank motion is the most popular
form of mechanism adopted for this purpose the
motion of \.]\& piston is transmitted hy the piston rod,
rcciprocatijjg steam engine^ in
fastened firmly at one end to the piston, to
crank pin oi the cra^ik;
this
forms a solid
structure with the main shaft of the engine.
The
?naifi
manner the
shaft, receiving in this
rotary motion, serves as the source of rotary power,
used for the many purposes of modern industry.
The length of the cylinder is made equal to the
twic
travel of the piston, which itself is equal
the effective length of the crank, phis the thickness
of the piston, to which must be added the allowance
for clearance at each end, so that the piston shall not
strike the head of the cylinder, and at the same time
to,
will
provide the necessary space for the steam to
get behind the piston
of
ton travels back
is
the crosshead, from which the co7i7tecting rod leads
its
when
the latter
is
at the
end
stroke.
The length of the piston rod must be
permit the piston to return the
stroke and
cylinder
still
leave
to fasten
it
enough
full
sufficient to
length of
to the crosshead.
leakage of steam through the hole
in
To
is
avoid
the cylinder
head, through which the piston rod protrudes,
ing box
its
of the rod outside the
2.
stiff
attached to the cylinder head.
It
is
evident that the extreme length of the stuffing box
must be added
to the length of the piston rod.
The crosshead
is
guided
in its rectilinear
closefitting rods, bars or blocks,
path by
which are securely
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
363
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
364
fastened to the engine bed, or form a part of the
from the engine to the machinery.
bed
usually called belt wheels
casting, in
cross/lead
one
gtiides
and which are called the
these must be set absolutely
piece,
cylinder, as well as
the steam engine mechanism,
is
all
other parts of
fastened to a heavy
casting called the engiiie bed^ which
is
rigidly held
upon a solid masonry foundation by means of anchor
rods, whenever the engine is of the stationary type
in marine engines the bed plate is fastened to extra
heavy frames forming part of the hull.
;
When
the crank
is
in
a horizontal position,
plane of the piston rod, and the crankpin
in
the
lies in
drawn through the center line of the cylinder, the
its extreme positions of the
stroke, the engine is then said to be on its dead center
as the pressure of the steam upon the piston will not
piston being at one of
The
rotatingr shaft
is
usually supplied with a heavy fly wheel, intended to
store
up the energy of
tions of the fly wheel
rotation,
is
and one
of the func
to carry the engine
carrying the
or bnlance wheel,
mechan
ism past the dead centers.
Fly wheels are of many different constructions,
varying from a solid cast iron wheel of small diameter, to built up wheels of over 30 ft. in diameter.
In
modern practice the rim of the wheel is made wide
enough to carry the belt which transmits the motion
belt.
519 and 521 are shown two views of a
wheel of modern construction, 18 ft., 8 in. in
It is unnecessary to show the entire
diameter.
In Figs.
belt
wheel, as
is
it
would be simply a repetition
shown, accompanied by a partial section
shown
It
of similar
In most cases only a quadrant of the wheel
parts.
line
result in rotation of the crank.
fly
which was constructed independent of the pulley
parallel to the axis of the cylinder.
The steam
rimmed
the oldstyle narrow
Such wheels are
m distinguishing them from
like that
in Fig. 519.
will
be noticed that the outline of the belt
wheel hub is a regular dodecagon, its sides forming
the planed surfaces, to which the arms are attached
by means of flanges and bolts. The other ends of
the arms are also flanged and connected to the difin Fig. 520.
The hub
two sections and the rim in
to each of which latter two arms are
ferent rim sections as
in this
case
six sections,
is
made
shown
in
flanged.
The sections of both hub and rim are held together by bolts passing through projecting flanges,
as
shown
521, 522
quired,
often
in Fig.
and 523
520 and
.
in
Where
partial detail in Figs.
extra strength
is
re
the reinforcements shown in Fig. 520 are
made use of.
These consist simply
of Ishaped
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
366
made
pieces
of mild steel,
cesses of similar shape,
which are shrunk into
making a
different type of reinforcement
detail in Figs. 521, 522
and
523.
Here, instead of
is
is
times the success of an engine depends upon the
fly
illustrated in
is
the Ishaped piece, a wrought iron link
which
re
rigid joint.
substituted,
shrunk over bosses cast into the castings for
wheel, for even a
points during the revolutions, where but
motion
forcement is rapidly finding favor for permanently
connecting parts of heavy machinery, such as large
sectional engine beds, etc.
to
very
It is
however, to disconnect such
when heating the link to expand it
difficult,
fastenings, for,
be heated and exmost cases cutting and
for removal, the lupfs will also
panded,
necessitating
in
destruction of the link.
In Fig. 524
is
shown a
section through an
arm
of
the wheel, and Fig. 526 illustrates a section through
the rim, close to one of the flanges to which the arms
are attached.
Fig. 525 represents part of the hub,
showing the
face of the joint.
The
design of a
wheel is one of the most difficult tasks that an engineer m.ay meet and requires
judgment and much practical experience. Oftenfly
active governor
would
be unable to steady the motion of an engine with a
variable load, were the fly wheel not able to carry
the crank past the dead centers, as well as those
These bosses are cast so that they will
not project beyond the surface of the rim, as shown
in Fig. 522, leaving them flush so the wheel may
be faced off after mounting. This method of reinthis purpose.
good and
is
little
rotary
supplied by the driving parts.
Great care must also be taken to have the material
the rim evenly distributed, for if the wheel is not
balanced, the centrifugal force will have a tendency
in
bend the
shaft, besides
causing severe vibration.
The rim speed
exceed one
of a cast iron fly wheel iVovX^ never
mile, 5,280 feet per minute, for the cen
tendency to burst the rim and
this tendency increases as the speed increases.
This
danger is not overcome by increasing the thickness of
the rim, for while the extra, thickness adds strength
to the rim, the extra weight increases the centrifugal
trifugal force has a
force.
Two or more cylinders
are often used in one steam
when two cylinders are used, they are usually
arranged so that the two cranks of the separate
cylinders are at an angle of 90 to each other. When
three cylinders are used the cranks will be at angles
engine
of 120 to each other.
Such multicylinder engines do not require as
heavy a fly wheel as a single cylinder engine of the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
367
same power,
as the cranks will assist each
other over the dead centers; at the same
time they act so that one cylinder develops
maximum
power, while the others are
nearing completion of the stroke.
its
The connecting rod
made from four to
ally
of an engine
is
usu
six times the length
of the crank.
The top view
shown
shown
in
Fig.
of a horizontal engine
527.
The same engine
is
is
in Fig. 528.
One
Fig.
527.
illustration shows a rio;ht hand and
the other illustrates a lefthand engine.
rtghthand engine is one in which the Jiy
wheel is to the right of the observer as he
stands at the head end of the cylinder looking
towards the main bearing of the engine.
The size of the engine is commercially
rated by the length and diameter of the steam
cylinder.
When
an engine produces a rotary motion
of the fly wheel
and crank, so that the crank
when starting from its inner dead center
rises above the axis line, or descends below
it,
upon the beginning of the stroke, the
engine is said to "run over" or "run
Fig.
.528.
under," Fig. 529.
It is, as
a rule, desirable
to
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
368
have an engine run over, because the pressure
is then always downward, and
taken up by the guides and bedplate.
engines, however,
of the connecting rod
to
is
parts.
An example
engine
A
532
is
of proportioning the
given
in
Figs, 530
and
vertical etigine for small
it
main parts of an
531.
power
is
shown
in Fig.
shows a section through the cylinder and
DESIGN.
is
commonly not
sufficiently rigid
prevent undesirable vibration
The
the moving
of
shown
section of the vertical engine
in
Fig.
532 shows a type of a steam distributing valve, called
the slide valve, one of the oldest and up to the present
most
reliable valve gears.
The functions of a valve on a steam cylinder are
primarily to admit the steam from the boiler^to one
side of the piston, while the steam filling the other
side of the cylinder
is
allowed to escape through
the exhaust pipe, and second to stop the
admission of steam at a certain point, for
the purpose of producing
its
desired ex
pansion and finally to close the exhaust
opening
at
such a point
stroke, that a
certain
in
the return
volume
of steam
the other side of the cylinder to be
be
compressed behind the piston, to serve as an
shall
Fig.
529.
of cylinder wear,
and
still
more
the small floor space required by the vertical engine,
Note.
The horizontal position of the engine
lar for factories,
space.
To have
power
its
use practically universal for crowded
plants, steamships, etc.
The support
of such
power
all
is
where there
plants, etc.,
by far the most popuis
considerable floor
the parts of an engine easily accessible and a solid
support for the engine, as offered by a large bed, are the great advantages offered
have made
elastic
cushion.
valve chest, while Fig. 533 exhibits a section on a
plane at right angles to that of the first section.
The avoidance
left in
hy a horizontal engine
while on the other hand, the ten
dency of the cylinder to wear vmequally
be denied.
is
a disadvantage which cannot
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Diagram
369
of
HORIZONTAL ENGINES.
Fig.
Table
SIZE or
ENGINE
iZ>^24
A B
of
Fig.
ra).
Dimensions Reference being had
D E F Q
t()
531.
above Diagram.
K L
M N
P Q R
15
/;
Z4
7fi 4Qi
2iOi 10 12
34 6i
13
80 7i 16
1481 1651 9
15
\i
Z4
751 42^
2108 10
12
34 7
15
80 81 16
1531 1801 13
15
20 24
dZ'z
15
40 9
16 100
mi ndl 2011 15
18
iz
l25i 17iii 203i 15
18
Z9
15 34
27 34
lO4h l48i 1651
i3^24 l04h
iS^Z4 lQ7'z
i62S
18^28
20x30
ise'2 1991 2261
20 10
2230
I3/2 19llz U8'2
20 10
23
29
83'z
471
II
951 53l\ 36l IZ 16 410 91
IO3i 5m 391 13 18 410 //b'
72 49 15 20 60
I2I(l'z 79'z 4IOz 15 22 60
12Oi
9^
19
20
100 10
100
//
24
28
120 121
24
12
34
IZ0 I3i
26
20
Hi 22
ROGERS' DRAWING
370
It is
evident that the opening or closing of the
steam inlets or outlets of the cylinder must be caretimed to produce the required pressures in the
different parts of the cylinder at the proper time.
fully
The
valve
generally
is
moved back and
forth
within the steam chest by the action of an eccentric,
one type of which
shown
is
in
Fig.
536; this
is
securely fastened to the main shaft so as to turn
together with
In
it.
some
rare cases, the eccentric
is
forged solid on the shaft, but the general practice
is
to fasten
it
by keying
it
on
the eccentric
is
usually
placed just outside of the bearing which holds the
main shaft.
This mechanism
two parts the eccentric proper or sheave, Fig. 536, and the eccentric
strap. Figs. 534 and 535.
The eccentric strap is
made to fit in a groove in the face of the eccentric,
or the eccentric fits in a groove in the strap.
To
consists of
the eccentric strap
which
is
is attached the eccentric rod,
connected to the valve rod, this finally con
necting to the valve.
The
eccentric
is
a form of crank, the difference be
tween them being that in the eccentric the crank pin
is so large that it embraces the crank shaft.
This
is shown in Figs. 536 and 537.
Twice the distance
between the center of the crank shaft and the center
of the crank pin is the length of a stroke produced by
the crank.
The same is true for the eccentric.
AND
The
DESIGN.
which has been used most extenIts form
and action will be understood by reference to the
illustrations shown in Figs. 538 and 539
here the
slide valve is shown in its most elementary form, as
a box open on its under side sliding over a plane
surface on the outside of the steam cylinder.
This
surface is supplied with openings called steam ports,
sively
slide valve
is
the plain threeported slide valve.
leading into the cylinder
angular
by the
these ports, usually rect
in section, are indicated in
the illustration
and S^.
opening over which the slide valve
moves, indicated by the letter E, is the exhaust opening, through which the steam escapes from the cylinder.
It will be seen that, when the valve is in its
middle position, its two edges cover the two steam
ports, while the hollow part of the slide valve is over
the exhaust port.
When the valve no more than
covers the steam ports when in its middle position,
the eccentric must be placed 90 in the advance of
The
letters S^
third
the engine crank.
The
illustration
shows the piston
at the left
end
moving toward the
and about to open the steam port S^ to permit
the steam to pass through this port into the cylinder,
During this
thus forcing the piston to the right.
same time, the steam port Sg and the exhaust port
E will be connected by the hollow part of the valve,
of the cylinder, with the valve
right
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
532.
Fig.
533.
371
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
372
and the steam, which
the piston
The
is
valve will have
position
is
when the
the cylinder, and
moved
to
its
extreme right
piston has reached the middle of
when the
piston has reached
its
be in the midWithout this arrangement
dle of its return stroke.
there would be no expansive working of the steam,
as one end of the cylinder is left open for the admittance of live steam during the whole stroke of the
piston, while the other end is open during the same
To produce expansion, the
time to the exhaust.
valve must more than cover the steam ports when
The amount which the valve
in its middle position.
projects outside of the steam ports, when the valve
is in its middle position, is called the outside lap of
the valve, and the amount which the valve projects
on the inside of the steam ports in the direction of
the exhaust ports, is called the inside lap. Fig. 540.
The addition of laps necessitates a change in the
angle of advance between the crank and eccentric,
because the valve must be on the point of opening
the steam port when the^ piston is at the beginning
of its stroke, and therefore the valve must be away
from its middle position, by a distance equal to the
extreme right position, the valve
outside lap
when
The
contained to the right of
allowed to escape into the exhaust.
the piston
is
will
at the beginning of
its
stroke.
The angle between the eccentric and the
crank must then be more than 90.
correct position of the eccentric in relation
to the crank
is
found by the construction
illustrated
Here AO represents the crank, while
CDE is the path of the center of the
eccentric.
On AO set off OB equal to the outside
lap of the valve.
Draw BD perpendicular to OB
cutting the circle at D. Then OD is the position of
in Fig. 541.
the
circle
the eccentric sheave,
of
the arrow.
if
the motion
If opposite,
angle,
angle
COD
and the acute angle
the direction
OE is the right
CO A i&a 90*^
then
The
position of the sheave.
in
is
is
called the angle
of advance.
When
it
is
desirable to partly open the steam
port just as the piston
is
beginning
valve must be given a lead.
opening of the steam port
stroke,
is
called the lead
To produce
its
stroke, the
The amount
at the
of the
of such
beginning of the
valve.
the valve lead, the angle of advance
must be increased, so as to make
above figure, equal to the outside lap,
of the eccentric
OB,
in the
plus the lead.
Let the circle ABCD in Fig. 542 represent the
path of the center of the eccentric sheave.
When
the valve is in its middle position, moving toward
the left, the eccentric will be in the position OC,
moving in the direction indicated by the arrow.
Let P be one position of the eccentric drop from
the point P a line PM perpendicular to AB.
Then
;
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
373
Fios. 531 AITD
53S.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
374
OMwill correspond to the distance the
Make
has moved from its middle position.
the distance
valve
QO
tric
equal to
MO.
If
more
positions of the eccen
are taken, and for each one a similar construc
employed, the points corresponding to the
point Q, found above, will, when joined, produce a
curve which will have the form of the two circles,
tion
AQON and OSBT. These circles are described
on AO and OB as diameters.
By means of these
two circles the position of the valve may be readily
found for any position of the eccentric. For instance,
if
OR
will
is
the position of the eccentric, the valve
be at a distance
To
OS
from
find the position of the
its
middle position.
engine crank for any
given position of the eccentric, say for the position
OP, make the angle
POL
equal to the angle be
tween the eccentric and the crank, equal to a right
OL will be
angle plus the angle of advance; then
the required position of the crank.
If
OL
the distance
OQ,
equal to
MO,
be
set off
on
OP, and a similar operation gone
a number of positions of the crank, it
instead of
through for
be found that the different positions of the
point Q, when joined, will form a curve just coinciding with the two circles described on OE and OF,
Fig. 543, as diameters, the diameter EOF making
will
the angle
COE,
equal to the angle of advance.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
From
position of
diagram the position of the valve for any
the crank may be found. If the crank is
in position
OL,
Fio.
valve
it
will
from
a distance
of the crank for a
comparing the respective positions of the point:; of
admission, cutoff, release and compression, the ap
Fig. 543, then the valve
is
just
be
its
at
is
position.
any position
given position of the valve. For
instance,
when
the
a distance equal to the outside lap,
central position.
If
an arc be described
and a radius equal
to the outside
be the position of the crank when the
admitted, and O62 its position when the
06,
steam is
steam is cut ofT.
The position of the piston can
easily be found from this.
lap,
will
paratus called the steam engine indicator
is
used.
538.
on the point of opening or closing,
with the center
To
determine whether the valves are set correctly,
by means of diagrams taken of the steam pressure
from each end of the cylinder and by observing and
this
OQ from its middle
We can also find
375
A description
with a study of
of the indicator
its
and
its
use, together
diagrams, can not be classed with
mechanical drawing, and would cause us to drift too
A very interesting and thorfar from our subject.
on the indicator is " Hawkins' Indicator Catechism," and the student who desires to take
up the field of steam engineering, is respectfully
oueh
treatise
referred to this work.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
376
544 shows a valve diagram, as well as a
form of an indicator diagram.
The radius of the eccentric equal to onehalf the travel of
the valve, is equal to the distance AO in the diagram.
Fig.
theoretical
The
outside lap equals
angle of advance
is
OC,
the lead equals b
equal to the angle
d,
EOC;
the
the
Compression begins when the crank is in
is completely open while
the crank moves through the angle q o r, and it is
completely open for exhaust while the crank moves
through the angle tOs.
To find the indicated horse power of a steam
tion O63.
the position 06^; the port
engine, fuuliiply the
mean
effective
pressure in
lbs.
OuhideLaJi
/r)6ide Lafi
i
=t
Fig. 641.
per
Fig.
inside lap
is
When
540.
equal in length to Og, the width of
the steam port
gh.
is
given by
the steam
is
MK,
which
When
is
is
is
in.
on the piston during one
stroke.^
by the
released the crank
is
is
divide the result by j^,ooo.
P X
the
06,.
in the posi
LXAXN
^^^,
= ^^.
Indicated H.
P. of
33000
is in
When
cut off the position of the crank
the steam
equal to
admitted, the crank
the position indicated by the line 06;.
steam
sq.
length of the stroke in feet, then by the area of the
piston and by the number of strokes per minute and
where P
stroke
is
the
mean
pressure
L, the length of the
and N, the numThe actual horse power
A, the area of the piston
ber of strokes per minute.
engine,
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
may be
taken as about
of
the indicated horse
power.
of
To
find the area of the piston multiply the square
its
diameter by
o.jS^f..
377
each part, halfway between the division
lines,
as
shown by the dotted
Add
the
lines in
Fig.
545.
length of all the dotted lines, and divide by the
ber of divisions, in this case 10.
num
Fig.
To
find
indicator
the
mean
diagram of
of equal parts, say
an
any number
effective pressure,
the engitie into
lo, then
Fig.
oiZ.
divide
measure the height of
The mean
.>t3.
effective pressure
may also be found by
measuring the area of the diagram, by means of a
planimeter and dividing it by the length of the dia
ROGERS' DRAWING
578
AND
gram;
DESIGN.
multiply this result by the scale oj the indi
cator spring,
and the product
will be the
mean
effec
tive pressure.
Example: Find the horse power of an engine
when L equals 4 ft.; diameter of cylinder equals 32
inches, P equals 40 lbs. per sq. jn. and N equals 40
per minute.
H.
_4oX
P.
804.25
X40_
736 nearly.
33000
From
above formula, the proportions of a
cylinder may be determined, when the horse power,
pressure and nuihber of revolutions per minute are
the
given.
L X
HP X
P X
L the
The area may
piston,
and
33000
.7854
^^
'
manner
X D=
we make L equal
to
=
d,
as
from the above formula, d
Fig.
544.
jg
^^^ ^j.^^ ^f
be expressed by the diameter of
consequently the above formula
L X
If
length of stroke.
the piston in the following
D^
j^^j.^
= .7854 X
may be
written
^^^^^"^
P X
is
often done,
= 79.59
we have
VTTFfrom
PN
which we may find the required diameter of cylinder,
for an engine which shall have a given horse power,
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
mean
pressure and
number
of strokes per minute.
For the completed thickness of the walls of the
steam cylinder, Prof. Reauleaux gives the following
formula
Thickness ^^ Vg inch
in.,
If
the diameter of the cylinder
the thickness of
4
'A
48
100
its
ordinary
size,
Let the diameter of the cylinder be
equal to 32 inches the boiler pressure 81 lbs. per
and the assumed diameter of bolt equal to
;
The
sq.
area of a
3/^ in.
of bolts
bolt equals. 0.442 sq.
in.,
^:1^54 X 32 X 32 X
81
in.
then
_^^^
48
wall should be
= .125
For the thickness
is
in.,
Number
lOO
Example
Example
379
.48
= .605
of the heads of
when the heads
cylinders of
are not stiffened
by
radial ribs, the thickness
= 0.003
Example
X d X V
:
If
boiler pressure per sq.
the diameter of the cylinder
equals 40 inches, and the
then the thickness of head
= 1.46
in.
toiler
pressure 150
^0.003 X 40 X
lb';.,
1/150
Having found a convenient thickness
of the head and flange of the steam cylinder, upon
in.
which the head is to rest, the diameter of the bolts
which fasten the cylinder head should be onehalf
the width of the flange.
The number of required
bolts may be found from the following formula
Number of bolts equals 0.7854 X square of diameter of cylinder, multiplied by the boiler pressure
and divided by 5,000 times the area of a single bolt
:
of the
assumed diameter.
Fig.
The steam
chest
545.
must be made
as small as the
It
dimensions and travel of the valve will permit.
usually has the form of a square bo.x, surrounding
The steam chest cover, as well as
the valve face.
the sides of
it,
made of the same thickwalls.
The size of the steam
are usually
ness as the cylinder
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
380
ports depends
upon the quantity of steam which is
and upon the speed
of the piston.
It is a good practice to make the
area of the ports equal to yV of the piston area when
the speed of the piston is about 600 feet per minute.
to be admitted through them,
the speed of the piston
the size of the ports
is
is
higher or lower,
increased or diminished pro
To find the speed of the piston,
multiply the length of stroke by double the number
of revolutions of crank per minute.
portionately.
A practical formula for
shown
in Fig. 546,
is
the thickness of the piston,
length of stroke in
diameter of cylinder
Example: If the diameter of the cylinder
in. then the required thickness of piston is
Q^
When
4 /
riiickness of piston
The
still
a/
in.
in in.
is
30
v 30 X 30
= V 900 =
piston rod
may be made
better of steel.
It is
5.4 in. nearly.
of
wrought
iron, or
generally keyed to the
crosshead and fastened to the piston by a strong
thread and nut or by wedge.
The diameter of a wrought iron piston rod may
be found by the following rule
Divide the diameter of the cylinder in inches by
:
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
547.
iiFig.
548.
381
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
382
60 and multiply the quotient by the square root of
initial steam pressure.
the
examples
initial
Fig.
Diameter
of steel
^9
To
pressure.
upon the
may be used
396000 X HP
n'' X L X N
I
shoe of the crosshead
Fig.
total area of the
550.
square inches, and
sq. in.
\/ initial pressure.
find the pressure of the crosshead
Pressure ==
Let the
allowed upon a
guide, in pounds, the following
The
in this chapter.
be equal to
equals the length of the con
549.
rod
diam. of cylinder
other letters represent the same values as in former
Diameter of wrouoJit iron rod
diam. of cylinder
In this formula
necting rod divided by the length of the crank.
be equal to p
let
;
the pressure
then,
~ pressure of crosshead upon guide
P
If
the pressure of the crosshead be found to equal
6,568 pounds, and
if
the pressure per
allowed be equal to 125
lbs.,
then,
sq. in. of slide
384
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
552.
ROGERS'
DRAWING AND DESIGN.
385
^"^
Fig.
oo3.
386
ROGERS' DRAWING
AND
DESIGN.
/^
Fig.
554.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
555.
Bs;
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
388
the area of shoe
6568
52.5 sq.
divide the diameter of the cylinder
in.
tract y^
125
the width of the shoe be taken equal to 4 in.,
then the length of it will be 13. i in., as 4 X 13.
If
equals 52.4
The
sq. in.,
by 2 then subbe the diameter
;
of the crank shaft.
found above (nearly).
THE CORLISS
is
best
made with
The
a diameter equal to that
ENGINE.
illustrations represent views of the cylinder
of the Fishkill
of the crank pin.
Landing Corliss engines.
shows the valve gear of
The
smallest diameter of the connecting rod
is
found by dividing the diameter of the cylinder in
inches by 55, and multiplying the quotient by the
square root of the steam pressure per sq. in. of piston.
The greatest diameter is one and onehalf times the
smallest.
The diameter
is
of the crank pin
HP
^ o
*/
'^
^ L X N
equal to
is
the length of the crank pin journal in
The length of the pin may be made
0.013 X d^ where d is the diameter of the
equal to
piston.
crank shaft for stationary engines, with cylinders up to 30 in. in diameter.
find the diameter of a
Fig. 551
y^
Corliss engine has four separate valves,
two
and cut off of steam, while the
other two are placed below the axis of the cylinder
for the exhaust.
The steam valves are rigidly connected with cranks seen on the outside of the cylinder.
All valves are cylindrical in form and extend
across the cylinder above and below, respectively.
for the admission
cranks on the outside of the valves are operated
by a number of
links,
of the valves
actuated.
The
This formula is true for a single crank and for
one made of wrought iron.
this engine.
situated above the axis of the cylinder and intended
The
inches.
To
will
pin in the crosshead which holds the connect
ing rod,
where
and the remainder
in.,
is
and
Corliss valve gear
of steam engines.
in this
is
Fig. 551
manner the motion
used
in a
large
number
shows a side elevation
of the valve gear, while Fig. 552 exhibits a partial
longitudinal section of the cylinder.
being shown
is
shown
556, 557
in
in
Fig. 553.
detail in Figs.
The
cutoff
554 and
and 558 the crosshead
is
A cross section
mechanism
555.
shown.
In Figs.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
""
f
389
fi
Figs.
556, 557
and
558.
ROGERS' DRAWING
390
The
disc seen in the middle of the cylinder in
Fig. 551, called the wrist plate,
the stud in
its
is
made
eccentric on the crank shaft.
The
from the
wrist plate has
four valve connecting rods, which connect
the bell
valves.
upon
to rock
center by a rod leading
it
with
cranks, which in turn operate the
steam
These valve connecting: rods can be
lenorth
ened or shortened, so that each valve may be set
independent of the other three. As the wrist plate
rocks backward and forward, the exhaust valves rock
with
it.
The two
other bell cranks, which are provided
with disengaging
links,
also given a rocking
hooking
in the
generally called hooks, are
motion by the wrist plate by
blocks which are rigidly fastened to
AND
means
DESIGN.
from the vacuum air dash
pots.
The dash pot is a cylinder in which fits a
piston nearly airtight.
As the valve is turned it
lifts the piston in the dash pot and creates a partial
vacuum below it. The atmospheric pressure acts
as a weight forcing down the piston into the dash
pot and at the same time closing the valves.
The air below the piston in the dash pot prevents
a sudden shock when the piston drops down. ,As a
consequence of this arrangement, the valves, 'are
entirely independent in their adjustment and the
inlet ports may be suddenly opened full width by
the quick movement of the steam valves, while the
exhaust valves are nearly at rest.
The
of the vertical rods
advantagfes of the Corliss valve gear are the
the cranks on the outer ends of the steam valve
large port area, the
stems, thus causing the valves to rotate with them,
short lengths of ports, quick opening and closing
and causing them
of valves_and easy adjustment.
to
open the steam ports
for the
admittance of steam.
Having turned
a certain distance, the disengaging
on the bell crank are unhooked by a cam
operated by the governor, and the cranks of the
valves are pulled back to their original position by
links
number
of parts
little friction
through the valves,
However, the great
makes the expense of these engines
greater, their operation noisy, besides
impossible to run them at a high
engines do not, as a
lutions per minute.
rule,
which
speed.
it
is
Corliss
run higher than 150 revo
ELECTRICITY,
THE DYNAMO AND MOTOR.
name derived from the Greek word
2,000 years ago that amber when rubbed possessed the
Electricity
is
electron
amber.
It
was discovered more than
curious property of attracting light bodies.
It
property could be produced in jet by friction, and in A. D. 1600 or
thereabouts, that glass, sealingwax, etc., were also affected by rubbing, producing electricity.
was discovered afterwards that
Whatever
electricity
as a kind of invisible
is,
it
this
is
impossible to say^ but for the present
something which pervades
all
it
is
convenient to look upon
it
bodies.
While the nature of electricity is a mystery, and a constant challenge to the inquirer, many things
about it have become known thus, it is positively assured that electricity never manifests itself except
when there is some mechanical disturbance in ordinary matter, and every exhibition of electricity in any
of its multitudinous ways may always be traced back to a mass of matter.
The
we cannot grasp or handle them and
Electricity and gravity
enough, they have the appearance of being very unreal.
skillful
are as subtle as they are mighty they elude the eye and hand of the most
philosopher.
great forces of the world are invisible and impalpable
though they are
real
In view of this,
To
them,
is
The
far
it is
well for the average
man
not to try to fathom, too deeply, the science of either.
"on the market," and to acquire the skill
reason for doing it, and zvhy the desired resiilts follow.
take the machines and appliances as they are
the longest step toward the
to operate
and the practical applications of dynamo electric machinery is a theme
work, and beyond the limits of many volumes equal to it in size suffice it
design, manufacture
beyond the scope
of this
to say, that the subject
is
as inexhaustible as
it /y
useful
to
explore
it
is
especially in this, as in other
sections of the volume, that the aim of the author has been to suggest the field of
try to fully explain
many
things needed to be known.
393
work rather than
to
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
394
Fig.
559.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
395
r^
Fia.
560.
rn
:i
l_l
xn
m.
ni
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
396
Electricity,
it
is
conceded,
and, while electricity
same
thing,
it is
according to
/.
its
is
without
without doubt, one and the
for convenience sometimes classified
is,
motion, as
Static electricity, or electricity at
2.
Magnetism, or
f.
electricity
2.
/.
Negative
2.
Dynamic
This
time
iti
rotation,
into
electricity.
There are still other definitions or divisions which
are in everyday use, such as " frictional " electricity,
Static electricity.
This
define electricity produced
by
electricity,
When
causes
more
static
defined as
it
may
pass.
Radiated electricity is electricity in vibration.
Where the current oscillates or vibrates back and
forth with extreme rapidity, it takes the form
waves which are similar to waves of light.
of
is
a term
friction.
employed
It is
to
properly
employed in the sense of a static charge which shows
itself by the attraction or repulsion between charged
bodies.
through which
liquid
opposite of
"resinous"
may be
conductor in a given
or, electricity in the act
of being discharged, or electricity in motion.
An electric current manifests itself by heating the
wire or conductor, by causing a magnetic field around
the conductor and by causing chemical charges in a
electricity.
"atmospheric" electricity,
"vitreous" electricity, etc.
Current electricity.
into
Static, as the
the quantity of electricity which passes through a
Electricity in vibration.
Other useful divisions are
/. Positive and
by the passage of sparks or a brush discharge by a
peculiar prickling sensation by a peculiar smell due
to its chemical effects
by heating the air or other
substances in its path and sometimes in other ways.
j'esc.
Citrrent electricity, or electricity in motion.
J.
And
weight,
electricity
is
discharged,
it
or less of a current, which shows itself
Note. Statics is that branch of mechanics which treats of the
forces which keep bodies at rest or in equilibrium. Dynamics treats of
bodies in motion. Hence static electricity is electricity at rest.
earth's great store of electricity is at rest or in equilibrium.
The
Positive electricity. This term expresses the
condition of the point of an electrified body having
the higher energy from which
The
level.
excitement
or,
it
flows to a lower
sign which denotes this phase of electric
is
all
electricity
is
either positive
negative.
Negative
This is the reverse conelectricity.
above and is expressed by the sign or
symbol
These two terms are used in the same
sense as hot and cold.
dition lo the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Atmospheric
of the air
which
electricity^
is
is
the free electricity
almost always present
in
the
exact cause is unknown.
The
atmospheric electricity are of two
kinds there are the wellknown manifestations of
thunderstorms
and there are the phenomena of
atmosphere.
phenomena
Its
of
3f7
Voltaic electricity. This is electricity produced by the action of the voltaic cell or battery.
Electricity itself
is
the same thing, or phase oj
whatever source
efiergy, by
it
produced^ and the
is
foregoing definitions are given only as a matter of
convenience.
continual slight electrification in the air.best observed
when the weather
is
fine
ihe aurora constitutes a
ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE.
third branch of the subject.
Dynamic
electricity.
This
term
define current electricity to distinguish
electricity.
This
is
is
it
used to
from
static
the electricity produced by the
The term
or tends to
result
Frictional electricity is that produced by the
friction of one substance against another.
tional to
electricity.
This
is
a term formerly
used, in place of negative electricity.
originated
in
This phrase
the wellknown fact that a
certain
(negative) kind of electricity was produced by rub
bing rosin.
Vitreous electricity
is
a term, formerly used to
describe that kind of electricity (positive) produced
by rubbing
glass.
Magnetoelectricity
employed
move
of
it
is
electricity in the
currents flowing along wires
from the motion of maonets
o
it is
form of
electricity derived
hence
the name.
which moves
from one place to an
written E. M. F.;
it is
the
the difference of potential, and propor
Just as in water pipes, a difference of
level produces a pressure, and the pressure produces a flow as soon as the tap is turned on, so difit.
ference of potential produces electromotive force,
and electromotive force sets up a current as soon as a
circuit is completed for the electricity to floiv through.
Electromotive force, therefore,
may
often be con
veniently expressed as a difference of potential, and
vice versa ; but the reader must not forget the dis
tinction.
In ordinary acceptance
is
to denote that
electricity
For brevity
other.
dynamo.
Resinous
is
among
workine electricians,
thought of as pressure, and
tical
called volts.
The
engineers and prac
electromotive
it
is
measured
force
in
is
units
usual standard for testing and
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
398
comparison is a special form of voltaic cell called
the Clark cell.
This is made with great care and
composed of pure chemicals.
The term positive expresses the condition of the
point having the higher electric energy or pressure,
and, negative, the lower relative condition of the
other point, the current is forced through the
circuit
by the (E. M. F.)
electric pressure at
generator, just as a current of steam
through pipes by the generating pressure at the
steam boiler.
Care must be taken not to confuse electromotive
energy when
moved by a magnet, we speak rightly of
force with
matter
is
electric force or electric
magnetic force when electricity moves matter, we
may speak of electric force. But, E. M. F. is quite
;
a different thing, not " force
on matter but on
electricity,
"
at
all,
for
it
acts not
and tends to move
it.
THE DYNAMO, OR GENERATOR.
The word dynamo, meaning power,
is
a machine driven by power,
generally steam or water power, and converting the
mechanical energy expended in driving
trical energy
Dynamos
/.
of the
it,
are classified as
Bipolar (or 2pole) dynamos.
2.
J. Multipolar
dynamos.
This division is caused by their different construction, but, whatever their shape or size or peculiarity
of application, the principles upon which they work
a dynamo is always a machine
are always the same
for generating
electric currents.
should be understood that an electric dynamo
or battery does not generate electricity, for if it were
only the quantity of electricity that is desired, there
would be no use for machines, as the earth may be
It
regarded as a vast reservoir of electricity, of infinite
But electricity in quantity without presquantity.
sure is useless, as in the case of air or water, we can
is one transGreek to the English language,
hence the primary meaning of the term signifying
the electric generator is, the electric power machine.
The word generator is derived from a word meaning birthgiving, hence also the dynamo is the ma
get no power without pressure.
As much air or water must flow into the
chine generating or giving birth to electricity.
the other
ferred from the
into elec
ciir rent form.
Unipolar dynamos.
the
impelled
is
dynamo
Again, the
pump
blower at one end, as flows out at the other.
is
with the
dynamo
not generated
in the
So
for proof that the current
machine,
we can measure
or
it
is
the
current flowing out through one wire, and on through
it
will
be found to be precisely the same.
ROGERS DRAWING AND DESIGN.
As
in
mechanics a pressure
a current of
air,
tromotive force
electricity.
so in electrical
is
is
needed to produce
phenomena an
elec
necesary to produce a current of
principal parts, viz.:
The armature or revolving portion.
The field magnets, which produce the magnetic
field in which the armature turns.
The polepieces.
3.
The commutator or colle( tor.
4.
collecting brushes that rest on the commuThe
5.
tator cylinder and take off the current of electricity
generated by the machine.
In brief, the purpose of the dynamo is to change
mechamcal motion, applied to the armature, revolving
1.
2.
it
at
high speed, into electrical energy.
THE ELECTRIC MOTOR.
An
machine is the term used in defining the energy expended in driving it the amount of power it delivers to the machinery is denominated its outpiit.
;
current in either case can not exist
without a pressure to produce it.
To summarize, the dynamoelectric generator or
the dynamoelectric machine, proper, consists of five
motor is a machine for converting
electrical energy into mechanical energy; in other
words it produces mechanical poiver when supplied
with an electric current ; a certain amount of energy
must be expended in driving it the intake of the
electric
399
The
is
difference between the output and the intake
the real efficiency o{ the machine
it is
well
known
an electric distribjition
which may include several machines, usually
ranges from 75 to 80 per cent, at full load, and
should not under ordinary circumstances fall off
that the total efficiency of
system,
more than
say
per cent, at onethird to half load
the efficiency of motors varies with their
a onehorse
power motor
perhaps, have an
will,
ciency ot 60 per cent, a loohorse power
have an efficiency of 90 per
may
while
size,
effi
easily
cent.
A dynamo, as ordinarily constructed, consists of
two parts the stationary magnet frame and the re
volving part, or the armature.
In Figs. 559 and
;
560
is
illustrated a multipolar generator, that
is
dynamo having more than two poles, in this case four.
The armature is generally the revolving part and
to
it
are secured
in
various manners numerous loops
The space occupied
of wire.
net poles by the armature,
field.
at the
is
magnetic
The armature
slightly
revolving in this magnetic field
charged by the influence of the magnetism
magnet frame,
numerous conductors through the magnetic
naturally retained in the iron of the
drives
end of the mag
called the
its
ROGERS' DRAWING
400
and as each of these conductors, called loops,
passes through this magnetic field, it gathers a little
lines,
amount
of electrical energy, or as
electric current
plained, a slight
through
it
generally' ex
it is
made
is
brushes to wires outside of the
dynamo ready
for
DESIGN.
manner by increasing the magnetic
When
energy
electrical
and thus the machine
will
into mechanical motion.
The larger the number' of loops the greater the
The
electrical energy gathered by the armature.
amount of the electrical energy gathered by the
armature conductors is greatest when the magnetism
is
magnet
When
tric
is
highest.
the armature
current in
ence
is
it is
is first
set in
motion the
very mild as the magnetic
elecinflu
also very slight at that time, but as soon as
a mild current
insulated
is
wires
produced,
it is
made to
wound around
pass through
the magnet cores,
once strengthens the magnetism and thus
in turn calls forth a greater electrical energy within
the armature, which greater energy is again utilized
In this
to strengthen the influence of the magnet.
which
at
Note. There are a great variety of armatures in use the drutn
armature has'beeu found the most popular on account of its simplicity,
and comparative efficiency.
One of the types is the ring armature^ whose efficiency is so low,
that it never found very extensive favor, although it is very simple and
;
easy to repair.
For large machines, the multipolar armature^
sively
still
another type, disc armature.
is
used almost exclu
is
supplied to a
is
dynamo
the armature will turn with great velocity and force,
service.
in the
influence, the
energy within the armature conductors
increased up to the desired limit.
electrical
to flow
and on through the commutators and
AND
transform electrical energy
In this case the machine
called a motor.
The armature
the drum, type
dynamo shown
in
the
it
consists of the core,
Fig. 559'is of
upon Which
wires are wound, these wires being connected to the
commutator, upon this commutator, the brushes are
riding, which gather up the current as it is delivered
commutator by the armature, whence
outside of the machine to the circuit.
to the
The armature
core
made
is
made
unsupported at
of sheets of
tV
each end of the core
of the discs
led
of sheet iron discs
usually about 0.002 inch in thickness.
discs being
it is
the' outer
The
outer
edge, are usually
Three of these at
be enough to hold the rest
thickness.
will
from spreading.
These discs are usually made of the best charcoal
iron.
Between the discs a thin sheet of paper is
laid.
The
circumference of these. discs
is
provided
with apertures of various forms, for holding the ar
mature
shown
coils
in
in Figs.
place of which several
561564.
types are
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig. 561
parallel slides.
561.
Fio.
562.
Fig.
Fig.
round holes to contain
Fig. 562 shows plain slots with
shows a
the conductors.
Fig.
disc with
Fig. 563
is
a slight modification of
shown in
securely
by means
the conductors are held
the preceding form.
In the slots
Fig. 564
of hard
which are driven in above them. The
disc is punched out of sheet iron, a hole for the shaft
and keyway being also cut out. The disc is then
placed under a punching press with a revolving table
for the disc, which is automatically moved a certain
Thus
distance between each stroke of the press.
all slots are punched.
wood
strips,
401
Figs. 565
.563.
564,
and 566 show a section of the commutator
as well as a partial endview.
that
is
It consists of
the shell,
the outside casting, placed directly upon the
One end
is provided with a cirwedgeshaped
cular projecting
in section, to
support the segments, while the other end is provided
with a thread.
A ring, also wedgeshaped in section
is placed on the shell near its end, for the purpose
of supporting the other end of the segment, and a
nut is then screwed upon the threaded end of the
shell, pressing the ring toward the segments, and
These segments are insuholding them securely.
shaft.
of the shell
lip
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
402
lated from each other, as well as from the shell,
strips of
mica or
fibre,
by
indicated by the heavy black
The segments
lines in the illustration.
are
made
The prolongation of the segment
of hard copper.
at the back is called the ear or lug of the segment.
Fig.
nut are
566.
made
of bronze.
Clearance
is allowed between the shell and the
segments to secure better insulation,
t
The purpose
of the lug
is
to provide a
means
to se
cure the conductor to the commutator and for this
wide enough to accommodate the wires, which may be secured to it by
small screws or by soldering.
The shell, ring and
slots are cut in the lugs, just
is
not necessary that the shell
should bear on the shaft throughout
its entire length, and to save boring,
cored out, as shown in the illustration, leaving about an inch at each
end of the shell for the support.
it is
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fig.
fier
Fig. 508.
403
Fig.
59.
ROGERS' DRAWING
404
The commutator
by means
of
shell
AND
is
DESIGN.
secured to the shaft
a small key not shown
in
the
illustration.
In Figs. 567 and 568
is
illustrated a section
of a simple selfoiling bearing for the support
dynamo, illustrated in Figs.
Within the bearing box is con
of the shaft of the
559 and 560.
tained the
cylindrical
brass
upper part of the bushing
is
bushing.
The
provided with a
FlQ.
571.
and here is introduced the oil ring, which
upon the shaft, dipping into the oil contained in the reservoir below.
When the shaft is revolved, the ring takes up oil and carries it to the
shaft.
Provision
Larger bearings are provided with two oil rings.
must be made to drain off the oil and to furnish a fresh supply.
slot,
rests
The upper
part of the bearing
box
is
often
made with
a large opening
covered by a hinged lid for the purpose of inspection, as well as for
supply of oil.
A convenient addition is an oil gauge, which shows the
Fig.
570.
amount
of oil in the reservoir.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
405
In the same illustration it can be seen that the rear
end of the bearing box is turned to receive the brush
frame, Fig. 569, which in this case is provided with
four holes to receive four brushes.
Another kind of
brush frame, called a rocker arm, is shown in Fig. 5 70,
made for two brushes. The holes for receiving the
A brush
brush holder studs are often made square.
holder stud
and
is
is
shown
in Fig. 571
The
circular in section.
it is
made of
section
brass
shown
in
the insulating washers and insu
black represents
latinQ bushinofs,
made
of hard rubber, insulating the
brush holder stud from the rocker arm.
Outside
placed a brass washer and a
on the stud is
cable luof, which is used to connect it with
the main cable or leads carrying the current to the point of distribution.
The
is shown separately in
and 573. A form of brush
holder which is rapidly becoming most
popular, is shown in Fig. 574 it is called
Here the
the Reaction Brush Holder.
brush is wedded in between the brush
holder and the commutator without any
support on the outer side, the pressure of
the curved lever forcing the carbon brush
Figs.
cable lug
572
Fig.
573.
Fig.
573.
against the inclined face of the holder as well as
against the commutator.
The
pressure of the lever
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
406
is
caused by a helical
straight projection,
spring,
which can be
terminating
set into
in
any one
of
The magnet frame may be cast
parts,
in
one or more
together with the pole pieces, or the pole
may be bolted to the frame. The magnet
frame must be rigidly secured to the base. The
bearings or pedestals may be cast in one piece with
the base, or fastened to it by bolts.
The magnets
may be made of cast iron, wrought iron, or malleapieces
ble iron, according to the requirements.
Two methods
shown in
The shunt method
of exciting the field are
the diagrams in Figs. 575576.
forming a separate circuit of
which are connected directly
of excitation consists of
the magnetizing coils
between the brushes, or
in shunt, to
the external
circuit.
The diagram
Fig. 575
in
which shunt winding
Another method
is
shows the manner
in
accomplished.
for excitation of the field
is
the
Here the entire current flowing
through the armature is made to flow through the
series winding.
magnetizing
coils.
combination of series and shunt winding, gives
in the diagram, Fig.
This winding is very extensively used for
576.
generators, but is seldom used for motors, as either
a series or a shunt winding serves for almost all conthe
Fig.
574.
the notches on the lever, thus regulating the pressure
of the lever to any desired degree.
compound winding, shown
ditions of operation.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Fk;.
.'.7.,.
407
Fig. 576.
INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF USE
Preceding the section of " Lettering" and beginning at page 41 much valuable matter relating to
the "Drawing board, T square and triangles" may be found, with many illustrations; what follows
properly belongs with the above section, but is removed to a less important part of the volume because
the matter is almost too elementary it is inserted here "lest we forget."
Good tools are necessary for a proper output of good work but it is not always the man who has
;
the most or the better tools that does the best
man
own
work
has his
select tools,
a little observation also shows that every regular draughts
gathered as he has progressed
in
study and practice to
suit his
own "handy"
when the draughtsman declines the employment of any but the regumanual dexterity to execute all necessary drawings.
There is an old adage to the effect that " an ounce of showing is worth a pound of telling " the
kindly assistance of an experienced draughtsman at the beginning of one's efforts is invaluable and worth
Euoene C. Peck, M. E., has written an account of the method he
the fee that migrht be charcred.
employed in teaching a class of the employees of the Cleveland Twist Drill Co.; it is quoted almost in
full in the note below
method
of
the time comes
lar instruments, relying
upon
his
Note.
The method employed was mapped out more with a view to teaching the employees to read drawings than to make draughtsmen
same time so that those who cared
to follow the profession in the future would be able to use all the information and pracno originality in plan of teaching was attempted the class consisted of twenty pupils who had been through fractions
and percentage in arithmetic; some had taken lessons previouslv in drawing, knew the use of different instruments and understood the ordinary geometrical problems occurring in drawing, while others were without any such previously acquired knowledge.
As very little drawing could be done in one evening in a class they were instructed to do all drawing at home. Each pupil was furnished
with a blueprint of instructions such as would be needed outside of class, and also a plate (blueprint) to copy from. These plates were drawn,
then blueprinted, but to a scale of about lo inches to the foot, so that no copying by dividers could be done. The first four contain the ordinary
geometrical problems, the next four projection, cylindrical and conical intersections and developments then came the simple machine parts
From this on the plates gradually get more intricate and complicated, but in all cases are
to teach the correct placing of views, shading, etc.
taken from our own shop drawings or a machine in the factory, and more especially is a drawing of a jig or fixture used which may have given
any trouble to the machinist to read. These drawings are then made at home and left in the drawing office, where they are corrected and
marked, a record of the progress of the student being kept for reference.
Later they were given a little algebra in the shape of simple formulas which, by the way, gave most of them some trouble until they got
to handle the characters as though they had no value, or to treat them by the rules regardless of their value.
A short course in the practical laying out and working of gear problems came next, which gave very little trouble, as most of the students
were more or less familiar with the subject.
This year's course in class closed with logarithms, and considering that I left the theory of exponents out of the question, taught them
only the use of the tables and gave them rules to solve the different examples by, they handled the subject remarkably well.
of them, but at the
tice to
good advantage
413
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESiGN.
41J:
COMPASSES.
Compasses are
cles,
measuring
instruments
figures, etc.;
for
Figs.
describing
cir
577580 show
a pair of
compasses, a pencil, a lengthening bar
and a pen
point,
either of which
may be
inserted
one leg of the instrument when a
The other
is to be drawn.
leg is fitted with a needle point and acts as the center about which the circle is to be described.
The compasses shown in Fig. 577 have a single
into a socket
in
circle in pencil or in ink
socket only; the leg with the needlelike point
is
called
a divider point ; the other leg has a stationary needle
Fig.
point which
is
578.
Fig.
579.
placed in the center of the circle to
be drawn it will be noticed that one leg of the
compasses is jointed; this is done, so xhsiX. the compass points may be kept perpendicular to the paper
when drawing circles.
:
Fig. 580.
The
Note. The student should learn to open and close the compasses
with one hand those provided with a cylindrical handle at the head
are to be held gently between the thumb and the forefinger and those
minus the handle should be held with the needle point leg resting
between the thumb and fourth finger, and the other leg between the
middle and forefinger. Only one hand should be used in locating the
needle point at a point on the drawing about which the circle is to be
drawn, unless the left hand merely serves to steady the needle point.
Having placed the needle point at the desired point, and with it still
resting on it, the pen or pencil may be moved in or out to any desired
When the lengthen ng bar is used both hands must be emradius.
;
ployed.
head of the compasses
should hold the legs firmly in any desired
position and at the same time should permit their being opened and closed with one
hand
the joint may be tightened or
loosened by means of a screwdriver or
spanner, which is furnished with the instrujoint
at the
Fr;.
,577.
NoTE.
The needle point
itself,
in all
good instruments,
steel wire, placed in a socket
is
a separ
provided at the end of
the leg. The wire, as a rule, has a shoulder at its lower end, below
which a fine, needlelike point projects.
ate piece of
round
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
ment
compasses should not be used for
a radius, not allowing
circles of too large
the points to be placed at a right angle with
lengthening bar. Fig. 580, is
used to extend the leg carrying the pen or
the paper.
pencil
points, as
circles
of
radius
large
may
the case
are
be,
to
when
be
de
finger, as
to the right
The
Circles should be
drawn with a continuous
when inking
in
a circle
it
is
well to
stop exactly at the end of a single revolution, as the line
going over
it
may become uneven when
second time when closed,
are to be set in
such a manner as to be
even.
DIVIDERS.
Dividers are used for laying off distances
upon a drawing, or
for dividing straight lines
an instrument of this
the points should
be thin and sharp, so that they will not puncture
holes in the paper larger than is absolutely necessary when using the dividers to space a line or
circle into a number of equal parts, they should
or circles
no.
581.
kind
is
into parts
shown
in Fig. 581
be held at the top between the thumb and fore
to
mark
off
the
and left.
shown
divider
upper end terminating in a spring,
which tends to bring one leg toward the other.
its
The legs of dividers, as well as those of compasses,
made triangular in section, except near the
are
where the corners are ground
to make a round point.
point,
If
the needle point and the pen or pencil point
in Fig. 581 is provided with
a hair spring attachment, which enables the user to
make quite ^ne adjustments ; in this case one leg is
made separate from the main body of the instru
motion, with an even, slight pressure on the
pen
when using compasses
spaces, the instrument should be turned alternately
ment with
scribed.
415
the point should be
left
off sufficiently
triangular, the holes
punctured into the paper, would be bored out to
such an extent, while turning the instrument, that
accurate measurements would be impossible.
being essential that the points of dividers be
kept in good condition, they should never be used
for anything else, except the purpose they are made
for.
The joint ai the head of the dividers should
be kept not too tight, for unless there is a hairIt
spring attachment, as described above,
ficult to
spring
is
it
will
be
dif
adjust the dividers accurately, owing to the
in the legs.
Lost motion
in
also a very objectionable feature,
attended to as soon as detected.
the head joint
and should be
ROGERS' DRAWING
416
BOW
PENCIL
AND BOW
AND
DESIGN.
support
PEN.
A bow pencil a,ndi aubowpen are shown in Figs.583 and
584; these instruments are
made
it
in
a vertical position by
resting the needle point on the paper,
and pressing slightly at the top with
the forefinger of one hand, and turn
for describing small
the adjusting screw or nut with the
thumb
of the
same hand.
Bow
di
viders for measuring very small dis
tances are also largely in
use, see
Fig. 582.
DRAWING PENS.
For drawing ink lines other than
arcs and circles, the drawing pen or
ruling pen, is used, Figs. 585 and 586;
these consist of two thin steel blades,
made
attached to a handle
ivory or light metal
made
and
of
two
of wood,
the points are
steel blades
which open
close, as required for thickness of
by a regulating thumbscrew.
When using the ruling pen
lines,
should be
Fig.
circles.
that
is
582.
The two
Fio.
583.
Fig.
dicular as possible, the
584.
points should be adjusted evenly,
close either of the above
To
it
perpen
hand bearing
on the tee square or the triangle against which the line is drawn.
The pen must not be pressed against
the edge of the tee square or triangle
slightly
they should be of the same length, otherwise,
very small circles cannot be described.
held as nearly
open or
mentioned instruments;
Fig.
585.
Fig.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
as the blades will then close together, thus
the line uneven.
guide
the pen
The edge should
making
only serve as a
should be held with the thumb
screw on the outside.
This instrument
good
417
is
quite delicate, and,
when
in
very accurate.
It should be used only
for fine work on paper, and never for scribing in
order,
is
metal.
BEAM COMPASSES.
For describing very large
are used
circles
beam compasses
these compasses are shown in Fig.
with a portion of the
587,
wooden rod or beam on which
they are used.
At A, Fig. 587, is shown a section of the beam,
which has the shape of a letter T. This form has
considerable strength and rigidity.
Beam compasses, as shown in Fig. 587, are provided with extra
points for pencil or ink work.
While the generil
by means of the clamp against
the wood, minute variations are made by the screw
B, shifting one of the points.
a Ijustment
Note.
is
effected
Flu.
DRAWING
A good drawing pen should be made of properly tempered
neither too soft nor hardened to brittleness
The nibs shoxUd be
accurately set, both of the same length, and both equally firm when in
387.
INK.
steel,
contact with the drawing paper.
The
points .should be so shaped that
they are fine enough to admit absolute control of the contact of the pen
in starting and ending lines, but otherwise as broad and rounded as
possible, in order to hold a convenient quantity of ink without dropping it. The lower (under) blade should be suificienth firm to prevent
the closinp^ of the blades of the pen,
when using the pen
against a
The spring of the pen which separates the two blades
should be strong enough to hold the upper blade in position, but not so
strong that it will interfere with easy adjustment of the thumbscrew
the thread of the thumbscrew should be deeply and evenly cut so as not
straightedge.
to strip.
Liquid India ink can be procured
in
bottles with
glass tube feeders, as in Figs. 588 and 589, or with a
quill attached to the cork, by means of which the pen
may be filled by drawing it through the
common writing pen may a'so be used for
pen
in
the
feeder or
Dry
same manner
blades; a
filling
the
as described for the glass
quill.
ink of good quality however in sticks, Figs.
590593, cannot be surpassed, although it requires
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
418
skill in its
preparation.
In case the stick ink
put enough clean, filtered or distilled water
is
used
in a shal
low dish or "tile" for making enough ink for the
place one end of the stick in
drawing in hand
the water, and grind by giving the stick a circular
motion. Do not bear hard upon the stick.
Test the
ink occasionally to see whether it is black.
Draw
a fine line with a pen and hold the paper in a strong
light.
If it shows brown or gray grind a while
longer and test again.
Keep grinding until a fine
;
Fig.
Fig.
shows black the time required to obtain the
desired result depends entirely on the amount of
line
The
ink should be kept free of dust
and prevented from evaporating by covering
a
flat
Figs. 590593.
water used.
plate of
some
kind.
589.
it
with
Note.
If stick
ink
is
used
it is
very good policy to buy a stick of
the very best quality, costing, say about a dollar,
as, perhaps, it will
longer than several dollars' worth of liquid ink. The only reason
for using liquid ink is that all lines are then sure to be of the same
blackness, and time is saved in grinding.
last
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
When
trouble
is
caused by the ink drying between
the blades and refusing to
RULES AND SCALES.
when
flow, especially
drawing fine lines, the only remedy is to wipe out
the pen with a cloth.
Do not lay the pen down for
any great length of time when it contains ink wipe
The ink may sometimes be started by
it out first.
moistening the end of the finger and touching it to
The rule is used for measuring and comparing
dimensions; they are divided in inches, halves, quarand thirtyseconds.
For some purposes the rules as explained above
cannot be used, as i. e., for making drawings smaller
ters, eighths, sixteenths,
II
419
'
.4
4
9
2
llllll
Tip
II
2963
10
12
11
?<^INCH
3/jlNCH
HON C
2t
v_
ill
It
ill
ill
01
III
III
6
ill
/.
llllllllllll llllll
3
III
llllll lllllllll
ill
llllllllllll
ill!
Fig.
I.
iliilillillilllili lllllllll lllllllll!
594.
the point of the pen, or by drawing a slip of paper
or larger than the actual size of the object to be
between the ends of the blades.
Before using the pen it is well to try it first on a
piece of paper to make sure that it will produce
lines of the required thickness
the border of the
sheet of paper on the drawing board may be used
drawn.
Scales are then
employed as shown
in Figs.
594 and 595.
for
this
custom.
purpose, according
to
long
established
\
Fig.
595.
mv^
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
420
The most convenient forms are the usual
triangular boxwood scales, having beveled
each of which
is flat,
so that the drawing
may be
595.
when
the
accurately
is
shown
The
in Fig.
using the protractor
that the line
(broken).
IRREGULAR CURVES
AND SWEEPS.
Curves are
lines
a circle
lar line.
irregular
is
a resfu
Curves other
than arcs of circles are
drawn with the pencil or
ruling pen by means of
PROTRACTOR.
A protractor
x?,
shown
for laying off
or for dividing a
it is
must be placed so
vertex of the angle.
length.
it
forming one side of the angle to be laid off or measured,
and the center O must be at the
and y% inch
one foot and (c) one
edge reads sixteenths
the whole 12 inches of
parts
divided
line
to
ment
is
Fig. 596, will coincide with the
B,
foot, i^ inch
its
a semicircle,
from A to B and
from B to A. Protractors are often made of metal,
in which case the central part is cut away to allow
the drawing under it to be seen.
represents a triangztlar
different
is
and, for convenience,
into 180 equal parts or degrees
It reads on its
edges
follows
as
O
(a) 3 inches and 13^ inches to
one foot, I inch and 3^
inch to one foot, (b) Y^
inch and 2/^ inch to one
scale
outer edge of the protractor
with center at
When
off correctly.
very convenient form of scales
It
edges,
graduated for a distance of twelve
These beveled edges serve to bring
measured, or distances laid
or
is
(12) inches.
the lines of division close to the paper
scale
flat
curved or irregularshaped
596 it is an instruor measuring angles on paper,
in Fig.
circle into
an equal number of
also used in connection with a scale to
define the inclination of one line to another.
rulers, called
curves or szueeps, Figs. 597608.
irregular
These are made of
various materials, wood, hard rubber or celluloid,
great variety of shapes.
Note.
A certain
A whole circle
number
in
of points
contains 360 degrees, a right angle contains
ol a circle. A 45 degree angle
90 degrees and therefore as many as a.
contains as many degrees as j^ of a circle.
ROGERS DRAWING AND DESIGN.
Figs. 597 to BOB.
421
422
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
determined througii which the line is to pass,
and said Hne should be first sketched in lightly,
freehand.
The irregular curve is then applied to
the curved line so as to embrace as many points as
is first
possible
the point where the pen touches the paper.
until the desired curve
It is
is
completed.
very
difficult to
continuous curve.
making the
draw a smooth
In order to avoid
much
curve out too
line
between the points or to cause it to
change its direction abruptly where
the different points join, the irregular
curve should be fitted so as to pass
through three points at
when moving
setting
it
it
to a
so that
it
new
least,
Fig.
neatly penciled
over,
been
in
sketched
and,
position,
by
will coincide with
When
part of the line already drawn.
609.
It will
be readily understood therefore that the direction of
the pen must be continually changed,
only the central points of those thus embraced should be inked in; this process is continued
Fig.
DESIGN.
after
having
freehand,
little
PENCILS.
Drawings are generally made in pencil and then
inked. A hard pe^icil'x?, best for mechanical drawing.
The pencil should be sharpened as shoWn in Figs. 609
and 610. Cut the wood away, about Y^ or 3/^ of an
inch of the lead projecting then sharpen it flat by
rubbing it against a fine file or apiece of fine emery
cloth or sandpaper that has been fastened to a flat
stick.
Grind it wedgeshaped as shown in the figure.
If sharpened to a round point, the point will wear
off quickly and make broad lines, thus making it
very difficult to draw a line exactly through a point.
The pencil for the compasses should be sharpened
in the same manner but should have a narrower
;
width.
610.
be experienced to ink
it, the pencil line showing the
direction in which
the curve is to be drawn.
difficulty will
When
inking with the irregular curve, the blades
of the pen should be kept against it and the thumb
screw on the outside the inside flat surface of the
blades must have the same direction as the curve at
;
The
pencil line should be
made
as light as pos
pressing the pencil too hard will often cut the
paper or leave a deep mark which cannot be erased.
The presence of too much lead on the surface of the
paper tends to prevent the ink passing to the paper
sible
and
in
in
rubbing out pencil lines the ink
is
blackness and the surface of the paper
reduced
rough
is
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
ened, which
is
As
a disadvantage.
little
Lines are drawn with the
flat
paper"
side of the lead
pressed lightly against the straightedge, as close to
it
as possible, the pencil being held almost vertically.
DRAWING PAPER.
The
ing
first
paper
plan.
is
The
thine to be considered
in select'mir draza
qualities that constitute
and
good paper
are
inches wide
nor discolored by reasonable exposure or age, and not buckling when stretched or
brittle
when ink or color is applied.
The sizes and names of commercial drawing paper
made in sheets is as follows
Cap
13x17 ins.
:
1 5x20
Medium
17x22
Royal
Super Royal
9x24
19x27
22x30
26x34
27x40
30x53
Imperial
Atlas
Double Elephant
Antiquarian
is
made
in
made in
for
rolls.
" Detail
marking out new
48 and 54
rolls 36, 42, 44,
the size of detail drawings for shop
dependent upon the type of the
drawing, the size of the parts detailed and the scale
use, of course, are
which they are drawn
good average ones
ally
from the
i8x
12 X 18,
the following sizes are
as they can be cut very economic
shops
6 x 9, 9 x 1 2,
X
24
36, 36 X 48 and 48 x 72 inches.
rolls sold in print
24,
surface, neither
erable erasing without destroying the surfaces, not
Demy
made
is
it
PREPARING FOR WORK.
repelling nor absorbing liquids, admitting of consid
becoming
especially
is
designs
to
the kind most suitable for the proposed
strength, uniformity of thickness
For large drawings paper
erasing or
rubbing out as possible should be done.
423
The paper
by means
of
is first
thumb
secured to the drawing board
one at each corner of the
tacks,
and smooth to
obtain this result proceed as follows press a thumbtack through one of the corners about y^ inch or ^
inch from the edge.
Place the tee square in position
sheet.
It
should be stretched
flat
Note. Border lines such as are used throughout the pages of this
book are frequently of considerable service to the draughtsman but
they must be used with a sense of "the fitness of things." Thus:
border lines are out of place in working drawings, etc., but where a set
of drawings are to be inspected and important contracts decided upon
by nontechnical business men or capitalists, a neat border line is often
the one thing that attracts attention, to the advantage of the exhibitor
of the plans and specifications used in the competition bids. The Patent
Office rules also call for a border line.
The size of the sheet of pure
white paper on which a drawing is made must be exactly lox 15 inches.
One inch from its edge a single marginal line is to be drawn leaving
" the sight " precisely 8x 13 inches.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
424
as in drawingf a horizontal line,
paper so that its upper edge
edge of the tee square blade.
and
will
straig^hten the
be paralUl to the
Pull the corner diag
onally opposite that in which the thumbtack was
and push
the same man
placed, so as to stretch the paper slightly
in
another thumbtack.
Proceed
in
ner for the remaining two corners.
The thumbtacks or drawingpins should have a
head as thin as possible without cutting at its edgesj
slightly concave on the underside next to the paper,
and should be only so much convex on its upper
side as will give
it
sufficient thickness to
pin to be secured to
it;
it
is
more small pins along the edge
than use one
For
much
particular
enable the
better to use four or
of a sheet of paper
larger pin at each corner.
work
it
is
necessary to stretch the
damp. For stretching the paper
in this way moisten the whole sheet on the under
side, with the exception of a margin all around the
sheet, of about half an inch and paste the dry border
to the drawing board.
To do this properly requires
a certain amount of skill, and paper thus stretched
gives undoubtedly a smoother surface than can be
paper while
obtained
it
is
when using thumbtacks, but
there are
objections to this process as the paper stretched in
this
under a certain strain and may have some
on the various dimensions of the drawing,
way
effect
when
is
cut off the board.
Once the drawing completed,
cut the paper from
the board with a knife, by following the lines previ
drawn
around the sheet for trimming.
Make a continuous cut all around if one of the
longer sides is cut first and then the opposite side
there is danger of tearing the paper when cutting the
remaining sides.
ously
all
PENCILING.
The
drawing should look as nearly like the
ink drawing as possible.
A good draughtsman
leaves his work in such a state that any competent
person can without difficulty ink in what he has
pencil
drawn.
The pencil should always be drawn, not pushed.
Lines are generally drawn from left to right and
Pencil lines
from the bottom to the top or upwards.
should not be any longer than the proposed ink
By keeping a drawing in a neat, clean condiwhen penciling, the use of the rubber upon the
lines.
tion
finished inked
drawing
will
be greatly diminished.
INKING.
drawing should be inked
ciling
is
entirely completed.
in only after the pen
Always begin at the top
and curves,
of the paper,first inking in all small circles
then the larger circles and curves, next all horizontal
lines, commencing again at the top of the drawing
II
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
and working downward. Then ink in all vertical
lines, startinof on the left and moving toward the
right
finally draw all oblique lines.
Irregular curves, small circles and arcs are inked in
first, because it is easier to draw a straight line up to
a curve than it is to take a curve up to a straight line.
;
425
divided into yi, j^, yi, ^, each of these representing
the same proportions of the actual sizes of the object
to be drawn.
From this contracted scale the dimensions and
measurements are
A quarter size scale
to represent
one
is
foot.
laid off
on the drawing.
made by taking
Each
three inches
of the three inches
be divided into 12 parts representing inches,
each one of these again will be divided in i^, y%,
j?^, etc.; each one of these representing to a quarter
will
DRAWING TO
SCALE.
The meaning of this is, that the drawing when
done bears a definite proportion to the full size of
the particular part,
the same as
diminishinof
When
duced
it
or, in
other words,
would appear
if
is
precisely
viewed through a
orlass.
it is
required to
scale, that
is,
make
a dravving to a re
of a smaller size than the actual
size of the object, say for instance, J^ full size,
dimension of the object
half the actual size
in
every
the drawing must be one
in this case
one inch on the
size scale the actual sizes of
^, %,yi,~^ of an inch.
must be mentioned that in several instances, in
this work, distances in one figure are said to be
equal to corresponding distances in the same object
in another view, while by actual measurement they
are somewhat different; this is owing to the use of
It
different
scales
each
scale
separate
should
be
marked on the drawing.
Paper scales for large drawings are extremely useand remarkably accurate. The advantage they
possess over other kinds is that they expand and
object would be represented by 3^ inch.
Such a
reduced drawing could be made with an ordinary
ful
however, would require every size of the
object to be divided by the proportion of the scale,
which would entail a very great loss of time in calculations.
This can be avoided by simply dividing
the rule itself by 2, from the beginning.
Such a
contract equally with the drawing paper during the
rule, this,
rule,
or scale as
in yi inches,
it is
generally called, will be divided
each half inch representing one
full
inch
various changes of the weather.
The nickelplated sheetmetal steel scale which has
two graduated edges conduces to most accurate
work; this instrument having only two scales the
annoyance experienced of frequently turning it, is
greatly reduced.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
426
A fiat boxwood
pitch on
side
its
scale
and
T square,
with beveled edges has less
be more
for that reason can
quickly and easily read than others.
Scroll.
Dixon's V. H. pencil.
SELECTION OF INSTRUMENTS.
boxwood
12inch
The
choice of drawing tools
difficult
may hang upon
suitable tools,
hence
some
one of the most
points to settle that can present
cess or failure
of
is
it is
well to follow the advice
procure such tools as are immediately needed and to
The
as occasion
the end are the cheapest.
German
silver
is
better than
brass
also
necessary.
Henry Raabe, M.
in
following
the use of
;
them up
better than to fold
have a
little
accommodate the
it
B.
ers
triangle
triangles, ink, colors, etc.
Instructor of
Drawing
in
New
Compasses, 5^ inches, with needle point; pen,
and lengthening bar.
pencil
Drawing
pen,
4^
inches.
Scale from
Pencil rubber;
pens
pencil
Bow
Drawdivid
60degree by 30degree
Drawing board i Pro;
1" to
the foot to /^
3" to the foot to
Ink eraser;
Pencil holder for
^"
"
to the
to the foot;
Pen holder with
short pencils Compass
i
Pencils from 6 H. to 3 H. (drawing penDrawing ink Sketch pads
Pencil pointer
pencils
cils)
Bow
Tee square
Scale from
Pair of dividers
45degree triangle
in a piece of
York, recommends the following set of tools for the beginner
Pratt Institute,
is
chamois
satchel or grip which will
E., is entitled to credit for the
of instruments
Pair of compasses, with pencil, pen, needle point,
tractor;
S.,
list
and lengthening bar
Bow pen
ing pen
foot
Louis Rouillon,
eraser.
20 sheets drawing paper, 11 X 15 inches, and a
drawingboard about 16 x 23 inches will also be
the best
pocket or folding instruments is to be avoided if
is necessary to carry the
instruments nothing
leather, or to
Bottle of liquid India ink, four thumbtacks, pen
and ink
much
graduated 116 inch
demands.
best quality of instruments last longer and
metal used,
scale, flat,
the entire length.
Suc
itself.
the getting the most
professional draughtsman, and in buying,
add others
24inch blade.
45degree triangle, 9 inches.
30 and 60degree triangle, g inches.
Sketch pencils
ing cloth.
(soft);
Thumb
tacks,
paper and
trac
PRACTICAL RULES AND USEFUL DATA,
For mental
nothing better than the solution of mathematical problems.
It is not
necessary that these problems be intricate and in the higher branches, but only not so easy as to be
readily understood without active and sustained brain work.
drill
there
is
first of all, rapidity and a familiarity with the elements of numbers and their application
problems immediately surrounding one, these are the foundations of many successful lives to
most minds the study of mathematics is dry and uninteresting to make the subject acceptable it must
be presented in such a form as to immediately appeal to the student as of great practical value. This
value is proven when applications are made to problems that confront the draughtsman and engineer in
his daily routine.
There is no more interesting subject for one who is disposed to study than that of
useful numbers.
It gives him his first idea of what it
It literally opens a new world to the student.
means to really /rciz;^ anything, for the demonstrations of figures and geometry prove absolutely and
completely the propositions with which they deal.
"In the wide expanse of mathematics it has been a task of the utmost difficulty for the author to
lay out a road that would not too soon weary or discourage the student if he had his wish he would
gladly advance step by step with his pupil, and much better explain, byword and gesture and emphasis,
the great principles which underlie the operations of mechanics to do this would be impossible, so he
writes his admonition ia two short words: In case of obstacles, 'go on.' If some rule or process seetUS
too hard to learn, go around the difficulty, always advancing, and, in time, retu7'7z and conquer."
The foregoing paragraphs are simply to emphasize a few words explaining the value of the tallies
which are printed in the following pages tables of the results of mathematical calculations are of
immense economy in time, in guaranteeing accuracy and the saving of much drudgery
To thoroughly understand the easy and helpful uspof the tables which follow should be the pleasant
task of the student the value of a teacher or instructor at this point cannot be over estimated ; men are
when assistance is to
not made to do their work alone, to help and to be helped is the universal law
be had whether it is for pay or favor the student should avail himself of it with many thanks.
Accuracy,
to the
429
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
430
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA.
a mathematical science which teaches
the art of making calculations by letters and signs
Algebra
Is
instead of figures.
algabron,
and signs are
Quantities
in
2.^,
Zy,
S'S,
letters
and figures
letters,
as a,
The
or
press
are
letters of the alphabet are
known
quantities
Any
letter
may
represent any
number, and the same letter may represent different
numbers, but in each sum the same letter must
always stand for the same amount.
operations to be performed are expressed by
same signs
as
in
Arithmetic;
thus
expresses Subtraction, and
+ means
X stands
for Multiplication.
Thus +
/;
^,
thus a^k'
of Equality
is
two short horizontal
read a equals
The
the last letters, those which
Letters employed have no fixed numerical
Addition,
is
is
also expressed
r/
is
read a
the sign
lines as a^^=b
and
b.
Parenthesis
or Vinculum
indicates
that the included quantities are taken collectively or
value of themselves.
the
Division
sign of
but this
as
The
the same as 'j'XaXbXc.
is
used to ex
unknown.
The
to
b, c,
etc.
first
abc
divided by b
is
The
But the multiplication of letters
a.(5.
more commonly expressed by writing them
Example
called Symbols.
algebra are expressed by
by a combination of
is
denoted by a period between
also
is
gether, the signs being omitted.
reduction of parts to a whole.
letters
Multiplication
the factors as
The name comes from two Arabic words,
The
a plus b ; a b means a less b; and aV^b shows that
a and b are to be multiplied together.
denotes the
sum
of a
and
and
is
read
one quantity.
Example
3 {a\S) and 3+<5 each denote
the sum of a and b is multiplied by 3.
:
The
character
"
.
that
denotes hence, therefore.
is a number or letter prefixed to a
show how many times the quantity is to
Hence a coefficient is a multiplier or
Coefficient
quantity, to
be taken.
factor ; thus in
5, 5 is
a numeral coefficient of
When no numeral coefficient is expressed,
always understood. Thus xy means \xy.
a.
is
ROGERS' DRAWING
AND
Algebraic Operation
is
combining quantities
according to the principles of algebra.
A Theorem is a statement of a principle to be
proved.
Problem
is
something proposed to be done, as
a question to be solved.
The Expression of Equality between two
ties is called
An
in algebraic
any quantity expressed
^a
']a,
aArb there are two terms
and
\nx, y and z
Positive Quantity
is
one that
is
to
be added and
letters
advantage of the substitution is that we are enabled to pursue our investigations without being embarrassed by the necessity of
performing arithmetical operations at every step.
Thus, if a given number be represented by the
letter a,
the
we know
the value of a
^^
the half of that number, whatever
may
will
that 2a will represent twice that
be.
In like
be nothing
equally hold whether a be
By
manner
left
5,
or
and
7,
if
a be taken
this result will
or 1000, or any
number whatever.
other
the aid of algebra, therefore,
analyze
there are three.
numbers are expressed by the
of the alphabet
from a there
etc.
of an algebraic expression are those
parts which are connected by the signs
in
In algebra
number, and
is
language, as yi,
The Terms
Thus
quanti
an Equation.
Algebraic Expression
431
ADVANTAGES OF ALGEBRA.
DEFINITIONS.
An
DESIGN.
we
are enabled to
and determine the abstract properties of
numbers, and
we
are also enabled to resolve
many
it, as 4^ + 33.
one that is to be subtracted
prefixed to it, as \a
and has the sign
3^.
A Simple Quantity is a single letter, or several
as
letters written together without the sign + or
questions that by simple arithmetic would either be
a, ab, 3Xji'.
to
has the sign
prefixed to
Negative Quantity
is
Compound Quantity
is
two or more simple
quantities connected by the sign
ix y.
The Axioms
+ or
as
2,a\ i,b,
difficult
algebra are selfevident truths as
exemplified on pages 85 and 86.
draughtsman or engineer has but
little
practical
use for a too extended acquaintance with algebra, as
nearly
all
the algebraic rules have been transferred
ordinary arithmetical computation, but as the
algebraic system
is
so inwoven into the school and
college course of instruction
to
in
or impossible.
know
it is
well for every
one
something of the elements of the science.
Arithmeticians for very
many
study of the use of formulce
years have
(this
is
made
Latin for the
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
432
word forms)
in stating
problems and rules
U X
these
forms are nearly all expressed in algebraic terms,
The advantage to be derived from the use of these
is that it puts into a short space what otherwise
might necessitate the use of a long verbal or written
of
is
that the
much
of the expression
as ^
25,
then \
=5
of expression,
10
and as f^^ 1 2, then
memory retains the
easier ?.nd longer than
and it may be remarked that those who once become accustomed to
the use of formulae seldom abandon their employment.
method
Va./ ; find the value
Hence, .1^
Another advantage
the longer
when a
10 d=2a^; ^^25; and/"^ 12.
As = 10, then ^ =^5 as d=^ 24, then y^d=^
.;ir
explanation.
form
%d+\c
+ 5 9.
15.
Answer.
= f)
the value
jirwhen
= 3/^ and / ^ ^
x^^ (^ i^); here
divided
2=
by
i^.
= 8(i3^i>^)
= 8i<
= 7^ Answer.
=
X ^ a + d f where ^
= d = = and/=
= 2X3 + 4X5 6X7
= 6 + 20 42
= 26 42
= 16 Answer.
AB
x=
the value
Then
x
^ what
C=io; and D =
when A^6; B =
42
x^ 166X7
10 = 6 = Answer.
4.
If
(I
^^^8.
of
find
y
3!/^ is
Examples Explaining the Solvng of Formul.k
^ + d
a + b
1.
\{ X
f ; what must be the
value of X when = lo, <5=7, ^==9, ?^4, and
/=6?
First substitute the figures for the letters, thus
= 10 + 9+4 then proceed as
Arithmetical
X ^ 21 15 = 6 Answer.
p + ^ find
== 4 g\ m
A'
in
6,
^.
the
4,
part.
2.
If .r
value of
X when
^=
= 6
'
/>
==
2)
s, e
6,
2,
<5
3,
7.
;t:
the
and
^ 20 m ^ twice 3^6;
n= times 6 == 42 and ^ '^ times = 24;
Hence, ^ = 20 + 6 42 +24
= 5043
= Answer.
Here 4_^= 4 times
11
m
6.
{{
j.
16
7;
?
of
is
~7
7
'
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
LOGARITHMIC TABLE.
LOGARITHMS.
composed of two Greek nouns'
meaning reason and mimber ; a logarithm is an
artificial number so related to the natural numbers
that the multiplication and division of the latter
may be performed by addition and subtraction and
by their use the much more difificult operations of
raising to powers and the extraction of roots are
effected by easy cases of multiplication and division.
The early computers of logarithms carried them to
ten places of decimals, but it was soon found that five
This word
those given
When
is
and seven places were
in this
sufficient for
book are
438
most purposes
carried to six places.
to
the engineer or draughtsman
make long and
required
is
difficult calculations, consisting of
the multiplication, division, squaring,
of
etc.,
num
bers, the logarithmic table will, as explained in the
note, be of such assistance as
may amply
repay the
study of the subject and the acquirement of rapid
and accurate use
of the table.
must be understood that but an outline only of
study is here presented and that the
columns of figures given in the tables beginning on
page 435 are but a very small part of those published
hence the exin advanced works on mathematics
amples given of the use of the table are necessarily
It
this interesting
Naperian logarithms are called natural and also
Hyperbolic
logarithms
common
logarithms
are
and also the Briggsian System.
In the Table, letter N over the first column stands
after loo (see page 436) the numfor "number"
bers at the top of the columns express the tenth
parts of N.
confined to very small numbers.
called the decimal,
Note. Logarithms were invented and a table published in 1614
by John Napier, of Scotland but the kind now chiefly in use were proposed by his contemporary Henry Briggs, of London. The first extended
table of common logarithms were calculated by Adrian Vlacq in 1628,
and have been the basis of every one since published when logarithms
are spoken of without any qualifications common logarithms are to be
;
To use the table, fi.nd the number in the first
column marked N, and in the next column the corresponding logarithm, will be found.
The
figures
given in the column are only the
decimal part of the logarithm.
The
rules
and ex
amples for the application of logarithms are as
lows
fol
understood. The labor of the operation incurred in the ordinary processes of arithmetic is often enormous by the use of logarithms this
labor is greatly lessened logarithms are of inestimable value in the socalled higher mathematics, in navigation, in surveying, and in the inves;
tigation of
many problems
in physics.
Rule
To
m.ultiply tzvo numbers,
add
their log
arithms, a7id the result will be the logarithm of the
product.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
434
Mul tiply
Example:
log. 25
log. 14
397940
2.
Proof:
tract
Rule
50
Example
one, sublog.
of the dividend.
Example
Divide
75
by
log.
175 =" 2,243038
log.
To
Rule
175
^
log. 25
^= 25
multithe
To find
aiiy
the product
Example
is
the logarithm
of
of the power.
Find the value of 3*
log. 3
1.908484
Find the value of V64
1.806 1 80 4 2 =.903090)'==
9X3
128
logarithm
is
= 27
log. 81
H 7
128
= .301030 =
log.
2.
is
between i
only a fraction.
and 10
the
The logarithm
0/
JO is I, between 10 and 100, a i has to
front of the fractional part found in the table ; between J 00 and 1,000, a 2 forms the whole number ;
and 10,000
What
is
the figure
is j,
on.
by
,089905 and
we have
point,
decimal
front of the
find log. 123
for the true log. of 123
^ 2.089905.
2 in
and so
the logarithm of 123?
we
looking in the table
placing a
= 2.107210
log. 8.
be placed in
Example:
the value of
// the nmnber
between 1,000
.477121
Proof
root.
find the charactistic or
Rule
power of any number,
number
196
ply the index of the power with the logarithm
log.
whole number to be
placed before the mantissa, or decimal part of the
logarithm, proceed as follows
845098
1.397940=
:
64=
Example: Find
log.
Proof
To find any root of a number, divide the
logarithm of the divisor from the logarithm
tlie
146 28
logarithm of the num,ber by the index of the
To divide one number by another
1.
2.292256
Rule
log. 150
7609
25
Find the value of 14^
778151
log.
FXAMPLE
25 by 6
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
TABLE OF LOGARITHMS.
There are two different
tables of logarithms in use,
one is called the Napierian
system, named after its inventor, and the common
system of which the base' is
lo; the accompanying tables
are
common logarithms.
The logarithm of a number usually consists of two
parts, the integral, or whole
and a
fractional part
the integral part is called
the characteristic or index,
part,
and the
fractional part the
mantissa.
The last word is
from the Latin and means
an addition.
The
abbrviviation of
words "logarithm of"
is
the
log.
or Log., thus: log. 136
2133539, the characteristic
of the logarithm i ^6 beine
2, and the mantissa .133539.
See Table, page 437.
n the tables the mantissas
only are given.
I
N
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Log.
000000
301030
477121
602060
698970
778151
845098
903090
954243
000000
Log.
N
51
^30
414973
431364
447158
462398
477121
31
32
33
34
35
491362
505150
518514
531479
544068
56
57
58
59
36
37
38
61
62
63
26
27
28
29
435
Log.
Log.
707570
716003
724276
732394
740363
76
77
78
79
748188
755875
763428
770852
778151
81
82
83
84
85
908485
913814
919078
924279
929419
64
65
785330
792392
799341
806180
812913
86
87
88
89
90
934498
939519
944483
949390
954243
91
52
53
54
55
60
80
880814
886491
892095
897627
903090
041393
079181
113943
146128
176091
39
40
556303
568202
579784
591065
602060
204120
230449
255273
278754
301030
41
42
43
44
45
612784
623249
633468
643453
653213
66
67
68
69
70
ai9544
826075
832509
838849
845098
92
93
94
95
959041
963788
968483
973128
977724
322219
342423
361728
380211
397940
46
47
48
49
50
662758
672098
681241
690196
698970
71
72
851258
857332
863323
869232
875061
96
97
98
99
100
982271
986772
991226
995635
000000
73
74
75
=1
ROGERS DRAWING AND DESIGN.
436
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
000868
005181
009451
013680
017868
022016
001301
005609
009876
014100
018284
022428
001734
006038
010300
014521
018700
022841
002166
006466
010724
014940
019116
023252
002598
006894
011147
015360
019532
023664
003029
007321
011570
015779
019947
024075
003461'
003891
007748
011993
016197
020361
024486
008174
012415
016616
020775
024896
100
101
102
103
104
105
000000
004321
008600
012837
017033
02.1189
0U0434
004751
009026
013259
017451
021603
106
107
109
110
025306
029384
033424
037426
041393
025715
029789
033826
037825
041787
026125
030195
034227
038223
042182
026533
030600
034628
038620
042576
026942
031004
035029
039017
042969
027350
031408
035430
039414
043362
027757
031812
035830
039811
043755
028164
032216
036230
040207
044148
028571
032619
036629
040602
044540
111
112
113
114
115
045323
049218
053078
056905
060698
045714
049606
053463
057286
061075
046105
049993
053846
057666
061452
046495
050380
054230
058046
061829
046885
050766
054613
058426
062206
047275
051153
054996
058805
062582
047664
051538
055378
059185
062958
048053
051924
055760
059568
063333
048442
052309
056142
059942
063709
048830
052694
056524
060320
064088
116
117
118
119
120
064458
068186
071882
075547
079181
064832
068557
072250
075912
079543
065206
068928
072617
076276
079904
065580
069298
072985
076640
080266
065953
069668
073352
077004
080626
066326
070038
073718
077368
080987
066699
070407
074085
077731
081347
067071
070776
074451
078094
081707
067443
071145
074816
078457
082067
067815
071514
075182
078819
082426
108
028978
033021
037028
040998
044932
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
437
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
085291
088845
092370
095866
099335
085647
089198
092721
096215
099681
086004
089552
093071
096562
100026
121
122
123
121
125
082785
086360
089905
093422
096910
083144
086716
090258
093772
097257
083503
087071
090611
094122
097604
083861
087426
090963
094471
097951
084219
087781
091315
094820
098298
084576
088136
095169
098644
084934
088490
092018
095518
098990
126
127
128
129
130
100371
103804
107210
110590
113943
100715
104146
107549
110926
114277
101059
104487
107888
111263
114611
101403
104828
108227
111599
114944
101747
105169
108565
111934
115278
102091
105510
108903
112270
115611
102434
105851
109241
112605
115943
102777
106191
109579
112940
116276
103119
106531
109916
113275
116608
103462
106871
110253
113609
116940
131
132
133
134
136
117271
120574
123852
127105
130334
117603
120903
124178
127429
130655
117934
121231
124504
127753
130977
118265
121560
124830
128076
131298
118595
121888
125156
128399
J31619
118926
122216
125481
128722
131939
119256
122544
125806
129045
132260
119586
122871
126131
129368
132580
119915
123198
126456
129690
132900
120245
123525
126781
130012
133219
133539
136721
139879
143015
146128
133858
137037
140194
143327
146438
134177
137354
140508
143639
146748
134496
137671
140822
143951
147058
134814
137987
141136
144263
147367
135133
138303
141450
144574
147676
135451
138618
141763
144885
147985
135769
138934
142076
145196
148294
136086
139249
142389
145507
148603
136403
139564
142702
145818
148911
136
137
138
139
140
N
1
091.667
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
438
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
151982
155032
158061
161068
164055
141
142
143
144
145
149219
152288
155336
158362
161368
149527
152594
155640
158664
161667
149835
152900
155943
158965
161967
150142
153205
156246
159266
162266
150449
153510
156549
159567
162564
150756
153815
156852
159868
162863
151063
154120
157154
160168
163161
151370
154424
157457
160469
163460
151676
154728
157759
160769
163758
146
147
148
149
160
164353
167317
170262
173186
176091
164650
167613
170555
173478
176381
164947
167908
170848
173769
176670
165244
168203
171141
174060
176959
165541
168497
171434
174351
177248
165838
168792
171726
174641
177536
166134
169086
172019
174932
177825
166430
169380
172311
175222
178113
166726
169674
172603
175512
178401
151
152
153
154
165
178977
181844
184691
187521
190332
179264
182129
184975
187803
190612
179552
182415
185259
188084
190892
179839
182700
185542
188366
191171
180126
182985
185825
188647
191451
180413
183270
186108
188928
191730
180699
183555
186391
189209
192010
180986
183839
186674
189490
192289
181272
184123
186956
189771
192567
181558
184407
187239
190051
192846
156
157
158
169
160
193125
195900
198657
201397
2041^0
193403
196176
198932
201670
204391
193681
196453
199206
201943
204663
193959
196729
199481
202216
204934
194237
197005
199755
202488
205204
194514
197281
200029
202761
205475
194792
197556
200303
203033
205746
195069
197832
200577
203305
206016
195346
198107
200850
203577
206286
195623
198382
201124
203848
206556
'
167022
169968
172895
175802
178689
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
439
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
161
162
163
164
165
206826
209515
212188
214844
217484
207096
209783
212454
215109
217747
207365
210051
212720
215373
218010
207634
210319
212986
215638
218273
207904
210586
213252
215902
218536
208173
210853
213518
216166
218798
208441
211121
213783
216430
219060
208710
211388
214049
216694
219323
208979
211654
214314
216957
219585
209247
211921
214579
217221
219846
166
167
168
169
170
220108
222716
225309
227887
230449
220370
222976
225568
228144
230704
220631
223236
225826
228400
230960
220892
223496
226084
228657
231215
221153
223755
226342
228913
231470
221414
224015
226600
229170
231724
221675
224274
226858
229426
231979
221936
224533
227115
229682
232234
222196
224792
227372
229938
232488
222456
225051
227630
230193
232742
171
172
173
174
175
232996
235528
238046
240549
243038
233250
235781
238297
240799
243286
233504
236033
238548
241048
243534
283757
236285
238799
241297
243782
234011
236537
239049
241546
244030
234264
236789
239299
241795
244277
234517
237041
239550
242044
244525
234770
237292
239800
242293
244772
235023
237544
240050
242541
245019
235276
237795
240300
242790
245266
176
177
176
179
180
245513
247973
250420
252853
255273
245759
248219
250664
253096
255514
246006
248464
250908
253338
255755
246252
248709
251151
253580
255996
246499
248954
251395
253822
256237
246745
249198
251638
254064
256477
246991
249443
251881
254306
256718
247237
249687
252125
254548
256958
247482
249932
252368
254790
257198
247728
250176
252610
255031
257439
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
440
TABLE OF LOGARITHMS Continued.
181
182
183
184
185
257679
260071
262451
264818
267172
257918
260310
262688
265054
267406
258158
260548
262925
265290
267641
258398
260787
263162
265525
267875
258637
261025
263399
265761
268110
258877
261263
263636
265996
268344
259116
261501
263873
266232
268578
259355
261739
264109
266467
268812
259594
261976
264346
266702
269046
259833
262214
264582
266937
269279
186
187
188
189
190
269513
271842
274158
276462
278754
269746
272074
274389
276692
278982
269980
272306
274620
276921
279211
270213
272538
274850
277151
279439
270446
272770
275081
277380
279667
270679
273001
275311
277609
279895
270912
273233
275542
277838
280123
271144
273464
275772
278067
280351
271377
273696
276002
278296
280578
271609
273927
276232
278525
280806
191
192
193
194
195
281033
283301
285557
287802
290035
281261
283527
285782
288026
290257
281488
283753
286007
288249
290480
281715
283979
286232
288473
290702
281942
284205
286456
288696
290925
282169
284431
286681
288920
291147
282396
284656
286905
289143
291369
282622
284882
287130
289366
291591
282849
285107
287354
289589
291813
283075
285332
287578
289812
292034
196
197
198
199
200
292256
294466
296665
298853
301030
292478
294687
296884
299071
301247
292699
294907
297104
299289
301464
292920
295127
297323
299507
301681
293141
295347
297542
299725
301898
293363
295567
297761
299943
302114
293584
295787
297979
300161
302331
293804
296007
298198
300378
302547
294025
296226
298416
300595
302764
294246
296446
298635
300813
302980
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
441
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
1
201
202
203
204
205
303196
305351
307496
309630
311754
303412
305566
307710
309S43
311966
303628
305781
307924
310056
312177
303844
305996
308137
310268
312389
304059
306211
308351
310481
312600
304275
306425
308564
310693
312812
304491
306639
308778
310906
313023
304706
306854
308991
311118
313234
304921
307068
309204
311330
313445
305136
307282
309417
311542
313656
206
207
208
209
210
313867
315970
318063
320146
322219
314078
316180
318272
320354
322426
314289
316390
318481
320562
322633
314499
316599
318689
320769
322839
314710
316809
318898
320977
323046
314920
317018
319106
321184
323252
315130
317227
319314
321391
323458
315340
317436
319522
321598
323665
315551
317646
319730
321805
323871
315760
317854
319938
322012
324077
211
212
213
214
215
324282
326336
328380
330414
332438
324488
326541
328583
330617
332640
324694
326745
328787
330819
332842
324899
326950
328991
331022
333044
325105
327155
329194
331225
333246
325310
327359
329398
331427
333447
325516
327563
329601
331630
333649
325721
327767
329805
331832
333850
325926
327972
330008
332034
334051
326131
328176
330211
332236
334253
216
217
218
219
220
334454
336460
338456
340444
342423
334655
336660
338656
340642
342620
334856
336860
338855
340841
342817
335057
337060
339034
341039
343014
335257
337260
339253
341237
343212
335458
337459
339451
341435
343409
335658
337659
339650
341632
343606
335859
337858
339849
341830
343802
336059
338058
340047
342028
343999
336260
338257
340246
342225
344196
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
442
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinoed.
221
222
223
224
225
344392
346353
348305
350248
352183
344589
346549
348500
350442
352375
344785
346744
348694
350636
352568
344981
346939
348889
350829
352761
345178
347135
349083
351023
352954
345374
847330
349278
351216
353147
345570
347525
349472
351410
353339
345766
347720
349666
351603
353532
345962
347915
349860
351796
353724
346157
348110
350054
351989
353916
226
227
228
229
230
354108
356026
357935
359835
361728
354301
356217
358125
360025
361917
354493
356408
358316
360215
362105
354685
356599
358506
360404
362294
354876
356790
358696
360593
362482
355068
356981
358886
360783
362671
355260
357172
359076
360972
362859
355452
357363
359266
361161
363048
355643
357554
359456
361350
363236
355834
357744
359646
361539
363424
231
232
233
234
235
363612
365488
367356
369216
371068
363800
365675
367542
369401
371253
363988
365862
367729
369587
371437
364176
366049
367915
369772
371622
364363
366236
368101
369958
371806
364551
366423
368287
370143
371991
364739
366610
368473
370328
372175
364926
366796
368659
370513
372360
365113
366983
368845
370698
372544
365301
367169
369030
370883
372728
236
237
238
239
240
372912
374748
376577
378398
380211
373096
374932
376759
378580
380392
373280
375115
376942
378761
380573
373464
375298
377124
378943
380754
373647
375481
377306
379124
380934
373831
375664
377488
379306
381115
374015
375846
377670
379487
381296
374198
376029
377852
379668
381476
374382
376212
378034
379849
381656
374565
376394
378216
380030
381837
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
443
TABLE OF LOGARITHMS Continued.
241
242
243
244
245
382017
383815
385606
387390
389166
382197
383995
385785
387568
389343
382377
384174
385964
387746
389520
382557
384353
386142
387923
389698
382737
384533
386321
388101
389875
382917
384712
386499
388279
390051
383097
384891
386677
388456
390228
383277
385070
386856
388634
390405
383456
385249
387034
388811
390582
383636
385428
387212
388989
390759
246
247
248
249
260
390935
392697
394452
396199
397940
391112
392873
394627
396374
398114
391288
393048
394802
396548
398287
391464
393224
394977
396722
398461
391641
393400
395152
396896
398634
391817
393575
395326
397071
398808
391993
393751
395501
397245
398981
392169
393926
395676
397419
399154
392345
394101
395850
397592
399328
392521
394277
396025
397766
399501
261
262
253
264
255
399674
401401
403121
404834
406540
399847
401573
403292
405005
406710
400020
401745
403464
405176
406881
400192
401917
403635
405346
407051
400365
402089
403807
405517
407221
400538
402261
403978
405688
407391
400711
402433
404149
405858
407561
400883
402605
404320
406029
407731
401056
402777
404492
406199
407901
401228
402949
404663
406370
408070
256
257
258
259
260
408240
409933
411620
413300
414973
408410
410102
411788
413467
415140
408579
410271
411956
413635
415307
408749
410440
412124
413803
415474
408918
410609
412293
413970
415641
409087
410777
412461
414137
415808
409257
410946
412629
414305
415974
409426
411114
412796
414472
416141
409595
411283
412964
414639
416308
409764
411451
413132
414806
416474
N
I
ROGERS' DRAWING
444
AND
DESIGN.
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
261
262
263
264
265
416641
418301
419956
421604
423246
416807
418467
420121
421768
423410
416973
418633
420286
421933
423574
417139
418798
420451
422097
423737
417306
418964
420616
422261
423901
417472
419129
420781
422426
424065
417638
419295
420945
422590
424228
417804
419460
421110
422754
424392
417970
419625
421275
422918
424555
418135
419791
421439
423082
424718
266
267
268
269
270
424882
426511
428135
429752
431364
425045
426674
428297
429914
431525
425208
426836
428459
430075
431685
425371
426999
428621
430236
431846
425534
427161
428783
430398
432007
425697
427324
428944
430559
432167
425860
427486
429106
430720
432328
426023
427648
429268
430881
432488
426186
427811
429429
431042
432649
426349
427973
429591
431203
432809
271
272
273
274
275
432969
434569
436163
437751
439333
433130
434729
436322
437909
439491
433290
434888
436481
438067
439648
433450
435048
436640
438226
439806
433610
435207
436799
438384
439964
433770
435367
436957
438542
440122
433930
435526
437116
438701
440279
434090
435685
437275
438859
440437
434249
435844
437433
439017
440594
434409
436004
437592
439175
440752
276
277
278
279
280
440909
442480
444045
445604
447158
441066
442637
444201
445760
447313
441224
442793
444357
445915
447468
441381
442950
444513
446071
447623
441538
443106
444669
446226
447778
441695
443263
444825
446382
447933
441852
443419
444981
446537
448088
442009
443576
445137
446692
448242
442166
443732
445293
446848
448397
442323
443889
445449
447003
448552
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
445
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContlnued.
]
281
282
283
284
285
448706
450249
451786
453318
454845
448861
450403
451940
453471
454997
449015
450557
452093
453624
455150
449170
450711
452247
453777
455302
449324
450865
452400
453930
455454
449478
451018
452553
454082
455606
449633
451172
452706
454235
455758
449787
451326
452859
454387
455910
449941
451479
453012
454540
456062
450095
451633
453165
454692
456214
286
287
288
289
290
456366
457882
459392
460898
462398
456518
458033
459543
461048
462548
456670
458184
459694
461198
462697
456821
458336
459845
461348
462847
456973
458487
459995
461499
462997
457125
458638
460146
461649
463146
457276
458789
460296
461799
463296
457428
458940
460447
461948
463445
457579
459091
460597
462098
463594
457731
459242
460748
462248
463744
291
292
293
294
295
463893
465383
466868
468347
469822
464042
465532
467016
468495
469969
464191
465680
467164
468643
47011G
464340
465829
467312
468790
470263
464490
465977
467460
468938
470410
464639
466126
467608
469085
470557
464788
466274
467756
469233
470704
464936
466423
467904
469380
470851
465085
466571
468052
469527
470998
465234
466719
468200
469675
471145
296
297
298
299
300
471292
472756
474216
475671
477121
471438
472903
474362
475816
477266
471585
473049
474508
475962
477411
471732
473195
474653
476107
477555
471878
473341
474799
476252
477700
472025
473487
474944
476397
477844
472171
473633
475090
476542
477989
472318
473779
475235
476687
478133
472464
473925
475381
476832
478278
472610
474071
475526
476976
478422
'
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
446
m
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinoed.
301
302
303
304
305
478566
480007
481443
482874
484300
478711
480151
481586
483016
484442
478855
480294
481729
483159
484585
478999
480438
481872
483302
484727
479143
480582
482016
483445
484869
479287
480725
482159
483587
485011
479431
480869
482302
483730
485153
479575
481012
482445
483872
485295
479719
481156
482588
484015
485437
479863
481299
482731
484157
485579
306
307
308
309
310
485721
487138
488551
489958
491362
485863
487280
488692
490099
491502
486005
487421
488833
490239
491642
486147
487563
488974
490380
491782
486289
487704
489114
490520
491922
486430
487845
489255
490661
492062
486572
487986
489396
490801
492201
486714
488127
489537
490941
492341
486855
488269
489677
491081
492481
486997
488410
489818
491222
492621
311
312
313
314
315
492760
494155
495544
496930
498311
492900
494294
495683
497068
498448
493040
494433
495822
497206
498586
493179
494572
495960
497344
498724
493319
494711
496099
497483
498862
493458
494850
496238
497621
498999
493597
494989
496376
497759
499137
493737
495128
486515
497897
499275
493876
495267
496653
498035
499412
494015
495406
496791
498173
499550
316
317
318
319
320
499687
501059
502427
503791
505150
499824
501196
502564
503927
505286
499962
501333
502700
504063
505421
500099
501470
502837
504199
505557
500236
501607
502973
504335
505693
500374
501744
503109
504471
505828
500511
501880
503246
504607
505964
500648
502017
503382
504743
506099
500785
502154
503518
504878
506234
500922
502291
503655
505014
506370
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
447
TABLE OF LOGARITHMS Continued.
321
322
323
324
325
506505
507856
509203
510545
511883
506640
507991
509337
510679
512017
506776
508126
509471
510813
512151
506911
508260
509606
510947
512284
507046
508395
509740
511081
512418
507181
508530
509874
511215
512551
507316
508664
510009
511349
512684
507451
508799
510143
511482
512818
507586
508934
510277
511616
512951
507721
509068
510411
511750
513084
326
327
328
329
330
513218
514548
515874
517196
518514
513351
514681
516006
517328
518646
513484
514813
516139
517460
518777
513617
514946
516271
517592
518909
513750
515079
516403
517724
519040
513883
515211
516535
517855
519171
514016
515344
516668
517987
519303
514149
515476
516800
518119
519434
514282
515609
516932
518251
519566
514415
515741
517064
518382
519697
331
332
333
334
335
519828
521138
522444
523746
525045
519959
521269
522575
523876
525174
520090
521400
522705
524006
525304
520221
521530
522835
524136
525434
520353
521661
522966
524266
525563
520484
521792
523096
524396
525693
520615
521922
523226
524526
525822
520745
522053
523356
524656
525951
520876
522183
523486
524785
526081
521007
522314
523616
524915
526210
336
337
338
339
340
526339
527630
528917
530200
531479
526469
527759
529045
530328
531607
526598
527888
529174
530456
531734
526727
528016
529302
530584
531862
526856
528145
529430
530712
531990
526985
528274
529559
530840
532117
527114
528402
529687
530968
532245
527243
528531
529815
531096
532372
527372
528660
529943
531223
532500
527501
528788
530072
531351
532627
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
448
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinoed.
341
342
343
344
346
532754
534026
535294
536558
537819
^532882
534153
535421
536685
537945
533009
534280
535547
536811
538071
533136
534407
535674
536937
538197
533264
534534
535800
537063
538822
533391
534661
535927
537189
538448
533518
534787
536053
537315
538574
533645
534914
536180
537441
538699
533772
535041
536306
537567
538825
533899
535167
536432
537693
538951
346
347
348
349
350
539076
540329
541579
542825
544068
539202
540455
541704
542950
544192
539327
540580
541829
543074
544316
539452
540705
541953
543199
544440
539578
540830
542078
543323
544564
539703
540955
542203
543447
544688
539829
541080
542327
543571
544812
539954
541205
542452
543696
544936
540079
541330
542576
543820
545060
540204
541454
542701
543944
545183
351
352
353
354
355
545307
546543
547775
549003
550228
545431
546666
547898
549126
550351
545555
546789
548021
549249
550473
545678
546913
548144
549371
550595
545802
547036
548267
549494
550717
545925
547159
548389
549616
550840
546049
547282
548512
549739
550962
546172
547405
548635
549861
551084
546296
547529
548758
549984
551206
546419
547652
548881
550106
551328
356
357
358
359
360
551450
552668
553883
555094
556303
551572
552790
554004
555215
556423
551694
552911
554126
555336
556544
551816
553033
554247
555457
556664
551938
553155
554368
555578
556785
552060
553276
554489
555699
556905
552181
553398
554610
555820
557026
552303
553519
554731
555940
557146
552425
553640
554852
556061
557267
552547
553762
554973
556182
557387
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
449
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
]
361
362
363
364
365
557507
558709
559907
561101
562293
557627
558829
560026
561221
562412
557748
558948
560146
561340
562531
557868
559068
560265
561459
562650
557988
559188
560385
561578
562769
558108
559308
560504
561698
562887
558228
559428
560624
561817
563006
558349
559548
560743
561936
563125
558469
559667
560863
562055
563244
558589
559787
560982
562174
563362
366
367
368
369
370
563481
564666
565848
567026
568202
563600
564784
565966
567144
568319
563718
564903
566084
567262
568436
563837
565021
566202
567379
568554
563955
565139
566320
567497
568671
564074
565257
566437
567614
568788
564192
565376
566555
567732
56890a
564311
565494
566673
567849
569023
564429
565612
566791
567967
569140
564548
565730
566909
568084
569257
371
372
373
374
375
569374
570543
571709
572872
574031
569491
570660
571825
572988
574147
569608
570776
571942
573104
574263
569725
570893
572058
573220
574379
569842
571010
572174
573336
574494
569959
571126
572291
573452
574610
570076
571243
572407
573568
574726
570193
571359
572523
573684
574841
570309
571476
572639
573800
574957
570426
571592
572755
573915
575072
376
377
378
379
380
575188
576341
577492
578639
579784
575303
576457
577607
578754
579898
575419
576572
577722
578868
580012
575534
576687
577836
578983
580126
575650
576802
577951
579097
580241
575765
576917
578066
579212
580355
575880
577032
578181
579326
580469
575996
577147
578295
579441
580583
576111
577262
578410
579555
580697
576226
577377
578525
579669
580811
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN
450
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
]
381
382
383
384
385
580925
582063
583199
584331
585461
581039
582177
583312
584444
585574
581153
582291
583426
584557
585686
581267
582404
583539
584670
585799
581381
582518
583652
584788
685912
581495
582631
583765
584896
586024
581608
582745
583879
585009
586137
581722
582858
583992
585122
586250
581836
582972
584105
585235
586362
581950
583085
584218
585348
586475
386
387
388
389
390
586587
587711
588832
589950
591065
586700
587823
588944
590061
591176
586812
587935
589056
590173
591287
586925
588047
589167
590284
591399
587037
588160
589279
590396
591510
587149
588272
589391
590507
591621
587262
588384
589503
690619
591732
587374
588496
589G15
590730
591843
587486
588608
589726
590842
591955
587599
588720
589838
590953
592066
391
392
393
394
395
592177
593286
594393
595496
596597
592288
593397
594503
595606
596707
592399
593508
594614
595717
596817
592510
593618
594724
595827
596927
592621
593729
594834
595937
597037
592732
593840
594945
596047
597146
592843
593950
595065
596157
597256
592954
594061
595165
596267
597366
593064
594171
595276
596377
597476
593175
594282
595386
596487
597586
396
397
398
399
400
597695
598791
599883
600973
602060
597805
598900
599992
601082
602169
597914
599009
600101
601191
602277
598024
599119
600210
601299
602386
598134
599228
600319
601408
602494
598243
599337
600428
601517
602603
598353
599446
600537
601625
G02711
598462
599556
600646
601734
602819
598572
599665
600755
601843
602928
598681
599774
600864
601951
603036
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
TABTF,
451
OF LOGARITHMS Continued.
]
401
402
403
404
405
603144
604226
605305
606381
607455
603253
604334
605413
606489
607562
603361
604442
605521
606596
607669
603469
604550
605628
606704
607777
603577
604658
605736
606811
607884
603686
604766
605844
606919
607991
603794
604874
605951
607026
608098
603902
604982
606059
607133
608205
604010
605089
606166
607241
608312
604118
605197
606274
607348
608419
406
407
408
409
410
608526
609594
610660
611723
612784
608633
609701
610767
611829
612890
608740
609808
610873
611936
612996
608847
609914
610979
612042
613102
608954
610021
611086
612148
613207
609061
610128
611192
612254
613313
609167
610234
611298
612360
613419
609274
610341
611405
612466
613525
609381
610447
611511
612572
613630
609488
610554
611617
612678
613736
411
412
413
414
416
613842
614897
615950
617000
618048
613947
615003
616055
617105
618153
614053
615108
616160
617210
618257
614159
615213
616265
617315
618362
614264
615319
616370
617420
618466
614370
615424
616476
617525
618571
614475
615529
616581
617629
618676
614581
615634
616686
617734
618780
614686
615740
616790
617839
618884
614792
615845
616895
617948
618989
416
417
418
419
420
619093
620136
621176
622214
623249
619198
620240
621280
622318
623353
619302
620344
621384
622421
623456
619406
620448
621488
622525
623559
619511
620552
621592
622628
623663
619615
620656
621695
622732
623766
619719
620760
621799
622835
623869
619824
620864
621903
622939
623973
619928
620968
622007
623042
624076
620032
621072
622110
623146
624179
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
452
TABLE OF LOGARITHMS Com4nued.
]
421
422
423
424
425
624282
625312
626340
627366
628389
624385
625415
626443
627468
628491
624488
625518
626546
627571
628593
624591
625621
626648
627673
628695
624695
625724
626751
627775
628797
624798
625827
626853
627878
628900
624901
625929
626956
627980
629002
625004
626032
627058
628082
629104
625107
626135
627161
628185
629206
625210
626238
627263
628287
629308
426
427
428
429
430
629410
630428
631444
632457
633468
629512
630530
631545
632559
633569
629613
630631
631647
632660
633670
629715
630733
631748
632761
633771
629817
630835
631849
632862
633872
629919
630936
631951
632963
633973
630021
631038
632052
633064
634074
630123
631139
632153
633165
634175
630224
631241
632255
633266
634276
630326
631342
632356
633367
634376
431
432
433
434
435
634477
635484
636488
637490
638489
634578
635584
636588
637590
638589
634679
635685
636688
637690
638689
634779
635785
636789
637790
638789
634880
635886
636889
637890
638888
634981
635986
636989
637990
638988
635081
636087
637089
638090
639088
635182
636187
637189
638190
639188
635283
636287
637290
638290
639287
635383
636388
637390
638389
639387
436
437
438
439
440
639486
640481
641474
642465
643453
639586
640581
641573
642563
643551
639686
640680
641G72
642662
643650
639785
640779
641771
G42761
643749
639885
640879
641871
642860
643847
639984
640978
641970
642959
643946
640084
641077
642069
643058
644044
640183
641177
642168
643156
644143
640283
641276
642267
643255
644242
640382
641375
642366
643354
644340
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
453
TABLE OF LOGARITHMS Continued
441
442
443
444
445
644439
645422
646404
647383
648360
644537
645521
646502
647481
648458
644636
645619
646600
647579
648555
644734
645717
646698
647676
648653
644832
645815
646796
647774
648750
644931
645913
646894
647872
648848
645029
646011
646992
647969
648945
645127
646110
647089
6480G7
649043
645226
646208
647187
648165
649140
645324
646306
647285
648262
649237
446
447
448
449
460
649335
650308
651278
652246
653213
649432
650405
651375
652343
653309
649530
650502
651472
652440
653405
649627
650599
651569
652536
653502
649724
650696
651666
652633
653598
649821
650793
651762
652730
653695
649919
650890
651859
652826
653791
650016
650987
651956
652923
653888
650113
651084
652053
653019
653984
650210
651181
652150
653116
654080
451
452
463
454
456
654177
655138
656098
657056
658011
654273
655235
656194
657152
658107
654369
655331
656290
657247
658202
654465
655427
656386
657343
658298
654562
655523
656482
657438
658393
654658
655619
656577
657534
658488
654754
655715
656673
657629
658584
654850
655810
656769
657725
658679
654946
655906
656864
657820
658774
655042
656002
656960
657916
658870
466
457
458
459
460
658965
659916
660865
661813
662758
659060
660011
660960
661907
662852
659155
660106
661055
662002
662947
659250
660201
661150
662096
663041
659346
660296
661245
662191
663135
659441
660391
661339
662286
663230
659536
660486
661434
662380
663324
659631
660581
661529
662475
663418
659726
660676
661623
662569
663512
659821
660771
661718
662663
663607
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
454
TABLE OF LOGAPaTHMSContinued.
IT
&
664266
665206
666143
667079
668013
664360
665299
666237
667173
668106
664454
665393
666331
667266
668199
664548
665487
666424
667360
668293
668945
669875
670802
671728
672662
669038
669967
670895
671821
672744
669131
670060
670988
671913
672836
669224
670153
671080
672005
672929
461
462
463
464
465
663701
664642
665581
666518
667453
663795
664736
665675
666612
667546
663889
664830
665769
666705
667640
663983
664924
665862
666799
667733
664078
665018
665956
666892
667826
664172
665112
666050
666986
667920
4^6
467
468
469
470
668386
669317
670246
671173
672098
668479
669410
670339
671265
672190
668572
669503
670431
671358
672283
668665
669596
670524
671451
672375
668759
669689
670617
671543
672467
668852
669782
670710
671636
672560
471
472
473
474
475
673021
673942
674861
675778
676694
673113
674034
674953
675870
676785
673205
674126
675045
675962
676876
673297
674218
675137
676053
676968
673390
674310
675228
676145
677059
673482
674402
675320
676236
677151
673574
674494
675412
676328
677242
673666
674586
675503
676419
677333
673758
674677
675595
676511
677424
673850
G74769
675687
676602
677516
476
477
478
479
480
677607
678518
679428
680336
681241
677698
678609
679519
680426
681332
677789
678700
679610
680517
681422
677881
678791
679700
680607
681513
677972
678882
679791
680698
681603
678063
678973
679882
680789
681693
678154
679064
679973
680879
681784
678245
679155
680063
680970
681874
678336
679246
680154
681060
681964
678427
679337
680245
681151
682055
8^
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
455
TABLE OF LOGARITHMS Continued.
]
481
482
483
484
485
682145
683047
683947
684845
685742
682235
683137
684037
684935
685831
682326
683227
684127
685025
685921
682416
683317
684217
685114
686010
682506
683407
684307
685204
686100
682596
683497
684396
685294
686189
682686
683587
684486
685383
686279
682777
683677
684576
685473
686368
682867
683767
684666
685563
686458
682957
683857
684756
685652
686547
486
487
488
489
490
686636
687529
688420
689309
690196
686726
687618
688509
689398
690285
686815
687707
688598
689486
690373
686904
687796
688687
689575
690462
686994
687886
688776
689664
690550
687083
687975
688865
689753
690639
687172
688064
688953
689841
690728
687261
688153
689042
689930
690816
687351
688242
689131
690019
690905
687440
688331
689220
690107
690993
491
492
493
494
495
691081
691965
692847
693727
694605
691170
692053
692935
693815
694693
691258
692142
693023
693903
694781
691347
692230
693111
693991
694868
691435
692318
693199
694078
694956
691524
692406
693287
694166
695044
691612
692494
693375
694254
695131
691700
692583
693463
694342
695219
691789
692671
693551
694430
695307
691877
692759
693639
694517
695394
496
497
498
499
500
695482
696356
697229
698101
698970
695569
696444
697317
698188
699057
695657
696531
697404
698275
699144
695744
696618
697491
698362
699231
695832
696706
697578
698449
699317
695919
696793
697665
698535
699404
696007
696880
697752
698622
699491
696094
696968
697839
698709
699578
696182
697055
697926
698796
699664
696269
697142
698014
698883
699751
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
456
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
501
502
503
504
505
699838
700704
701568
702431
703291
699924
700790
701654
702517
703377
700011
700877
701741
702603
703463
700098
700963
701827
702689
703549
700184
701050
701913
702775
703635
700271
701136
701999
702861
703721
700358
701222
702086
702947
703807
700444
701309
702172
703033
703893
700531
701395
702258
703119
703979
700617
701482
702344
703205
704065
506
507
508
509
510
704151
705008
705864
706718
707570
704236
705094
705949
706803
707655
704322
705179
706035
706888
707740
704408
705265
706120
706974
707826
704494
705350
706206
707059
707911
704579
705436
706291
707144
707996
704665
705522
706376
707229
708081
704751
705607
706462
707315
708166
704837
705693
706547
707400
708251
704922
705778
706632
707485
708336
511
512
513
514
515
708421
709270
710117
710963
711807
708506
709355
710202
711048
711892
708591
709440
710287
711132
711976
708676
709524
710371
711217
712060
708761
709609
710456
711301
712144
708846
709694
710540
711385
712229
708931
709779
710625
711470
712313
709015
709863
710710
711554
712397
709100
709948
710794
711639
712481
709185
710033
710879
711723
712566
516
517
518
519
520
712650
713491
714330
715167
716003
712734
713575
714414
715251
716087
712818
713659
714497
715335
716170
712902
713742
714581
715418
716254
712986
713826
714665
715502
716337
713070
713910
714749
715586
716421
713154
713994
714833
715669
716504
713238
714078
714916
715753
716588
713323
714162
715000
715836
716671
713407
714246
715084
715920
716754
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
457
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
521
522
523
524
625
716838
717671
718502
719331
720159
716921
717754
718585
719414
720242
717004
717837
718668
719497
720325
717088
717920
718751
719580
720407
717171
718003
718834
719663
720490
717254
718086
718917
719745
720573
717338
718169
719000
719828
720655
717421
718253
719083
719911
720738
717504
718336
719165
719994
720821
717587
718419
719248
720077
720903
526
527
528
529
530
720986
721811
722634
723456
724276
721068
721893
722716
723538
724358
721151
721975
722798
723620
724440
721233
722058
722881
723702
724522
721316
722140
722963
723784
724604
721398
722222
723045
723866
724685
721481
722305
723127
723948
724767
721563
722387
723209
724030
724849
721646
722469
723291
724112
724931
721728
722552
723374
724194
725013
531
632
533
534
535
725095
725912
726727
727541
728354
725176
725993
726809
727623
728435
725258
726075
726890
727704
728516
725340
726156
726972
727785
728597
725422
726238
727053
727866
728678
725503
726320
727134
727948
728759
725585
726401
727216
728029
728841
725667
726483
727297
728110
728922
725748
726564
727379
728191
729003
725830
726646
727460
728273
729084
536
537
538
539
540
729165
729974
730782
731589
732394
729246
730055
730863
731669
732474
729327
730136
730944
731750
732555
729408
730217
731024
731830
732635
729489
730298
731105
731911
732715
729570
730378
731186
731991
732796
729651
730459
731266
732072
732876
729732
730540
731347
732152
732956
729813
730621
731428
732233
733037
729893
730702
731508
732313
733117
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
458
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
641
542
543
544
645
733197
733999
734800
735599
736397
733278
734079
734880
735679
736476
733358
734160
734960
735759
736556
733438
734240
735040
735838
736635
733518
734320
735120
735918
736715
733598
734400
735200
735998
736795
733679
734480
735279
736078
736874
733759
734560
735359
736157
736954
733839
734640
735439
736237
737034
733919
734720
735519
736317
737113
546
647
548
549
550
737193
737987
738781
739572
740363
737272
738067
738860
739651
740442
737352
738146
738939
739731
740521
737431
738225
739018
739810
740600
737511
738305
739097
739889
740678
737590
738384
739177
739968
740757
737670
738463
739256
740047
740836
737749
738543
739335
740126
740915
737829
738622
739414
740205
740994
737908
738701
739493
740284
741073
551
552
553
554
555
741152
741939
742725
743510
744293
741230
742018
742804
743588
744371
741309
742096
742882
743667
744449
741388
742175
742961
743745
744528
741467
742254
743039
743823
744606
741546
742332
743118
743902
744684
741624
742411
743196
743980
744762
741703
742489
743275
744058
744840
741782
742568
743353
744136
744919
741860
742647
743431
744215
744997
556
557
558
559
660
745075
745855
746634
747412
748188
745153
745933
746712
747489
748266
745231
746011
746790
747567
748343
745309
746089
746868
747645
748421
745387
746167
746945
747722
748498
745465
746245
747023
747800
748576
745543
746323
747101
747878
748653
745621
746401
747179
747955
748731
745699
746479
747256
748033
748808
745777
746556
747334
748110
748885
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
459
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
564
565
74S9G3
749736
750508
751279
75204h
749040
749814
750586
751356
752125
749118
749891
750663
751433
752202
749195
749968
750740
751510
752279
749272
750045
750817
751587
752356
749350
750123
750894
751664
752433
749427
750200
750971
751741
752509
749504
750277
751048
751818
752586
749582
750354
751125
751895
752663
749659
750431
751202
751972
752740
566
567
568
569
570
752816
753583
754348
755112
755875
752893
753660
754425
755189
755951
752970
753736
754501
755265
756027
753047
753813
754578
755341
756103
753123
753889
754654
755417
756180
753200
753966
754730
755494
756256
753277
754042
754807
755570
756332
753353
754119
754883
755646
756408
753430
754195
754960
755722
756484
753506
754272
755036
755799
756560
571
572
673
574
575
756636
757396
758155
758912
759668
756712
757472
758230
758988
759743
756788
757548
758306
759063
759819
756864
757624
758382
759139
759894
756940
757700
758458
759214
759970
757016
757775
758533
759290
760045
757092
757851
758609
759366
760121
757168
757927
758685
759441
760196
757244
758003
758761
759517
760272
757320
758079
758836
759592
760347
576
577
578
579
680
760422
761176
761928
762679
763428
760498
761251
762003
762754
763503
760573
761326
762078
762829
763578
760649
761402
762153
762904
763653
760724
761477
762228
762978
763727
760799
761552
762303
763053
763802
760875
761627
762378
763128
763877
760950
761702
762453
763203
763952
761025
761778
762529
763278
764027
761101
761853
762604
763353
764101
561
562
563
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
460
TABLE OF LOGARITHMSContinued.
681
582
683
684
686
764176
764923
765669
766413
767156
764251
764998
765743
766487
767230
764326
765072
765818
766562
767304
764400
765147
765892
766636
767379
764475
765221
765966
766710
767453
764550
765296
766041
766785
767527
764624
765370
766115
766859
767601
764699
765445
766190
766933
767675
764774
765520
766264
767007
767749
764848
765594
766338
767082
767823
686
687
688
589
690
767898
768638
769377
770115
770852
767972
768712
769451
770189
770926
768046
768786
769525
770263
770999
768120
768860
769599
770336
771073
768194
768934
769673
770410
771146
768268
769008
769746
770484
771220
768342
769082
769820
770557
771293
768416
769156
769894
770631
771367
768490
769230
769968
770705
771440
768564
769303
770042
770778
771514
591
692
693
594
595
771587
772322
773055
773786
774517
771661
772395
773128
773860
774590
771734
772468
773201
773933
774663
771808
772542
773274
774006
774736
771881
772615
773348
774079
774809
771955
772688
773421
774152
774882
772028
772762
773494
774225
774955
772102
772835
773567
774298
775028
772175
772908
773640
774371
775100
772248
772981
773713
774444
775173
596
597
598
599
600
775246
775974
776701
777427
778151
775319
776047
776774
777499
778224
775392
776120
776846
777572
778296
775465
776193
776919
777644
778368
775538
776265
776992
777717
778441
775610
776338
777064
777789
778513
775683
776411
777137
777862
778585
775756
776483
777209
777934
778658
775829
776556
777282
778006
778730
775902
776629
777354
778079
778802
'
1
1
9
1
USEFUL TABLES FOR DRAUGHTSMEN, MACHINISTS
AND
ENGINEERS.
TABLE OF DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS.
Sths, J6ths, 32ds
8ths.
and
32nds.
64tlis of
an Inch.
64tbs.
Il=5i5625
03125
,V= 015625
^=09375
^=15625
5\=. 046875
5\ = .o78i25
lt= 546875
ff= 578125
11= 609375
A=
A= 28125
M= 34375
A= 109375
ii=
^=.140625
I4=.i7i875
l=.875
J=. 40625
f=.203I25
H= .671875
n= 703125
u= 734375
i6ths.
M=46875
wX. 234375
11=
Ji = 53i25
u= 796875
J =.125
i.25o
f =375
^=.500
1=
625
f =75o
A=
.21875
fJ =.0625
A=i875
A=3I25
M=59375
H= 265625
^ = .296875
M= 65625
li=.32Si25
TJ=4375
11= 71875
ll=359375
^=5625
ii
= .6875
n=.8i25
11= 9375
11=
11=
640625
765625
828125
859375
If =78125
11= .390625
fl=84375
=.9o625
=.42i875
u= S90625
M= 921S75
U= 953125
=.453i25
Sf=
M=96875
i=. 484375
461
984375
11
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
d62
m
00
D
Z
1
00
o2
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aS
o
So
^ r^rr ihS,.cjc<i e<io>iNe<icq irc^ mm COM TOCO coco com*
ogoo'='^'=^"'*''*^**
rr,'
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JO joqiun^
<!
!
et>
ii
Ift
0 5^
1
OOr^OlOCOC^i'to 'Tj'COCCil'"CDOiaOCOGOOtM^D
^r*CO?CCO(M'^4'MCN(M'M"r. r^tH,
a
00
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ri
^JHiHOOOCiC50a500QOOOCOIr*t^l>'CDCDO0Oir5U*i'^'^'i'^7COOirNt'i'ooooasoi
.c^(^^(^l(r^(^^c^l^r^lHIHrH^HIHrfH.HrHrM,^rHl^THIHr^,HrHrr^r^rHTl^HrH,^
PL,
ojt^
luuadmi
V3
1 . f^ocooooooooooooooooooooooooo<:>
SM'Jaie33J0A\
'00 ajjvr naow
5> lunqqeEji
aiiAV .sqn^s
.00OOiOOOI>.CCOOOOCOOiOftlCOC>lOOiOOOOl^COOOO^^fO(NOO'MOOOO"HlC50
0'rio4^r^^'^r.ootncoocoicr'in'rfcocMr*oooi
CC00C0<M0*M(MC1^^i'i(^^^OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
.coc<I^ococ^col0^^c^^^'rlootoOlOT
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'uiBqSutmjia
i
adiBqg
UMOJa JO
uvciuauiv
:5>
JO jaqmnii
00
^^TfCOCCCOC^iMC^OJTJi'i
o
00
fOSCDri^OCOOfM^COOOOCqOO
aSntio
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r^^'^oO'^'oOl'"^r'c^iOOKtiii(>D<:cioi>.c^c^i'Ocoi't^'iDioiO'^^


ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
463
RULES
TABLES.
Relative to the Qrcle.
To And
the area of a circle
Area,
Multiply circumferencebyonequarterofthediameter.
Or
Or
Or
by 0.7854.
multiply the square of diameter
"
''
circumference "
"
"
diameter
"
.07958.
3.1416.
To nd circumference
Multiply
Or
by
3.1416.
"
"
0.3183.
divide
'.s
.8
.9
1.0
.1
.2
.3
.4
Multiply circumference by 0.3183.
Or
.1
.7
To And diameter
"
"
3.1416.
To And Radius
,5
.6
,7
Multiply circumference by
0.
Or
6.28318.
ISQIS
.8
.9
divide
"
"
2.0
In the following tables the diameter of a given
inch
is
to be found in the first column, the area
be found
in
in
is
to
CIrciun.
.1
.2
.3
.4
Circles advancing^
Dloin.
3.0
.007854
.031416
.070686
.12566
.31416
.62832
.94248
1.2566
.19735
.28274
.88485
.50266
.63617
1.5708
1.8850
2.1991
2.5133
2.8274
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
.7854
.9508
1.1810
1.3273
1.5394
3.1418
8.4558
3.7699
4.0841
4,8982
4.0
1.7671
2.0106
2.2698
2.5447
2.8353
4.7124
5.0265
5.3407
5.6549
5.9690
.5
3.1416
8.4636
3.8018
4.1548
4.5239
6.2832
6.5973
6.9115
7.2257
7.6398
5.0
4.9087
5.3093
5.7256
6.1575
6.6052
7.8540
8.1681
8.4828
8.7965
9.1106
.5
.6
.1
.2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.8
.4
Area.
with a diameter of 2.7 inches
has an area of 5.7256 square inches and a circumference of 8.4823 linear inches.
:
circle
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
.7
.8
.9
by tenths.
Clrcum.
7.0686
7.5477
8.0425
8 5530
9.0792
9.4248
9.7389
10.0531
10.3673
10.6814
9.6211
10.1788
10.7521
11.3411
11.9456
10.9956
11.3097
11.6239
11.9381
12.2523
12.5664
13.2025
13.8544
14.5220
15.2053
12.5664
12.8805
13.1947
13.5088
18.8230
15.9048
16.6190
17.3494
18.0956
18.8574
14.1372
14.4513
14.7655
15.0796
15.8938
19.6350
20.4282
21.2872
22.0618
22.9023
15.7080
16.0221
16.3863
16.6504
16.9646
23.7588
24.6301
25.5176
26.4208
37.8397
17.2788
17.5929
17.9071
18.2212
18.5854
the second column, and the circumference
the third column.
Example
Area.
0.0
.5
.6
diameter
divide
DIam.
and Qrcomfeienccs of
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
464
TABLES OF AREAS
AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF
Area.
Clrcum.
Dlaiii.
Area.
CIrcuni.
Dlam.
28.8743
29.2247
30.1907
31.1725
32.1699
18.8496
19.1637
19.4779
19.7920
20.1062
10.0
78.5398
80.1185
81.7128
83.3239
84.9487
31.4159
31.7301
32.0443
33.3584
32.6726
14.0
33.1831
34.8119
35.2565
36.3168
37.3928
20.4204
20.7345
21.0487
21.3628
21.6770
.5
86.5901
88.3473
89.9202
91.6088
93.3132
32.9867
33.3009
33.6150
33.9293
34.2434
.5
.6
38.4845
39.5919
40.7150
41.8539
43.0084
21.9911
28.3053
82.6195
22.9336
23.2478
11.0
95.0332
96.7689
.2
98.'5203
.3
100.2875
102.0703
34.5575
34.8717
35.1858
35.5000
35.8143
15.0
.1
44.1786
45.3646
46.5663
47.7836
49.0167
23.5619
23.8761
24.1903
24.5044
24.8186
.5
103.6689
105.6833
107.5132
109 3588
111.2202
36.1383
36.4425
36.7566
37.0708
37.3850
.5
.6
.7
50.2655
51.5300
52.8102
54.1061
55.4177
25.1327
25.4469
25.7611
26.0753
26.3894
12.0
113.0973
114.9901
116.8987
118.8229
120.7688
37.6991
38.0133
38.3274
38.6416
38.9557
16.0
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
56.7450
58.0880
59.4468
60.8213
62.8114
26.7035
27.0177
27.3319
27.6460
27.9602
.5
122.7185
124.6898
126.6769
128.6796
130.6981
39.2699
39.5841
39.8982
40.2124
40.5265
.5
9.0
63.6173
65.0388
66.4761
67.9291
69.3978
28.2743
28.5885
28.9027
29.2168
29.5310
13.0
132.7323
134.7822
136.8478
138.9291
141.0261
40.8407
41.1549
41.4690
41.7832
42.0973
17.0
29.8451
30.1593
30,4734
30.7876
31.1018
.5
143.1383
145.2672
147.4114
149..5712
151.7468
42.4115
42.7257
43.0398
43.3540
43.6681
DIam.
6.0
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
7.0
.1
.2
.3
.4
,5
.6
.7
.8
.9
8.0
.1
.2
.3
.4
.1
.3
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
70.8822
72.3823
73.8981
75.4296
76.9769
.1
2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
Area.
CIRCLESContinued.
Clrcuiu.
Dlam.
153.9380
156.1450
158.3677
160.6061
162.8603
43.9823
44.2965
44.6106
44.9248
45.3389
8.0
165.1300
167.4155
169.7167
173.03.%
174.3663
4.5.5531
.5
.6
176.7)46
179.0786
181.4584
183.8539
186.2650
47.1239
47.4380
47.7522
48.0664
48.3805
188.6919
191.1345
193.5928
196.0668
198.5565
48.6947
49.0088
49.3230
49.6372
49.9513
201:0619
203.5831
206.1199
208.6724
211.8407
50.2655
50.5796
50.8938
51.8080
51.6221
20.0
213.8246
216.4243
219.0397
221.6708
234.3176
51.8363
52.1504
52.4646
52.7788
53.0929
.5
.6
.7
53.4071
53.7212
54.0354
54.3496
54.6637
21.0
.4
236.9801
829.6583
238 3522
235.0618
837.7871
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
240.5282
243.2849
246.0574
248.8456
251.6494
54.9779
55.2920
55.6063
55.9203
56.2345
.5
.1
.2
.3
.4
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.8
.3
45.8673
46.1814
46.4956
46.8097
.1
.8
.3
.4
.7
.8
.9
19.0
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.8
.9
.1
.8
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
Area.
Clicuin.
254.4690
257.3043
260.1553
263.0820
265.9044
56.8628
57.1770
57.4911
57.8053
268.8025
271.7164
274.6459
277.5911
280.5521
58.1195
58.4336
58.7478
59.0619
59.3761
283.5887
286.5211
289.5292
292.5530
295.5925
59.6903
60.0044
60.3186
60.6327
60.9469
298.6477
301.7i86
304.8058
307.9075
311.0255
61.8611
61.5752
61.8894
68.2035
62.5177
314.1593
317.3087
320.4739
323.6547
326.8513
62.8319
63.1460
63.4602
63.7743
64.0885
330.0636
333.2916
3a6.5353
339.7947
343.0698
64.4026
64.7168
65.0310
05.8451
65.6593
346.3606
349.6671
353.9894
356.3273
359.6809
65.9734
66.2876
66.6018
66.9159
67.2301
363.0503
366.4354
369.8361
373.2526
376.6848
67.5442
67.8584
68.1728
56..5486
68.48W
68.8009
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
TABLES OF AREAS
f
^,
DIanu'
Area.
Clrcum.
Dlaiii.
23.0
.380.1327
.<)83.5963
.2
.3
.4
SST.OTTO
390.5707
394.0814
69.1150
69.4292
69.7434
70.0575
70.3717
26.0
.1
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
397.6073
401.1500
404.7078
408.2814
411.870t
70.6858
71.0000
71.3142
71.6283
71.9425
.5
.6
.7
.1
^2
.3
.4
.8
.9
AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF
Clrciini.
nam.
530.9293
535.0211
539.1287
543.2521
547.3911
81.6814
81.9956
82.3097
82.6239
82.9380
30.0
551.5459
555.7163
559.9025
564 1014
568.3220
Area.
DIam.
94.2478
94.5619
94.8761
95.1903
95.5041
34.0
.2
.3
.4
706.8583
711.5786
716.3145
721.0663
725.8336
83.2523
83.5664
83.8805
84.1947
84.5088
.5
.6
.7
.8
.0
730.6167
735.4154
740.2299
745.0601
749.9060
95.8186
96.1327
96.4469
96.7611
97.0752
.5
572.5553
576.8043
581.0890
585.3494
589.6455
84.8230
85.1373
85.4513
85.7655
86.0796
31.0
754.7676
759.6450
764.5380
769.4467
774.3712
97.3894
97.7035
98.0177
98.3319
98.6460
85.0
86.3938
86.7080
87.0231
87.3363
87.6504
.5
779.3113
784.2672
789.2388
794.2260
799.2290
98.9602
99.2743
99 5885
99.9026
100.2108
.5
804.3477
809.2831
814 3322
819.39f0
824.4796
.1
72.2566
72.5708
72.8849
73.1991
73.5133
27.0
433.7361
437.4354
441.1503
444.8809
448.6273
73.8274
74.1416
74.4557
74.7699
75.0811
.5
.9
593.9574
598.2849
602.6282
606.9871
611.3618
452.3893
456.1671
459.9606
463.7698
467.5947
75.3982
75.7124
76.0265
76.3407
76.6549
28.0
615.7.522
620.1582
634.5800
629.0175
633.4707
87.9646
88.2788
88.5929
88.9071
89.2313
32.0
.1
471.4352
475.2916
479.1636
483.0513
486.9547
76.9690
77.2832
77 ..5973
77.9115
78.2257
.5
637.9397
642.4243
646.9246
651.4407
055.9734
89.5354
89.8495
90.1637
90.4779
90.7920
.5
.6
.7
78.5398
78.8540
79.1681
79.48i3
79.7965
29.0
660.5199
665.0830
669.6619
674.3565
678.8668
91.1063
91.4203
91.7343
33.0
.2
.3
.4
490.8739
494.8087
498.7592
502.7255
506.7075
9?.04>'7
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
510.7052
514.7185
518.7476
522.7924
526.8529
80.1106
80.4248
80.7389
81.0531
81.3673
.5
.6
683.4928
688.1345
692.7919
697.4650
702.1538
92.6770
92.9911
93.3053
93.6195
93.9336
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
24.0
.1
.2
.3
A
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
25.0
.1
.1
2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
A
.7
.8
.9
CIRCLESContinued.
Clrcniii.
415.4756
419.0993
422.7327
426.3848
430.0526
23.0
465
93.3628
.1
.2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.8
.9
.1
.2
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
Area.
Area.
Ctrcuin,
907.9203
913.2688
918.6331
934.0131
939.4088
106.8142
107.1283
107.4425
107.7566
108.0708
934.8203
940 2473
945.6901
951.1486
956.6328
108.3849
108.6991
109.0133
109.3274
109.6416
963.1138
967.6184
973.1397
978.6768
984.2290
109.9557
110.2699
.6
989.7980
995.3822
.7
10009821
.8
.9
1006.5977
10133390
111.5265
111.8407
112.1549
113.4890
113.7832
100.5310
100.8451
101.1593
101.4734
101.7876
36.0
1017.8760
1023.5387
1029.2172
1034.9113
1040.6212
113.0973
113.4115
113.7357
114.0398
114.3510
829.5768
834.6898
839.8185
844.9628
850.1329
102.1018
102.4159
102.7301
103.0442
103.3584
.5
1046.3467
1052.0880
1057.8449
1063.6176
1069.4060
114.6681
114.9823
115.3965
115.6106
115.9348
855.3986
860.4903
865.6973
870.9202
876.15S8
103.6726
103.9867
104.3009
104.6150
104.9292
37.0
1075.2101
1081.0299
1086.8654
1092.7166
1098.5835
110.2389
116.5531
116.8672
117.1814
117.4956
881.4131
886.6831
891.9688
897.3703
902.5874
105.2434
105.5575
105.8717
106.1858
.5
1104.4662
1110.3645
1116.3786
1122.2083
1128.1538
117.8097
118.1239
118.4380
118.7523
119.0664
106..5000
.1
^2
^3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.1
.2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
110..5841
110.8982
111.2124
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
466
TABLES OF AREAS
Diam.
88.0
.1
.8
.3
.4
.5
.6
7
.8
.9
39.0
.1
.2
.3
A
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
40.0
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
41.0
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
Area.^
Cli'cnm.
AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF
^
Dlain.
Area.
1385.4434
1392.0476
1398.6685
1405.3051
1411.9574
1134.1149
1140.0918
1146.0844
1152.0927
1158.1167
119.3805
119.6947
130.0088
120.3330
120.6372
42.0
1164.1564
1170.8118
1170.2830
1182.3698
1188.4724
120.9513
121.2655
121.5796
131.8938
123.3080
.5
1194.5906
1300.7246
1206.8743
1813.0396
1219.2207
122.5221
123.8363
123.1504
123.4646
123.7788
43.0
1225.4175
1231.6300
1237.8583
1244.1021
1250.3617
124.0929
134.4071
.5
1347313
.7
135.0354
135.3495
.8
1256.6371
1262.9281
1269.2348
1275.5573
1281.8955
125.6637
125.9779
126.3920
126.6063
136.9303
44.0
1288.2493
1294.3189
1301.0043
1307.4053
1313.8219
127.2345
127.5487
137.8628
138.1770
138.4911
.5
1320.2543
1326.7024
1333.1663
1339.6458
1346.1410
138.8053
139.1195
139.4336
139.7478
130.0619
45.0
1352.6520
1359.1786
1365.7210
1372.2791
1378.8529
130.3761
130.6903
131.0044
131.3186
131.6327
.5
.1
.3
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.8
.3
.4
.6
.9
.1
2
'.Z
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
3
!3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
Continued.
CIrcum.
DIam.
Area.
144.5133
144.8274
145.1416
145.4557
145.7699
50.0
1963.4954
1971.3572
1979.2348
1987.1280
1995.0370
157.0796
157.3938
157.7080
158 0221
158.3363
1698.2272
1705.5392
1712.8670
1720.2105
1727.5697
146.0841
146.3982
146.7124
147.0265
147.3407
.5
2002.9617
2010.9020
2018.8581
2026.8299
2034.8174
158.6504
158.9646
159.2787
159.5989
159.p071
51.0
.3
.4
1734.9445
1742.3351
1749.7414
1757.1635
1764.6012
147.6550
147.9690
148.2833
148 5973
148.9115
2042.8206
2050.8395
2058.8742
2066.9345
2074.9905
160.8813
160.5354
160.8495
161 1637
161.4779
149.3257
149.5398
149.8540
150.1681
150.4823
.5
2083.0723
2u91.1697
2099.2829
2107.4118
2115.5563
161.7920
162.1062
162.4203
162.7345
163.0487
52.0
1839.8423
150.7984
151.1106
151.4248
151.7389
152.0531
2123.7166
2131.8926
2140.0843
8148.2917
3156.5149
163.3628
163.6770
163.9911
164.3053
164.6195
1847.4528
1855.0790
1862.7210
1870.3786
1878.0519
152.3672
152.6814
152.9956
153.3097
153.6339
.5
8164.7537
2173.0082
2181.2785
2189.5644
2197.8661
164.9336
165 2479
165.5619
165.8761
166.1903
1885.7409
1898.4457
1901.1662
1908.9024
1916.6543
153.9380
154.2522
154.5664
154.8805
155.1947
53.0
2206.1834
2214.5165
8232.8653
2231.8298
8239.6100
166.5044
166.8186
167.1327
167.4469
167.7810
1924.4218
1938.2051
1940.0042
1947.8189
1955.6493
155.5088
155.8330
156.1378
156.4513
156.7655
.5
2248.0059
2256.4175
2264.8448
2273.2879
2281.7466
168.0752
168.3894
Dfutn.
Area.
131.9469
133.2611
132.5753
132.8894
133.2035
46.0
1661.9025
1669.1360
1676.3853
1683.6502
1690.9308
1418.6254
1435.3093
1432.0086
1438.7238
1445.4546
133.5177
133.8318
134.1460
134.4602
134.7743
.5
.6
.7
.8
1452.2012
1458.9635
1465.7415
1472.5352
1479.3446
135.0885
135.4026
135.7168
136.0310
136.3451
1486.1697
1493.0105
1499.8670
1506.7393
1513.6273
136.6593
136.9734
137.2876
137.6018
137.9159
1520.5308
1527.4503
1534.3853
1541.3360
1548.3035
138.2301
138.5443
138.8584
139.1726
139.4867
48.'0
.4
1555.2847
1563.2826
1569.2963
1576.3255
1583.3706
139.8009
140.1153
140.4293
140.7434
141.0575
.5
1590.4313
1597.5077
1604.5999
1611.7077
1618.8313
141.3717
141.6858
142.0000
142.3142
143.6283
49.0
1625.9705
1633.1255
1640.^962
1647.4826
1654.6847
142.9425
143.2566
143.5708
143.8849
144.1991
Clrcuiu.
CIRCLES
.1
?
.3
.4
.9
47.0
.1
.2
.5
1772.0546
.6
1779. .5237
.7
1787.0086
1794.5091
1803.0254
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
~^''^~~~
1809.5574
1817.1050
1824.6684
18.S2.2475
CIrcum.
.1
'.3
A
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
2
!3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
1(58.7035
169.017V
169.3318
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
TART.RS
DIaiQ.
Area.
54.0
8290.2210
2398.7112
2307.2171
Circum
OF ARFAS AND
56.0
2463.0086
2471.8130
2480.6330
2489.4687
2498.3201
175.9292
176.2433
1T6.5575
176.8717
60.0
2507.1873
2516.0701
2524.9687
2533.8830
2542.8129
177.5000
177.8141
178.1283
178.4425
178.7566
179.0708
179.3849
179 6991
180.0133
180.3274
61.0
.4
2551.7586
2560.7200
2569.6971
2578.6899
2587.6985
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
2596.7227
2605.7626
2614.8183
2623.8896
2632.9767
180.6416
180.9557
181.2699
181.5841
181.8983
.5
.6
57.0
.1
.2
.3
210.4867
210.8009
211.1150
211.4292
211.7433
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
3166.9217
3176.9043
3186.9023
3196.9161
3206.9456
199.4911
199.8053
200.1195
200.4336
200.7478
.5
188.4956
188.8097
189.1239
189.4380
189.7522
64.0
3216.9909
3227.0518
3237.1285
3247.2222
3257.3289
201.0620
201.3761
201.6903
68.0
2874.7536
2884.2648
2893.7917
2903.3343
2912.8936
190.0664
190.3805
190.6947
191.0088
191.3230
.5
2923.4666
2933.0563
2941.6617
2951.2828
2960.9197
191.6373
191.9513
192.3655
193.5796
193.8938
65.0
2970.5728
2980.2405
2989.9244
2999.6241
3009.3395
193.3079
193.5231
193.8363
2827.4334
2836 8660
2846.3144
2855.7784
2865.2583
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
3536.1845
3546.7324
3557.2960
3567.8754
187.8672
188.1814
174.3584
174.6726
174.9867
175.3009
175.6150
.5
3535.6.524
.1
186.9248
187.3389
2419.2227
2427.9485
2436.6899
2445.4471
2454.2200
.6
.7
.8
197.9203
198.2345
198.5487
198.8628
199.1770
67.0
.2
.3
.4
3117.2453
3127.1493
3137.0688
3147.0040
3156.9550
2780.5058
2789.8599
2799.2297
2808.6152
2818.0165
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
177.18.i8
208.9159
209.2301
.9
3473.3270
3483.6807
3494.1500
3504.6351
3515.1359
63.0
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
185.3540
185.6681
185.9833
186.2964
186.6106
59.0
.2
.3
196.3495
196.6637
196.9779
197.2930
197.6062
2733.9710
2743.2466
2753.5H78
2761.8448
2771.1675
172.7876
173.1017
173.4159
173.7301
174.0443
.1
3067.9616
3077.7869
3087.6279
3097.4847
3107.3571
183.7832
184.0973
184.4115
184.7256
185.0398
2375.8294
2384.4767
2393.1396
2401.8183
2410.5126
.1
207.3451
207.6593
207.9734
208.2876
208.6017
2687.8289
2697.0259
2706.3386
2715.4670
2724.7112
171.2168
171.5cl0
171.8451
J72.1593
172.4735
55.0
3421.1944
3431.5695
3441.9603
3452.3669
3463.7891
.5
2332.8289
2341.3976
2349.9820
2258.5821
2367.1979
.8
66.0
3019.0705
3028.8173
3038.5798
3048.3580
3058.1520
182.2134
182.5265
182.8407
183.1549
183.4690
.5
.6
.7
.9
194.7787
195.0929
195.4071
195.7212
196.0354
62.0
2642.0794
2651.19T9
2660.3331
2669.4820
2878.6476
2324.2759
2iJ15.7386
Area.
58.0
.1
.2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.7
.8
.9
CIRCTP.S Continued.
Dlam.
Area.
Area.
.4
.1
.2
.3
OF
DIain.
DIam.
169.6460
169.9603
170.2743
170.5885
170.9026
CTR.aiMFF.RF.NCF.S
467
CIrcuin.
18,7.5531
191.1.504
194,4646
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
,7
.8
.9
.1
.1
.8
.3
.4
circum.
.1
.2
.3
.4
.3
!3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
202.3186
.4
213.3717
212 6858
213.0000
213.3141
214.2.J66
314.5708
214.8819
.5
3685.2845
.6
3696.0.)23
.7
.8
3706.8359
3717.6351
3728.4500
215.1991
215.5133
215.8274
216.1416
216.4556
3739.2807
3750.1270
3760.9891
3771.8668
3782.7603
216.7699
217.0841
217.3982
217.7124
218.0365
3793.6695
3804.5944
3815.5350
3826.4913
3837.4633
218.3407
218.6548
218.9690
219.2832
219.5973
204.2035
204.5176
204.8318
205.1460
205.4602
69.0
.2
.3
.4
3318.3073
3328.5353
3338.7590
3349.0085
3359.3736
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
3369.5545
3379.8510
3390.1633
3400.4913
3410.8350
205.7743
206.0885
206.4026
306.7168
307.0310
.5
.1
213.628S
213.9425
202.00'44
202.6327
202.9469
203.2610
203.5752
203.8894
.9
209.8584
210.1725
212.0.575
.2
.3
3267.4527
3277.5922
3287.7474
3297.9183
3308.1049
.6
.7
.8
209..5443
3578.4704
3589.0811
3599.7075
3610.3497
3621.0075
3631.6811
3642.3704
3653.0754
3663.7960
3674.5324
.1
circum.
.9
.1
.3
,3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
468
TABLES OF AREAS
Dfain.
Area.
70.0
3848,4510
.1
3tf59.4544
.3
.3
CIrcuin.
Diflm.
284.0487
234.3638
234.6770
284.9911
285.3053
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
4889.8189
4852.1584
4864.5128
4876.8838
4889.2685
346.6150
346.9293
247.2433
247.5575
247.8717
.5
.6
4417.8647
4439.6585
4441.4580
4453.2783
4465.1142
235.6194
235.9336
236.3478
236.5619
236.8761
79.0
4901.6699
4914.0871
4936.5199
4938.9685
4951.4338
248.1858
248.5000
248.8141
349.12^3
249.4425
83.0
4476 9659
4488.8332
4500.7163
4513.6151
4524.5296
337.1903
387.5044
337.8186
238.1327
288.4469
.5
.6
4963.9137
4976.4084
4988.9198
5001.4469
5018.9897
4536.459S
4548.4057
4560.3673
4572.3446
4584.3i77
238.7610
339.0752
339.3894
4596.3464
4608.8708
4620.4110
4632.4669
4344.5384
340.3318
240.6460
240.9602
241.2743
241.9036
242.2168
242.5310
342.H451
343.1592
81.0
.4
4656.6357
4668.7287
4680.8474
4692.9818
4705.1319
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
4717.2977
4729.4793
4741.6765
4753.8894
4766.1181
343.4734
343.7876
344.1017
344.4159
344.7301
.5
331.4833
321.7964
332.1106
322.4248
232.7389
.5
71.0
333.0531
223.3672
233.6814
233.9956
334.8097
75.0
3959.1921
3970.3526
3981.5239
3992.7308
4003.9384
.5
.6
.7
,8
.9
4015.1518
4036.3908
4037.6456
4048.9160
4060.3023
224.6239
334.9880
255.3522
.5
225..5664
.8
225.8805
.9
73.0
4071.5041
4083.8317
4094.1550
4105.5040
4116.8687
226.1947
326.5088
336.8330
327.1371
327.4513
76.0
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
4138.3491
4139.6452
4151.0571
4163.4846
4173.9379
327.7655
238.0796
228.3938
238.7079
229.0221
.5
73.0
4185.3868
4196.8615
4208.3519
4319.8579
4231.3797
229.3363
329.6504
339.9646
330.2787
330.5939
77.0
4243.9173
4354.4704
4366.0394
4277.6340
4389.2343
230.9071
231.3212
381.5854
331.8395
232.1637
.3
.8
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
82.0
Dlain.
4359.1563
4870.8664
43S3.5924
4394.3341
4406.0916
3903.6353
8914.7073
8935,8049
3936.9183
3948.0473
.1
245.0442
245.8584
245.6725
245 9867
246.3009
CIrcum.
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
.3
.3
.4
Area.
4778.8624
4790.6335
4803.8983
4815.1897
4837.4969
.1
DIani.
78.0
3870.4786
3881.5084
3893.5590
.8
.3
Circuin.
232.4779
283.7920
233.1063
233.4203
238.7345
74.0
.1
Arcji.
CIRCLESContinued.
4800.8408
4312.4721
43a4.1195
4335.7827
4847.4616
319.9115
220.3256
230.5398
220.8540
331.1681
'
AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF
.1
.3
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
.4
.6
.7
.1
.3
.8
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.2
.3
3:i9.7035
340.0177
3415885
.1
.1
.2
.3
.4
.7
.8
.9
80.0
.1
.3
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
.1
.3
.3
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
Area.
CIreum.
5281.0173
6393.9056
5306.8097
5319.7295
5382.6650
257.6106
257.9247
258.2389
358.5531
358.867a
5845.6163
5858.5832
5871.5658
5384.5641
5397.5782
359.1814
259.4956
359.8097
260.123?
260.4880
.2
.3
.4
5410.6079
5423.6584
5486.7146
5449.7915
5462.8840
260.7522
361.0665
261.3805
361.6947
262.0088
249.7566
350 0708
250.3850
250.6991
251.0138
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
5475.9928
5489.1168
5502.2561
5515.4115
5528.5826
262.3230
262.6371
262.9513
263.2655
263.5796
5036.5482
5039.1335
5051.7134
5064.3180
5076.9894
251.3274
251.6416
251.9557
252.2899
252.5840
84.0
5541.7694
5554.9720
5568.1902
5581.4342
5594.6739
263.8938
264.3079
364.5221
264.8863
265.1514
5089.5764
5102.3292
5114 8977
5127.5819
5140.2818
252.8983
353.3134
358.5265
253.8407
354.1548
5607.9392
5621.2203
5634.5171
5647.8296
5661.1578
265.4646
265.7787
266.0939
266.4071
266.7212
5153.9973
5165.7287
5178.4757
5191.3384
5304.0168
254.4690
85.0
3.i4.7833
.1
355.0973
255.4115
255.7256
.3
5674.5017
5687.8614
5701.3367
5714.6277
5728.0345
267.0354
267.3495
267.6637
267.9779
268.2930
256.0398
256.3540
256.6681
256.9823
257.2966
.5
.6
.7
.8
5741.4569
5754.8951
5768.8490
5781.8185
5795.3038
268.6062
268.9203
269.2345
269.5486
269.8628
5316.8110
5339.6208
5343.4463
5255.3876
.5368.1446
.1
.3
.3
.4
.7
.8
.9
.1
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
.3
.4
.9
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
TABLES OF AREAS
lain.
Area.
86.0
6808.8048
5822.8315
5835.8539
5849.4020
5863.9659
.1
.2
.3
.4
AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF
Diam.
Area.
270.2770
90.0
6361.7351
270.49U
.1
637.5.8701
^2
6390.0309
6404.3073
6418.3995
Clrcuni.
370.8053
271.1194
271.4336
'.3
.4
CIrcum.
282.7433
283.0575
283.3717
283.6858
284.0000
5876.5454
5890.1407
5903.7516
5917.3783
5931.0206
271.7478
272.0619
272.3761
272.6902
273.0044
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
6433.6073
6446.8309
6461.0701
6475.3351
6489.5958
284.3141
284.6283
284.9425
285.2566
285.5708
'Area.
295.3097
295.6239
295.9380
296.2522
296.5663
97.0
7389.8113
7405.0559
7420.3162
7435.5922
7450.8839
304.7345
305.0486
305.3628
305.6770
305 9911
7013.8019
7028.6538
7043.5214
7058.4047
7073.3033
296.8805
297.1947
297.5088
297.8230
298.1371
.5
306.3053
306.6194
306.9336
307.3478
307.5619
.2
7088.2184
7103.1488
7118.1950
.3
7133.0.568
.4
7148.0343
.5
.6
.7
7163.0276
7178.0366
7193.0612
7208.1016
7223.1577
'301.2787
.9
7238.2295
7253.3170
7268.4202
7283.5391
7298.6737
801.5929
301.9071
302.2313
302.5354
302.8405
99.0
7313.8240
7328.9901
7344.1718
7359.3693
7374.5824
803.1637
303.4779
303.7920
304.1062
304.4203
Area.
94.0
6939.7783
6954.5515
6969.3106
6984.1453
6998.9658
.1
.2
.3
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
87.0
.1
.2
.3
A
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
88.0
.1
.2
.3
.4
.3
6503.8833
6518.1843
6532.5021
.3
.4
6561.1848
.5
657.5.5408
.6
.7
6589.9304
6604 3268
6618.7388
6633.1666
5944.6787
5958.3525
5973.0430
5985.7473
5999.4681
273.3186
273.6337
273.9469
274.2610
274.5753
91.0
6013.2047
6036.9570
6040 7250
6054.5088
6068.3082
274.8894
275.2035
275.5177
275.8318
276.1460
6083.1384
6095.9543
6109.8008
6133.6631
6137.5411
276.4602
276.7743
277.0885
277.4026
277.7168
.1
.8
.9
93.0
.1
.3
.3
.4
6.546.8356
6647.6101
6662.0692
6676.5441
66910347
6705.5410
285.8849
286.1991
286.5133
286.8274
287.1416
287.4557
287.7699
288.0840
288.3983
288.7124
289.0265
289.3407
289.6548
289.9690
290.2882
95.0
.1
.8
.9
96.0
.1
.2
.3
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
6151.4318
6165.3443
6179.3693
6193.2101
6307.1666
278.0309
278.3451
278.6563
278.9740
279.2876
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
6720.0630
6734.6008
6749.1542
6763.7233
6778.3083
290.5973
390.9115
391.3256
391.5398
291.8540
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
89.0
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.b
.9
6331.1389
6335.1268
6249 1304
6363.1498
6377.1849
279 6017
279.9159
93.0
280.2301
.2
280 5442
280.8584
.4
6291.3356
6305.3031
6319.3843
6333.4822
6347.5958
281.1725
281.4867
281.8009
282.1150
282.4292
.1
.3
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
6792.9087
6807.5250
0822.1569
6836.8046
6851.4680
393.1681
393.4833
393.7964
393.1106
293.4348
6866.1471
6880.8419
6895.5524
6910.2786
6935.0205
293.7389
294.0531
294.3673
294.6814
294.9956
CIRCLESContinued.
DIam.
Dlain.
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
469
.9
Clrcuin.
.1
.2
.3
.4
Clrcimi.
.7
7466.1913
7481.5144
7496.8532
.8
7.521.2078
.9
7527.5780
298.4513
298.7655
299.0796
299.3938
299.7079
98.0
7542.9640
7558.3656
7573.7830
.4
7604.6648
307.8761
308.1903
308.5044
308.8186
309.1327
300.0221
800.3363
300.6504
300.9646
.5
7620.1293
7635.6095
7651.1054
7666.6170
7682.1444
309.4469
809.7610
310.0752
310.3894
310.7035
7697.6893
7713.2461
7728.8206
7744.4107
7760.0166
311.0177
311.3318
311.6460
311.9602
312.2743
.9
7775.6383
7791.2754
7806.9284
7823.5971
7838.2815
312.5885
312.9026
313.2168
313.5309
313.8451
100.0
7853.9816
314.1593
.6
.1
.2
.3
.6
.7
.8
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
75892161
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
470
DESIGN.
ROMAN
CIRCULAR MEASURE.
60 seconds (") make
"
60 minutes
"
360 degrees
The
I.
minute
degree
circum. (C).
(').
().
supposed to be divided into 360 equal
parts, called
of the circumference of
is 3^^
any
circle,
small or large.
quadrant
is
III.
'
a fourth of a circumference, or an
VII.
VIII.
IX.
Three.
Four.
'
Five.
'
Six.
Seven.
Eight.
Nine.
Ten.
' '
'
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
'
XIV.
'
'
XL.
'
Twenty.
Thirty.
Forty.
L.
Fifty.
LX.
'
Sixty.
LXX.
'
LXXX.
'
Seventy.
Eighty.
Nfnety
XC.
'
Twelve.
C.
Thirteen.
Fourteen.
D.
'
'
Fifteen.
X.
Sixteen.
M.
One hundred.
'
M.
'
A degree is divided into 60 parts called minutes,
expressed by the sign ('), and each minute is divided
into 60 seconds, expressed by (") so that the circum
'
'
XX.
Eleven'.
'
denotes Seventeen.
Eighteen.
Nineteen.
XXX.
'
'
XV.
XVI.
arc of 90 degrees.
Two.
'
V.
VI.
is
degrees.
A degree
'
IV.
circumference of every circle whatever,
XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.
den otes One.
II.
TABLE.
'
Five hundred.
'
One thousand
'
Ten thousand
'
One
million.
GREEK ALPHABET.
ference of any circle contains 21,600
minutes, or
1,296,000 seconds.
=
=
3 feet
55^ yards =
The
foot.
=
furlongs =
=
miles
40 rods
yard.
rod.
8
3
i
I
mile.
league.
mile (5,280 feet) of the above table is the
United States and England, and is
legal mile of the
called the statute mile.
i^
iota
kappa
lambda
2
T
rho
tau
11
mu
T
V
delta
upsilon
epsilon
nu
4>
<!>
phi
zeta
xi
cbi
^
Q
eta
furlong.
common
gamma
r y
A S
E
alpha
K
A
B ^
LONG MEASURE MEASURES OF LENGTH.
12 inches
Note.
beta
theta
The
arbitrary signs,
TT
letters of the
and the
(T
omicron
'P
pi
fl
b)
sigma
psi
.
omega
Greek alphabet are used sometimes
letter
tt
(pi)
is
as
used almost universally to
represent the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of the circle.
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
SQUARES, CUBES AND ROOTS.
TABLES
Number.
Of Squares and Cubes, and Square and Cube Roots
numbers from
side of an inscribed
Or
Or
To nd
multiply circumference
0.2251.
divide
"
4.4428.
"
side of an equal square
Multiply diameter
Or
Or
Or
by 0.8862.
divide
"
multiply circumference
"
0.2821.
divide
"
3.545
1. 1
side multiplied
A
its
circumscribing
A
A
1.0
1.0
9
16
27
64
125
1.414213
1.732050
2.0
2.236068
1.25992
1.44225
1.58740
1.70997
25
by 1.4142 equals diameter
of
its
by 4.443 equals circumference
of
by 1.128 equals diameter
of an
circle.
side multiplied by 3.544 equals circumference
216
343
512
729
2.449489
2.645751
1.81712
1.91293
2828427
2.0
3.0
1000
3.162277
2.08008
2.15443
3.316624
3.464101
3.6055.M
3.741657
3.872983
2.22398
2.28942
2.35133
2.41014
2.46621
4.0
2.51984
2.57128
2.62074
2.66840
2.71441
36
49
64
10
81
100
11
12
13
14
15
121
1331
144
169
196
225
1728
2197
2744
3375
256
289
324
361
400
4096
4913
5832
6859
8000
441
484
529
576
625
9261
10648
12167
13824
15625
676
729
784
.5.196152
3.0
841
900
17576
19683
21952
24389
27000
5.291502
5.385164
5.477225
3.03658
3.07231
3.10723
961
1024
1089
1156
1225
29791
32768
35937
39304
42875
5.567764
5.656854
5.744563
5.830951
5.916079
3.14138
3.17480
3.20753
3.23961
3.27106
1298
1369
1444
1621
1600
46656
50653
54872
59319
64000
6.0
3.30192
3.33333
3.36197
3,39121
3.41995
21
circle.
side multiplied
equal
20
circle.
side multiplied
16
17
18
19
264.
Square
circumscribing
Cube Root.
by 0.7071.
"
Square Root.
6
7
square
Multiply diameter
Cube.
2
8
4
5
RULES.
To And
Square.
of
(See opposite column.)
to 200.
471
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
81
32
33
34
35
4.123105
4.242640
4.358898
4.472136
4.582575
4.690415
4.795831
4.898979
5.0
2.75892
2.80203
2.84386
2.88449
2.92401
5.099019
2.962i9
of an equal circle.
side multiplied
an equal
circle.
by 1.273 equals
circle inches of
36
37
38
39
40
6.082763
6.164414
6.244998
6.324555
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
473
TABLES OF SQUARES, CUBES
Nuirflier.
41
42
43
44
45
Square
Cube Root.
AND ROOTSContinoed.
Square.
Cube.
1681
1764
1849
1936
2025
68921
74088
79507
85184
91125
6.403134
6.480740
6.557438
6.6J3349
6.708303
3.44821
3.47603
3.50339
3 53034
3.55689
81
86
87
lioot.
Number.
83
83
84
85
Square.
Cube.
Square Uoot.
Cube Boot.
9.0
7235
531441
551368
571787
592704
614125
9.055385
9.110438
9.165151
9.218544
4.33674
4.34448
4.36207
4.37951
4.39683
7396
7569
7744
7921
8100
636056
658503
681472
704969
729000
9.273618
9.327379
9.380831
9.433981
9.486833
4.41400
4.43104
4.44796
4.46474
4.48140
8381
8464
8649
8836
9025
753571
778688
804357
830584
857375
9.539392
9.591663
9.643650
9.695359
9.746794
4.49794
4.51435
4.53065
4.54683
4.56290
9316
9409
9604
9801
10000
884736
913673
941193
070399
1000000
9.797959
9.848S57
9.899494
9.949874
4.57785
4.59470
4.61043
4.62606
4.64158
10.049875
10.099504
10.148891
10.198039
10246950
4.65701
4.67233
4.68754
4.70266
4.71769
6561
6734
6889
70.56
46
47
48
49
50
2116
2209
2304
2401
2500
97336
103823
110592
117649
125000
6.783330
6.855654
6.938303
7.071067
3.58304
3.60882
3.63424
3.65930
3.68403
51
132651
14060W
148877
157464
166375
7.141428
7.311102
7.280109
7.348469
7.416198
3.70843
3.73251
3.75628
3.77976
3.80295
91
55
2601
2704
3809
2916
3025
56
57
58
59
60
3136
3349
3364
3481
3600
175616
185193
195112
205379
216000
7.483314
7.549834
7.615773
7.681145
7.745966
3.82586
3.84850
3.87087
3.89299
3.91486
96
97
98
99
100
61
62
63
64
65
8T21
7.810249
7.874007
7.937253
8.063357
3.93649
3.95789
3.97905
4.0
4.02072
101
3844
3989
4096
4225
226981
238328
250047
263144
274625
103
103
104
105
10201
10404
10609
10816
11025
1030301
1061308
1093737
1124864
1157625
66
67
68
69
70
4356
4489
4624
4761
4900
287496
300763
314432
328509
343000
8.124038
8.185352
8.216211
8.306623
8.366600
4.04124
4.06154
4.08165
4.10156
4.12128
106
107
108
109
110
11236
11449
11664
11881
13100
1191016
1225043
1259712
1295029
1331000
10.295630
10.344080
10.392304
10.440306
10.488088
4.73263
4.74745
4.76230
4.77685
4.79143
71
5041
5184
5329
5476
5635
357911
373248
389017
405224
421875
8.436149
8.485281
8.544003
8.603335
8.660354
4.14081
4.16016
4.17933
4.19833
4.21V16
111
112
113
114
115
12321
1367631
1404928
1443897
1481544
1520875
10.535653
10.583005
10.630145
10.677078
10.723805
4 80589
73
78
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
5776
5939
6084
6241
6400
438976
456533
474552
493039
512000
8.717797
8.774964
8.831760
8.888194
8.944271
4.23582
4.25432
4.27265
4.29084
4.30887
116
117
118
119
120
1560896
1601613
1643032
1685159
1728000
10.770329
10.816653
10.862780
10.90871
10.954451
4.87699
4.89097
4.94086
4.91868
4.93242
53
53
54
7.0
8.0
88
89
90
93
93
94
95
12.544
12769
13996
13;'35
134.56
13689
13924
14161
14400
10.0
4.82028
4.83458
4.84880
4.86294
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
TA RT,RS OF
SQUARES, CUBES
473
AND ROOTSContinued.
Cul)e Root.
Nuinlifr.
Square.
Culie.
Square Root.
cube Root.
4.94608
4 95967
4.97319
4.98663
161
5.0
163
163
164
165
25921
26244
26569
26896
27225
4173281
4351538
4330747
4410944
4493125
12.688577
12.727922
12.767145
12.806348
12.845232
5.44012
5.45136
5.43255
5.47370
5.48480
5.01329
5.02653
5.03968
5.05377
5.06579
166
167
168
169
170
27556
27889
28224
28561
28900
4574296
4657463
4741632
4826809
4913000
13.884098
13.923848
13.038404
5.49586
5.50687
5.51784
5.53877
5.53965
11.445523
11.489125
11.532562
11.575836
11.618950
5.07875
5.09164
5.10446
5.11723
5.12992
171
172
173
174
175
29241
29584
29929
30276
p0625
5000211
5088448
5177717
5268024
5359375
13.076696
13.114877
13.153946
13.190906
12.238756
n.55049
6.56139
5.57305
5.58377
5.59344
2515456
2571358
2638072
2685619
2744000
11.661903
11.704699
11.747344
11.789826
11.832159
5.14256
5.15513
5.16764
5.18010
5.19349
176
177
178
179
180
80976
31329
31684
32041
33400
5451776
5545233
5639752
5735339
5833000
13.266499
13.304134
13.341664
13.379088
13.416407
5.60407
5.61467
5.62533
5.63574
5.64621
11.874342
11.916375
11.958260
144
145
2808221
2863288
2924207
2985984
8048625
12.041594
5.20482
5.21710
5.23932
5.24148
5.35358
181
20164
20449
20736
21025
182
183
184
185
32761
33124
33489
33856
34225
5939741
6038568
6138487
6339504
6331625
13.453634
13.490737
13.537749
13.564660
13 601470
5.65665
5.66705
5.67741
5.68773
5.69801
146
147
148
149
150
21316
21609
31904
22201
22500
3112136
3176528
8241792
3307949
3375000
12.083046
12.123455
12.165525
13.266S55
12.347448
5.36563
5.27763
5.38957
5.30145
5.31329
186
187
188
189
190
34596
34969
35344
35721
36100
6434856
6539303
6644672
6751269
6859000
13.638181
13.674794
13.711309
13.747727
13.784048
5.70826
5.71847
5.72865
5.73879
5.74889
151
152
153
154
155
22801
23104
23409
23716
24025
3442951
3511808
3581577
3653264
3733875
13.388305
13.338828
13.369316
12.409673
12.449899
5.33507
5.33680
5.34848
5.36010
5.37168
191
192
193
194
195
36481
36864
37249
37636
38035
6967871
7077888
7189057
7301384
7414875
13 820275
13.856406
13.892444
13.928388
13.964340
5.75896
5.76899
5.778&9
5.78896
5.79889
156
157
158
159
160
24336
24649
24964
35281
25600
3796416
3869893
3944312
4019679
4096000
12.489996
12.529964
13.569805
13.609520
12.649110
S.S8323
5.39469
5.40613
5.41750
5.42883
196
197
198
199
200
38416
38809
39304
39601
7529536
7645373
7763392
7880599
8000000
14.0
5.80878
14.035668
14.071247
14.106736
14.142135
.5.81864
Square Hoot,
Nomber.
Square.
Cube.
121
122
123
124
125
14641
14884
15129
15376
15625
1771561
1815848
1860867
1906634
1S53125
11.045361
11.090536
11.135528
11.180339
1S6
127
128
129
130
15S76
16129
16384
16641
16900
2000376
2048383
2097152
2146689
2197000
11.224972
11.269427
11.313708
11.357816
11.401754
131
132
17161
17424
17689
17956
18225
2348091
2399968
2352637
2406104
2460375
18496
18769
19044
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
19321
19600
19881
11.0
13.0
4on(>n
1'3.961481
13.0
5.82847
5.83827
5.84803
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
474
UNITED STATES STANDARD SIZES OF
iDteroal
Inside
External
circum
Diameter.
ference.
fereocj.
Inside
Actual
Thick
Actual
ness.
Dom.
outelde
Diameter.
.405
.54
.675
 .840
1.050
1.315
1
i
t
4
\
1
H
\h
1.660
1.90
2.375
2.875
3.50
4.0
4.60
5.0
5.563
6.625
7.625
8.625
9.688
10.750
2'
2J
3
3i
4
41
6
7
8
9
10
.068
.088
.091
.109
.113
.134
.140
.145
.154
.204
.217
.226
.237
.247
.259
.280
.301
.322
.344
.366
0.269
0.364
0.493
0,622
0.824
1.272
1.696
2121
2.652
3.299
1.047
4.1,34
1.38
1,61
2.067
2.467
3.066
3.548
4.026
4.506
5.045
6.065
7.023
7.981
9.00
10,018
5,215
5.9G9
7.461
9.032
10.996
12,566
14.137
15.708
17.475
20.813
23.954
27.096
30.433
33.772
Thread taper threefourths inch to one
All pipe belo vf lyi inches
to 500 pounds per s quare inch.
is
clrcdm
0.848
1.144
1.552
1.957
2.589
3.292
4.335
5.061
6.494
7,754
9.636
11.146
12,648
14.153
15.849
19.054
22.063
25.076
28.277
31.475
WROUGHT IRON WELDED
Length of
Length of
pipe per
pipe per
square
foot of
square
loot of
outside
surface
Inside
surface.
9.440
7.075
5.657
4.502
3.G37
2.903
2.301
2.010
1.611
1.328
1.091
.955
.849
765
629
.577
.505
.444
.394
.355
14.15
10.50
7.67
6.13
4.635
3.679
2.768
2.371
1.848
1.547
1.245
1.077
0.949
0.848
0.757
0.630
0.544
0.478
a425
0.381
Lenmh
Biternal
Actual
area,
totoraal
area;
of
pipe con.
talniQg
per foot
one
or length.
cubic
.129
.229
.358
.554
.866
1.357
2.164
2.835
4.430
6.491
9.621
12.566
15.901
1,9.635
24.299
.34.471
45.663
58.426
73.716
90.762
We/ght
28.889
38.727
50.039
63633
78.838
No. of
threads
per loch
of scrow.
Lengtb
perfect
screw
fj''t.
.0572 2500.
.1041
,1916
.3048
.5333
.8627
1.496
2.038
3.355
4.783
7.388
9.837
12.730
15.939
19,990
PIPE.
.243
.422
,561
.845
27
1.126
1.670
2.258
2.694
3.667
5.773
7.547
9.055
10.728
12.492
14,564
18.767
23.410
28.348
34.677
14
1385.
751.5
472.4
270,0
166.9
96.25
70.65
42.36
30.11
19.40
14.56
11.31
9.03
7.20
4.98
3.72
2.88
2.26
1.80
40.641'
>
18
18
14
lU
\n
0.54
0.55
0.58
0.89
0.95
11}
Hi
8
8
8
8
8.
8
8
8
8
8
8
0,19
0.29
0,30
0,39
0.40
0.51
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.16
1.26
1..36
1.46
1,57
1.68
foot.
buttwelded, and proved to 300 pou nds per
scluare
inch
i^i inch
and above
is
lap welded
and proved

..
INDEX.
PAGE
Abbreviations and Conventional Signs
2122
Acute Angle, def
29
Addendum Circle, desc. and illus
279280
Advantages of Algebra
431
Corliss Valve Gear
390
Logarithms, desc
Algebra Advantages of
433
431
Elements of
Algebraic def. and example
Alphabet, Antique, desc. and illus.
Greek
Altitude of a Pyramid or Cone
430
A Triangle,
31
...
Aluminum, when discovered
Andrews, Pres't of Nebraska
307
Univer
quotation
205
Angle, Acute, def
29
Designation of by three letters
29
Def
Obtuse and Oblique, def
Of Advance of Eccentric, desc
Angle, to divide into four parts, illus.
and rule
Of Screw Thread, desc. and illus.
To transfer, illus. and rule
To bisect an, illus. and rule. ...
Annular Gear, desc. and illus
.
discovered
Antique Alphabet,
Apex
of
desc.
an Angle, def
and
illus
Tangent and sine
To
322
an
of
find center of
Areas and Circumferences
Tables of
of, desc.
and
illus..
Core, desc
Pit of Boiler, illus.
Atom,
29
29
Axis of the Parabola, def
1S3
207
I2r
431
S5S6
" Bath "
87
Battery
292
307
52
29
7980
1S8
Baffle Plates, desc
234
92
350
for Blue Prints, Solution for.
of Boilers, desc
Beam
Compasses, illus
Bearing, illus
Bearing, Selfoiling, desc. and
Bearings
Forms
of, illus,
475
and
195
350
417
1
illus.
desc.
267
Flywheel,
3C3
illus,
365366
317
221226
220
Stresses Induced by, def
Bevel Gears
282
Desc. and illus
292299
How to Construct, illus. and desc. 254297
Bismuth, when discovered
Bipolar Dynamo, def
307
398
Bisect, an Angle, to
87
vStraight Line, to, illus
87
Black Process Copying
Blanking Die, illus. and desc
Block Letters and Numerals
Blocks, Pillow, desc. and illus
Blow=off Pipe, desc
Blue Priut, colored illustration
Blue Printing, desc
192193
Printing, Test Pieces for
27
403404
259260
Bench Drill Press, desc. and illus
Bending Moments, examples of, def.
36
Dabbit, Sectioning of
How shown by colors
Crossed, illus
Details of
372
88
146
390
266277
Horse Power of, rule and example
269270
Rules, Forniuhe ami Examples
268270
for Speed of
397
212
draw
399
400401
336
def
364
308
461467
and desc
Attraction, def
" Axis " used in Cabinet Projection.
to
Belts and Pulleys, desc
1S5
Assembled Drawings, def
Atmospheric Electricity, def
how
34
placed
vi'here
Plate,
Bell Crank, desc
312
" Arrow Heads,"
Ash
Bed
33
400
Disc, illus
Steam
Engine, desc
Of a Press, desc
of Circles,
Armature, desc
Construction
PAGE
" Bed "
97
Axiom, def
Axioms, def. and examples
2729
Right, def
Antimony, when
31
38
212
" Apron " of Lathe, desc
Arc of a Circle, def
52
38
of Pyramid, def
Applied Mechanics, def
46S
def
Altitude of a Triangle, def
sity,
431
...
Apex
" Bath " for, Solution
Blue
Prints,
Mounting
of,
desc
308
54
263264
339
202
189192
1
91192
195
195196
....
...
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
476
DESIGN.
PAGE
Blue
make Drawings
from.
Blue, Prussian, for Water Colors
Boiler Bracket, illus. and desc
Prints, to
Cornish,
and desc.
illus.
Dome, Development
of, illus.
Fire Box, desc
Brackets Wall,
188
Brass, Sectioning
340346
How shown
340345
175176
344
340341
and desc
Furnace, illus. and desc
336337
Galloway,
344348
Flue,
illus.
illus
and desc
Locomotive, illus. and desc
344346
Plain Cylindrical, illus
336337
Lancashire,
illus.
341
Development
Slope Sheet,
of,
176179
illus
Stays, illus.
and desc
340346
Vertical, illus. desc
346347
Water Tube, Dimensions of
Boilers and Engines, desc
a..
of, desc
Grate Surface of, desc
Heating Surface of, desc
Battery
314
8081
Bridge Wall of Steam Boiler, illus.
and desc
336
" Bromide " Sensitized Paper
194
Bronze Age, Implements used in
307
Brushes, desc
399
Brush Holder Frame, desc. and illus. 403, 405
Reaction, desc. and illus
405406
Burlingame, L. D., quotation from
address
Buttjoint, illus. and desc
196197
size of
241
416
def
33
Concentric, def
34
Circumference of a
33
Chord
33
of a
Diameter of a
33
Illus. of
Segment
33
def
of,
33
Rules Relating to
4 1465
Circles and their Properties
33
Eccentric, def
35
Sector
33
98
of,
def
To Draw through three points.
Circular Measure
'.,.
Velocity, def
Circumference of a
279280
Circle, def
" Clearance"
how shown by
53
188
colors
1S8
214215
Sectioning of
7880
Factors of Safetybar
Center
217
of a Circle, def
33
27
Line, def
Dead, of Steam Engine, desc.
Chain Riveting, desc. and illus
Changing Gears for Screw Cutting
Chapman, Jno. G. Quotation
Check Nut, desc. and illus
Chimney, desc
Chord of a Circle, def. and illus
Chrome Yellow " for Water Color.
'
'
Cleveland Twist Drill Table of Drill
Speed
Coabbreviation of Complement,
33
207
Of Safety, def
Cohesion, def
Coloring Drawings
207
18S
210
Combination Die, illus
Combustion, Products of
Commercial Rating of Engines
Commutator, desc
322
Beam, illus
Composition for Brasses, desc
Compound Winding, desc
240
33
188
314
Coefficient, def
Commutator, desc. and
336
33
215
396
308
of Die.
364
250
468
211
Pitch Circle of a Gear
Classification of Machines, desc
423
Cast Iron, desc
336
240
379
a,
249
121122
Castings,
237
PAGE
Circle, Arc of
Of Electricity
336
423
416
illus..
265
263, 264
of, illus
336
241
Border Lines, when to be used
Bore Dividers, illus
Pen and Pencil, desc. and
Brick, Sectioning
Capital Letters, use of
Carmine for Water Color
346
188
122127
Weakest Part
Cylinder Head
Table of Tensile Strength of
Desc. and illus
Problems in
" Cap " Drawing Paper,
241
of, for
colors.
350
Stud, desc. and illus
Number
by
Brasses, Compositions for
For Pillow Blocks
Drill Speed for
230
of
7980
of, illus
113
347348
262
illus
C^abinet Projection, def
354356
and
335
336
Steam, desc
Water Tube, desc. and illus
Water Line of, desc
Bolthead, Square, desc. and illus.
Proportions of, desc. and illus.
Boltsheets, desc
Bolts, Stay, illus. and desc
desc.
350355
336
Horse Power of, desc
Steam Space of, desc
PAGE
196
.340, 341, 347
Cylindrical Tubular.
Compasses,
desc.
Compressive
Concave, def
Concentric
and
313
346, 347
367
399
401402
illus
414415
illus
Strain, def
Circles, def
417
264
406407
.
217
33
34
INDEX.
Cone, def and
.
PAGE
38
illus
Pulleys, desc.
and
illus
ConicaUhead
desc.
Construction
37, 160, 161
Rivet,
and
How
Draw,
to
illus
244
Line, def
27
Materials for, def
Of Armature, desc. and
Of Commutator
Contents, Table of
illus.
400401
21
Double, def
Copper, Factor of Safety for
of
33
217
in Colors
18S
Work
xii
Corliss Engine, Fishkill Landing, desc.
and
Valves, desc
Valve Gear, illus
Releasing Gear, illus
Cornish Boiler, illus. and desc.
Corollary, def
Cosine, Abbreviation of
Of an Arc, illus
Cotangent
Rivet,
243, 244
396
27
desc.
and
illus
illus.
Rack def
To Draw by Isometric
384385
Development of
tersection, desc.
to
and
379
169172
Draw by Orthographic
Projection
156159
Cylindrical Boiler, plain
336337
Tubular Boiler, desc. and illus. 340, 345
Ring, How to Draw by Ortho.
graphic Projection
370
Damper, Chimney,
Dash
Pot, Corliss
desc
Circle of
Gear Wheel.
Dedication by Author
Definitions and Terms
vii
Algebraic
Definitions and General Considerations Relating to Machine De
144
336
390
43
2072 1
Paper, Size of ...
Design, Machine
Designing
458
279, 280
2740
Steam
Boiler, desc
of a Boiler
A Fourpart
A Tee Pipe
Elbow,
Dome,
423
213
205206
350
Machines, six points in
Detailed Drawings, def
307
183
illus..
illus
175176
172175
165169
Of the Slope Sheet of a Locomotive Boiler, illus
Right Elbow
Surfaces, def
and desc
Surfaces, problems in
Diagonal, def
Surfaces, illus.
Their Inillus
" Dedendum "
Development
Projec
32
457
Equivalents of Millimeters and
Fractions
sign
285293
429
364
" Demy " Drawing
" Density," def
37
362
Thickness of
desc
Decagon, def
Decimal Equivalents, Table of
2S5286
tion, illus
H611S
To Draw a, by Cabinet Projection 123125
With Square Flange, How to
Draw
145
Walls, etc
of Steam Engine,
Cylinders
Data and Rules, useful
"Dead Center" of Steam Engine,
420422
292
Cylinder, def. and illus
Of a Steam Engine, desc
Of Corliss Engine, illus
249
382
Draw
to
Cycloid, The, def. and illus
Cycloidal Gear Teeth, def. and
244
desc, 390
388
How
Electricity, def
How
127
37
122
Curved Line, def
Curves and Sweeps,
33
127,
and def
To Draw a, by a Cabinet Projec
Current
34
Stroke of
388
illus.
Cuphead
85
33
tion
.340, 341, 347
of a Circle, illus
Pin Dimensions of
Shaft of Steam Engine
Cube,
388
Pin
383390
386387
Countersunkrivet, How to Draw,
desc. and illus
Coupling, Flange, illus
Cover Plate Joint, illus. and desc
Cranic, Rule for Finding Length of
Bell, illus
388390
illus
119
To Draw by Cabinet Projection.
125
Crosshead, desc
389
Guides of the Steam Engine.
362364
Of Steam Engine, desc. and illus.
382
xix
Table of
Copyright
tion
401402
Conventional Method of Showing
Square Headed Screws, illus.
241
Signs for Drawing Threads
235237
Convex, def
33
How Shown
PAGE
214215
.
477
Crauk, To Draw by Isometric Projec
275, 277
Conic Sections, def
Stays, desc
Diagram,
Indicator, desc. and illus. 375,
Of Dimensions of Horizontal En
gines
Way
Read Drawings
Zenner's, illus. and desc
Diameter of a Circle, illus
Of Journals, example
Of
to
176179
162164
113
162179
162179
32
340
376, 378
369
190
377
33
258
...
..
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
478
PAGE
Diameter
of Screw, desc
" Diametral Pitch,"
233
280
def
Die, Blanking, desc. and illus
Disc, Cutting, desc. and
Male and Female, desc
Dies and Presses,
illus.
and illus
Blanking, illus. and desc
Drawing, desc. and illus.
Gang of, desc. and illus
Punches, Groups of
Dimension Line, def
308
How
Marking
308
" Dimensions "
313
.310, 312313
Lines
Written
Drawings
Of Drawings
Of Horizontal Steam Engines
Of Pulleys
Dimensions of Steam Boilers
415
23
416
32,40
Draft, Split, desc
To Scale, Instructions for
With Relation to Shop Work.
desc.
422423
416417
413
424425
196198
and
illus. ...
Speeds Table of
Driving Pulleys, desc
Ductility, def
Dynamic
Electricity, def
Dynamics, def
Dynamo Bipolar,
Electric,
def
Machinery, desc
Illus
of
word
Circles, def.
and
illus
Desc. 370, illus
Eccentric, Rule for Finding Length of
Stroke of
Strap and Rod, desc. and
Eccentricity, Radius of, def
" Efficiency," def
Of Electric Motor, desc
" Effort," def
" Elasticity,"
Modulus
def
of,
def
illus.
397, 398
393
Ellipse, def
36, 160
Drawing
an, illus
38, 106, 107
Produced by Cutting Cone
E.
M.
F. Abbreviation, def.
Energy, def
for, illus.
398
Fishkill
393
Lathe, desc
Lefthand, desc. and illus
Main Shaft of a Steam
207
207
209, 217, 218
and
of, illus
illus
399
397
207
363364
Cylinder
Cylinder of Corliss,
35
207
desc
397
212
370
160
.Xt.,.
:..,..
Engine, Belt Fly Wheel
illus
370, 374
399
399
391407
396398
Valve Gear,
370, 373
172175
Def
Electromotive Force, def
Corliss
35
illus.
Electricity, Classification of
207213
398
162164
Electric Motor, The, desc
Motor, EiEciency of, desc
Electrical Machines, desc. and illus.
Corliss
398
398399
Electric, desc
PAGE
Elbow, Development of a Right
Development of Four Part,
314
266
398
Multipolar, def
Eccentric
317
394, 395
Meaning
Unipolar, def
2581
Good ones Necessary
Bench,
Drill Press
341
228230
Pen, illus
Tools,
Drawingboard, illus
Class, Eugene C. Peck's method
of Conducting, Note
413
Dies, desc. and illus
310, 312313
The
411426
^
189190
4o4i
230
Draftingroom as an Interpreter to
the Shop
197
Drawing a CupHead Rivet
243244
A Hexagonalnut, desc. and illus. 237239
Helix
Instruments
Linear, Subject of
Paper
196
Tracing of
851 10
36
400
Bow, illus
Dodecagon, def
Double Threaded Screw, desc
Prints
417418
314317
352354
Division, sign of
To Make from Blue
Ink
Drilling Machines
369
272273
Directrix, def
184
Geometrical
184187
Disc Armature, note
Dividers, desc. and illus
of
27
185
184187
of
85 '.86
on
188
Dimensioning
308
.
Coloring of
308
308
3o83>5
desc.
Drawings, Working, General Subject. 181199
384
383
3S4385
Cylinder of Steam, desc
Landing
362
Corliss, desc
Note, Relating to Position of
Reciprocating Steam, desc
Righthand, desc. and
Rotary Steam, desc
...
388
321322
367
362
368
362
illus
367
362
Engines and Boilers, desc
Commercial Rating of
Engines, Multicylinder Steam, desc.
Newcomen, desc
Overrunning, illus. and desc.
Right and Left Hand, illus
.
335
367
.
366, 367
335
367, 36S
Steam, desc
Table of Dimensions of Horizontal Steam Engines
The Fire and Heat, desc
Underruning, illus. and desc.
367,
.
367
362
369
335
368
'
INDEX
479
PAGE
Engines, Vertical, desc
Envelope
368, illus. 371
of a Solid, def
Epicycloid, def. and
Equality, sign of
37
2S6, 287
illus
25
Equation, def
431
Equilateral Triangle, def
To Construct
Erasing, How Best Done
30
9293
189
Evaporation, Equivalent
Of Steam Boilers
355, 356
350, 352
Tensile Strength, illus
Example
for Figuring
219
Engine Horse
Power
37S
Exercises in Geometrical Drawing.
...
" pace" of Geartooth, desc. and illus.
Factor, def
113
208
Shaft of Lathe, desc. and illus.
Field Magnet, desc
Fifteen Degree Lines, illus. and desc.
Figures, Straightsided, defs
How to Draw
With Bolts, How to Draw
45
30
Cylinder,
and
Floor Stands or Pedestals, desc
Flue Boiler, illus. and de.sc
Fly Wheels, desc. and illus
Rim Speed of
Foci of an Ellipse, def
Focus
of the Parabola, def
336
322
399
"Finished," def
Fire=box Boiler, desc
Tubes, illus. and desc
Flange Coupling, illus
of Geartooth, illus.
279, 280
207
210
Of Safety, def
False Perspective, def
Fatigue of Metals, def
Feedpipe, desc
" Flank"
87
PAGE
46S
Foot, def
Sign for
Force, def
132
207
Electromotive, def
Moment
Formula
of,
397398
220
def
25625S
gine
For Figuring H. P. of Steam
Engine
Lathe Gear Changes
Size of Connecting Rod
Thickness of Steam Engine Piston
376
326
388
3S1
Prof. Unwin's, for Pulleys
To Find the Pressure
Head on Guide
of
273
Cross
382
Formulae for Belt Speeds
26S
For Screw Cutting in Lathe. 326, 32S329
Reading of
431432
Fortyfive Degree Line, illus. and
desc
45
Foundations for Steam Engine
Four Part Elbow, Development of, illus.
Fractions, How Placed in Dimension
Lines
364
72 1 75
Function of Slide Valve, desc
Furlong, def
Furnace, Boiler, illus. and desc
33^337
(jalloway
344348
397
368
468
Boiler, illus.
Gamboge for Water
Gang Die, illus. and
36
Gas and Vapor,
36
Gaseous
and desc
Color
188
308312
desc
Difference Between.
Bodies, Mechanics of
Spur, def
282
Worm
298,
Def
How
to
" Gelatine "
Draw
2S2
194
Four Pole, desc
The
300302
230
Sensitized Paper
Generator
399
398399
851 10
Electric, desc
Geometrical Drawing
213
212
24
Glass Gauge, desc. and illus
Grate Surface of Boilers, desc
Gravity, def
Greek Alphabet
Handhole
266
364
366
27
Frictlonal Electricity, def
340341
304
Gears, Bevel, def
2S2
How to Draw, illus
292, 294299
For Screw Cutting in Lathe.
322329
280282
Rules for Pitch of
Proportion, sign of
145
127
278304
300303
278280
Magnitudes.
127
desc. 279, 2S0
292
285293
2822S4
55
208
Franklin Institute Standard Table.
Freehand Lettering Specimen
Friction, def
338
232
184
Trains of
356
87
86
86
344
340
338
33S339
Exercises in
Tools L'sed in
and illus
Glass, desc. and illus
Pressure and Total Heat, Table.
Steam, desc. and illus
Gear Annular, desc. and illus
Teeth Cycloidal, def. and illus.
Involute, desc. and illus
Wheels, desc. and illus
Dimensions for, desc. and rules.
Speeds of, rule and ex
desc.
Horse Power
Crank Shaft of Steam En
for Estimating
of
PAGE
Gauge Cock,
Hanger,
of
Steam
338339
336
208
468
Boiler, illus
Seller's Adjustable, illus
33934
and
260262
desc
Hangers,
desc.
and
260262
illus
Hawkins' Treatise on
Recommended
the Indicator
375
..
AND
ROGERS' DRAWING
480
...
DESIGN.
PAGE
" Head=stock "
of Lathe,
desc.
illus
Illustration, Colored, Blue Print
199
Lancashire
322, 324, 325
423
no
Imperial Drawing Paper,
Inch, Sign for
Lap=joints, desc. and illus
Lap of Valve, Outside and Inside of
356
India Ink, desc
" Heart Wheel," Drawing a, illus
Heat, Total, Table of Gauge Pressure.
Heating Surface of Boilers, desc
Surface of Steam Boiler's Ratio
to Grate Surface
Helix,
How
Draw, desc. and
to
illus.
Heptagon, def
Hexagon, def
How to Construct by Instruments
To Construct on
To Inscribe in a
Hexagonal Nut,
and illus
a Line,
illus.
to
336
352
228230
Lines
Line, def
..
Of
illus
loi
Instruments, Drawing
List and Selection of
376
354356
Boilers, desc
and
Laws, Newton's,
426
212
Johnson, Wm. Quotation
212
Joints, Riveted,
108
288289
illus.
of
Journals, desc. and example
Diameter of, example
214
230
.
367
63
5364
55
Letters, Block, and Numerals
Use
Reference,
54
of
53
When
to be
Used on
Drawings
187
27
Center, def
27
93
Cun'ed, def
27
27
:.."..'
27
Dotted, def
27
245251
Dot and Dash, def
27
249251
Full, def
27
258259
Horizontal, def.
28
258
Inclined, def
28
258
Irregular Curved, def
27
28
"8
40
Plumb, def.
Regular Curved, def
.
Kinematics, def
472
Triangle, illus
Oblique, def
illus
372
322
85
85
and
illus.
def
Hypothesis, def
def.
214
,
Lettering, Examples
Subject Treated on
31
Icosahedron,
330332
def
Hypothenuse, def
Pressure on, example
32632S, 329
30
Riveted,
321322
Line, Broken, def
212
36, 161, illus. 38
249
372
320322
Cutting
Of Motion, three, def
Lead of Valve
Screw of Lathe, desc. and
League, def
Capital,
341
320, 321
Def
Dimension, def
and desc
Lemma,
190
illus.
214215
Hydrodynamics, def
Left Handed Screw, desc
Hand Engines, illus. and desc.
oy Water Color. ...
188
Meteoric, Note
307
Wrought, desc
217
Wrought, Factors of Safety for.
217
Isometric Projection, desc. and illus. 1 14120
Problems in, illus
115120
To Construct an
37
282284
How Shown
Isosceles Triangle
desc.
Shafting, desc. and illus
360
314
217
Factors of Safety for
Hydrostatics, def
illus
Speed for
256
Hyperbola, def
Drawing an, illus
Hypocycloid, def. and
Iron, Cast, desc
Transmitted by Shafts
Drawings, Diagram
Hydraulics, def
How to Read
and
Lathe, desc. and illus
Engine, desc
Formulae for Screw
Gears
Lathespeed
424
411426
,
Boiler, illus.
375
208
359, 360, 361
Intersection of Solids, def. of term..
' Involute " Gear Teeth, def
Drill
378
Recom
Operate
to
Inking, Instruction for
Horse Power of Belts, Rule for
269270
Of Steam Boiler, Rating of
350
Of Steam Engine, Rule for Finding
How
Parts of, desc.
102
369
42
28
illus. 375, 376,
mended
Injector,
50
40
of.
418
Hawkins' Treatise on.
32
155
and illus
Horizontal Engines, Dimensions
417, illus. 418
" Inertia," def
153, def. 37
def.
132
to Prepare
32
147, 237, 239
How to Draw
Pyramid, How to Draw
How
size of
Indicator Diagram, desc. and
Draw, desc.
Prism,
Hexahedron,
Circle
How
PAGE
and
208
27
..
.
.
..
INDEX.
481
PAGE
Line, Right, def
27
Shade, def
To Divide a Straight Line
Vertical, def
27
91
28
Waved, def
Linear Drawing, Subject of
27
25, 81
Velocity, def
211
Lines, Border, When to be Used
Fifteen Degree, illus. and desc.
Fortyfive Degree, illus. and desc.
Parallel, def
Seventyfive
Degree,
illus.
45
45
28
and
desc
45
Shade, desc. and illus
Sixty Degree, illus. and desc ....
Thirty Degree, illus. and desc.
,
To Draw
Vertical
Parallel
6573
45
45
90
and Horizontal,
def. ...
Liquid, def
44
213
20S209
Load, def
Locomotive
423
Boiler, illus.
and
desc.
Logarittimic Table
344349
433
433434
Table Use of
Logarithms, desc
Rules for Application
Tables of
Advantages of
Measure, rule
PAGE
Machines, Metal Working,
desc.
illus
307332
illus, and desc ....316, 318319
Six Points in Designing
307
Magnetic Field, desc
399
Magneto Electricity, def
397
Milling,
Main Shaft of the Steam Engine,
Male and Female Die, desc
" Man as a Machine, " Note
Manganese, When Discovered
Manhole, desc. and illus
Masonry, Factors of Safety
" Mass," def
desc.
for
Materials for Construction, def
214215
Strength of, def
210
Matter, Properties of, def
212213
Three States of, def
213
McWhinney, Quotation by Prof
Mean Effective Pressure, Rule for
Finding
377
Measure, Circular
Long
Mechanics, Applied, def
433434
Squares, Note
434
435456
Theoretical
46S
468
212
205
Metals, Discovery
Man
216
Fatigue
209
Meteoric Iron, Note
a,
Note
Tool
Machines,
Pullej's,
speed of
Classification of, desc
Desc
270
215
215216
Drilling
Electrical, desc.
313315
314, 316317
and
illus
391407
of,
desc
Mixed Line,
of a Circle,
def
209
222223
212
def
209
Difference Between
Weight and.
Of Force, def
Momentum,
209
209210
Motion, def
Three Laws
of,
def
214
Motor Electric, Efficiency of,
The Electric, desc
Mounting Blue Prints, desc
Mud Drum, desc. and illus
Multicylinder
213
220
def
Engines,
desc.
399
399
195196
348
desc.
and
366367
illus
Multiplication, Sign of
23
Multipolar Dynamo, def
398
Illus
394395
.316,
illus.
Negative
Electricity, def
396398
Quantity, def
431
Newcomen
307
468
Engine, desc
Newton's Laws, def
Laws, What they tell us
Nickel, Note Relating to
Plated Sheet Steel Scale, desc.
When Discovered
Nozzles of Steam Injector, desc
127
Numerals, Roman
423
307
208
def
Mile, Common, def
Milling Cutter, illus
Machines, illus. and desc.
Machine, Vertical Spindle,
Minutes, Part
205
307332
illus
of,
209
209
29
205
iVlachine Design
as
Moment,
217
433
468
Modulus of a, def
Punching and Shearing
Molecule, def
213
209, 217218
Section, def
308
216
339
209
Of Elasticitj', def
Of a Machine, def
Of Resistance, def
Of Rupture, def
362
307
Mechanism, Theory of
" Medium " Drawing Paper, Size of.
Metal Working Machines, desc. and
Long
Modulus, def
and
318319
318319
34
28
Nut, Square, desc. and illus
Check, desc. and illus
Hexagonal, How to Draw
Nuts, Proportions of, desc. and
335
214
214
307
.
425
307
360
46S
240
240
147
illus.
237
.
.
.
..
ROGERS' DRAWING AND DESIGN.
482
PAGE
PAGE
Oblique Angle, def
Line, def
29
Pentagon, def
32
28
To
104
Objects, Orthographic Projection
of
149159
Obtuse Angle, def
29
Octagon, def
32
How to Construct by Instruments
To
To
To
Describe on a Line,
Describe in a Square,
illus..
Inscribe in a Circle, illus.
Octahedron,
def.
and
IC2
illus
desc.
370
128161
Size for Patent
Drawings
423
a, illus
107
160161
3638
Parallel Lines, def
Illus.
To Draw
28
a, illus.
and rule
90
Parallelogram, def
To Construct
Patent
Drawing
Paper
423
Peck's, Eugene C, M. E., Method of
Conducting a Drawing Class,
Note
Pedestals and Pillow Blocks, desc.
and illus
Pen, Drawing, illus
Made
for
31
9697
Office, Size of Official
Round
413
416417
Writing, illus
Pencil Bow, illus
Penciling, Instruction for
Pencils, Hard and Soft, How to Sharpen
29
and
rule.
89
113
212
212
and
illus
263, 264
Pipe
Brassesfor
263, 264
Development of Tee
How to Draw a,
165169
by Orthographic
Table of Standard
Area, Rule for Finding
Sizes,
Piston
Rod
of
Steam Engine
vSteam, desc
459
377
362, 3S03S2
3S0
Pitch Circle, illus. desc
" Pitch " of Rivets, desc. and illus.
Of Screw, desc
Of Screw, Rule How to Find.
Pivots and Journals, Pressure on
279, 280
.
56
416
424
422
246
25S, 259
xvii
30
318
28
def
Pneumatics, def
Polygons, Note Relating to.
Polyhedron, def. and illus
" Pores," def
Positive Electricity, def
Quantity, def
212
27
399
30
103
Polygon, def
To Draw on a Line, illus
To Inscribe in a Circle, illus
232
233
Plan of the Work
Plane Figure, def
" Platen " of the Milling Machine
Plumb Line,
Sources
104
32
40
213
396, 398
431
210
of,
desc
255
xvxviii
Preface
Presses, Dies and, desc. and illus
Prime Movers, Useful Work of
308315
255
Principle of Work
Printing, Blue
211
189192
Frame, desc. and
Frames, Note
illus
190
191
Paper, Sensitizing of
193195
Prism, Hexagonal, def
How to Draw
How to Draw
37
153
by Orthographic
Projection
142
Point, def
Pole=pieces, desc
263266
a, illus.
Projection
Problems in, illus
132159
Of Oblique Objects, illus. ..... 149159
Oval, to Draw by Circular Arcs, illus.
105
r aper,
Draw
Perspective, False, def
Physics, Object of Study of
Def
Pillow Blocks and Pedestals, desc.
and
113,
37
Line, to
40
431
illus
Parabola, Drawing
Pentagonal Prism, def
Perpendicular Line, def
105
illus
Operation, Algebraic, example
Of Slide Valve, desc. and
Orthographic Projection,
51
103
illus
Inscribe in a Circle, illus. ...
PAGE
Power, def
132,
148149
Pentagonal, def
Quadrangular, def
Prisms,
37
37
illus
37
Triangular.
37
Problem, def
85, 431
Problems
in Cabinet Projection, illus.
In Development of Surfaces.
In Isometric Projection, illus.
In Orthographic Projection, illus
Projection, Cabinet, desc. and illus.
.
and
115120
132159
121127
illus
Orthographic, desc. and illus.
" Projections," General Subject of.
162179
Isometric, desc.
122125
14120
128161
113179
Properties of Circles
33
Of Matter, def
212213
Proportion of Boltheads, desc. and
illus
237
Of Nuts, desc. and illus
237
Proportions for Arms of Gear Wheels. 300303
" Proposition," def
85
Protractor, illus. and desc
Prussian Blue for Water Colors
Pulleys, Anns of, desc. and illus
Cone, desc. and illus
420
188
274
275277
..
INDEX.
PAGE
Pulleys, Crowning of, desc
272
Dimensions of, ill us. and example 272273
Proportions for Arms of ...
274
Proportions for Bulbs of
272273
.
and
and
Rules, examples
illus.
of
Step Cone, desc.
illus,
Thickness of Rims of
277
272
and Loose, desc
Ti;lit
273
Punch and Die, illus. and desc
Punching and Shearing Machine
Pyramid, Hexagonal,
How
271277
to
308
313315
Draw.
Illus
155
3839
PAGE
Reading of Formulae
Working Drawings
Reciprocating Steam Engine, desc
Reference Letters, When to be
on Drawings
Resistance, Modulus of, desc
Theoretical and Practical
Rhomboid,
Angled
31
Handed Screw,
Hand Engines,
to,
illus.
and
88
rule
Quotation from American Machinist
Jno. G.
vii
Chapman
Burlingame Relating to
Drafting Room and Shop .... 196197
Opposite Title Page
xi
D.
L.
Andrews Relating
Machine Design
Prof. McAMiinney
President
Will.
to
205
Johnson
Raabe's, H.E.
ments
List of
Drawing Instru
Rack Cycloidal, desc
292
Radiated
396
Electricity, def
Radii of a Circle, def
Radius
of a Circle, def.
33
and
illus
Eccentricity, def
"
Ram "
of a Press, desc
33
35
30S
Ratio Between Heating and Grate Surfaces
Velocity, def
352
211
187
209
209
29
triangle, def
31
desc
230
and desc
367
Line, def
To
27
Trisect, illus.
and
88
rule
Ring, Cylindrical, How to Draw
Rivet, Length of
Riveted Joints, Breaking of
Illus. and desc
144
245
Strength of
of, desc.
and
250
243
243251
246
illus
.
from
of the Milling
illus.
for Finding the
87
15
468
24
362
56
Piston
377
Diameter of Piston Rod
381382
Finding the Mean Effective Pressure on Piston.
377
Horse Power of Steam Engine.
376
Horse Power of Belts
269
How to Find " Pitch " of Screw.
233
How to Use Logarithms
433,
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