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Web servers
Web server is a used to upload your website and its webpages online on the internet.
This will allow the website to be available on the World Wide Web for the public to see.
These can either be software as well as hardware. Most websites are hosted via these
web servers as well as other internet applications.
Mail servers
A email server or mail server is where all of your emails are kept for the user or within its
network. The mail server is used whenever a user is sending an email, receiving any
email etc. When an email is sent; it goes through the mail sever and then sent to its
Proxy servers
A proxy server is a software that can responds to any communication to from other
programs and software. E.g. client. Proxy servers are used to manager the different
network capitals within a system and a network. There are many aspects in which a
proxy server controls such as hosting any website. Some proxy servers can be dedicated
servers which can be used for specific tasks
A router is a hardware that allows different data packets to be sent through networks and
making sure that they right data is going to the right destination. Whenever a request is
made within a website; it is sent through routers and gradually goes to the web server. It
then responds by the web server sending this information through the routers back to the
A browser or a web browser is one of the main programs within a web architecture which
allows the system to process the web script e.g. HTML on websites and make sure its
easier for the user to read the web page. With browsers you are allowed to complete
many tasks such as watching videos, editing documents etc. Some examples are
Chrome, Edge, and Mozilla
With email software; you can easily send and receive emails from other users. It uses an
email address to send and receive these emails. Some examples of these email software
are Outlook, Gmail, and Yahoo etc.
Protocols are used to make sure that different systems and programs can easily
communicate with each other. There are many different types and versions of protocols
that are in use at all times. One example is transmission control protocol/internet
protocol or TCP/IP. This protocol is used to make sure that all information that is being
exported ends up at the right destination or IP address. This has four different layers; link
layer, internet layer, transport layer and application layer. Each layer has a different role.
Link layer, the lowest level, deals with all the different hardware and navigates its way

through different routers, servers and hardware. Internet layer makes sure that it
constantly focuses on the IP address. The transport layer makes sure that communication
is created between the different hosts and makes sure that the package reaches its
destination. The application layer, the highest layer, uses and contains all the other
different protocols needed such as the SMTP, HTTP and HTTP. SMTP protocol is used to
transfer emails. HTTP is used to give the website permission to transfer data to a
destination. Whether its the final destination depends as it could be a node. HTTPS is
similar to HTTP however its security protocol is much more extensive. Hence the reason it
is used within e-commerce and online banking. POP and IMAP protocols are used to
access the different mail servers.
Web functionality
As there are many new technology and upgrades within technology; many internet
connections are becoming much faster, reliable as well as cheaper for some users. E.g.
Fibre optic.
Web 2.0
Web 2.0 is the different uses in which the web has since the new developments within
technology. It is the different and new ways in which the internet is used compared to
previous years however it does not refer to a new version of the internet or web. It allows
different users to be able to contribute their knowledge as well as their different opinions.
Social networking Social network are different web sites and apps that can be used to
socialise and communicated with other people, no matter where they are in the world.
With social networking sites you can post different videos, pictures etc. Some examples
are Facebook, Twitter etc.
Wikis is a website in which users can add and contribute to the information on the
website. You can add new information, edit wrong information or even create a whole
new page. One of the main examples is Wikipedia.
Online applications - applications are normally downloaded and need to installed on a
system; however with online applications, you can easily use the program as long as
there is internet connection (without the need of downloading). Most of these
applications are free or have a small fee.
Blogs blogs are online diaries or journals that are posted on different blogging websites.
Most blogs are public to everyone however some may require you to be friends with the
user. Anyone can become a blogger.
Cloud computing With the new developments within the internet and web 2.0 it has led
to cloud computing to flourish. Cloud computing is where different files and programs are
stored on a cloud server rather than being saved within the system or network itself.
Some of the main advantages of using cloud computing is that you can access your files
on any system as long as you have internet connection, no need to carry mass storage
devices etc. Some disadvantages of using cloud computing is that some users may not
trust the servers to store the information as it may get lost or stolen, especially within
financial and personal data.


Security: risks e.g.

There are many different types of risks within the security if a website. This is especially
important for E-commerce and banking website as they hold personal and confidential
information which attracts different hackers. The website developers must make sure
that they take the correct security procedures to protect their website and their data.
Hackers are a huge problem regarding the security risks. Hackers use different tools and
software to be able to steal information from different websites. Many e-commerce
websites store many different confidential customer details such as their bank account,
phone numbers, addresses etc. It is up to the business to stop hackers from gaining
access to this information.
Viruses are a huge problem for any system whether its a business or even just a normal
user. Viruses can gain unauthorised access to the computer or a website that a user uses
and is able to see and even steal the data within the computer. They can also damage
the computer system itself and cause to break. If a website becomes infected with a
virus; it will affect all users that visit the webpage, this can lead to hundreds of people
being infected.
identity theft
As the internet becomes bigger, the amount of e-commerce businesses is also
increasing. This means more people are entering their personal and confidential
information on different websites. This has increased the rate of identity theft. With
customers personal information; identity thieves can use the information to impersonate
them and also buy items with their money. The website must be able to protect all of
their customers private and confidential informative on so that hackers and identity
thieves do not get access to the information
Security protection mechanisms:
There are many different security protection mechanisms which are available to all users
that can stop many risks within a website.
Firewalls set up a gateway which only allows authorised data to come through into the
network and stops any unauthorized data packets. This is completed by opening and
closing the different ports within the system. Firewalls will keep the website safe from
hackers or viruses, however if a firewall is not added onto a website, it can be easily
hacked. This will lead to the website crashing and losing important information. This can
be important information such as customer banking information, address, contact
number etc. Whenever a user tries to breach the firewall, the admin is notified and can
start working towards stopping the hacker or virus.
Secure Socket Layers (SSL);
SSL or security socket layer is a protocol that can use the internet/network to transfer
different files and documents. SSL encrypts the data using different public as well as
private keys. The use of SSL makes sure that all the information is encrypted and so that
hackers and viruses cannot read the information. This means that even if the information
is stolen; without the correct decryption key the information cannot be read. You can see
a website has SSL via the Lock icon or the S after HTTP.
adherence to standards e.g. strong passwords

It is vital that all users use strong passwords to make sure that no one can easily guess
the password and have access to the system or website. Some ways to make a password
strong is by; using a mixture of letters and numbers, using a mixture of capital and
lowercase letters, using symbols and longer passwords (above 8 characters). Hackers can
use different software that can be used to crack passwords and having stronger
passwords will take the software longer to find the password and this will alert the
website admin.
User side factors:
The capabilities of the users systems must be taken into consideration beforehand,
otherwise users that want access to the website may not be able to and may be forced to
use a different website
download speed;
the download speed of the user will determine how long it will take for the web page to
be downloaded on the users system. The slower the internet connection the slower it will
take for the web page to load and even then it may not load some items due to the lower
speeds. However this problem has reduced over the past few years due to the
developments within internet connections as they have a much higher speed as well as
lower price.
Dial up this was one of the main methods of internet connection before. It used an
analogue telephone lines to connect to the internet. However speeds ranged to 56kbps.
ISDN integrated services digital network which added digital lines to increase faster
speeds. Speeds ranged to 128kbps
DSL digital subscriber line used the digital lines and it was the main basis of broadband.
The most common in the UK was ADSL.. It can reach up to 1mbps to 8mbps.
Broadband is a technology that is always being developed and advanced in the
currents. At this time some users can experience 1gbps or 1000mbps.
You must make sure that the website can be used on the lowest internet speeds as well
as the highest internet speeds.
PC performance factors e.g.
Computer components can also factor the speed in which an item is displayed on a
webpage as well as the performance when a user interacts with it.
Most browsers nowadays are very up-to-date and the speeds between these browses are
fairly similar. However there can be some times in which there are compatibility problems
and it may not show some aspects of the web page. At this moment Google Chrome is
the most used browser due to its high speed and easy compatibility however browsers
like internet explorer are much slower and need constant updates to keep up with other
Cache memory,
Cache memory is a type of memory that is stored within your computer and it stores data
from websites that you have visited. Data is downloaded into the cache memory so
whenever you visit that website again it will load faster as well as carry some information
across from your previous visit. Some examples are Cookies, passwords and scripts. As
time goes by the cache memory becomes larger and the system may become slower.
Processor speed

The different speeds of their systems processor can factor the performance of the
website. A processor with higher speeds can complete different tasks within their system
a lot quicker; meaning the system can quickly open and process all the different aspects
within the web page. However having a slower processer will slow down this process and
can cause some other problems. It is important that the webpage can be used for both
users with slower and fast processors.
Server side factors:
If a website takes a long time to load or to download; this will reduce the amount of users
that will come to the website or revisit again. There are many different methods that can
be used to reduce the download time as well as making the website more efficient as a
Web server capacity
As well as making sure that the capabilities of the users computers are met; it is
important that the capacity of the web servers are also met.
Available bandwidth,
Bandwidth is the amount of data that can be downloaded as well as uploading from the
web servers to all the users per second. It depends on the size of the business, website
as well as the amount of users. If you have a bigger bandwidth than it allows more users
to be able to access the website at the same time as well as the amount of users in that
specific month. It also allows the users to download the data from the website quicker
however this will most likely be limited. It is important that the bandwidth is high as if the
website has a low bandwidth; even if the user had very fast internet, it would only be the
speed of the bandwidth.
Executions to be performed before page load,
Executions to be performed before the page itself loads is where the websites scripts e.g.
Java, PHP, allows the website to load all the different images and videos onto the website
so it is available to the user straight away instead of them having to wait. Another factor
is that it can personalise the web page for them as if they log in; they may have a
customer background that should automatically change before the page is loaded. This
gives a more personalised feeling for the user and will cause them to come back to the
Number of hits;
Number of hits can affect a website as if there are too many users on a website at once it
can affect the websites performance a lot. It can in some cases overload the web servers
and either slow down the website or even crash the website it self. Most websites have a
large server so this will not cause a problem and it is also good to have a backup server
in case of problems such as this.
File types
File types are crucial when in involved within a websites performance. If the website has
small file types then this will decrease the time it takes for the website to load for any
user. It will also load all the different aspects faster as well. The website developers must
consider how long it will take for a user to download the page as having a larger sized
image will have better quality but will also take longer to download. Within image files
there are two main file types. Bitmap and vector images. Bitmap save all their pixels

separately which means that they have a higher file size and whenever the image is
resized; it becomes pixelated and loses its quality. This is a lossey image. Vector images
use co-ordinates for their images and they have a smaller file size as well as whenever
the image is resized; it keeps its quality. This is a lossless image. Another file type that
the website developer must consider is their sound files. WAV files are the most common
and they are very large in size and can increase the download speeds on website
however a lot of website uses a WAV file format. MP3 are more popular compared to WAV
but it has a lower quality compared to WAV but have a small file size. Meaning that it will
slow down the website less.
In this report I will be explaining what web architecture is and how it has
affected communication.
Web 2.0
Web 2.0 is the different uses in which the web has since the new developments within
technology. It is the different and new ways in which the internet is used compared to
previous years however it does not refer to a new version of the internet or web. Web 2.0
can be both software as well as hardware and it can be used in many different platforms.
One of the main features of web 2.0 is social networking and social platforms. This allows
website developers to directly add social network integration into the website allowing
communication to be much easier.
Another example would be wiki pages. With the integration of Web 2.0 it has allowed the
use of wiki pages. With wiki pages users can add, edit and delete information on these
websites so that the users on the internet can take this information. This has increased
the amount of communication within the internet itself.
Another factor is that previous web pages required users to code the whole websites
themselves which meant that users would have to spend more time coding their
websites or developing and this made it a lot harder for webpages to communicate with
each other. With the use of web 2.0 it is much easier to develop and create websites and
in some cases websites can automatically change some of the features for you.
Cloud computing
With the new developments within the internet and web 2.0 it has led to cloud computing
to flourish. Cloud computing is where different files and programs are stored on a cloud
server rather than being saved within the system or network itself. This means that the
user would not have to install any other software or program to be able to store their
data. Instead they can store their data online on the cloud servers. One example of how
cloud computing affects communication would be within emails. Whenever you are using
an email service such as Outlook, Gmail and Yahoo; you are not downloading software
onto your computer. With cloud computing you are able to use the online service and are
able to send emails and attachments all around the world.

Web storage
Web storage is a new type of data storage service that has been created since the use of
web 2.0. It allows user to be able to store their data and information on different websites
via the web server that have been provided. With these web servers you are able to

access these files anytime as long you have a device that supports it. E.g. a laptop or a
smartphone. This has allowed users to be able to access their information wherever as
well as being able to give other users their data. If users give permission they can send
the link to other users across the world and they will be able to access that file and
download it, thus making it a lot easier to transfer data across websites now.

Explain the Role of the TCP/IP Protocol and How It Links to Application Layer
TCP/IP or transmission control protocol/internet is a vital protocol that is used within
networks. It is used so that information sent from the network is sent to the right
destination; whether its on the same network or on another network/system. TCP/IP
allows users to able to connect to the internet as well as being able to send and receive
emails. TCP/IP checks for any errors whenever information is being sent or received.
TCP/IP has four different layers which each have their separate user within the protocol.
All layers are vital for the protocol.

Link layer

Link layer is the lowest layer and it deals with all the hardware within the computer
system. It gets all the information together and creates a data link layer. It also
makes sure that the protocol is in use and can be used in other network and systems
that the information is traveling to.

Internet Layer

The internet layer focuses on the IP address as well as making sure that the different
networks are connected to each other to transfer the data across. It also makes sure
that the data is sent to the correct destination via the IP address.

Transport Layer

The transport layers make sure that the data sent through the network is correct as
well as making sure that the network has access to the information in an efficient

Application Layer

The application layer, the highest layer, uses and contains all the other different
protocols needed such as the SMTP, HTTP and HTTP. It makes sure that the user can
access the internet with the different protocols.


HTTP or Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the protocol that allows the connection between
the web servers and the user. It uses two nodes to create a connection between each
other. It is used within the World Wide Web to distribute information across.
FTP or file transfer protocol is a type of protocol that is used to transfer different
information from a host or user to another user via the internet or any other TCP network.
The FTP requires security login information from the admin of the web server to be able
to access the information however most web servers have it so that the downloads do
not need this login.
SMTP or Simple mail transfer protocol is used within sending and receiving emails and it
is directly in use with either a POP3 protocol or an IMAP protocol, this lets the user able to
download and save the emails in a server for further use.
Domain name system or DNS is a protocol that is used to name the different services,
computers and other resources on a network or the internet. It gives each item a specific
and unique domain name and these names can easily be translated to IP address which
are used to find a specific computer service or a device on the users network or the
worldwide network.
All these different protocols, TCP/IP, that are in used within the applications layer are
used to make sure that all information is sent through the internet and the network
without failing. There reason for many different protocols is to make sure that if one
protocol fails; there is another protocol in place instead. In some cases if the information
keeps failing to send; then the protocol will stop and give an error message.