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MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS

JERUSALEM

I s r a e l ’s S t o r y
in Maps
INTRODUCTION
The Arab-Israel conflict and the peace process have for decades been a focus for
world-wide attention – on the part of the media, academia, political and
governmental institutions, NGOs, religious groups, the business world, and the
public at large.

With the passage of time, some of Israel's critics have increasingly allowed their
approach to the problem to be shaped by myths, slogans, prejudices and lack of
knowledge, rather than by solid facts. This has been seen, for example, in matters
pertaining to the territories in dispute between Israel and the Palestinians: the
historical background is often either unknown or ignored. Moreover, even when
dealing with the present situation – the problem of terrorism, regional dangers, and
the impact of topography on borders – the context is often not taken into account.

The purpose of this publication is to provide factual and background material


through maps and graphs which address key aspects about Israel, the Arab-Israel
conflict, and the peace process. This publication does not presume to address all
issues, but does address many of them.

It is hoped that through the illustrations and data provided here, a better and more
factual understanding – of past events, the present reality, and future opportunities
for peace – may be achieved.

Jerusalem, 2006
CONTENTS
ANCIENT MAPS Yom Kippur War Cease-Fire Lines (October 24, 1973) 24

Golan Heights – Cease-Fire Lines (October 1973) .......... 25


The Kingdoms of David and Solomon (1077–997 BCE) .7
Israel-Syria – Disengagement Agreement (May 1974) ..... 25
The Herodian Period (30 BCE to 70 CE) ............................. 8
Interim Agreement with Egypt (1975) ................................... 26
Jews in the Land of Israel – (7th -11th Centuries) ............. 9
Peace Treaty with Egypt and Sinai
Redeployment (1980 – 1982) ...................................... 26
PRE-STATE MAPS
Israel’s Disengagement Plan (2005) ............................................27
Setting the Southern Border (1906) ......................................... 10

Setting the Northern Border (1916 – 1923) .........................11


MODERN DAY ISRAEL
British Mandate ................................................................................ 12

Separation of Transjordan (1922) ............................................. 13


Israel and the Region ...................................................................... 28

UN Partition Plan (1947) ............................................................. 14


Israel (within boundaries and cease-fire lines) ..................... 29
Jerusalem ............................................................................................ 30
Old City of Jerusalem ................................................................... 30
ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS
Judea and Samaria ......................................................................... 31
Armistice Lines (1949–1967) ..................................................... 15 Golan Heights ....................................................................................32
The Frontier with Syria ................................................................ 16

Armistice Agreement with Jordan (1949) ............................. 17


TERROR MAPS
Jewish Communities Lost in the War of Independence 18

Jerusalem Before the Six Day War (1949 – 1967) .......... 19 Major Terror Attacks – 1948–1967 ......................................... 33

Events Leading to the Six Day War (1967) ........................... 20 1967–1993 ......................................... 36

Israel After the Six Day War (June 10, 1967) .................... 21 1993–2000 ......................................... 39

Jerusalem After the Six Day War (1967) ............................. 22 2000–2005 ......................................... 41

Old City of Jerusalem ................................................................... 23 Israel’s Security Fence vs. Terrorism ......................................... 50
5
CONTENTS
THREATS & TOPOGRAPHY
Regional Threats to Israel ............................................................ 51

Samarian Highlands Cross Section .......................................... 52

Israel’s Narrow Waistline ............................................................ 53

Golan Heights Cross Section ...................................................... 54


Kassam and Katyusha Threat ...................................................... 55

SIZE COMPARISONS
Israel – Argentina ..............................................................................56
Israel – Australia ...............................................................................56
Israel – Canada ................................................................................ 57
Israel – China .................................................................................... 57
Israel – France .................................................................................. 58
Israel – Germany ...............................................................................58
Israel – India ...................................................................................... 59
Israel – Italy ........................................................................................59
Israel – Mexico ................................................................................. 60
Israel – Poland ................................................................................... 60
Israel – Russia .................................................................................... 61
Israel – Spain .....................................................................................61
Israel – United Kingdom ............................................................... 62
Israel – United States .........................................................................62

6
THE KINGDOMS OF

ANCIENT MAPS
DAVID AND SOLOMON
(1077–997 BCE)
King David ruled Israel from
990 BCE to 968 BCE; and his
Mediterranean Sea son Solomon ruled after him
until 928 BCE. David enlarged
his kingdom and brought it to
the peak of political and military
Damascus
power. Solomon “ruled over all
Dan
the kingdoms west of the
Euphrates River from Tiphsah
Beit Shean
to Gaza; he was at peace with
all his neighbors” (I Kings,4:24).

Jerusalem Amman
Gezer
Gaza

Kingdoms of David and Solomon

Modern Israel (within boundaries


and cease-fire lines)

Eztion Gaver 0 50 km
0 50 mi

7
THE HERODIAN PERIOD
ANCIENT MAPS
(30 BCE TO 70 CE)
King Herod, of Edomite
Mediterranean Sea
extraction, was king of Israel
from 40 BCE to 4 BCE. He was
appointed by Rome and
Tiberias
conquered the kingdom from the
Kanata
Abila
Hasmoneans. When Augustus
Dora
became the Roman Caesar in
the year 30 BCE, Herod
Skitopolis
convinced him of his loyalty, and Sebasti
Augustus rewarded him by
adding Jericho, the coastal
region south of Dor and the
region east of the Sea of Galilee.
In 23 BCE, he was given the Philadelphia
Bashan, Horen, and Tarchon
regions, and three years later, the Jerusalem
Golan Heights. Ashkelon

Gaza

Kingdom of Herod
Modern Israel (within boundaries and
ceasefire lines)
0 50 km

0 50 mi

8
JEWS IN THE

ANCIENT MAPS
0 40 km

0 40 mi
LAND OF ISRAEL
Modern Israel (within boundaries
Tyre Banyas (7TH – 11TH CENTURIES)
and cease-fire lines)
Dalton
Gush Halav After the death of Emperor Julian
Kfar Mandi Biriyah
Safed II, in 363 CE, most of the Jewish
Mediterranean Sea Acre Kfar Hananya

Haifa
Iablin settlements in the south were
Tsipori
Tiberias destroyed. The Jews remained
Hoseifa mainly in the Galilee and in the
Ein Ganim
larger cities.
Caesaria

Nablus

Jaffa
Amman
Lod Jericho
Ramla
Jerusalem
Yavne

Beit Guvrin
Ashkelon
Hebron

Gaza

Rafiah

El Arish

Jarba

Udruch

9
SETTING THE SOUTHERN
PRE-STATE MAPS
Beer Sheba
BORDER Mediterranean Sea
Rafiah
El Arish
(1906)
Lord Cromer, Britain's agent in
Kantara
Egypt,wanted to change the border Kosema

between the Ottoman Empire,


which was under strong German
influence, and Egypt, in order to Bir Gafgafa

push the Ottomans further away


from the Suez Canal. In 1892, the
Suez
Turks agreed to allow Egyptian
guard stations near the Gulf of Eilat; Suez
Canal
in 1905, Lord Cromer tried to move Aqaba
the border. In April of 1906, the
Turks were given an ultimatum – to
Modern Israel
set the border between Aqaba and (within
boundaries
Rafah. They proposed a and cease-
compromise (El Aris – Ras fire lines)

Muhamed) but finally gave in to Turkish Order


Border of 1861
British pressure. The firm stand of Gulf
Jennings Proposal of
the commander of the Turkish police Eilat

station at Um Rashrash (today, Eilat) British-Turkish


A Tur
Agreement of
changed the starting point of the Spring 1906

border from Aqaba to Taba, which 1906 Border Sharm


El-Sheik
became the international border 0 25
between Israel and Egypt. 25 mi

10
SETTING THE

PRE-STATE MAPS
Metullah Syria
Mediterranean Sea Banyas NORTHERN BORDER
(1916 – 1923)
Lebanon
In May 1916, France and Great
Britain signed an agreement
known as the Sykes-Picot
Kuneitra Agreement in which the claims
of both sides to the Levant were
set down, and areas of
administration and influence
Nahariya
were determined. Until 1923,
Safed the sides were involved in hard
Acre
bargaining, with the British
insisting on two principles:
control of the area delineated in
Sea of the Bible, “from Dan to Beer
Galilee
Haifa Sheba;” and control of Israel’s
Tiberias
French-British Agreement 1920 water sources, e.g., the Jordan
1923 Border River and the Sea of Galilee.
Sykes-Picot Agreement
Modern Israel (within boundaries
and cease-fire lines)
0 10 km

0 10 mi

11
BRITISH MANDATE
PRE-STATE MAPS
Syria
Mediterranean (French Mandate)
In 1920, the San Remo Peace Sea

Conference gave Great Britain the


mandate for the Land of Israel and Iraq
Transjordan. In 1921, the British
decided to decrease the size of the
Jewish national home and to take
Transjordan away from it.In 1922,
Churchill published the White
Paper on this subject. Later that
year, the League of Nations
approved the changed mandate,
British Mandate Saudi Arabia
which took effect in 1923.

Egypt

0 80 km

0 80 mi

12
SEPARATION OF

PRE-STATE MAPS
Syria
TRANSJORDAN
Mediterranean
Sea
(French Mandate) (1922)
Iraq

Transjordan

Saudi Arabia

British Mandate

Egypt

Area Separated and closed to


Jewish settlement, 1921

Area ceded to Syria, 1923

Area remaining for Jewish


National Home

0 80 km

0 80 mi

13
UN PARTITION PLAN
PRE-STATE MAPS
(1947)
In 1947, Great Britain
relinquished to the UN the
power to make decisions relating
to the status of the Land of
Israel. The General Assembly
appointed a special committee
that collected evidence and
decided unanimously that Israel
should be granted independence.
Most of the committee members
favored partitioning the land into
two states, a Jewish state and an
Arab state, with Jerusalem under
international supervision. On
November 29, 1947, the UN
General Assembly accepted the
partition resolution, 33 to 13.

14
ARMISTICE LINES

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS


Lebanon
(1949 – 1967)
Mediterranean Sea Syria
In the spring and summer of 1949, agreements
Haifa were signed between Israel and its neighbors
establishing Israel’s armistice lines. To some
extent, these lines overlapped the borderline of
Palestine during the British Mandate period, or
they were close to it, with the exception of the
Judea and Samaria region, and the
Tel Aviv
Jaffa surrounding area of the Gaza Strip. These lines
Jerusalem were drawn up, on the assumption that they
would be temporary, and would be replaced
Jordan within a few years by permanent borders.

Much of the international border between


Beer Sheba Mandatory Palestine and Egypt became the
armistice line between Israel and Egypt. The
armistice line with Lebanon was close to the
international border that existed during the
Egypt
British Mandate period, and overlapped it.
Acquired by Israel

Acquired by Jordan
These two lines did not correspond to the
Demilitarized Zone battle frontlines as they existed during the
No man’s Land cessation of hostilities, and Israel withdrew in
Syrian Occupied both cases to the mandatory borderline, which
Jordanian Occupied became the armistice line. The armistice lines
0 40 km Egyptian Occupied
with Syria and Jordan closely corresponded to
0 40 mi
the frontlines.
15
THE FRONTIER
ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS
WITH SYRIA

Syria became independent in


1946. When the State of Israel
came into being in 1948, Syria
invaded the new state,
conquered the Banyas, the
Mishmar Hayarden triangle, the
Almagor triangle, the coast of
Betiha, and the eastern bank of
the Jordan River. In the
armistice agreements of 1949,
Syria agreed to withdraw its
army from these areas and to
turn them into demilitarized
zones. In fact, Syria remained in
the strips of territory that
secured its hold on the banks of
the Jordan River and the Sea of
Galilee, and the Banyas. Later,
Syria conquered Hamat Gader
and Nuqeib, north of Ein Gev
These territories were under
Syrian control until 1967 and
facilitated its unceasing attacks
against Israel.
16
ARMISTICE AGREEMENT

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS


Area acquired by Israel
Area acquired by Jordan
WITH JORDAN
No man’s land
(1949)
Jordanian occupied
The armistice agreement with Jordan was
signed in Rhodes with the help of UN
mediation on April 4, 1949. The agreement
states that this is a necessary step towards
reestablishing peace in the Land of Israel, and
emphasizes that in no way is the armistice line
to be interpreted as a political or territorial
Tel Aviv
border, nor does it constitute interference
Jaffa
Latrun with the rights, claims, or positions of any side
Jerusalem vis-à-vis the final settlement of the question of
the Land of Israel. The agreement set the
parameters for prisoner exchanges,
demilitarized zones, no-man's land, and
monitoring arrangements. In the framework of
the agreement, Israel was given land in the
Sharon and the Irone River areas, and
sections of the Beit Shean Valley were
exchanged.

0 40 km

0 40 mi

17
JEWISH COMMUNITIES
ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS
0 40 km
LOST IN THE WAR OF 0 40 mi
INDEPENDENCE
Mediterranean Sea
During the War of Independence,
a number of Jewish communities
were captured, mostly by the
Jordanian army – Kibbutz Beit
Ha-arava and Kalya north of the
Dead Sea, the four kibbutzim of
Gush Etzion west of Bethlehem,
Atarot and Neve Yaakov north of
Jerusalem, and the Jewish
Quarter in the Old City of
Jerusalem. Kfar Darom, near
Gaza, was captured by the
Egyptian army. In addition, when
the War of Independence broke Atarot
Beit Ha’arava
Neve Ya’akov
out at the end of 1947, the Jerusalem, The Jewish Quarter
Kalya
Revadim
remnant of the Jewish community Masuot Yitzhak Ein Tzurim
Kfar Etzion
of Hebron fled.
Hebron

Kfar Darom

18
JERUSALEM BEFORE THE SIX

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS


Israel-Jordan Armistice
Line, 1949 - 1967 DAY WAR
Eastern Jerusalem, 1949-1967 (1949-1967)
Municipal Border, 1952

Neutral Territory At the end of the War of Independence,


- UN controlled or no-man’s-land
Jerusalem was divided between Israel
Israeli area previous to Six Day War and Jordan. Armistice lines were
determined in November 1948 by
Moshe Dayan, Commander of the
Jerusalem district, and Abdallah el-Tal,
Legion Commander of the Jerusalem
front. Between the lines drawn up by
the two commanders, areas were left
Sanhedria Mt.Scopus that were defined as no-man's-land. The
Mea
Shearim area around Armon Hanatziv was used
Beit Hakerem
Old City as UN territory, and Mount Scopus
Mt. Herzl
City Center became an Israeli enclave that contained
Yad Vashem Knesset the Hebrew University, Hadassah
Talbieh Hospital and, officially, the village of
German Colony
Issawiyya. This map was adopted in
Talpiot
April 1949 by the sides in an armistice
agreement signed in Rhodes. The
westernmost point between the two
parts of the city was at the edge of the
0 1 km Musrara neighborhood, near the house
0 1 mi
of the Mandelbaum family, and thus was
called “Mandelbaum Gate.”
19
EVENTS LEADING TO THE
ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS
Lebanon
SIX DAY WAR (1967) Egyptian blockade
Israeli territory before Six Day War
Advance of
Lebanese Army Advance of
Syrian Army
Golan
The Six Day War was the first major Arab attempt Heights Syria
since 1948 to destroy Israel. In November 1966, an Mediterranean Sea Haifa

Egyptian-Syrian Defense Agreement was signed,


encouraging the Syrians to escalate tensions, which Samaria
May 19, 1967: UN forces
reached a climax in the spring of 1967. withdraw from Sinai according
to Egyptian demand.
Tel Aviv
Jaffa Jerusalem Advance of Iraqi Army
May 14: Egypt mobilized its forces in and around
the Suez Canal. Judea
May 16: Egypt moved it forces eastward across the
Gaza
Sinai desert towards the Israeli border, Beer Sheba
El Arish
demanding the withdrawal of UN Emergency Suez
Abu Aweigila
Canal
Force (UNEF) stationed along the frontier. Advance of
Jordanian Army
May 19:The Egyptians expelled the UN Advance of Egyptian Army

Emergency Force (UNEF) from the Gaza Jordan

Strip and Sinai, and continued pouring its


Kuntilla
military forces into these areas.
Sinai
May 22: Egypt closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli Peninsula Ras Al-Nagb
shipping, constituting a casus belli for Israel. Eilat

May 24-June 4: Answering the Egyptian call, the Gulf


of
governments of Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Gulf
Eilat
Advance of
Syria and Lebanon moved their forces toward of
Suez
Saudi Arabian Army

the Israeli border. Israel mobilized its reserve


forces, and launched a diplomatic campaign to
win international support for ending the Egypt
Sharm el Saudi Arabia
Egyptian blockade of Israeli shipping through 0 40 km Sheikh
Strait of Tiran
the Strait of Tiran. 0 40 mi
Red Sea
20
Lebanon ISRAEL AFTER THE

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS


Golan
SIX DAY WAR
Heights Syria (JUNE 10, 1967)
Haifa

Mediterranean Sea
Once it became clear that the
Samaria diplomatic campaign had failed,
Tel Aviv
Jaffa
and following Jordan’s
Jerusalem
participation in the Egyptian-
Judea Syrian alliance, Israel launched
Gaza action in self-defense against the
Beer Sheba massing threat from Egypt on
Suez
June 5, 1967. Once Jordan and
Canal
Syria initiated the fighting against
Israel, the war also included
Jordan
those countries. In the course of
the war, the Israeli forces
Sinai
Peninsula
reached the Suez Canal, and
captured the territories of Judea
Eilat
and Samaria, as well as the
Gulf
of
Golan Heights – from which the
Gulf
Eilat Syrians had shelled Israel.
of Saudi Arabia
Suez

Israeli territory
before Six Day War
Egypt
Under Israeli control
0 40 km after Six Day War

0 40 mi Red Sea

21
ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS
JERUSALEM AFTER THE SIX DAY WAR OLD CITY OF JERUSALEM
(1967)
0 .5 km
Israel-Jordan Armistice
Line, 1949 - 1967 0 .5 m
Jerusalem Municipal
Boundary after Six Day War
Major Jewish suburbs since
Six Day War
Herod’s
Gate
Moslem
Neve Quarter Lion’s Gate
Yaakov
Damascus Gate

Pisgat
Zeev Temple Golden Gate
Mount
Ramot
Ramat
Eshkol French Dome of
Hill the Rock
Church of
Sanhedria the Holy
Mt.Scopus
Sepulchre
Har Nof Mea
Shearim Al-A
Al-Aksa
Beit Hakerem New Christian Western Mosque
Mos
Old City Gate Quarter Wall
Cardo Mt. of
City Center
Mt. Herzl Olives
Jewish
Yad Vashem Knesset Jewish
Quarter
Jaffa Gate Quarter
Talbieh Citadel
Dung Gate
Gat
German Colony
Tower of David
Malcha Talpiot
East Armenian
Talpiot Quarter

City of David
Da

Gilo Zion Gate


Har
Homa
0 1 km
Mount Zion
0 1m

22
ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS
A few days after the end of the
Six Day War, on June 27, 1967,
the Israeli Parliament passed a
law that Israeli administration
and jurisdiction apply to all the
territory of Jerusalem acquired
in the war. The following day,
the Jerusalem municipal
boundaries were extended to
include eastern Jerusalem, as
well as Atarot and Neve Yaakov
in the north, and Gilo in the
south.

23
YOM KIPPUR WAR Lebanon
ISRAEL CHANGING BORDERS
Israeli territory
CEASE-FIRE LINES before Six Day War
Mediterranean Golan
Under Israeli control Sea
(OCTOBER 24, 1973) after Six Day War
Heights Syria
Haifa
Held by Egyptian Army
The Yom Kippur War began on October 6, 1973
Held by Israeli Army
when the combined armies of Egypt and Syria attacked
Samaria
Israel in the Suez Canal area and the Golan Heights.
Tel Aviv
After a few days of hard fighting in which Egypt Jaffa Jerusalem
established itself on the eastern side of the Suez Canal
Judea
and the Syrians captured most of the Golan Heights,
the attack was halted and a counter-attack by IDF Gaza
Beer Sheba
forces succeeded in pushing back some of the Egyptian
forces, crossed the Canal and reached within 101 Suez
Canal
kilometers of Cairo. On the Golan Heights, the Syrian
forces were repulsed completely and IDF forces Jordan
captured an enclave in the northern Heights deep in
Syrian territory, as well as recapturing Mount Hermon.
Sinai
Peninsula

A cease-fire agreement was signed by Israel and Egypt Eilat

on October 24, 1973. A separation-of- forces


Gulf
agreement was signed on January 18, 1974 in which of
Gulf Eilat
the sides agreed to observe the cease-fire, made of Saudi Arabia
Suez
arrangements for the reduction of forces and
established a UN emergency force in the demilitarized
zone. Israeli forces withdrew to a distance of 20
Egypt
kilometers east of the Suez Canal, and the Egyptian
0 40 km
army withdrew most of its forces to the west of the
0 40 mi Red Sea
Canal.
24
ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS
GOLAN HEIGHTS ISRAEL -SYRIA
CEASE-FIRE LINES DISENGAGEMENT AGREEMENT
(OCTOBER 1973) (MAY 1974)
Mediterranean Held by Israel Defense Forces A disengagement Mediterranean Previous forward line of Israel
Sea after Yom Kippur War Sea Defense Forces
agreement with Syria
Under Israeli control after Under Israeli control after Six Day War
Six Day War was signed in Geneva
U.N. patrolled demilitarized zone
Israeli - Syrian border as agreed
on in 1923 on May 31, 1974, and
Towns returned to Syria
Damascus
included, inter alia, the Damascus
Lebanon establishment of UN Lebanon
observers in the
demilitarized zone, Mazraat Beit Jann
Mt. Syria Mt.
Hermon Mazraat arrangements for a Hermon
Syria
Beit Jann
Banyas prisoner exchange, and Jubbata
Banyas Khan Erenbe
Kuneitra IDF evacuation of the Kuneitra Jeba

Kafr Shams territory it took in the Kafr Shams

Yom Kippur War, as


Safed
well as the city of Safed
Rafid

Kuneitra, which was


Sea of
captured in the Six Day Sea of
Galilee Galilee
Tiberias War. Tiberias

Jordan
Jordan

0 10 km 0 10 km

0 10 mi 0 10 mi

25
An agreement was signed in Geneva in
ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS
INTERIM AGREEMENT September 1975 in addition to the 1974
PEACE TREATY WITH EGYPT
WITH EGYPT separation-of-forces agreement following AND SINAI REDEPLOYMENT
(1975) the Yom Kippur War. The main points of (1980 – 1982)
the agreement were: Israeli withdrawal in
Sinai to the eastern ends of the Mitla and
Gidi Passes; creation of a UN-monitored
buffer zone in the evacuated area; turning
the previous buffer zone into Egyptian
territory; Israeli withdrawal from the oil
fields at Abu Rudeis and Ras Sudar. It was
also agreed to open the Suez Canal to
Israeli non-military cargo ships and to
establish American early-warning stations in
the area of the passes. The agreement was
perceived as an important step towards a
just and sustainable peace.

The Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty was signed


on March 26,1979, following the Camp
David Accords of September 18,1978,
which determined a framework for a peace
treaty between both countries.The
framework also set a timetable for
establishing diplomatic relations and
normalization between Israel and Egypt,as
well as a timetable for IDF withdrawal from
the line beginning east of El-Arish and
extending to Ras Mohamed. The peace
treaty tied up loose threads and included
further Israeli withdrawal to the
international border between the two states.
26
ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS
ISRAEL’S DISENGAGEMENT PLAN (2005)

NORTHERN SAMARIA

In August 2005, Israel disengaged from the Gaza Strip, and from four
settlements in northern Samaria. This action, initiated by Prime
Minister Sharon and endorsed by the Knesset, was an Israeli initiative
designed to end the stalemate in the peace process after more than
four years of terrorist bloodshed. Altogether 25 settlements were
removed. This entailed a considerable sacrifice on the part of the
nearly 9000 residents who had to leave their homes and livelihoods
that they had built over the course of several decades. It also
Area A: Full Palestinian Control
demonstrated Israel’s readiness to make major concessions for the
Area C: Former Israeli Control sake of peace.
Former Israeli Community Following disengagement, the Gaza Strip is under Palestinian
Palestinian Community jurisdiction. This constitutes a practical test of the Palestinian
Authority’s intentions regarding peaceful coexistence. It could
Pre-1967 cease-fire-lines
contribute to the renewal of peace talks and to the establishment of a
Palestinian state alongside Israel as envisaged by the Roadmap,
provided the Palestinians fulfill their obligations to end terrorism and
incitement. However, the Hamas election victory in January 2006
undermines this possibility.
GAZA STRIP 27
MODERN DAY ISRAEL
ISRAEL AND THE REGION

28
MODERN DAY ISRAEL
ISRAEL (WITHIN
BOUNDARIES AND
CEASE-FIRE LINES)

Israel stands at the crossroads of


Europe, Asia and Africa.
Geographically, it belongs to the
Asian continent. Its western
border is the Mediterranean Sea.
To the north it is bound by
Lebanon and Syria, to the east
by Jordan and to the south by
the Red Sea and Egypt. Long
and narrow in shape, Israel is
about 290 miles (470 km.) long
and 85 miles (135 km.) across at
its widest point. The total area
of the State of Israel is 22,145
sq. km., of which 21,671 sq. km.
is land area.

29
JERUSALEM OLD CITY OF JERUSALEM
MODERN DAY ISRAEL

Jerusalem, the
capital of Israel, is
located in the heart
of the country,
nestled among the
Judean Hills. The
city's ancient
stones, imbued
with millennia of
history, and its
numerous historical
sites, shrines and
places of worship
attest to its meaning
for Jews,
Christians and
Muslims.

30
JUDEA AND SAMARIA

MODERN DAY ISRAEL


Area A: Full
Palestinian Control
Area B: Palestinian Based on agreements reached between Israel and
Civil, Israeli
Military Control
the Palestinians in the 90s, arrangements for
Area C: Full
Israeli Control Palestinian self-government were established. The
Israeli Jenin
Community
Hadera
Palestinians rejected the proposals made at the
Palestinian
Community Camp David Summit of July 2000, which would
Netanya
Pre-1967
cease-fire lines Tulkarm have resulted in the establishment of a Palestinian
Jerusalem
municipal Elon Moreh
state in most of Judea and Samaria (as well as in
boundaries
Kfar Saba Kalkilya
Nablus the Gaza Strip). The Palestinians followed their
rejection with a bloody terror campaign. Israel in
Tel Aviv
Ariel 2003 accepted the Roadmap which would lead to
Shilo the establishment of a Palestinian state alongside
Ofra
Israel, provided the Palestinians fulfill their
Beit El obligations to end terrorism and incitement. The
Ramallah
final status of Judea and Samaria - determining the
Jericho
borders between Israel and the Palestinian state,
Beit Shemesh
Jerusalem Ma’ale Adumim and those parts of Judea and Samaria which are to
Bethlehem
be correspondingly under Israeli and Palestinian
Kfar Etzion Efrata jurisdiction - is to be resolved.

Hebron
Kiryat Arba

0 10 km
0 10 mi

31
GOLAN HEIGHTS
MODERN DAY ISRAEL

The Golan Heights are


strategically important for
several reasons:
(a) Israeli presence in the Golan
Heights provides a defensible
border against invasion by
land;
(b) All of northern Israel is within
range of direct artillery fire
from the Golan Heights;
(c) The Heights control the main
water sources of the State of
Israel.

The Golan Heights have been


under Israeli law, jurisdication,
and administration since 1981.

32
TERROR MAPS
MAJOR TERROR ATTACKS
1948 – 1967
While the Palestinians claim that terrorism is a response to
Gonen
Galilee "occupation," the fact is that Palestinian terrorism predates
Almagor Israel's presence in the territories. Numerous terrorist
Mediterranean Sea Haifa Mt. of the Beatitudes attacks murdered and maimed Israeli civilians during the
Beit Netofa
two decades before 1967 (and even before the
Afula establishment of the State of Israel in 1948). Therefore,
terrorism was and still is nothing less than a tool intended
Mesilot
Hadera to eventually bring about the destruction of Israel itself.
Givat Chaim
Netanya Kfar Yona
Neve Hadasah Kfar Hess
Jan 1, 1952 – Jerusalem: 7 armed terrorists attacked
and killed a 19 year-old girl in her home in the
neighborhood of Beit Yisrael.
Tel Aviv June 9, 1953 – Lod and Hadera: Terrorists killed a
Jaffa Shafrir
Lod resident of Lod, after throwing hand grenades and
spraying gunfire in all directions. On the same night,
Jerusalem Ramat
Rachel another group of terrorists attacked a house in
Mitzpe Massua
Ashkelon Hadera.
Judean Desert
Zavdiel
Beit Govrin June 11, 1953 – Kfar Hess: Terrorists attacked a young
Tel Lachish couple in their home and shot them to death.
Kisufum
Patish Masada Mar 17, 1954 – Maale Akrabim: Terrorists ambushed a
Nir Yitzhak
bus traveling from Eilat to Tel Aviv, opening fire at
short range. The terrorists boarded the bus, and
Ein Ofarim
Maale Akrabim shot each passenger, one by one, murdering 11.
33
TERROR MAPS
Jan 2, 1955 – Judean Desert: 2 hikers killed by Feb 18, 1957: Nir Yitzhak: 2 civilians killed by terrorist
terrorists. landmines.
Mar 24, 1955 – Patish: 1 young woman killed and 18 Apr 16, 1957 – Kibbutz Mesilot: 2 guards killed by
wounded when terrorists threw hand grenades and terrorists who infiltrated from Jordan.
opened fire on a crowded wedding celebration. May 29, 1957 – Kibbutz Kisufim: 1 killed and 2
Apr 7, 1956 – Ashkelon: 1 young woman killed when wounded when their vehicle struck a landmine.
terrorists threw 3 hand grenades into her house. Aug 23, 1957 – Kibbutz Beit Govrin: 2 guards of the
Apr 7, 1956 – Kibbutz Givat Chaim: 2 killed when Israeli Mekorot water company killed.
terrorists opened fire on a car. Feb 11, 1958 – Kfar Yona: Terrorists killed a resident
Apr 11, 1956 – Shafrir (Kfar Chabad): 3 children and of Moshav Yanov.
1 youth worker killed, and 5 injured, when Apr 5, 1958 – Tel Lachish: Terrorists lying in ambush
terrorists opened fire on a synagogue full of shot and killed 2 people.
children and teenagers.
May 26, 1958 – Jerusalem: 4 Israeli police officers
Sep 12, 1956 – Ein Ofarim: Terrorists killed 3 Druze killed in a Jordanian attack on Mt. Scopus.
guards.
Nov 17, 1958 – Mt. of the Beatitudes: Syrian terrorists
Sep 23, 1956 – Kibbutz Ramat Rachel: 4 archaeologists killed the wife of the British air attache in Israel,
killed and 16 wounded when terrorists opened fire who was staying at the guesthouse of the Italian
from a Jordanian position. Convent.
Oct 4, 1956 – Sdom: 5 Israeli workers killed. Dec 3, 1958-Kibbutz Gonen: A shepherd was killed and
Oct 9, 1956 – Neve Hadasah: 2 workers were killed in 31 civilians were wounded in an artillery attack.
an orchard of the youth village. Feb 1, 1959 – Moshav Zavdiel: 3 civilians killed by a
Nov 8, 1956: Terrorists opened fire on a train, attacked terrorist landmine.
cars and blew up wells in the north and center of Apr 27, 1959 – Masada: 2 hikers shot and killed at close
Israel. 6 Israelis were wounded. range.
34
TERROR MAPS
Apr 26, 1960 – Ashkelon: Terrorists killed a resident of
the city.
Jan 1, 1965: Palestinian terrorists attempted to bomb the
National Water Carrier – the first attack carried
out by the PLO's Fatah faction.
July 5, 1965 – Mitzpe Massua: A Fatah cell planted
explosives near Beit Guvrin, and on the railroad
tracks to Jerusalem near Kfar Battir.
May 16, 1966 – Northern Galilee region: 2 Israelis
killed when their jeep hit a terrorist landmine.
Tracks led into Syria.
July13, 1966 – Almagor: 2 soldiers and 1 civilian killed
when their truck struck a terrorist landmine.

35
TERROR MAPS
MAJOR TERROR ATTACKS
Misgav - Am
Kiryat
1967 – 1993
Shemona

Avivim
Ma’alot July 22, 1968 – Rome, Italy: The Popular Front for the
Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) carries out first
Mediterranean Sea Haifa hijacking, diverting an El Al flight to Algiers.
32 Jewish passengers were held hostage for 5
weeks.
Afula

Sep 4, 1968 – Tel Aviv, Israel: 1 killed and 71 wounded


by 3 bombs that exploded in city center.
Netanya
Oct 1968 – Hijacking of El Al aircraft to Algeria.

Nov 22, 1968 – Jerusalem, Israel: 12 killed and 52


Glilot junction injured by a car bomb in the Mahaneh Yehuda
Tel Aviv
Jaffa market.
Lod

Dec 26, 1968 – Athens, Greece: 1 killed and


Jerusalem
1 wounded in a shooting attack on an El Al
aircraft at the airport, carried out by the PFLP.

Feb 18, 1969 – Zurich, Switzerland: A pilot and 3


passengers killed by terrorists that attacked an
El Al Boeing 707 on the airport runway.

Feb 21, 1969 – Jerusalem, Israel: 2 killed and 20


injured by a bomb detonated in a crowded
Numerous Palestinian terror attacks occurred outside Israel supermarket.
36
TERROR MAPS
Oct 22, 1969 – Haifa, Israel: 4 killed and 20 wounded an unsuccessful rescue attempt by West German
by terrorist bombs in 5 apartments. authorities.
Feb 10, 1970 – Zurich, Switzerland: 1 killed and 11 Apr 11, 1974 – Kiryat Shemona, Israel: 18 killed, 8 of
wounded by 3 Arab terrorists who unsuccessfully whom were children, by PFLP terrorists who
attempted to hijack an El Al flight at Zurich airport. detonated their explosives during a failed rescue
attempt by Israeli authorities.
May 22, 1970 – Avivim, Israel: Terrorists attack
schoolbus, killing 12 (9 of whom were children), May 15, 1974 – Maalot, Israel: 27 killed, 21 of whom
and wounding 24. were children, and 78 wounded by PFLP terrorists
in a school, after an unsuccessful rescue attempt.
Sep 6, 1970 – Dawson Field, Jordan: 3 airliners
holding over 400 passengers were hijacked and Mar 5, 1975 – Tel Aviv, Israel: Terrorists take over the
taken to the Jordanian airport by the PFLP. Savoy hotel;4 people are killed.
The hostages were released in exchange for
July 4, 1975 – Jerusalem, Israel: 14 killed and 80
terrorists held in Germany, Switzerland, and
injured in Zion Square bombing attack, in which
England.
the bomb was hidden in a refrigerator.
May 8, 1972 – Lod airport, Israel: 1 passenger and 5
June 27, 1976 – Entebbe, Uganda: An Air France
Israeli soldiers killed during a rescue operation by
airliner was hijacked by a joint German/PFLP
Israeli commandos on a hijacked Belgian airliner;
terrorist group, which diverted the flight to Entebbe
the 4 Palestinian Black September terrorists were
airport. About 258 passengers and crew were
killed. The hostages were freed.
held hostage until all non-Israeli passengers were
May 30, 1972 – Lod airport, Israel: 26 killed and 78 released. On July 4th, Israeli commandos flew to
wounded after PFLP and Japanese Red Army Uganda and rescued the remaining hostages. All
terrorists open fire in the passenger terminal. terrorists were killed, as well as 3 passengers and
operation leader Lieutenant-Colonel Yonatan
Sep 5, 1972 – Munich, Germany: 11 members of the
Netanyahu.
Israeli Olympic wrestling team and 1 German
policeman were massacred by Fatah terrorists after Aug 11, 1976 – Istanbul, Turkey: 4 killed and 20
37
TERROR MAPS
wounded by PFLP and Japanese Red Army
terrorists in an attack at Istanbul airport.
Mar 11, 1978 – Glilot junction: 36 killed, and over 100
injured, in a bus hijacking by a female-led
Palestinian terrorist gang.
Apr 7, 1980 – Kibbutz Misgav-Am, Israel: Terrorists
attack children's house on the kibbutz, leaving 3
dead, one of whom was a child.
June 3, 1982 – London, England: Abu Nidal
organization attempts to kill the Israeli ambassador
to London, Shlomo Argov, severely wounding him.
Oct 7, 1985: PLFP attacks the Achille Lauro ship en
route to Israel, murdering one of the passengers
(an American citizen).
Sep 6, 1986 – Istanbul, Turkey: Abu Nidal organization
attacks the Neveh Shalom synagogue, killing 22
people.
Nov 25, 1987 – Northern border, Israel (near Kiryat
Shemona): 2 Palestinian terrorists cross into Israel
from Lebanon on hang gliders, killing 6 Israeli
soldiers and wounding 8.
Aug 21, 1988 – Haifa, Israel: 25 wounded in a grenade
attack at the Haifa mall.
July 6, 1989 – Tel Aviv, Israel: 14 killed when a terrorist
steered a bus into a ravine off the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv
highway.
38
TERROR MAPS
MAJOR TERROR ATTACKS
(1993 – 2000)
Terrorist attacks reached a new intensity in the form of
suicide bombings at the height of the peace process during
the 90s, despite Israel’s willingness to make unprecedented
compromises which would have resolved the conflict
with the Palestinians.

Apr 6,1994 – Afula: 8 killed in a car-bomb attack on a


bus.
Apr 13,1994 – Hadera: 5 killed in a suicide bombing on
a bus at the central bus station.
Oct 9,1994 – Bir Nabala: Nahshon Waxman was
kidnapped and taken to Bir Nabala,where he was
killed 5 days later by the terrorists during a rescue
operation. An officer from the rescue team was
also killed.
Oct 19,1994 – Tel Aviv: 21 Israelis and 1 Dutch
national killed in a suicide bombing on the #5 bus.
Nov 11,1994 – Netzarim: 3 soldiers killed by a suicide
bomber riding a bicycle.
Jan 22,1995 – Netanya: 18 soldiers and 1 civilian killed
by two consecutive bombs at the Beit Lid junction.
39
TERROR MAPS
Apr 9,1995 – Kfar Darom: 7 Israelis and 1 American been kidnapped in Sep 1996 at a hitchhiking stand
killed when an explosives-laden van collided with a in the center of the country and was shot.
bus.
Apr 25,1997 – Wadi Kelt: The bodies of two 23 year-
July 24,1995 – Ramat Gan: 6 killed in a suicide bomb old women were found in the nature reserve near
attack on a bus. Jerusalem. They were killed by a Bedouin resident
of the area.
Aug 21,1995 – Jerusalem: 3 Israelis and 1 American
killed in a suicide bomb attack on a bus. suicide July 20,1997 – Rishon Lezion: A Palestinian attacked 2
bombing of bus #18 near the central bus station. Israelis with an iron rod. One of the Israelis later
died of his wounds.
Feb 25, 1996 – Jerusalem: 26 killed in a suicide
bombing of bus #18 near the central bus station. July 30,1997 – Jerusalem: 16 killed and 178 wounded
by two consecutive suicide bombings in the
Feb 25,1996 – Ashkelon: 1 Israeli killed by a suicide
Mahane Yehuda market.
bomber at a hitchhiking post.
Sep 4,1997 – Jerusalem: 5 killed and 181 wounded by
Mar 3,1996 – Jerusalem: 19 killed in a suicide bombing three suicide bombings on the Ben-Yehuda
of bus #18 on Jaffa Road. pedestrian mall.
Mar 4,1996 – Tel Aviv: 13 killed when a suicide Nov 19,1997 – Jerusalem: 1 Israeli killed and 1
bomber detonated a 20-kg. (44 lb.) nail bomb wounded when terrorists fired at them from an
outside Dizengoff Center. ambush in the Old City.
Mar 13,1997 – Naharayim: 7 killed and 30 injured in a Aug 27,1998 – Tel Aviv: 14 injured by a bomb placed
shooting attack by a Jordanian soldier at the "Island in a garbage dumpster.
of Peace".
Oct 29,1998 – Kfar Darom: 1 soldier killed when an
Mar 21,1997 – Tel Aviv: 3 killed and 48 wounded by a explosives-laden car collided with an army jeep
suicide bomber on the terrace of a cafe. escorting a bus with 40 elementary school students.
Apr 10,1997 – Surif: The body of Staff Sgt. Sharon Nov 6,1998 – Jerusalem: 21 wounded by a car bomb
Edri is found in the village near Hebron. Edri had at the Mahane Yehuda market.
40
TERROR MAPS
MAJOR TERROR ATTACKS
2000–2005

Over 1000 people were murdered and thousands injured


in attacks carried out by Palestinian terrorists since late
September 2000. Due to Israel's anti-terrorist fence and
operations carried out by Israeli security forces, the num-
ber of terrorist attacks and victims has significantly
decreased during the last year.

Nov 2, 2000 – Jerusalem: Two people were killed and


10 injured by a car bomb explosion near the
Mahane Yehuda market. Islamic Jihad claimed
responsibility for the attack.
Nov 20, 2000 – Gush Katif: Two people were killed
and 9 injured by a roadside bomb that exploded
alongside a bus carrying children to school.
Nov 22, 2000 – Hadera: Two people were killed, and
60 wounded when a powerful car bomb was
detonated alongside a passing bus on the town's
main street.
Nov 28, 2000 – Kfar Saba: Two Israeli teenagers on
their way to school were killed in a suicide terrorist
attack near the "Meeting Place of Peace" gas station
in Neve Yamin. The bomber, from the Hamas
terror group, blew himself up in a gathering of
41
TERROR MAPS
students waiting at a bus stop. Four other bombing at the Sbarro pizzeria on the corner of
teenagers were wounded, one critically. King George Street and Jaffa Road in the city
center. Hamas and the Islamic Jihad claimed
Jan 1, 2001 – Netanya: 60 people were injured when
responsibility for the attack.
a car bomb exploded near a bus stop in the
shopping district. Sept 9, 2001 – Nahariya: Three people were killed
and 90 injured in a suicide bombing near the
Feb 14, 2001 – Holon: Eight people were killed and
Nahariya train station. The terrorist waited until
25 injured when a bus driven by a Palestinian
the train arrived from Tel Aviv and people were
terrorist plowed into a group of soldiers and
exiting the station, and then exploded the bomb
civilians waiting at a bus stop.
he was carrying. Hamas claimed responsibility for
Mar 4, 2001 – Netanya: Three people were killed the attack.
and more than 60 injured in a suicide bombing in
Nov 29, 2001 – Hadera: Three people were killed
the downtown area.
and nine others wounded in a suicide bombing
May 18, 2001 – Netanya: A Palestinian suicide on Egged bus #823 en route from Nazareth to
bomber detonated himself outside a shopping Tel Aviv near the city of Hadera. Islamic Jihad
mall, killing five people and injuring over 100. and Fatah both claimed responsibility for the
Hamas claimed responsibility. attack.
June 1, 2001 – Tel Aviv: 21 young people were killed Dec 1, 2001 – Jerusalem: 11 people were killed and
and 120 wounded by a suicide bomber outside 180 injured by two suicide bombers on Ben
the Dolphinarium disco along the seafront Yehuda Street's pedestrian mall. Hamas claimed
promenade. responsibility for the attack.
July 16, 2001 – Binyamina: Two Israeli soldiers were Dec 2, 2001 – Haifa: 15 people were killed and 40
killed and 11 people were wounded when a injured in a suicide bombing on Egged bus #16.
suicide terrorist attacked at a bus stop near the Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack.
train station. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility. Jan 27, 2002 – Jerusalem: An elderly man was killed
Aug 9, 2001 – Jerusalem: 15 people were killed and over 150 people wounded in a suicide
(including 7 children) and 130 injured in a suicide bombing on Jaffa Road in the center of
42
TERROR MAPS
Jerusalem. A female terrorist, identified as a Fatah packed with metal spikes and nails, in the center of
member, was armed with more than 10 kilos of a crowd of shoppers. The Fatah al-Aqsa Brigades
explosives. claimed responsibility for the attack.
Feb 16, 2002 – Karnei Shomron: Three teenagers Mar 27, 2002 – Netanya: 30 people were killed and
were killed and 30 people were wounded when a 140 injured in a suicide bombing at the Park Hotel,
suicide bomber blew himself up on Saturday night in the midst of the Passover holiday seder with 250
at a pizzeria in a shopping mall. The Popular Front guests. The bomber was a member of Hamas and
for the Liberation of Palestine claimed responsibility on the list of wanted terrorists Israel had requested
for the attack. that the Palestinian Authority arrest.
Mar 2, 2002 – Jerusalem: 10 people were killed and Mar 29, 2002 – Jerusalem: Two people were killed
over 50 injured in a suicide bombing in the ultra- and 28 injured when a female suicide bomber
Orthodox Beit Yisrael neighborhood where people blew herself up in a supermarket in the
had gathered for a bar-mitzvah celebration. The Kiryat Yovel neighborhood. Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs
Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade took responsibility Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack.
for the attack. Mar 31, 2002 – Haifa: 15 people were killed and over
Mar 9, 2002 – Jerusalem: 11 people were killed and 40 injured in a suicide bombing in the
54 injured when a suicide bomber exploded in the Matza restaurant near the Grand Canyon shopping
crowded Moment Café in the Rehavia neighbor- mall. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack.
hood. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. Apr 10, 2002 – Kibbutz Yagur: Eight people were killed
Mar 20, 2002 – Musmus: Seven people were killed and and 22 injured in a suicide bombing on Egged bus
30 wounded in a suicide bombing of an Egged bus #960 en route from Haifa to Jerusalem.
traveling from Tel Aviv to Nazareth at the Musmus Apr 12, 2002 – Jerusalem: Six people were killed and
junction on Highway 65 (Wadi Ara). Islamic Jihad 104 wounded when a woman suicide bomber
claimed responsibility for the attack. detonated a powerful charge at the entrance to the
Mar 21, 2002 – Jerusalem: Three people were killed Mahane Yehuda open-air market. The Fatah Al-
and 86 injured in a suicide bombing on King Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the
George Street. The terrorist detonated the bomb, attack.
43
TERROR MAPS
Apr 27, 2002 – Adora: A five-year-old girl and three June 5, 2002 – Megiddo junction: 17 people were
other Israelis were killed when terrorists infiltrated killed and 38 injured when a car packed with
the community of Adora in the southern Hebron explosives struck Egged bus #830 traveling from
hills and shot them to death. Tel Aviv to Tiberias. Islamic Jihad claimed
May 7, 2002 – Rishon Lezion: 16 people were killed responsibility for the attack.
and 55 wounded on the 3rd floor of a crowded June 18, 2002 – Jerusalem: 19 people were killed and
game club when a suicide bomber detonated a 74 injured in a suicide bombing on an Egged bus
powerful charge causing part of the building to traveling in the Gilo suburb of Jerusalem to the
collapse. Hamas claimed responsibility for the center of town. Hamas claimed responsibility for
attack. the attack.
May 19, 2002 – Netanya: Three people were killed
and 59 injured when a suicide bomber disguised as June 19, 2002 – Jerusalem: Seven people were
a soldier blew himself up in a market. Both Hamas killed and 30 injured by a suicide bombing at a
and the PFLP took responsibility for the attack. crowded bus stop and hitchhiking post in the
French Hill neighborhood. The Fatah Al-Aqsa
May 23, 2002 – Tel Aviv: Terrorists used a remote
Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the
control device to detonate a bomb planted
attack.
underneath a fuel truck at the Pi Glilot fuel depot
north of Tel Aviv, in an attempt to create a July 16, 2002 – Emmanuel: Nine people were killed
mega- attack that would explode adjacent fuel and 20 injured in a bombing and shooting attack
tanks. The truck burst into flames, but the blaze on Dan bus #189 traveling from Bnei Brak. While
was quickly contained. No one was hurt. four terror organizations claimed responsibility
May 27, 2002 – Petah Tikva: A woman and her infant for the attack, it was apparently carried out by
granddaughter were killed and 37 people were Hamas.
injured when a suicide bomber detonated himself
July 17, 2002 – Tel Aviv: Five people were killed
near an ice cream parlor outside a shopping mall.
and 40 injured in a double suicide bombing on
The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed
Neve Shaanan Street near the old central bus
responsibility for the attack.
station.
44
TERROR MAPS
July 31, 2002 – Jerusalem: Five students were killed mall. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the
and 85 wounded when a bomb exploded in a attack.
cafeteria on the Hebrew University's Mt. Scopus
Nov 10, 2002 – Metzer: A Palestinian terrorist slipped
campus. Hamas claimed responsibility for the
into the kibbutz and gunned down five people,
attack.
including two children killed in their beds as they
Aug 4, 2002 – Meron Junction: Nine people were hid under the blankets and their mother. The
killed and 50 wounded in a suicide bombing on Fatah al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed
an Egged bus traveling from Haifa to Safed. responsibility.

Sep 19, 2002 – Tel Aviv: Six people were killed and Nov 21, 2002 – Jerusalem: 11 people were killed and
70 wounded when a terrorist detonated a bomb 50 wounded by a suicide bomber on Egged bus
on Dan bus #4 on Allenby Street. #20 in the neighborhood of Kiryat Menahem.
Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack.
Oct 21, 2002 – Hadera: 14 people were killed and 50
wounded when a car bomb detonated next to an Nov. 28, 2002 – Mombasa, Kenya: A car bomb
Egged bus traveling north of the town on Route crashed into an Israeli-owned resort and
65. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the detonated as guests were checking in. Three
attack. Israelis were among the 13 killed, and 21 Israelis
were among the 80 injured. Almost
Oct 27, 2002 – Ariel: Three IDF officers were killed simultaneously, a surface-to-air missile barely
and about 20 people were wounded in a suicide missed an El Al plane as it was taking off from the
bombing at the Sonol gas station at the entrance airport. Al-Qaeda is believed to be responsible for
to the city. The victims were killed while trying to the double attack.
prevent the terrorist from detonating the bomb.
Jan 5, 2003 – Tel Aviv: 22 people were killed and
The terrorist was a member of Hamas.
120 wounded in a double suicide bombing near
Nov 4, 2002 – Kfar Saba: Two people: – a security the old central bus station. The attack was
guard and a teenage boy, both recent immigrants apparently carried out by two members of the
from Argentina – were killed and 70 were Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, with the help of
wounded in a suicide bombing at a shopping the Islamic Jihad.
45
TERROR MAPS
Mar 5, 2003 – Haifa: 17 people were killed and 53 detonated himself on Egged bus #2 in the
wounded in a suicide bombing of an Egged bus Shmuel Hanavi neighborhood. Hamas claimed
in the Carmel neighborhood. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack.
responsibility for the att ack.
Sep 9, 2003 – Tzrifin: Eight IDF soldiers were killed
Apr 30, 2003 – Tel Aviv: Three people were killed and 30 people wounded in a suicide bombing at
and 60 wounded by a British Muslim suicide a soldier hitchhiking post outside the Tzrifin army
bomber, sent by Hamas, at a beachfront pub base and Assaf Harofeh Hospital. Hamas claimed
"Mike's Place." responsibility for the attack.
May 17, 2003 – Hebron: A married couple from Sep 9, 2003 – Jerusalem: Seven people were killed
Kiryat Arba was killed by a terrorist. Hamas and over 50 wounded in a suicide bombing
claimed responsibility for the attack. at Café Hillel, in the German Colony
May 18, 2003 – Jerusalem: Seven people were killed neighborhood.
and 20 wounded in a suicide bombing on Egged Oct 4, 2003 – Haifa: 22 people were killed and 60
bus #6 near French Hill. Hamas claimed wounded in a devastating suicide bombing of the
responsibility for the attack. Maxim restaurant. Islamic Jihad claimed
May 19, 2003 – Afula: Three people were killed and responsibility for the attack.
70 wounded in a suicide bombing at the entrance Dec 25, 2003 – Geha Junction: Four Israelis were
to a shopping mall. Islamic Jihad and Fatah Al- killed and 15 others were injured, when a suicide
Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for bomber detonated himself at a bus stop at an
the attack. intersection of a main highway separating Bnei
June 11, 2003 – Jerusalem: 17 people were killed Brak and Petach Tikva. The Popular Front for the
and over 100 wounded in a suicide bombing on Liberation of Palestine claimed responsibility.
an Egged bus on Jaffa Road in the city center. Jan 14, 2004 – Erez Crossing, Gaza: A female
Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. suicide bomber detonated herself at an inspection
Aug 19, 2003 – Jerusalem: 23 people were killed and point at the entrance to the Erez industrial zone,
over 130 wounded when a suicide bomber killing 4 Israeli security personnel and injuring
46
TERROR MAPS
several others. Hamas and Fatah claimed joint Mar 19, 2004 – Jerusalem: A Christian Arab was shot
responsibility for the attack. to death from a vehicle while jogging in the
neighborhood of French Hill. The Fatah Al-Aqsa
Jan 29, 2004 – Jerusalem: Eleven people were killed Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility.
and over 40 were wounded when a suicide
bomber blew up on a #19 bus on Gaza Road. Apr 3, 2004 – Avnei Hefetz: A man was shot to death
The bomber was a Palestinian policeman from and his 14 year old daughter was wounded in an
Bethlehem. Both Hamas and the Fatah Al-Aqsa attack on their home. Hamas claimed responsibility.
Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility. Apr 17, 2004 – Erez Crossing, Gaza: A border
policeman was killed and three others wounded
Feb 22, 2004 – Jerusalem: 8 people were killed and
when a Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself
over 60 wounded (among the casualties were a
up. Hamas and the Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade
number of school pupils) in a suicide bombing
claimed responsibility.
on bus #14A near the Liberty Bell Park. The Fatah
Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility. May 2, 2004 – Gush Katif: A mother and her four
young daughters were killed, and another civilian
Feb 26, 2004 – Erez Crossing, Gaza: A soldier was
and two soldiers were wounded, when two
killed and two were wounded when two
Palestinian terrorists opened fire on a car. Fatah
Palestinian terrorists opened fire. The Fatah
and Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility.
June 28, 2004 – Sderot: A man and a 4 year old boy
Feb 27, 2004 – Lahav: A young couple was killed
were killed, and 7 others were wounded
in a shooting attack on the road on their way to
(including the boy’s mother) during a Kassam
Ashkelon. The PFLP and the Fatah Al-Aqsa
rocket attack on Sderot. Hamas claimed
Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility.
responsibility.
Mar 14, 2004 – Ashdod: 10 people were killed and July 11, 2004 – Tel Aviv: A young woman was killed
16 wounded in a double suicide bombing at and 33 people were wounded in a bombing at a
Ashdod Port. Hamas and Fatah claimed bus stop. The Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed
responsibility. responsibility.
47
TERROR MAPS
Aug 31, 2004 – Beer Sheba: Sixteen people were killed terrorists opened fire at Israeli civilians, killing 6
and 100 wounded in two nearly simultaneous and wounding 5. Hamas and the Fatah al-Aqsa
suicide bombings aboard two city buses. Hamas in Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility.
Hebron claimed responsibility.
Jan 15, 2005 – Sderot: A 17 year old girl was mortally
Sep 22, 2004 – Jerusalem: 2 Border Policemen were wounded by shrapnel from a Kassem rocket and
killed and 17 Israelis wounded in a suicide died several days later. She was struck while
bombing carried out by a female terrorist at the protecting her younger brother, who was lightly
French Hill junction in northern Jerusalem. The wounded.
Fatah al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed
Feb 25, 2005 – Tel Aviv: 5 people were killed and 50
responsibility.
wounded when a suicide bomber blew himself
Sep 24, 2004 – Gush Katif: A woman was killed in her up outside the Stage Club on the Tel Aviv
home during a mortar attack launched by terrorists. promenade. The Islamic Jihad claimed
responsibility for the attack.
Sep 29, 2004 – Sderot: 2 toddlers were killed, while
playing in the street, by a Kassam rocket fired from July 12, 2005 – Netanya: 3 people were killed and
Gaza. Hamas claimed responsibility. about 90 people were wounded when a suicide
bomber struck at the Hasharon shopping mall.
Oct 7, 2004 – Sinai: 32 people were killed, 12 of them Two other people later succumbed to their
Israelis, and over 120 were wounded during wounds. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
simultaneous terror bombings carried out at two
Sinai holiday resorts. July 14, 2005 – Netiv Ha’asara: A woman was killed
by a Kassem rocket fired from the Gaza Strip.
Nov 1, 2004 – Tel Aviv: 3 people were killed and over Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Fatah all claimed
30 wounded in a suicide bombing at the Carmel responsibility.
Market in central Tel Aviv. The Popular Front for
July 23, 2005 – Kissufim Crossing: A married couple
the Liberation of Palestine in Nablus claimed
was killed in a terrorist attack. Islamic Jihad and
responsibility.
the Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed
Jan 13, 2005 – Karni Crossing, Gaza: Palestinian responsibility.
48
TERROR MAPS
Oct 16, 2005 – Gush Etzion Junction, south of
Jerusalem: 3 people were killed and three were
wounded in a Palestinian shooting attack. A
teenager was shot and seriously wounded further
north. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades
claimed responsibility.

Oct 26, 2005 – Hadera: 5 people were killed and 55


were wounded, six seriously (one person later
died of her wounds) in a suicide bombing at the
Hadera open-air market. Islamic Jihad claimed
responsibility.

Dec 5, 2005 – Netanya: 5 people were killed and over


50 were wounded in a suicide bombing at the
entrance to the Hasharon shopping mall. Islamic
Jihad claimed responsibility.

49
ISRAEL’S SECURITY FENCE
TERROR MAPS
VS. TERRORISM

Israel’s construction of the anti-


terrorist security fence was
undertaken due to the Palestinian
Authority’s failure to fight terrorism.
The fence is a defensive, temporary,
and passive measure against
terrorism: in those areas where the
fence has already been completed,
terrorism has dropped dramatically.
About 97% of the fence consists of a
chain-link early warning system
against terrorist infiltrations: less than
3% of the fence consists of a
concrete barrier. In keeping with the
rulings of Israel’s Supreme Court, in
order to avoid causing unnecessary
hardship to Palestinian civilians while
defending the lives of Israeli civilians,
Jew and Arab alike, Israel’s
government decided on
February 20, 2005 on the current
planned route of the fence.

50
THREATS & TOPOGRAPHY
REGIONAL THREATS
Iran TO ISRAEL

Syria
Iraq
SHIHAB-3:
10 min to
Israel
Lebanon

SCUD: Can reach all


parts of Israel in 1 min

H3 AIRBASE (The threats from Iraq


existed until the U.S. led operation
P. A. against Saddam Hussein’s regime).
FIGHTER PLANE: 30 min to Haifa

Israel Jordan SCUD: 6 min to Tel Aviv

TABUG
FIGHTER PLANE: 15 min to Eilat

Saudi Arabia

Egypt

0 300 km

0 300 mi
51
THREATS & TOPOGRAPHY
SAMARIAN HIGHLANDS
CROSS SECTION
Mt. Eval

Kalkilya
Nablus

n
sectio
cross Herziliya
Jordan
Tel Aviv
Sea of Galilee

Jordan

Jerusalem

radar coverage from the coastal area radar coverage from mountain ridge near Nablus

1000 m

Mt. Eval: 940 m


500
Nablus

200
Kalkilya
Herzliya
Jordan - Israel armistice line 1949-1967 Jordan
River

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 km

52
THREATS & TOPOGRAPHY
ISRAEL’S NARROW
WAISTLINE
Between the years 1949 and
1967, the Kingdom of Jordan
ruled the Judea/Samaria
highlands. Israel’s ‘waistline’ in
the Sharon region was extremely
narrow, totaling a mere 15 km.
(9 mi.) in the area of Tulkarm
and Netanya. These were
cease-fire lines rather than
permanent borders, and were
considered to be indefensible,
especially in light of the area’s
topography, which left Israel in
the plains while the Arab armies
controlled the dominating high
ground. The Israeli Foreign
Minister at that time, Abba
Eban, used to describe these
lines as ‘Auschwitz boundaries’,
in order to illustrate the dangers
inherent in their continued use.

53
GOLAN HEIGHTS CROSS
THREATS & TOPOGRAPHY
SECTION Safed

Golan Heights
The Golan Heights are
strategically important for several
reasons:
(a) Israeli presence in the Golan
Heights provides a
defensible border against
invasion by land; n Sea of
ss ectio Galilee Syria
(b) All of northern Israel is cros Tiberias
within range of direct
artillery fire from the Golan
Heights; Jordan
(c) The Heights control the
main water sources of the
State of Israel.
Golan Heights

Upper Syrian Base

Lower Galilee

sea level

Sea of Galilee
- 212 m: Tiberias

0 10 20 30 40 50 km
54
THREATS & TOPOGRAPHY
KASSAM AND KATYUSHA
THREAT
Israel is the only country in the world that
lives under the shadow of an ongoing
and publicly declared threat against its
very existence – a threat which has
warranted almost no international
attention or reaction. The threat against
Israel emanating from Iran comes in
addition to Israel’s vulnerability to short-
range artillery rockets, which have struck
its territory in the past and continue to do
so in the present. During the 70s-90s,
Kiryat Shmona and other localities in
northern Israel faced numerous Katyusha
rocket attacks. The most tangible threats
stem from the Katyusha rockets launched
by terrorist groups from within Lebanon
(Hizbullah and various Palestinian
factions) capable of striking throughout
Sderot
northern Israel, and the Kassam rockets
which are currently limited to the Gaza
Strip and have a range of about 9
kilometers. Palestinian acquisition of
Katyusha rockets would threaten Israel’s
entire population.
55
SIZE COMPARISONS
ISRAEL – ARGENTINA ISRAEL – AUSTRALIA

The area of Israel (land area) in the maps includes the Golan Heights and Jerusalem
56
SIZE SIZE COMPARISONS
ISRAEL – CANADA ISRAEL – CHINA

57
SIZE COMPARISONS
ISRAEL – FRANCE ISRAEL – GERMANY

The area of Israel (land area) in the maps includes the Golan Heights and Jerusalem
58
SIZE COMPARISONS
ISRAEL – INDIA ISRAEL – ITALY

59
SIZE COMPARISONS
ISRAEL – MEXICO ISRAEL – POLAND

The area of Israel (land area) in the maps includes the Golan Heights and Jerusalem
60
SIZE COMPARISONS
ISRAEL – RUSSIA ISRAEL – SPAIN

61
SIZE COMPARISONS
ISRAEL – UNITED KINGDOM ISRAEL – UNITED STATES

The area of Israel (land area) in the maps includes the Golan Heights and Jerusalem
62