MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS JERUSALEM

I s r a e l ’s S t o r y in Maps

INTRODUCTION

The Arab-Israel conflict and the peace process have for decades been a focus for

world-wide attention – on the part of the media, academia, political and governmental institutions, NGOs, religious groups, the business world, and the public at large. With the passage of time, some of Israel's critics have increasingly allowed their approach to the problem to be shaped by myths, slogans, prejudices and lack of knowledge, rather than by solid facts. This has been seen, for example, in matters pertaining to the territories in dispute between Israel and the Palestinians: the historical background is often either unknown or ignored. Moreover, even when dealing with the present situation – the problem of terrorism, regional dangers, and the impact of topography on borders – the context is often not taken into account. The purpose of this publication is to provide factual and background material through maps and graphs which address key aspects about Israel, the Arab-Israel conflict, and the peace process. This publication does not presume to address all issues, but does address many of them. It is hoped that through the illustrations and data provided here, a better and more factual understanding – of past events, the present reality, and future opportunities for peace – may be achieved.

Jerusalem, 2006

CONTENTS

ANCIENT MAPS
The Kingdoms of David and Solomon (1077–997 BCE) The Herodian Period (30 BCE to 70 CE) Jews in the Land of Israel – (7th -11th Centuries)
.7

Yom Kippur War Cease-Fire Lines (October 24, 1973) Golan Heights – Cease-Fire Lines (October 1973) Interim Agreement with Egypt (1975) Peace T reaty with Egypt and Sinai Redeployment (1980 – 1982)
......................................... 10 .........................11

24

.......... 25 ..... 25

............................. 8 ............. 9

Israel-Syria – Disengagement Agreement (May 1974)

................................... 26

PRE-STATE MAPS
Setting the Southern Border (1906) British Mandate Setting the Northern Border (1916 – 1923) Separation of T ransjordan (1922) UN Partition Plan (1947)

...................................... 26

Israel’s Disengagement Plan (2005) ............................................27

MODERN DAY ISRAEL
Israel and the Region ...................................................................... 28 Israel (within boundaries and cease-fire lines) ..................... 29 Jerusalem ............................................................................................ 30 Old City of Jerusalem Judea and Samaria Golan Heights
................................................................... 30

................................................................................ 12 ............................................. 13

............................................................. 14

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS
Armistice Lines (1949–1967) The Frontier with Syria
..................................................... 15

......................................................................... 31

....................................................................................32

................................................................ 16 ............................. 17 18

Armistice Agreement with Jordan (1949)

Jewish Communities Lost in the War of Independence Jerusalem Before the Six Day War (1949 – 1967) Israel After the Six Day War (June 10, 1967) Jerusalem After the Six Day War (1967) Old City of Jerusalem

TERROR MAPS
Major T error Attacks – 1948–1967 1967–1993 1993–2000 2000–2005
......................................... 33 ......................................... 36 ......................................... 39 ......................................... 41

.......... 19

Events Leading to the Six Day War (1967) ........................... 20
.................... 21 ............................. 22

................................................................... 23

Israel’s Security Fence vs. T errorism ......................................... 50 5

CONTENTS

THREATS & TOPOGRAPHY
Regional Threats to Israel Israel’s Narrow Waistline
............................................................ 51 .......................................... 52

Samarian Highlands Cross Section

............................................................ 53

Golan Heights Cross Section ...................................................... 54 Kassam and Katyusha Threat ...................................................... 55

SIZE COMPARISONS
Israel – Argentina ..............................................................................56 Israel – Australia ...............................................................................56 Israel – Canada ................................................................................ 57 Israel – China .................................................................................... 57 Israel – France .................................................................................. 58 Israel – Germany ...............................................................................58 Israel – India ...................................................................................... 59 Israel – Italy ........................................................................................59 Israel – Mexico ................................................................................. 60 Israel – Poland ................................................................................... 60 Israel – Russia .................................................................................... 61 Israel – Spain .....................................................................................61 Israel – United Kingdom ............................................................... 62 Israel – United States .........................................................................62 6

THE KINGDOMS OF DAVID AND SOLOMON (1077–997 BCE)
King David ruled Israel from 990 BCE to 968 BCE; and his son Solomon ruled after him until 928 BCE. David enlarged his kingdom and brought it to the peak of political and military power. Solomon “ruled over all the kingdoms west of the Euphrates River from Tiphsah to Gaza; he was at peace with all his neighbors” (I Kings,4:24).

ANCIENT MAPS

Mediterranean Sea

Damascus Dan

Beit Shean

Jerusalem Gezer Gaza

Amman

Kingdoms of David and Solomon Modern Israel (within boundaries and cease-fire lines) Eztion Gaver 0 0 50 km 50 mi

7

ANCIENT MAPS

THE HERODIAN PERIOD (30 BCE TO 70 CE)
King Herod, of Edomite extraction, was king of Israel from 40 BCE to 4 BCE. He was appointed by Rome and conquered the kingdom from the Hasmoneans. When Augustus became the Roman Caesar in the year 30 BCE, Herod convinced him of his loyalty, and Augustus rewarded him by adding Jericho, the coastal region south of Dor and the region east of the Sea of Galilee. In 23 BCE, he was given the Bashan, Horen, and T archon regions, and three years later, the Golan Heights.
Mediterranean Sea

Tiberias Abila Dora Kanata

Skitopolis Sebasti

Philadelphia

Jerusalem Ashkelon

Gaza Kingdom of Herod Modern Israel (within boundaries and ceasefire lines) 0 0 50 km 50 mi

8

0 0

40 km

40 mi Modern Israel (within boundaries and cease-fire lines)
Tyre Banyas

JEWS IN THE LAND OF ISRAEL (7TH – 11TH CENTURIES)
After the death of Emperor Julian II, in 363 CE, most of the Jewish settlements in the south were destroyed. The Jews remained mainly in the Galilee and in the larger cities.

ANCIENT MAPS

Kfar Mandi

Mediterranean Sea
Haifa

Acre

Dalton Gush Halav Biriyah Safed Kfar Hananya Iablin Tsipori Tiberias

Hoseifa

Ein Ganim Caesaria

Nablus

Jaffa Lod Ramla Yavne Jerusalem Amman Jericho

Beit Guvrin Ashkelon Hebron Gaza

Rafiah El Arish

Jarba

Udruch

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PRE-STATE MAPS

SETTING THE SOUTHERN BORDER (1906)
Lord Cromer, Britain's agent in Egypt,wanted to change the border between the Ottoman Empire, which was under strong German influence, and Egypt, in order to push the Ottomans further away from the Suez Canal. In 1892, the T urks agreed to allow Egyptian guard stations near the Gulf of Eilat; in 1905, Lord Cromer tried to move the border. In April of 1906, the T urks were given an ultimatum – to set the border between Aqaba and Rafah. They proposed a compromise (El Aris – Ras Muhamed) but finally gave in to British pressure. The firm stand of the commander of the T urkish police station at Um Rashrash (today, Eilat) changed the starting point of the border from Aqaba to T aba, which became the international border between Israel and Egypt.

Mediterranean Sea El Arish

Beer Sheba Rafiah

Kantara

Kosema

Bir Gafgafa

Suez Suez Canal Aqaba

Modern Israel (within boundaries and ceasefire lines) Turkish Order Border of 1861 Jennings Proposal British-Turkish Agreement of Spring 1906 1906 Border
0 25 25 mi

Gulf of Eilat A Tur

Sharm El-Sheik

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Mediterranean Sea

Metullah

Banyas

Syria

SETTING THE NORTHERN BORDER (1916 – 1923)
In May 1916, France and Great Britain signed an agreement known as the Sykes-Picot Agreement in which the claims of both sides to the Levant were set down, and areas of administration and influence were determined. Until 1923, the sides were involved in hard bargaining, with the British insisting on two principles: control of the area delineated in the Bible, “from Dan to Beer Sheba;” and control of Israel’s water sources, e.g., the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee.

PRE-STATE MAPS

Lebanon

Kuneitra

Nahariya Safed

Acre

Haifa French-British Agreement 1920 1923 Border Sykes-Picot Agreement Modern Israel (within boundaries and cease-fire lines) 0 0 10 km 10 mi Tiberias

Sea of Galilee

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PRE-STATE MAPS

BRITISH MANDATE
In 1920, the San Remo Peace Conference gave Great Britain the mandate for the Land of Israel and T ransjordan. In 1921, the British decided to decrease the size of the Jewish national home and to take T ransjordan away from it.In 1922, Churchill published the White Paper on this subject. Later that year, the League of Nations approved the changed mandate, which took effect in 1923.
Mediterranean Sea Syria (French Mandate)

Iraq

British Mandate

Saudi Arabia

Egypt

0 0

80 km 80 mi

12

Mediterranean Sea

Syria (French Mandate)

SEPARATION OF TRANSJORDAN (1922)
Iraq

PRE-STATE MAPS

Transjordan

Saudi Arabia

British Mandate

Egypt

Area Separated and closed to Jewish settlement, 1921 Area ceded to Syria, 1923 Area remaining for Jewish National Home 0 0 80 km 80 mi

13

PRE-STATE MAPS

UN PARTITION PLAN (1947)
In 1947, Great Britain relinquished to the UN the power to make decisions relating to the status of the Land of Israel. The General Assembly appointed a special committee that collected evidence and decided unanimously that Israel should be granted independence. Most of the committee members favored partitioning the land into two states, a Jewish state and an Arab state, with Jerusalem under international supervision. On November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly accepted the partition resolution, 33 to 13.

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Lebanon

ARMISTICE LINES (1949 – 1967)
Syria

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS

Mediterranean Sea
Haifa

Tel Aviv Jaffa Jerusalem

Jordan

In the spring and summer of 1949, agreements were signed between Israel and its neighbors establishing Israel’s armistice lines. T some o extent, these lines overlapped the borderline of Palestine during the British Mandate period, or they were close to it, with the exception of the Judea and Samaria region, and the surrounding area of the Gaza Strip. These lines were drawn up, on the assumption that they would be temporary, and would be replaced within a few years by permanent borders. Much of the international border between Mandatory Palestine and Egypt became the armistice line between Israel and Egypt. The armistice line with Lebanon was close to the international border that existed during the British Mandate period, and overlapped it. These two lines did not correspond to the battle frontlines as they existed during the cessation of hostilities, and Israel withdrew in both cases to the mandatory borderline, which became the armistice line. The armistice lines with Syria and Jordan closely corresponded to the frontlines.

Beer Sheba

Egypt

Acquired by Israel Acquired by Jordan Demilitarized Zone No man’s Land Syrian Occupied Jordanian Occupied

0 0

40 km 40 mi

Egyptian Occupied

15

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS

THE FRONTIER WITH SYRIA
Syria became independent in 1946. When the State of Israel came into being in 1948, Syria invaded the new state, conquered the Banyas, the Mishmar Hayarden triangle, the Almagor triangle, the coast of Betiha, and the eastern bank of the Jordan River. In the armistice agreements of 1949, Syria agreed to withdraw its army from these areas and to turn them into demilitarized zones. In fact, Syria remained in the strips of territory that secured its hold on the banks of the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee, and the Banyas. Later, Syria conquered Hamat Gader and Nuqeib, north of Ein Gev These territories were under Syrian control until 1967 and facilitated its unceasing attacks against Israel.

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Area acquired by Israel Area acquired by Jordan No man’s land Jordanian occupied

ARMISTICE AGREEMENT WITH JORDAN (1949)
The armistice agreement with Jordan was signed in Rhodes with the help of UN mediation on April 4, 1949. The agreement states that this is a necessary step towards reestablishing peace in the Land of Israel, and emphasizes that in no way is the armistice line to be interpreted as a political or territorial border, nor does it constitute interference with the rights, claims, or positions of any side vis-à-vis the final settlement of the question of the Land of Israel. The agreement set the parameters for prisoner exchanges, demilitarized zones, no-man's land, and monitoring arrangements. In the framework of the agreement, Israel was given land in the Sharon and the Irone River areas, and sections of the Beit Shean Valley were exchanged.

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS

Tel Aviv Jaffa Latrun Jerusalem

0 0

40 km 40 mi

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ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS

JEWISH COMMUNITIES LOST IN THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
During the War of Independence, a number of Jewish communities were captured, mostly by the Jordanian army – Kibbutz Beit Ha-arava and Kalya north of the Dead Sea, the four kibbutzim of Gush Etzion west of Bethlehem, Atarot and Neve Yaakov north of Jerusalem, and the Jewish Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem. Kfar Darom, near Gaza, was captured by the Egyptian army. In addition, when the War of Independence broke out at the end of 1947, the remnant of the Jewish community of Hebron fled.

0 0

40 km

40 mi

Mediterranean Sea

Atarot Neve Ya’akov Jerusalem, The Jewish Quarter Kalya Masuot Yitzhak Revadim Ein Tzurim Kfar Etzion Hebron

Beit Ha’arava

Kfar Darom

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Israel-Jordan Armistice Line, 1949 - 1967 Eastern Jerusalem, 1949-1967 Municipal Border, 1952 Neutral Territory - UN controlled or no-man’s-land Israeli area previous to Six Day War

JERUSALEM BEFORE THE SIX DAY WAR (1949-1967)
At the end of the War of Independence, Jerusalem was divided between Israel and Jordan. Armistice lines were determined in November 1948 by Moshe Dayan, Commander of the Jerusalem district, and Abdallah el- al, T Legion Commander of the Jerusalem front. Between the lines drawn up by the two commanders, areas were left that were defined as no-man's-land. The area around Armon Hanatziv was used as UN territory, and Mount Scopus became an Israeli enclave that contained the Hebrew University, Hadassah Hospital and, officially, the village of Issawiyya. This map was adopted in April 1949 by the sides in an armistice agreement signed in Rhodes. The westernmost point between the two parts of the city was at the edge of the Musrara neighborhood, near the house of the Mandelbaum family, and thus was called “Mandelbaum Gate.”

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS

Sanhedria Mea Shearim Beit Hakerem

Mt.Scopus

Old City
Mt. Herzl Yad Vashem City Center Knesset Talbieh German Colony Talpiot

0 0

1 km 1 mi

19

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS

EVENTS LEADING TO THE SIX DAY WAR (1967)
The Six Day War was the first major Arab attempt since 1948 to destroy Israel. In November 1966, an Egyptian-Syrian Defense Agreement was signed, encouraging the Syrians to escalate tensions, which reached a climax in the spring of 1967. May 14: Egypt mobilized its forces in and around the Suez Canal. May 16: Egypt moved it forces eastward across the Sinai desert towards the Israeli border, demanding the withdrawal of UN Emergency Force (UNEF) stationed along the frontier. May 19:The Egyptians expelled the UN Emergency Force (UNEF) from the Gaza Strip and Sinai, and continued pouring its military forces into these areas. May 22: Egypt closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, constituting a casus belli for Israel. May 24-June 4: Answering the Egyptian call, the governments of Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Lebanon moved their forces toward the Israeli border. Israel mobilized its reserve forces, and launched a diplomatic campaign to win international support for ending the Egyptian blockade of Israeli shipping through the Strait of Tiran.

Egyptian blockade Israeli territory before Six Day War

Advance of Lebanese Army

Lebanon
Golan Heights
Advance of Syrian Army

Syria

Mediterranean Sea

Haifa

May 19, 1967: UN forces withdraw from Sinai according to Egyptian demand.

Samaria

Tel Aviv Jaffa

Jerusalem

Advance of Iraqi Army

Judea

Gaza Beer Sheba
Suez Canal

El Arish Abu Aweigila
Advance of Jordanian Army

Advance of Egyptian Army

Jordan
Kuntilla
Sinai Peninsula

Ras Al-Nagb Eilat
Gulf of Eilat

Gulf of Suez

Advance of Saudi Arabian Army

Egypt
0 0 40 km 40 mi
Sharm el Sheikh Strait of Tiran Red Sea

Saudi Arabia

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Lebanon
Golan Heights

Syria

ISRAEL AFTER THE SIX DAY WAR (JUNE 10, 1967)
Once it became clear that the diplomatic campaign had failed, and following Jordan’s participation in the EgyptianSyrian alliance, Israel launched action in self-defense against the massing threat from Egypt on June 5, 1967. Once Jordan and Syria initiated the fighting against Israel, the war also included those countries. In the course of the war, the Israeli forces reached the Suez Canal, and captured the territories of Judea and Samaria, as well as the Golan Heights – from which the Syrians had shelled Israel.

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS

Haifa

Mediterranean Sea
Samaria

Tel Aviv Jaffa

Jerusalem

Judea

Gaza Beer Sheba
Suez Canal

Jordan

Sinai Peninsula

Eilat
Gulf of Eilat

Gulf of Suez

Saudi Arabia

Egypt
0 0 40 km 40 mi
Red Sea

Israeli territory before Six Day War Under Israeli control after Six Day War

21

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS

JERUSALEM AFTER THE SIX DAY WAR (1967)
0

OLD CITY OF JERUSALEM
.5 km .5 m

Israel-Jordan Armistice Line, 1949 - 1967 Jerusalem Municipal Boundary after Six Day War Major Jewish suburbs since Six Day War

0

Herod’s Gate

Neve Yaakov
Damascus Gate

Moslem Quarter

Lion’s Gate

Pisgat Zeev Ramot Ramat Eshkol
Sanhedria

Temple Mount
Dome of the Rock

Golden Gate

French Hill
Mt.Scopus

Har Nof
Beit Hakerem

Mea Shearim

Church of the Holy Sepulchre New Gate

Old City
Mt. Herzl Yad Vashem City Center Knesset Talbieh German Colony Talpiot

Christian Quarter

Western Wall Cardo

Al-A Al-Aksa Mos Mosque Mt. of Olives

Jewish Quarter

Jaffa Gate

Jewish Quarter
Citadel Dung Gate Gat Tower of David

Malcha

East Talpiot

Armenian Quarter
City of David Da

Gilo Har Homa
0 0 1 km 1m

Zion Gate

Mount Zion

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ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS

A few days after the end of the Six Day War, on June 27, 1967, the Israeli Parliament passed a law that Israeli administration and jurisdiction apply to all the territory of Jerusalem acquired in the war. The following day, the Jerusalem municipal boundaries were extended to include eastern Jerusalem, as well as Atarot and Neve Yaakov in the north, and Gilo in the south.

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ISRAEL CHANGING BORDERS

YOM KIPPUR WAR CEASE-FIRE LINES (OCTOBER 24, 1973)
The Yom Kippur War began on October 6, 1973 when the combined armies of Egypt and Syria attacked Israel in the Suez Canal area and the Golan Heights. After a few days of hard fighting in which Egypt established itself on the eastern side of the Suez Canal and the Syrians captured most of the Golan Heights, the attack was halted and a counter-attack by IDF forces succeeded in pushing back some of the Egyptian forces, crossed the Canal and reached within 101 kilometers of Cairo. On the Golan Heights, the Syrian forces were repulsed completely and IDF forces captured an enclave in the northern Heights deep in Syrian territory, as well as recapturing Mount Hermon. A cease-fire agreement was signed by Israel and Egypt on October 24, 1973. A separation-of- forces agreement was signed on January 18, 1974 in which the sides agreed to observe the cease-fire, made arrangements for the reduction of forces and established a UN emergency force in the demilitarized zone. Israeli forces withdrew to a distance of 20 kilometers east of the Suez Canal, and the Egyptian army withdrew most of its forces to the west of the Canal.

Lebanon
Israeli territory before Six Day War Under Israeli control after Six Day War Held by Egyptian Army Held by Israeli Army Samaria

Mediterranean Sea
Haifa

Golan Heights

Syria

Tel Aviv Jaffa

Jerusalem

Judea

Gaza Beer Sheba
Suez Canal

Jordan

Sinai Peninsula

Eilat

Gulf of Suez

Gulf of Eilat

Saudi Arabia

Egypt
0 0 40 km 40 mi
Red Sea

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ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS

GOLAN HEIGHTS CEASE-FIRE LINES (OCTOBER 1973)
Mediterranean Sea Held by Israel Defense Forces after Yom Kippur War Under Israeli control after Six Day War Israeli - Syrian border as agreed on in 1923 Damascus

ISRAEL -SYRIA DISENGAGEMENT AGREEMENT (MAY 1974)
A disengagement agreement with Syria was signed in Geneva on May 31, 1974, and included, inter alia, the establishment of UN observers in the demilitarized zone, arrangements for a prisoner exchange, and IDF evacuation of the territory it took in the Yom Kippur War, as well as the city of Kuneitra, which was captured in the Six Day War.
Mediterranean Sea Previous forward line of Israel Defense Forces Under Israeli control after Six Day War U.N. patrolled demilitarized zone Towns returned to Syria Damascus

Lebanon

Lebanon

Mt. Hermon Banyas Kuneitra

Mazraat Beit Jann Mt. Hermon Banyas Kuneitra Jubbata Khan Erenbe Jeba Kafr Shams

Mazraat Beit Jann

Syria

Syria

Kafr Shams

Safed

Safed

Rafid

Sea of Galilee Tiberias

Sea of Galilee Tiberias

Jordan Jordan
0 0 10 km 10 mi 0 0 10 km 10 mi

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ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS

INTERIM AGREEMENT WITH EGYPT (1975)

An agreement was signed in Geneva in September 1975 in addition to the 1974 separation-of-forces agreement following the Yom Kippur War. The main points of the agreement were: Israeli withdrawal in Sinai to the eastern ends of the Mitla and Gidi Passes; creation of a UN-monitored buffer zone in the evacuated area; turning the previous buffer zone into Egyptian territory; Israeli withdrawal from the oil fields at Abu Rudeis and Ras Sudar. It was also agreed to open the Suez Canal to Israeli non-military cargo ships and to establish American early-warning stations in the area of the passes. The agreement was perceived as an important step towards a just and sustainable peace. The Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty was signed on March 26,1979, following the Camp David Accords of September 18,1978, which determined a framework for a peace treaty between both countries.The framework also set a timetable for establishing diplomatic relations and normalization between Israel and Egypt,as well as a timetable for IDF withdrawal from the line beginning east of El-Arish and extending to Ras Mohamed. The peace treaty tied up loose threads and included further Israeli withdrawal to the international border between the two states.

PEACE TREATY WITH EGYPT AND SINAI REDEPLOYMENT (1980 – 1982)

26

ISRAEL’S CHANGING BORDERS

ISRAEL’S DISENGAGEMENT PLAN (2005)

NORTHERN SAMARIA
In August 2005, Israel disengaged from the Gaza Strip, and from four settlements in northern Samaria. This action, initiated by Prime Minister Sharon and endorsed by the Knesset, was an Israeli initiative designed to end the stalemate in the peace process after more than four years of terrorist bloodshed. Altogether 25 settlements were removed. This entailed a considerable sacrifice on the part of the nearly 9000 residents who had to leave their homes and livelihoods that they had built over the course of several decades. It also demonstrated Israel’s readiness to make major concessions for the sake of peace. Following disengagement, the Gaza Strip is under Palestinian jurisdiction. This constitutes a practical test of the Palestinian Authority’s intentions regarding peaceful coexistence. It could contribute to the renewal of peace talks and to the establishment of a Palestinian state alongside Israel as envisaged by the Roadmap, provided the Palestinians fulfill their obligations to end terrorism and incitement. However, the Hamas election victory in January 2006 undermines this possibility.

Area A: Full Palestinian Control Area C: Former Israeli Control Former Israeli Community Palestinian Community Pre-1967 cease-fire-lines

GAZA STRIP

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MODERN DAY ISRAEL

ISRAEL AND THE REGION

28

MODERN DAY ISRAEL

ISRAEL (WITHIN
BOUNDARIES AND CEASE-FIRE LINES)
Israel stands at the crossroads of Europe, Asia and Africa. Geographically, it belongs to the Asian continent. Its western border is the Mediterranean Sea. T the north it is bound by o Lebanon and Syria, to the east by Jordan and to the south by the Red Sea and Egypt. Long and narrow in shape, Israel is about 290 miles (470 km.) long and 85 miles (135 km.) across at its widest point. The total area of the State of Israel is 22,145 sq. km., of which 21,671 sq. km. is land area.

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MODERN DAY ISRAEL

JERUSALEM
Jerusalem, the capital of Israel, is located in the heart of the country, nestled among the Judean Hills. The city's ancient stones, imbued with millennia of history, and its numerous historical sites, shrines and places of worship attest to its meaning for Jews, Christians and Muslims.

OLD CITY OF JERUSALEM

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JUDEA AND SAMARIA
Area A: Full Palestinian Control Area B: Palestinian Civil, Israeli Military Control Area C: Full Israeli Control Israeli Community Palestinian Community Pre-1967 cease-fire lines Jerusalem municipal boundaries

MODERN DAY ISRAEL

Jenin Hadera

Netanya Tulkarm Elon Moreh Nablus

Kfar Saba

Kalkilya

Ariel Tel Aviv Shilo

Ofra Beit El Ramallah Jericho Ma’ale Adumim

Beit Shemesh

Jerusalem

Bethlehem Kfar Etzion Efrata

Based on agreements reached between Israel and the Palestinians in the 90s, arrangements for Palestinian self-government were established. The Palestinians rejected the proposals made at the Camp David Summit of July 2000, which would have resulted in the establishment of a Palestinian state in most of Judea and Samaria (as well as in the Gaza Strip). The Palestinians followed their rejection with a bloody terror campaign. Israel in 2003 accepted the Roadmap which would lead to the establishment of a Palestinian state alongside Israel, provided the Palestinians fulfill their obligations to end terrorism and incitement. The final status of Judea and Samaria - determining the borders between Israel and the Palestinian state, and those parts of Judea and Samaria which are to be correspondingly under Israeli and Palestinian jurisdiction - is to be resolved.

Hebron Kiryat Arba

0 0

10 km 10 mi

31

MODERN DAY ISRAEL

GOLAN HEIGHTS
The Golan Heights are strategically important for several reasons: (a) Israeli presence in the Golan Heights provides a defensible border against invasion by land; (b) All of northern Israel is within range of direct artillery fire from the Golan Heights; (c) The Heights control the main water sources of the State of Israel. The Golan Heights have been under Israeli law, jurisdication, and administration since 1981.

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TERROR MAPS

MAJOR TERROR ATTACKS 1948 – 1967
Gonen Galilee Almagor

Mediterranean Sea

Haifa

Mt. of the Beatitudes Beit Netofa Afula Mesilot Hadera Givat Chaim Kfar Yona Kfar Hess

While the Palestinians claim that terrorism is a response to "occupation," the fact is that Palestinian terrorism predates Israel's presence in the territories. Numerous terrorist attacks murdered and maimed Israeli civilians during the two decades before 1967 (and even before the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948). Therefore, terrorism was and still is nothing less than a tool intended to eventually bring about the destruction of Israel itself. Jan 1, 1952 – Jerusalem: 7 armed terrorists attacked and killed a 19 year-old girl in her home in the neighborhood of Beit Yisrael. June 9, 1953 – Lod and Hadera: T errorists killed a resident of Lod, after throwing hand grenades and spraying gunfire in all directions. On the same night, another group of terrorists attacked a house in Hadera. June 11, 1953 – Kfar Hess: T errorists attacked a young couple in their home and shot them to death.

Netanya Neve Hadasah

Tel Aviv Jaffa

Shafrir Lod

Jerusalem Ashkelon Zavdiel Beit Govrin Tel Lachish Kisufum Patish Nir Yitzhak Mitzpe Massua

Ramat Rachel

Judean Desert

Masada

Ein Ofarim Maale Akrabim

Mar 17, 1954 – Maale Akrabim: T errorists ambushed a bus traveling from Eilat to T Aviv, opening fire at el short range. The terrorists boarded the bus, and shot each passenger, one by one, murdering 11. 33

TERROR MAPS

Jan 2, 1955 – Judean Desert: 2 hikers killed by terrorists. Mar 24, 1955 – Patish: 1 young woman killed and 18 wounded when terrorists threw hand grenades and opened fire on a crowded wedding celebration. Apr 7, 1956 – Ashkelon: 1 young woman killed when terrorists threw 3 hand grenades into her house. Apr 7, 1956 – Kibbutz Givat Chaim: 2 killed when terrorists opened fire on a car. Apr 11, 1956 – Shafrir (Kfar Chabad): 3 children and 1 youth worker killed, and 5 injured, when terrorists opened fire on a synagogue full of children and teenagers. Sep 12, 1956 – Ein Ofarim: T errorists killed 3 Druze guards. Sep 23, 1956 – Kibbutz Ramat Rachel: 4 archaeologists killed and 16 wounded when terrorists opened fire from a Jordanian position. Oct 4, 1956 – Sdom: 5 Israeli workers killed. Oct 9, 1956 – Neve Hadasah: 2 workers were killed in an orchard of the youth village. Nov 8, 1956: T errorists opened fire on a train, attacked cars and blew up wells in the north and center of Israel. 6 Israelis were wounded.

Feb 18, 1957: Nir Yitzhak: 2 civilians killed by terrorist landmines. Apr 16, 1957 – Kibbutz Mesilot: 2 guards killed by terrorists who infiltrated from Jordan. May 29, 1957 – Kibbutz Kisufim: 1 killed and 2 wounded when their vehicle struck a landmine. Aug 23, 1957 – Kibbutz Beit Govrin: 2 guards of the Israeli Mekorot water company killed. Feb 11, 1958 – Kfar Yona: T errorists killed a resident of Moshav Yanov. Apr 5, 1958 – T Lachish: T el errorists lying in ambush shot and killed 2 people. May 26, 1958 – Jerusalem: 4 Israeli police officers killed in a Jordanian attack on Mt. Scopus. Nov 17, 1958 – Mt. of the Beatitudes: Syrian terrorists killed the wife of the British air attache in Israel, who was staying at the guesthouse of the Italian Convent. Dec 3, 1958-Kibbutz Gonen: A shepherd was killed and 31 civilians were wounded in an artillery attack. Feb 1, 1959 – Moshav Zavdiel: 3 civilians killed by a terrorist landmine. Apr 27, 1959 – Masada: 2 hikers shot and killed at close range.

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TERROR MAPS

Apr 26, 1960 – Ashkelon: T errorists killed a resident of the city. Jan 1, 1965: Palestinian terrorists attempted to bomb the National Water Carrier – the first attack carried out by the PLO's Fatah faction. July 5, 1965 – Mitzpe Massua: A Fatah cell planted explosives near Beit Guvrin, and on the railroad tracks to Jerusalem near Kfar Battir. May 16, 1966 – Northern Galilee region: 2 Israelis killed when their jeep hit a terrorist landmine. T racks led into Syria. July13, 1966 – Almagor: 2 soldiers and 1 civilian killed when their truck struck a terrorist landmine.

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TERROR MAPS

Misgav - Am Kiryat Shemona Avivim Ma’alot

MAJOR TERROR ATTACKS 1967 – 1993
July 22, 1968 – Rome, Italy: The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) carries out first hijacking, diverting an El Al flight to Algiers. 32 Jewish passengers were held hostage for 5 weeks. Sep 4, 1968 – T Aviv, Israel: 1 killed and 71 wounded el by 3 bombs that exploded in city center.

Mediterranean Sea

Haifa

Afula

Netanya

Oct 1968 – Hijacking of El Al aircraft to Algeria. Nov 22, 1968 – Jerusalem, Israel: 12 killed and 52 injured by a car bomb in the Mahaneh Yehuda market. Dec 26, 1968 – Athens, Greece: 1 killed and 1 wounded in a shooting attack on an El Al aircraft at the airport, carried out by the PFLP. Feb 18, 1969 – Zurich, Switzerland: A pilot and 3 passengers killed by terrorists that attacked an El Al Boeing 707 on the airport runway. Feb 21, 1969 – Jerusalem, Israel: 2 killed and 20 injured by a bomb detonated in a crowded supermarket.

Tel Aviv Jaffa

Glilot junction Lod

Jerusalem

Numerous Palestinian terror attacks occurred outside Israel 36

TERROR MAPS

Oct 22, 1969 – Haifa, Israel: 4 killed and 20 wounded by terrorist bombs in 5 apartments. Feb 10, 1970 – Zurich, Switzerland: 1 killed and 11 wounded by 3 Arab terrorists who unsuccessfully attempted to hijack an El Al flight at Zurich airport. May 22, 1970 – Avivim, Israel: T errorists attack schoolbus, killing 12 (9 of whom were children), and wounding 24. Sep 6, 1970 – Dawson Field, Jordan: 3 airliners holding over 400 passengers were hijacked and taken to the Jordanian airport by the PFLP. The hostages were released in exchange for terrorists held in Germany, Switzerland, and England. May 8, 1972 – Lod airport, Israel: 1 passenger and 5 Israeli soldiers killed during a rescue operation by Israeli commandos on a hijacked Belgian airliner; the 4 Palestinian Black September terrorists were killed. The hostages were freed. May 30, 1972 – Lod airport, Israel: 26 killed and 78 wounded after PFLP and Japanese Red Army terrorists open fire in the passenger terminal. Sep 5, 1972 – Munich, Germany: 11 members of the Israeli Olympic wrestling team and 1 German policeman were massacred by Fatah terrorists after

an unsuccessful rescue attempt by West German authorities. Apr 11, 1974 – Kiryat Shemona, Israel: 18 killed, 8 of whom were children, by PFLP terrorists who detonated their explosives during a failed rescue attempt by Israeli authorities. May 15, 1974 – Maalot, Israel: 27 killed, 21 of whom were children, and 78 wounded by PFLP terrorists in a school, after an unsuccessful rescue attempt. Mar 5, 1975 – T Aviv, Israel: T el errorists take over the Savoy hotel;4 people are killed. July 4, 1975 – Jerusalem, Israel: 14 killed and 80 injured in Zion Square bombing attack, in which the bomb was hidden in a refrigerator. June 27, 1976 – Entebbe, Uganda: An Air France airliner was hijacked by a joint German/PFLP terrorist group, which diverted the flight to Entebbe airport. About 258 passengers and crew were held hostage until all non-Israeli passengers were released. On July 4th, Israeli commandos flew to Uganda and rescued the remaining hostages. All terrorists were killed, as well as 3 passengers and operation leader Lieutenant-Colonel Yonatan Netanyahu. Aug 11, 1976 – Istanbul, Turkey: 4 killed and 20

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TERROR MAPS

wounded by PFLP and Japanese Red Army terrorists in an attack at Istanbul airport. Mar 11, 1978 – Glilot junction: 36 killed, and over 100 injured, in a bus hijacking by a female-led Palestinian terrorist gang. Apr 7, 1980 – Kibbutz Misgav-Am, Israel: T errorists attack children's house on the kibbutz, leaving 3 dead, one of whom was a child. June 3, 1982 – London, England: Abu Nidal organization attempts to kill the Israeli ambassador to London, Shlomo Argov, severely wounding him. Oct 7, 1985: PLFP attacks the Achille Lauro ship en route to Israel, murdering one of the passengers (an American citizen). Sep 6, 1986 – Istanbul, Turkey: Abu Nidal organization attacks the Neveh Shalom synagogue, killing 22 people. Nov 25, 1987 – Northern border, Israel (near Kiryat Shemona): 2 Palestinian terrorists cross into Israel from Lebanon on hang gliders, killing 6 Israeli soldiers and wounding 8. Aug 21, 1988 – Haifa, Israel: 25 wounded in a grenade attack at the Haifa mall. July 6, 1989 – Tel Aviv, Israel: 14 killed when a terrorist steered a bus into a ravine off the Jerusalem-T Aviv el highway.

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TERROR MAPS

MAJOR TERROR ATTACKS (1993 – 2000)
T errorist attacks reached a new intensity in the form of suicide bombings at the height of the peace process during the 90s, despite Israel’s willingness to make unprecedented compromises which would have resolved the conflict with the Palestinians. Apr 6,1994 – Afula: 8 killed in a car-bomb attack on a bus. Apr 13,1994 – Hadera: 5 killed in a suicide bombing on a bus at the central bus station. Oct 9,1994 – Bir Nabala: Nahshon Waxman was kidnapped and taken to Bir Nabala,where he was killed 5 days later by the terrorists during a rescue operation. An officer from the rescue team was also killed. Oct 19,1994 – T Aviv: 21 Israelis and 1 Dutch el national killed in a suicide bombing on the #5 bus. Nov 11,1994 – Netzarim: 3 soldiers killed by a suicide bomber riding a bicycle. Jan 22,1995 – Netanya: 18 soldiers and 1 civilian killed by two consecutive bombs at the Beit Lid junction.

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TERROR MAPS

Apr 9,1995 – Kfar Darom: 7 Israelis and 1 American killed when an explosives-laden van collided with a bus. July 24,1995 – Ramat Gan: 6 killed in a suicide bomb attack on a bus. Aug 21,1995 – Jerusalem: 3 Israelis and 1 American killed in a suicide bomb attack on a bus. suicide bombing of bus #18 near the central bus station. Feb 25, 1996 – Jerusalem: 26 killed in a suicide bombing of bus #18 near the central bus station. Feb 25,1996 – Ashkelon: 1 Israeli killed by a suicide bomber at a hitchhiking post. Mar 3,1996 – Jerusalem: 19 killed in a suicide bombing of bus #18 on Jaffa Road. Mar 4,1996 – T Aviv: 13 killed when a suicide el bomber detonated a 20-kg. (44 lb.) nail bomb outside Dizengoff Center. Mar 13,1997 – Naharayim: 7 killed and 30 injured in a shooting attack by a Jordanian soldier at the "Island of Peace". Mar 21,1997 – T Aviv: 3 killed and 48 wounded by a el suicide bomber on the terrace of a cafe. Apr 10,1997 – Surif: The body of Staff Sgt. Sharon Edri is found in the village near Hebron. Edri had

been kidnapped in Sep 1996 at a hitchhiking stand in the center of the country and was shot. Apr 25,1997 – Wadi Kelt: The bodies of two 23 yearold women were found in the nature reserve near Jerusalem. They were killed by a Bedouin resident of the area. July 20,1997 – Rishon Lezion: A Palestinian attacked 2 Israelis with an iron rod. One of the Israelis later died of his wounds. July 30,1997 – Jerusalem: 16 killed and 178 wounded by two consecutive suicide bombings in the Mahane Yehuda market. Sep 4,1997 – Jerusalem: 5 killed and 181 wounded by three suicide bombings on the Ben-Yehuda pedestrian mall. Nov 19,1997 – Jerusalem: 1 Israeli killed and 1 wounded when terrorists fired at them from an ambush in the Old City. Aug 27,1998 – T Aviv: 14 injured by a bomb placed el in a garbage dumpster. Oct 29,1998 – Kfar Darom: 1 soldier killed when an explosives-laden car collided with an army jeep escorting a bus with 40 elementary school students. Nov 6,1998 – Jerusalem: 21 wounded by a car bomb at the Mahane Yehuda market.

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TERROR MAPS

MAJOR TERROR ATTACKS 2000–2005
Over 1000 people were murdered and thousands injured in attacks carried out by Palestinian terrorists since late September 2000. Due to Israel's anti-terrorist fence and operations carried out by Israeli security forces, the number of terrorist attacks and victims has significantly decreased during the last year. Nov 2, 2000 – Jerusalem: T people were killed and wo 10 injured by a car bomb explosion near the Mahane Yehuda market. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack. Nov 20, 2000 – Gush Katif: T people were killed wo and 9 injured by a roadside bomb that exploded alongside a bus carrying children to school. Nov 22, 2000 – Hadera: T people were killed, and wo 60 wounded when a powerful car bomb was detonated alongside a passing bus on the town's main street. Nov 28, 2000 – Kfar Saba: T Israeli teenagers on wo their way to school were killed in a suicide terrorist attack near the "Meeting Place of Peace" gas station in Neve Yamin. The bomber, from the Hamas terror group, blew himself up in a gathering of

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TERROR MAPS

students waiting at a bus stop. Four other teenagers were wounded, one critically. Jan 1, 2001 – Netanya: 60 people were injured when a car bomb exploded near a bus stop in the shopping district. Feb 14, 2001 – Holon: Eight people were killed and 25 injured when a bus driven by a Palestinian terrorist plowed into a group of soldiers and civilians waiting at a bus stop. Mar 4, 2001 – Netanya: Three people were killed and more than 60 injured in a suicide bombing in the downtown area. May 18, 2001 – Netanya: A Palestinian suicide bomber detonated himself outside a shopping mall, killing five people and injuring over 100. Hamas claimed responsibility. June 1, 2001 – T Aviv: 21 young people were killed el and 120 wounded by a suicide bomber outside the Dolphinarium disco along the seafront promenade. July 16, 2001 – Binyamina: T Israeli soldiers were wo killed and 11 people were wounded when a suicide terrorist attacked at a bus stop near the train station. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility. Aug 9, 2001 – Jerusalem: 15 people were killed (including 7 children) and 130 injured in a suicide

bombing at the Sbarro pizzeria on the corner of King George Street and Jaffa Road in the city center. Hamas and the Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack. Sept 9, 2001 – Nahariya: Three people were killed and 90 injured in a suicide bombing near the Nahariya train station. The terrorist waited until the train arrived from T Aviv and people were el exiting the station, and then exploded the bomb he was carrying. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. Nov 29, 2001 – Hadera: Three people were killed and nine others wounded in a suicide bombing on Egged bus #823 en route from Nazareth to T Aviv near the city of Hadera. Islamic Jihad el and Fatah both claimed responsibility for the attack. Dec 1, 2001 – Jerusalem: 11 people were killed and 180 injured by two suicide bombers on Ben Yehuda Street's pedestrian mall. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. Dec 2, 2001 – Haifa: 15 people were killed and 40 injured in a suicide bombing on Egged bus #16. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. Jan 27, 2002 – Jerusalem: An elderly man was killed and over 150 people wounded in a suicide bombing on Jaffa Road in the center of

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TERROR MAPS

Jerusalem. A female terrorist, identified as a Fatah member, was armed with more than 10 kilos of explosives. Feb 16, 2002 – Karnei Shomron: Three teenagers were killed and 30 people were wounded when a suicide bomber blew himself up on Saturday night at a pizzeria in a shopping mall. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine claimed responsibility for the attack. Mar 2, 2002 – Jerusalem: 10 people were killed and over 50 injured in a suicide bombing in the ultraOrthodox Beit Yisrael neighborhood where people had gathered for a bar-mitzvah celebration. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade took responsibility for the attack. Mar 9, 2002 – Jerusalem: 11 people were killed and 54 injured when a suicide bomber exploded in the crowded Moment Café in the Rehavia neighborhood. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. Mar 20, 2002 – Musmus: Seven people were killed and 30 wounded in a suicide bombing of an Egged bus traveling from T Aviv to Nazareth at the Musmus el junction on Highway 65 (Wadi Ara). Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack. Mar 21, 2002 – Jerusalem: Three people were killed and 86 injured in a suicide bombing on King George Street. The terrorist detonated the bomb,

packed with metal spikes and nails, in the center of a crowd of shoppers. The Fatah al-Aqsa Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. Mar 27, 2002 – Netanya: 30 people were killed and 140 injured in a suicide bombing at the Park Hotel, in the midst of the Passover holiday seder with 250 guests. The bomber was a member of Hamas and on the list of wanted terrorists Israel had requested that the Palestinian Authority arrest. Mar 29, 2002 – Jerusalem: T people were killed wo and 28 injured when a female suicide bomber blew herself up in a supermarket in the Kiryat Yovel neighborhood. Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. Mar 31, 2002 – Haifa: 15 people were killed and over 40 injured in a suicide bombing in the Matza restaurant near the Grand Canyon shopping mall. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. Apr 10, 2002 – Kibbutz Yagur: Eight people were killed and 22 injured in a suicide bombing on Egged bus #960 en route from Haifa to Jerusalem. Apr 12, 2002 – Jerusalem: Six people were killed and 104 wounded when a woman suicide bomber detonated a powerful charge at the entrance to the Mahane Yehuda open-air market. The Fatah AlAqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack.

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TERROR MAPS

Apr 27, 2002 – Adora: A five-year-old girl and three other Israelis were killed when terrorists infiltrated the community of Adora in the southern Hebron hills and shot them to death. May 7, 2002 – Rishon Lezion: 16 people were killed and 55 wounded on the 3rd floor of a crowded game club when a suicide bomber detonated a powerful charge causing part of the building to collapse. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. May 19, 2002 – Netanya: Three people were killed and 59 injured when a suicide bomber disguised as a soldier blew himself up in a market. Both Hamas and the PFLP took responsibility for the attack. May 23, 2002 – T Aviv: T el errorists used a remote control device to detonate a bomb planted underneath a fuel truck at the Pi Glilot fuel depot north of T Aviv, in an attempt to create a el mega- attack that would explode adjacent fuel tanks. The truck burst into flames, but the blaze was quickly contained. No one was hurt. May 27, 2002 – Petah Tikva: A woman and her infant granddaughter were killed and 37 people were injured when a suicide bomber detonated himself near an ice cream parlor outside a shopping mall. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack.

June 5, 2002 – Megiddo junction: 17 people were killed and 38 injured when a car packed with explosives struck Egged bus #830 traveling from T Aviv to Tiberias. Islamic Jihad claimed el responsibility for the attack. June 18, 2002 – Jerusalem: 19 people were killed and 74 injured in a suicide bombing on an Egged bus traveling in the Gilo suburb of Jerusalem to the center of town. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. June 19, 2002 – Jerusalem: Seven people were killed and 30 injured by a suicide bombing at a crowded bus stop and hitchhiking post in the French Hill neighborhood. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. July 16, 2002 – Emmanuel: Nine people were killed and 20 injured in a bombing and shooting attack on Dan bus #189 traveling from Bnei Brak. While four terror organizations claimed responsibility for the attack, it was apparently carried out by Hamas. July 17, 2002 – T Aviv: Five people were killed el and 40 injured in a double suicide bombing on Neve Shaanan Street near the old central bus station.

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TERROR MAPS

July 31, 2002 – Jerusalem: Five students were killed and 85 wounded when a bomb exploded in a cafeteria on the Hebrew University's Mt. Scopus campus. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. Aug 4, 2002 – Meron Junction: Nine people were killed and 50 wounded in a suicide bombing on an Egged bus traveling from Haifa to Safed. Sep 19, 2002 – T Aviv: Six people were killed and el 70 wounded when a terrorist detonated a bomb on Dan bus #4 on Allenby Street. Oct 21, 2002 – Hadera: 14 people were killed and 50 wounded when a car bomb detonated next to an Egged bus traveling north of the town on Route 65. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack. Oct 27, 2002 – Ariel: Three IDF officers were killed and about 20 people were wounded in a suicide bombing at the Sonol gas station at the entrance to the city. The victims were killed while trying to prevent the terrorist from detonating the bomb. The terrorist was a member of Hamas. Nov 4, 2002 – Kfar Saba: T people: – a security wo guard and a teenage boy, both recent immigrants from Argentina – were killed and 70 were wounded in a suicide bombing at a shopping

mall. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack. Nov 10, 2002 – Metzer: A Palestinian terrorist slipped into the kibbutz and gunned down five people, including two children killed in their beds as they hid under the blankets and their mother. The Fatah al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility. Nov 21, 2002 – Jerusalem: 11 people were killed and 50 wounded by a suicide bomber on Egged bus #20 in the neighborhood of Kiryat Menahem. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. Nov. 28, 2002 – Mombasa, Kenya: A car bomb crashed into an Israeli-owned resort and detonated as guests were checking in. Three Israelis were among the 13 killed, and 21 Israelis were among the 80 injured. Almost simultaneously, a surface-to-air missile barely missed an El Al plane as it was taking off from the airport. Al-Qaeda is believed to be responsible for the double attack. Jan 5, 2003 – T Aviv: 22 people were killed and el 120 wounded in a double suicide bombing near the old central bus station. The attack was apparently carried out by two members of the Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, with the help of the Islamic Jihad.

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TERROR MAPS

Mar 5, 2003 – Haifa: 17 people were killed and 53 wounded in a suicide bombing of an Egged bus in the Carmel neighborhood. Hamas claimed responsibility for the att ack. Apr 30, 2003 – T Aviv: Three people were killed el and 60 wounded by a British Muslim suicide bomber, sent by Hamas, at a beachfront pub "Mike's Place." May 17, 2003 – Hebron: A married couple from Kiryat Arba was killed by a terrorist. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. May 18, 2003 – Jerusalem: Seven people were killed and 20 wounded in a suicide bombing on Egged bus #6 near French Hill. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. May 19, 2003 – Afula: Three people were killed and 70 wounded in a suicide bombing at the entrance to a shopping mall. Islamic Jihad and Fatah AlAqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. June 11, 2003 – Jerusalem: 17 people were killed and over 100 wounded in a suicide bombing on an Egged bus on Jaffa Road in the city center. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. Aug 19, 2003 – Jerusalem: 23 people were killed and over 130 wounded when a suicide bomber

detonated himself on Egged bus #2 in the Shmuel Hanavi neighborhood. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. Sep 9, 2003 – Tzrifin: Eight IDF soldiers were killed and 30 people wounded in a suicide bombing at a soldier hitchhiking post outside the Tzrifin army base and Assaf Harofeh Hospital. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. Sep 9, 2003 – Jerusalem: Seven people were killed and over 50 wounded in a suicide bombing at Café Hillel, in the German Colony neighborhood. Oct 4, 2003 – Haifa: 22 people were killed and 60 wounded in a devastating suicide bombing of the Maxim restaurant. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack. Dec 25, 2003 – Geha Junction: Four Israelis were killed and 15 others were injured, when a suicide bomber detonated himself at a bus stop at an intersection of a main highway separating Bnei Brak and Petach Tikva. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine claimed responsibility. Jan 14, 2004 – Erez Crossing, Gaza: A female suicide bomber detonated herself at an inspection point at the entrance to the Erez industrial zone, killing 4 Israeli security personnel and injuring

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TERROR MAPS

several others. Hamas and Fatah claimed joint responsibility for the attack. Jan 29, 2004 – Jerusalem: Eleven people were killed and over 40 were wounded when a suicide bomber blew up on a #19 bus on Gaza Road. The bomber was a Palestinian policeman from Bethlehem. Both Hamas and the Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility. Feb 22, 2004 – Jerusalem: 8 people were killed and over 60 wounded (among the casualties were a number of school pupils) in a suicide bombing on bus #14A near the Liberty Bell Park. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility. Feb 26, 2004 – Erez Crossing, Gaza: A soldier was killed and two were wounded when two Palestinian terrorists opened fire. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility. Feb 27, 2004 – Lahav: A young couple was killed in a shooting attack on the road on their way to Ashkelon. The PFLP and the Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility. Mar 14, 2004 – Ashdod: 10 people were killed and 16 wounded in a double suicide bombing at Ashdod Port. Hamas and Fatah claimed responsibility.

Mar 19, 2004 – Jerusalem: A Christian Arab was shot to death from a vehicle while jogging in the neighborhood of French Hill. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility. Apr 3, 2004 – Avnei Hefetz: A man was shot to death and his 14 year old daughter was wounded in an attack on their home. Hamas claimed responsibility. Apr 17, 2004 – Erez Crossing, Gaza: A border policeman was killed and three others wounded when a Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up. Hamas and the Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility. May 2, 2004 – Gush Katif: A mother and her four young daughters were killed, and another civilian and two soldiers were wounded, when two Palestinian terrorists opened fire on a car. Fatah and Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility. June 28, 2004 – Sderot: A man and a 4 year old boy were killed, and 7 others were wounded (including the boy’s mother) during a Kassam rocket attack on Sderot. Hamas claimed responsibility. July 11, 2004 – T Aviv: A young woman was killed el and 33 people were wounded in a bombing at a bus stop. The Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility.

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TERROR MAPS

Aug 31, 2004 – Beer Sheba: Sixteen people were killed and 100 wounded in two nearly simultaneous suicide bombings aboard two city buses. Hamas in Hebron claimed responsibility. Sep 22, 2004 – Jerusalem: 2 Border Policemen were killed and 17 Israelis wounded in a suicide bombing carried out by a female terrorist at the French Hill junction in northern Jerusalem. The Fatah al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility. Sep 24, 2004 – Gush Katif: A woman was killed in her home during a mortar attack launched by terrorists. Sep 29, 2004 – Sderot: 2 toddlers were killed, while playing in the street, by a Kassam rocket fired from Gaza. Hamas claimed responsibility. Oct 7, 2004 – Sinai: 32 people were killed, 12 of them Israelis, and over 120 were wounded during simultaneous terror bombings carried out at two Sinai holiday resorts. Nov 1, 2004 – T Aviv: 3 people were killed and over el 30 wounded in a suicide bombing at the Carmel Market in central T Aviv. The Popular Front for el the Liberation of Palestine in Nablus claimed responsibility. Jan 13, 2005 – Karni Crossing, Gaza: Palestinian

terrorists opened fire at Israeli civilians, killing 6 and wounding 5. Hamas and the Fatah al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade claimed responsibility. Jan 15, 2005 – Sderot: A 17 year old girl was mortally wounded by shrapnel from a Kassem rocket and died several days later. She was struck while protecting her younger brother, who was lightly wounded. Feb 25, 2005 – T Aviv: 5 people were killed and 50 el wounded when a suicide bomber blew himself up outside the Stage Club on the T Aviv el promenade. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack. July 12, 2005 – Netanya: 3 people were killed and about 90 people were wounded when a suicide bomber struck at the Hasharon shopping mall. T other people later succumbed to their wo wounds. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility. July 14, 2005 – Netiv Ha’asara: A woman was killed by a Kassem rocket fired from the Gaza Strip. Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Fatah all claimed responsibility. July 23, 2005 – Kissufim Crossing: A married couple was killed in a terrorist attack. Islamic Jihad and the Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility.

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TERROR MAPS

Oct 16, 2005 – Gush Etzion Junction, south of Jerusalem: 3 people were killed and three were wounded in a Palestinian shooting attack. A teenager was shot and seriously wounded further north. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility. Oct 26, 2005 – Hadera: 5 people were killed and 55 were wounded, six seriously (one person later died of her wounds) in a suicide bombing at the Hadera open-air market. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility. Dec 5, 2005 – Netanya: 5 people were killed and over 50 were wounded in a suicide bombing at the entrance to the Hasharon shopping mall. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.

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TERROR MAPS

ISRAEL’S SECURITY FENCE VS. TERRORISM
Israel’s construction of the antiterrorist security fence was undertaken due to the Palestinian Authority’s failure to fight terrorism. The fence is a defensive, temporary, and passive measure against terrorism: in those areas where the fence has already been completed, terrorism has dropped dramatically. About 97% of the fence consists of a chain-link early warning system against terrorist infiltrations: less than 3% of the fence consists of a concrete barrier. In keeping with the rulings of Israel’s Supreme Court, in order to avoid causing unnecessary hardship to Palestinian civilians while defending the lives of Israeli civilians, Jew and Arab alike, Israel’s government decided on February 20, 2005 on the current planned route of the fence.

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THREATS & TOPOGRAPHY

Iran Syria

REGIONAL THREATS TO ISRAEL

Iraq
SHIHAB-3: 10 min to Israel

Lebanon

SCUD: Can reach all parts of Israel in 1 min

P. A.

H3 AIRBASE (The threats from Iraq existed until the U.S. led operation against Saddam Hussein’s regime).
FIGHTER PLANE: 30 min to Haifa

Israel

Jordan

SCUD: 6 min to Tel Aviv

TABUG
FIGHTER PLANE: 15 min to Eilat

Saudi Arabia Egypt
0 300 km 300 mi

0

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THREATS & TOPOGRAPHY

SAMARIAN HIGHLANDS CROSS SECTION
Mt. Eval

Kalkilya Nablus

n sectio cross

Herziliya Tel Aviv
Sea of Galilee

Jordan

Jordan

Jerusalem

radar coverage from the coastal area

radar coverage from mountain ridge near Nablus

1000 m
Mt. Eval: 940 m

500
Nablus

200
Kalkilya Herzliya Jordan - Israel armistice line 1949-1967 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 km Jordan River

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THREATS & TOPOGRAPHY

ISRAEL’S NARROW WAISTLINE
Between the years 1949 and 1967, the Kingdom of Jordan ruled the Judea/Samaria highlands. Israel’s ‘waistline’ in the Sharon region was extremely narrow, totaling a mere 15 km. (9 mi.) in the area of T ulkarm and Netanya. These were cease-fire lines rather than permanent borders, and were considered to be indefensible, especially in light of the area’s topography, which left Israel in the plains while the Arab armies controlled the dominating high ground. The Israeli Foreign Minister at that time, Abba Eban, used to describe these lines as ‘Auschwitz boundaries’, in order to illustrate the dangers inherent in their continued use.

53

THREATS & TOPOGRAPHY

GOLAN HEIGHTS CROSS SECTION
The Golan Heights are strategically important for several reasons: (a) Israeli presence in the Golan Heights provides a defensible border against invasion by land; (b) All of northern Israel is within range of direct artillery fire from the Golan Heights; (c) The Heights control the main water sources of the State of Israel.

Safed

Golan Heights

ss cros

ectio

n
Tiberias

Sea of Galilee

Syria

Jordan

Golan Heights Upper Syrian Base Lower Galilee
sea level

Sea of Galilee
- 212 m:

Tiberias

0

10

20

30

40

50 km

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THREATS & TOPOGRAPHY

KASSAM AND KATYUSHA THREAT
Israel is the only country in the world that lives under the shadow of an ongoing and publicly declared threat against its very existence – a threat which has warranted almost no international attention or reaction. The threat against Israel emanating from Iran comes in addition to Israel’s vulnerability to shortrange artillery rockets, which have struck its territory in the past and continue to do so in the present. During the 70s-90s, Kiryat Shmona and other localities in northern Israel faced numerous Katyusha rocket attacks. The most tangible threats stem from the Katyusha rockets launched by terrorist groups from within Lebanon (Hizbullah and various Palestinian factions) capable of striking throughout northern Israel, and the Kassam rockets which are currently limited to the Gaza Strip and have a range of about 9 kilometers. Palestinian acquisition of Katyusha rockets would threaten Israel’s entire population.

Sderot

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SIZE COMPARISONS

ISRAEL – ARGENTINA

ISRAEL – AUSTRALIA

The area of Israel (land area) in the maps includes the Golan Heights and Jerusalem

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SIZE SIZE COMPARISONS

ISRAEL – CANADA

ISRAEL – CHINA

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SIZE COMPARISONS

ISRAEL – FRANCE

ISRAEL – GERMANY

The area of Israel (land area) in the maps includes the Golan Heights and Jerusalem

58

SIZE COMPARISONS

ISRAEL – INDIA

ISRAEL – ITALY

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SIZE COMPARISONS

ISRAEL – MEXICO

ISRAEL – POLAND

The area of Israel (land area) in the maps includes the Golan Heights and Jerusalem

60

SIZE COMPARISONS

ISRAEL – RUSSIA

ISRAEL – SPAIN

61

SIZE COMPARISONS

ISRAEL – UNITED KINGDOM

ISRAEL – UNITED STATES

The area of Israel (land area) in the maps includes the Golan Heights and Jerusalem

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