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CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


4.1 GENERAL
In this chapter, results obtained from various tests conducted on concrete specimens
cast with and without marble powder have been presented. The main objective of this
study is to understand the strength and durability aspects of concrete obtained using
marble powder as partial replacement for cement In order to achieve the objective of
present study, an experimental program was planned to investigate the effect of on
compressive strength of concrete. The experimental program consists of casting,
curing and testing cubes and cylinders with and without cement at the age of 7, 14, 21
and 28 days.
The experimental program included the following.
4.2

MATERIAL TESTING

The results of various tests conducted on material used for the concrete are described
below.

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Table 4.1: Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates


Total Weight of Oven Dried Sample: 1000 Grams
ASTM
Sieve No.

Size
(mm)

Wt.
Retained
(Grams)

Cumulative
Wt. Retained
(Grams)

%
Retained

"

9.52 mm

100

100

#4

4.76 mm

35

35

3.5

96.5

95 - 100

#8

2.40 mm

132

167

16.7

83.3

#16

1.19 mm

118

285

28.5

71.5

45 - 85

#30

0.69 mm

124

409

40.9

59.1

#50

0.30 mm

298

707

70.7

29.3

010 - 030

204

911

91.1

8.9

02 - 010

61

972

97.2

2.8

0 - 03

#100
#200

0.149
mm
0.074
mm

%
Specification
Passing

Fineness Modulus (FM) = 2.514


Table 4.2: Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregates
Total Weight of Sample (Oven Dried): 5000 Grams
Size (mm)

Wt. Retained
(Grams)

Cumulative Wt.
Retained
(Grams)

% Retained

% Passing

38.1 mm

100

1"

25.4 mm

200

200

3.5

96.0

"

19.1 mm

3435

3635

16.7

27.3

"

12.7 mm

1265

4900

28.5

2.0

"

9.52 mm

65

4965

40.9

0.7

ASTM
Sieve No.

Table 4.3: Specific Gravity of Fine Aggregate by density bottle method


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S.No.

Container No.

Wt. of empty density bottle W1 (g)

135

135

135

Wt. of bottle + oven dried fine


aggregate W2 (g)

640

650

652

Wt. of bottle + fine aggregate+


water W3 (g)

955

960

961

655

655

655

2.46

2.45

2.45

Wt. of bottle + water W4 ( g)


Specific gravity (G) =
W 2W 1
( W 2W 1 ) ( W 3 W 4 )

Average specific gravity (G) at 270C = 2.453

Table 4.4: Water absorption Coarse aggregates

S.No.
1
2

Determination
number
Wt of saturated
surface dried sample
in gm(W1)
Wt of oven dried
sample in gm (W2)
Water absorption =
(W2-W1)/W2 x100

2509

2617

3002

2404

2528

2875

4.36%

3.52%

4.32%

Average value of water absorption = 4.07%

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Table 4.5: Consistency of Cement (O.P.C Produced by Maple Leaf)


Wt. of cement

Wt: of water (gms)

Consistency

(gm)

= Wt of cement x W/C ratio

(mm)

0.28

650

182

0.3

650

195

15

0.29

650

188.5

11

S.N

W/C

ratio

As the range of Normal consistency is 10-15 mm


Therefore, in above observations, we have taken 0.29 W/C ratio which results 11 mm
consistency.
4.3

TESTS ON FRESH/PLASTIC CONCRETE

Slump Values of fresh concrete with and without marble powder replacement are
given in table 4.6.
Table 4.6: Slump values of Concrete with and without replacement of cement
with marble powder
S.No.
1
2
3
4
5

4.4

Percentage (%) Replaced by marble powder


0%
5%
10%
15%
20%

TEST FOR HARDENED CONCRETE

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Average slump value (inches)


3.0
3.4
3.6
3.3
3.8

Compressive strength studies were carried out on concrete with varying proportions
of marble powder replacement at the age of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Test results are
given below in Tables 4.7, 4.8, 4.9 and 4.10 respectively and graphical representations
of calculated results are also shown in Figures 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 respectively.
Table 4.7: Calculation sheet for Compressive Strength of Concrete with 0%
replacement
Average Compressive Strength
(psi)

Compressive Strength (psi)


Mix

Normal

7 days

14 days

21 days

28 days

3645.3

3961

5196.8

5122

3305

4147

4538.8

4401

3512.6

4021

4419.2

4610

7 days

14 days

21 days

28 days

3487.63

4043

4718.26

4711

5000
4500
4000
3500

Compressive Strength (psi)

3000
2500
2000
1500

3487.63

4043

4718.26

4711

21

28

1000
500
0
7

14

Days

Fig. 4.1: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of Normal Concrete


without replacement
Table 4.8: Calculation sheet for Compressive Strength of Concrete with 5%
replacement
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Compressive Strength (psi)


Mix

5%

Average Compressive Strength


(psi)

7 days

14 days

21 days

28 days

3900.47

4297.68

5666.07

5627.54

3536.35

4499.49

4948.6

4835.37

3758.48

4362.78

4848.25

5065.01

7 days

14 days

21 days

28 days

3731.76

4386.65

5154.30

5175.9
7

6000
5000
4000

Compressive Strength (psi)

3000
2000

3731.76

5154.3

5175.97

21

28

4386.65

1000
0
7

14

Days

Fig. 4.2: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of Concrete with 5%


replacement of cement with marble powder

Table 4.9: Calculation sheet for Compressive Strength of Concrete with 10%
replacement
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Compressive Strength (psi)

Average Compressive Strength


(psi)

Mix
7
days

10%

14
days

21
days

28
days

4035.34

4439.88

5892.65

5839.08

3658.63

4648.37

5146.54

5017.14

3888.44

4507.13

5010.93

5255.4

7
days

14
days

3860.8

4531.79

21
days

5350.04

28
days

5370.54

6000

5000

4000

Compressive Strength (psi)

3000

2000

5350.04

5370.54

21

28

4531.79
3860.8

1000

0
7

14

Days

Fig. 4.3: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of Concrete with 10%


replacement of cement with marble powder

Table 4.10: Calculation sheet for Compressive Strength of Concrete with 15%
replacement
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Average Compressive Strength


(psi)

Compressive Strength (psi)


Mix

15%

7 days

14 days

21 days

28 days

3463.03

3708.68

4781.05

4659.99

3139.75

3882.83

4175.69

4604.02

3336.97

3764.86

4065.66

4194.17

7 days

14 days

21 days

28 days

3313.25

3785.45

4340.8

4486.06

5000
4500
4000
3500
3000

Compressive Strength (psi)

2500
2000
1500

3313.25

4340.8

4486.06

21

28

3785.45

1000
500
0
7

14

Days

Fig. 4.4: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of Concrete with 15%


replacement of cement with marble powder

Table 4.11: Calculation sheet for Compressive Strength of Concrete with 20%
replacement

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Compressive Strength (psi)


Mix

20%

Average Compressive Strength (psi)

7 days

14 days

21 days

28 days

3171.41

3414.77

4457.29

4397.30

2875.35

3575.12

3892.92

3830.56

3055.96

3466.50

3790.34

3943.74

7 days

14 days

21 days

28 days

3034.24

3485.46

4046.85

4057.2

4500
4000
3500
3000
2500

Compressive Strength (psi) 2000


1500

3034.24

4046.85

4057.2

21

28

3485.46

1000
500
0
7

14

Days

Fig. 4.5: Graphical Representation of Compressive Strength of Concrete with 15%


replacement of cement with marble powder

Table 4.12: Summary of Compressive strength of concrete mixes of specimen having size (
different replacement %ages by marble powder
Compressive Strength (Psi)
Average
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Replacement
Percentage

10
15

20

7 days

14 days

21 days

28 days

3645.3
3305

3961
4147

5196.8
4538.8

5122
4401

3512.6

4021

4419.2

4610

3900.47
3536.35
3758.48
4035.34
3658.63
3888.44
3463.03
3139.75
3336.97
3171.41
2875.35
3055.96

4297.68
4499.49
4362.78
4439.88
4648.37
4507.13
3708.68
3882.83
3764.86
3414.77
3575.12
3466.50

5666.07
4948.6
4848.25
5892.65
5146.54
5010.93
4781.05
4175.69
4065.66
4457.29
3892.92
3790.34

5627.54
4835.37
5065.01
5839.08
5017.14
5255.4
4659.99
4604.02
4194.17
4397.30
3830.56
3943.74

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7 days

3487.63

40

3731.76

438

3860.8

453

3313.25

378

3034.24

348

Table 4.13: Average Compressive strength Concrete with various


replacement percentages of marble powder with cement at the age of 7 days
Replacement

Average compressive strength (Psi)

0%

3487.63

5%

3731.76

10%

3860.8

15%

3313.25

20%

3034.24

Compressive Strength (Psi)

4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

3487.63

3731.763860.8

3313.25
3034.24

Replacement

Fig 4.6: Graphical Representation of average Compressive Strength of Concrete


with various replacement percentages of marble powder with cement at the age
of 7 days

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Table 4.14: Average Compressive strength Concrete with various


replacement percentages of marble powder with cement at the age of 14
days
Replacement

Average compressive strength (Psi)

0%

4043

5%

4386.65

10%

4531.79

15%

3785.45

20%

3485.46

Compressive Strength (Psi)

5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

4043

4386.654531.79
3785.45
3485.46

Replacement

Fig. 4.7: Graphical Representation of average Compressive Strength of Concrete


with various replacement percentages of marble powder with cement at the age
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of 14 day
Table 4.15: Average Compressive strength Concrete with various
replacement percentages of marble powder with cement at the age of 21
days
Replacement

Average compressive strength (Psi)

0%

4718.26

5%

5154.30

10%

5350.04

15%

4340.8

20%

4046.85

6000
5000
4000

5154.3 5350.04
4718.26
4340.8

4046.85

3000
2000

Compressive Strength (Psi)

1000
0

Replacement

Fig. 4.8: Graphical Representation of average Compressive Strength of


Concrete with various replacement percentages of marble powder with cement
at the age of 21 days
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Table 4.16: Average Compressive strength Concrete with various


replacement percentages of marble powder with cement at the age of 28
days
Replacement

Average compressive strength (Psi)

0%

4711

5%

5175.97

10%

5370.54

15%

4486.06

20%

4057.2

6000
5000

4711

4000

5175.975370.54
4486.06
4057.2

3000
2000

Compressive Strength (Psi)

1000
0

Replacement

Fig. 4.9: Graphical Representation of average Compressive Strength of


Concrete with various replacement percentages of marble powder with cement
at the age of 28 days
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