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MGT3101 Exam #3 Study Guide

Teams
Chapter(s) covered in the textbook: 11 & 12
Groups vs Individuals
Group accuracy score
Team ranking-Expert ranking
sum of numbers in group accuracy column
Individual accuracy scores
Personal ranking-Expert ranking
sum of numbers in personal accuracy column
Purpose
To compare the effectiveness and process of making decisions as individuals vs
groups
On average, teams come up with better solutions than individuals
but not always!
When might individuals outperform groups?
When individual is an expert on something.
Teams
Define - two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to
accomplish common goals related to some task-oriented purpose.
Types
Work teams
relatively permanent team that produces goods or provides services and
generally requires a fulltime commitment from its members.
Some work teams may be more self-managed (they organize themselves)
Management teams
similar to work teams but deal with managerial-level tasks that affect the entire
organization by coordinating the activities of organizational subunits (divisions or
functional areas
E.g., top management team
Parallel teams
members from various jobs who provide recommendations to
managers about important issues that run parallel to the
organization's production process. Require only part-time
commitment from members, can be permanent or temporary
Project teams
formed to take on one-time tasks that are generally complex
and require a lot of input from members with different types of

training and expertise. Project lengths can vary from a few


months to years and part-time or full-time commitment.
E.g., Building planning team
Action teams
Perform tasks that are normally limited in duration but are quite complex and
take place in contexts that are either highly visible to an audience or of a highly
challenging nature. Some may work together for an extended period of time
E.g., Surgical teams, sport teams, aircraft flight crews, bands.

Tuckmans stages of development: (very linear; proceeds step-by-step completing the


first step before the next)
Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning

Whats happening at each stage?


Forming members orient themselves by trying to understand
the boundaries in the team, what is expected of them, what
types of behaviors are out of bounds, and whos in charge.
Storming members remain committed to ideas they bring
with them to the team, which can cause conflict
Norming members realize they need to work together to
accomplish goals and begin to cooperate. Feelings of solidarity,
team norms, roles, and expectations develop.
Performing members are comfortable working with their roles
and the team makes progress toward goals.
adjourning members experience anxiety and other emotions
as they disengage and ultimately separate from the team.

Punctuated equilibrium (less linear and seemingly less rational)


Forming and Pattern Creation, Inertia, Punctuated Equilibrium, Process Revision,
Inertia

Whats happening at each stage?


Members first make assumptions and establish a pattern of
behavior - then, midway, they realize that they have to change

the way they work to finish on time. Thus, they adopt a new
approach and settle into this framework until the task is
completed
Task Interdependence
Define, what are the three different kinds of interdependence?
definition - Members of a team can be linked to (connected)
each other several ways:
Task interdependence
Goal interdependence
Outcome interdependence
For task interdependence, what are the different kinds?
definition - Refers to the degree to which team members
interact with and rely on each other for the information,
materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the
team.
Pooled / additive

Sequential

Reciprocal

comprehensive

What is goal interdependence?


Refers to the degree to which team members have a shared
vision of the teams goal and align their individual goals with that
vision.
Can increase this with mission statements to make sure
everyone is on the same page.
What is outcome interdependence?
Refers to the degree to which team members share in the
rewards (or punishments) that the team earns (e.g., pay,
bonuses, recognition, etc).
Helps prevent the potential negative effects of diversity
because it gives a sense of common fate (more on diversity in
the next section).
What are the implications of greater interdependence amongst teams?
As interdependence increases
Greater potential for conflict arises
Turnover becomes more important
Increasing amounts of time communicating and coordinating with other
members to complete tasks
Silver lining: information sharing increases and you may be able to come up
with more creative solutions.
Team Composition
Define - the mix of people who make up the team. The teams make-up can differ
along several characteristics

Diversity (perspective)
Access-and-legitimacy perspective - cultural diversity is a
potentially valuable resource, but only to gain access to and
legitimacy with a diverse market. What your diverse colleague
wants you to know.
Discrimination-and-fairness perspective - cultural diversity is a
mechanism for ensuring equal opportunity, fair treatment, and
an end to discrimination; no link at all between cultural diversity
and the group's work and, in fact, espouses a colorblind strategy
for managing employees and employee relations. Another thing
your diverse colleague wants you to know.
o Surface vs. deep
Surface-level diversity observable attributes race,
ethnicity, sex, & age
Deep-level diversity diversity with respect to attributes
that are less easy to observe initially, but that can be
inferred after more direct experience (such as, attitudes,
values, and personality).
In the beginning of a teams life, surface level-diversity
is very important and surface-level differences
negatively affect performance. However, over time as
team members learn about one another, deep-level
diversity becomes more important (and surface level
diversity is far less important). These deep-level
differences negatively affect performance.
Outcome interdependence, mentioned earlier, can help
reduce possible negative effects of surface diversity.
Personality - which aspect of the FFM are important to teams?
Conscientiousness is again important for performance but
agreeableness is also very important in teams (because it leads
to cooperation and trust).
However, if a team is too agreeable, there is a chance that
the team will behave in a way that enhances harmony at the
expense of task accomplishment.
Ability - Disjunctive vs. Conjunctive vs. Additive
High ability is good
But depending on the task, the helpfulness of high ability can
vary for teams:
Disjunctive tasks tasks with an objectively verifiable best
solution (think trivia or math problems). The member with the
highest ability will be the most important.
Conjunctive tasks tasks in which the teams performance
depends on the abilities of the weakest link (think a pit crew or
telephone game). The lowest ability team member may be most
important.

Additive tasks all contributions of team members add up (i.e.,


sales team). All team members abilities are relevant
Roles
Team role is defined as the behavior a person is expected to display in the team
context.
3 roles:
Team task roles behaviors that directly facilitate the accomplishment of
team tasks
Team building roles behaviors that influence the quality of the teams
social climate
Individualistic roles behaviors that benefit the individual at the expense
of the team (putting people down, take credit for others work, etc.)

Evaluation of Team Effectiveness


Task performance
Member satisfaction
Team viability

Team Processes
Define - The different types of communication, activities, and interactions that
occur within teams that contribute to their ultimate end goals
Process gain?
Synergy/process gain getting more from the team than you
would expect according to the capabilities of its individual
members
Process loss? How?

Coordination loss Extra effort needed to integrate work


Production blocking members have to wait on one another
before they can do their part of the team task
Social loafing free riders
Taskwork Processes
Define - the activities of team members that relate directly to accomplishment of
the teams task
Different types of task work:
o Creative tasks
Whats better than brainstorming? Why?
Nominal Group Technique

Advantages:
Decreases social loafing
Decreases production blocking
Decreases evaluation apprehension (via anonymous ranking and
required contribution)
Disadvantage
Team cohesion tends to be lower because the structure minimizes
interaction
o Decision-making
3 factors:
Decision informity do members possess adequate
information (especially with respect to their own task
responsibilities)?
Staff validity degree to which members make good
recommendations
Hierarchical sensitivity does the team effectively weigh
the different recommendations of the team members to
come to a decision?
Increase these things to increase decision making effectiveness

o Boundary spanning
No team is an island; need to interact with other teams,
individuals, departments, etc.
Boundary spanning involves activities with individuals
and groups other than those who are considered part of
the team.
Activities at the interface between the team and
other parties
3 types of activities: what are they?
Ambassador activities communications that are intended to
protect the team, persuade others to support the team, or obtain
important resources for the team
Task coordinator activities communications that are intended to
coordinate task-related issues with people or groups in other
functional areas
Scout activities things team members do to obtain information
(about technology, competitors, or the broader market place).
Teamwork Processes
Definition - interpersonal activities that facilitate the accomplishment of the
teams work but do not directly involve task accomplishment itself
Three types of teamwork processes:

o Transition processes
Teamwork activities that focus on preparation for future
work
Analysis of: teams task, challenges that face the team,
resources available
Strategy formulation: action plans and contingency plans
Goals (development, prioritization, etc).
Transition processes occur before the team begins work and
in between periods of work activity
o Action processes
Action processes support the taskwork as it is being
accomplished
Monitoring progress toward goals
Keeping track of things that the team needs to
accomplish work
Helping behavior
Coordinating team member activities
Action processes occur during taskwork
o Interpersonal processes

Interpersonal processes are those that affect how team


members manage their relationships with one another.
Motivating the team by creating a sense of
optimism
Fostering a sense of emotional balance and unity
Managing conflict (task and relationship conflict)
Interpersonal processes are important before, during, and
in between periods of taskwork
Relationship conflict
disagreements among team members in terms of
interpersonal relationships or incompatibilities with
respect to person values or preferences. Not directly
connected to the teams task.
Dissatisfying to most people and tends to result in
reduced team performance
Task conflict - how do you get the benefits of it?
disagreements among members about the teams
task.
Can be beneficial to teams if it stimulates
conversations and results in sharpening of ideas
and/or development of new ideas
To get the benefits associated with task conflict: develop trust
within group, rationally evaluate the relative merits of each
position, prevent relationship conflict.
Team States
Define - specific types of feelings and thoughts that coalesce (i.e., emerge) in the
minds of team members as a consequence of their experience working together.
Types:
o Cohesion
Cohesion: affinity/liking for group members
(interpersonal glue)
Upside: positively related to performance and
satisfaction
Downside: dangerous as an end in and of itself
o Potency
Potency refers to the degree to which members believe that the team can be
effective across a variety of situations and task.
Team version of self esteem
Developed in teams that are confident in themselves and their
teammates, trust their teammates, and have past success.
o Mental Models
Mental models refer to the level of common
understanding among team members with regard to

important aspects of the team and its tasks. Can have


shared mental models with respect to:
Capabilities that members bring to the team
Processes the team needs to use to be effective
E.g., shared understanding of the most effective
way for the team to manage conflict
Stronger mental models (i.e., the more similar each members mental
model is to other members mental models) lead to better coordination,
more effective use of team members and better team performance.
Benefits of cross-training?
Cross-training: which involves training members in the duties and
responsibilities of their teammates
Personal clarification members simply receive
information regarding the roles of other team
members
Positional modeling team members observe how
other members perform their roles.
Positional rotation team members actually
experience carrying out the responsibilities of their
team mates
o Transactive Memory
Refers to how specialized knowledge is distributed
among members in a manner that results in an effective
system of memory for the team.
The team is kind of like a brain, where information/
knowledge is stored in different parts of the brain
(different members).
Not everyone has to remember/know everythingyou
just have to know who you can find the information from.
More developed transactive memory leads to better team performance.
However, it does put the team as risk when a member leaves and takes
the information along with them or when one person doesnt know their
information that well and causes the whole team to suffer (because
there is less data redundancy).

Leadership
Chapter(s) covered in the textbook: 13 & 14
Power
Define - the ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted
influence in return
Types of Power:

How do leaders derive their power from each type? How do these leaders conduct
themselves depending upon each typology?
o Legitimate
Derived from a position of authority inside the
organization formal authority
Understood they have the right to ask others to do
things
Guideline :
Make polite clear requests
Dont exceed scope
Insist on compliance if appropriate
o Reward
Based on the control of resources or benefits (e.g. raises,
desirable job assignments)
Those being influenced believe they will get the rewards
by behaving in a certain way
Guideline:
Offer rewards people desire
Fair & ethical rewards
Explain the criteria for giving rewards
o Coercive
When a person has control over punishments in an
organization (e.g. fire, demote, lower pay)
Primarily on the principle of fear
Guideline:
Explain rules & requirements and ensure people
understand the serious consequences of violations
Respond to infractions promptly & without favoritism
Provide ample warning
o Expert
Derives from a persons expertise, skill, knowledge on
which others depend
Guideline:
Provide evidence that a proposal will be successful
Dont make rash, careless, or inconsistent statements
Act confidently and decisively in a crisis
o Referent
When others have a desire to identify and be associated
with a person
Derived from affection, admiration, or loyalty
Guideline:
Show acceptance and positive regard
Act supportive & helpful
Make self-sacrifices to show concern

Keep promises
Influence
Define - The use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or attitudinal
changes in others
What are the most effective influence tactics?
Rational persuasion - Use of logical arguments and hard facts
Consultation - The target is allowed to participate in deciding
how to carry out or implement
Inspirational appeals - Designed to appeal to the targets
values & ideals
Collaboration - Leader helping complete the task, provide
required resources, or removing obstacles
Which are moderately effective?
Ingratiation use of favors, compliments, or friendly behavior
to make the target feel better about the influencer
Exchange when the requestor offers a reward or resource to
the target in return for performing
Personal appeals when the requestor asks for something
based on personal friendship or loyalty
Apprising requestor clearly explains why performing the
request will benefit the target personally
Which are the least effective
Pressure use of coercive power through threats and demands
Coalitions the influencer enlists other people to help influence
the target
Influence tactics tend to be most successful when used in combination
Many tactics have some limitations or weaknesses that
can be overcome using other tactics
Influence tactics that tend to be most successful are those at are softer in nature
Leadership
Define - The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers
toward goal achievement
There are several different approaches to understanding and describing effective
leadership: trait, leadership styles, leadership behavioral.
Trait
leadership emergence vs. leadership effectiveness
Max Weber was one of the first scholars to try to figure out
what made a leader effective.

Problems?
Traits are actually less predictive of leader effectiveness and more predictive of
leader emergence, (i.e., who becomes a leader or is seen as a leader).
There is no generalizable profile of effective leaders from a trait perspective
Its not based on what a leader does, but who a leader is, what theyre like.
Followers of charismatic/personable leaders sometimes become obsessed
with the leader
They dont really care about the organization or its goals they just care
about the leader. What happens if the leader leaves?
Does this mean that non-charismatic people (introverts?) cant be leaders?
This is less useful to us since about 50% of personality is based on genetics.
Does that mean we are stuck in the mud?
Leadership Styles
Types:
o Autocratic
Leader makes the decision alone without asking for the opinions or
suggestions of the employees in the work unit
o Consultative
Leader presents the problem to employees asking for
their opinions and suggestions before making the decision
themselves
o Facilitative
Leader presents the problem to a group of employees
and seeks consensus on a solution, making sure their
opinion receives no more weight than anyone elses
o Delegative
Leader gives an individual employee or a group of
employees the responsibility for making the decision within
some set of specified boundary conditions

o Time-Driven Model the effective use of the different decision making


styles depends on the circumstances of the situation and characteristics of
the decision
- Some genral rules:
Autocratic styles are reserved for decisions that are
insignificant or decisions for which employee commitment
is unimportant.
Delegative styles are reserved for circumstances in which
employees have strong teamwork skills and arent likely to
just commit to whatever decision the leader provides.
Consultative and facilitative is more nuanced and
required consideration of all seven factors.
Scientific support:
In one study, following the model resulted in effective decisions 68% of
the time. Not following the model resulted in effective decisions 22% of
the time.
Leaders instincts usually violate the model
Leaders overuse consultative styles and underutilize autocratic
and facilitative

Leadership Behaviors
Initiating structure

Reflects the extent to which the leader defines and structures


the roles of employees in pursuit of goal attainment
Leader is clear about expectations and standards of
performance to shape commitment, motivation, and behavior
Consideration
Relational-oriented behaviors
Leaders show concern and respect for individual group
members, friendly & approachable, open to input, and treat all
group members as equals
Leader acts in ways that build followers respect and encourage
followers to focus on the welfare of the group
Both are vague - what do leaders actually do?

Transformational Leadership
Definition- turning followers who dont care about the organization/mission into
people who do
Whats transformed? Any issues?
Whats transformed is the way followers view their work,
causing them to focus on the collective good more than just their
own short-term self-interests and to perform beyond
expectations as a result
Components:
o Idealized influence (charisma)
Behaving in ways that earn the admiration, trust, and
respect of followers, causing followers to want to identify
with and emulate the leader
o Inspirational motivation
Involves behaving in ways that foster an enthusiasm for
and commitment to a shared vision of the future
Meaning-making
o Intellectual stimulation
Behaving in ways that challenge followers to be
innovative and creative by questioning assumptions and
reframing old situations in new ways
o Individualized consideration (coaching)
Behaving in ways that help followers achieve their
potential through coaching, development, and mentoring
Treating employees as unique individuals with specific
needs, abilities, & aspirations that need to be tied into the
units mission.
Transactional Leadership
Definition- motivating people through rewards and punishments

o When the leader rewards or disciplines the follower depending on the


adequacy of the followers performance
Make clear what is expected in terms of task
performance & rewards for meeting those expectations
(contingent rewards)
Leader is clear about expectations and standards of
performance to shape commitment, motivation, and
behavior
Types
o Passive management by exception
the leader waits around for mistakes and errors, then
takes corrective action as necessary
o Active management by exception
the leader arranges to monitor mistakes and errors
actively and takes corrective action when required.
o Contingent reward
leader attains follower agreement on what needs to be
done using promised or actual rewards in exchange for
adequate performance
o Laissez-faire behavior - is a hands-off approach that avoids any leadership
at all.

Additional Perspectives/Theories on Leadership


Shared Leadership (think holacracy)
Shared leadership is multiple members of a team influencing
each other to accomplish a group's goals, either alternately or at
the same time.
"You don't have to have a title to be the leader."
Frequently teams are being constructed without formal leadership, so more
leadership is emerging from untitled members. Shared leadership is positively
related to team effectiveness usually.
It may not be great in disjunctive tasks
It's best at smoothing interpersonal relationships
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) - roles?
Describes how relationships between the leader and various
members develop over time. Based on pairs composed of the
leader and various team members.
E.g. Leader-team member A pair and leader-team
member B pair
Role phases in leader-member exchange:
Role taking phase - manager describes role expectations
to an employee and the employee attempts to fulfill those
expectations with his or her job behaviors

Role making phase the employees own expectations


get mixed in with those of the leader and the employee
contributes in setting expected behaviors and role.
Leader-member relationships can be high-quality with frequent exchange of
information, influence, latitude, support, and attention.
Leader-member relationship can be low-quality exchanges with limited
exchange of information, influence, latitude, support, and attention.
High-quality better than low quality.
Substitutes for Leadership - what does it explain about good or bad leadership?
Certain characteristics of the situation can constrain the influence of the leader
Two varieties :
Substitutes reduce the importance of the leader while simultaneously
providing a direct benefit to employee performance
E.g., a cohesive group
Neutralizes only reduce the importance of the leader with no beneficial
impact on performance
E.g., spatial distance between leader and follower

Organizational Culture
Chapter(s) covered in the textbook: 16
Organizational Culture
Define - The shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules,
norms, and values that shape the attitude and behaviors of its employees
What are the three components of any organization?
1). Observable Artifacts
The manifestations of an organizations culture that employees can easily see or
talk about:
Symbols logos, images, uniforms, etc.
Physical structures open workplace, separate section between management and
employees, design of building
Language jargon, slang, and slogans used within the organization
Stories anecdotes, accounts of heroes / heroines, legends, myths that are
passed down
Ceremonies formal events
Rituals daily or weekly planned routines that occur in an organization.
2). Espoused Values
The beliefs, philosophies, and norms that a company explicitly states
Espoused values may not be the actual enacted values
3). Basic Underlying Assumptions
Taken-for-granted beliefs and philosophies that are so ingrained that employees
simply act on them rather than questioning the validity of their behavior in a given
situation
E.g., dont deliberately engineer something that is unsafe

Most likely to dictate employee behavior and affect employee attitudes


Hardest aspect of organizational culture to change
What are the four general culture types?
1). Customer service focused on service quality
2). Safety culture having a safety-oriented culture means
higher levels of safety performance and fewer injuries and
accidents for an organization
3). Diversity culture - having a culture focused on fostering or
taking advantage of a diverse group of employees
4). Creative culture - focused on fostering a creative atmosphere
What is cultural strength?
Exists when employees definitively agree about the way things
are supposed to happen within the organization (high consensus)
and when their subsequent behaviors are consistent with those
expectations (high intensity)
Weak cultures exist when employees disagree about the way
things are supposed to be or whats expected of them there is
nothing to unite or direct their attitudes and actions
What is the difference between a subculture and a differentiated (counter) culture?
Subcultures unite a smaller subset of the organizations employees. The different
norms & values supplement the overall organizational culture.
More likely to exist in large organizations.
Can be helpful for parts of organizations that have unique demands and
needs
Countercultures exist when the subculture does not match those of the larger
organization.
Can be useful by challenging the status quo to implement change
However can result in a differentiated culture (not compatible)

Cultural Maintenance
What is the attraction-selection-attrition model?
People are attracted to organizations with a culture that
matches their personality. Individuals that do not match the
culture dont even apply.
What is socialization? What are the three stages?
Socialization is the primary process by which employees learn
the social knowledge that enables them to understand and adapt
to the organizations culture
Three stages of socialization:
1. Anticipatory prior to an employee starting a job, includes the recruitment and
selection process. Begin to develop an idea of what it is like to work for a given
company.
2. Encounter starting a job and actually experience working for the company
Compare information in anticipatory stage to what it is really like to work in an
organization. A match will mean that the adjustment is smoother.

Reality shock occurs when information acquired during anticipatory stage does
not match actual experience. Some may quit b/c of this.
3. Understanding and adaptation - newcomers successfully learn and internalize
the norms and expected behaviors the employee changes.
What is person-organization-fit? Are there any positive outcomes with good fit?
If so, what are they?
Person-organization fit is the degree to which a persons
personality and values match the culture of an organization.
ASA and socialization can lead to higher levels of person-organization fit.
Positive outcomes:
Higher levels of job satisfaction
Less stress
Higher levels of trust
Higher levels of OCB
Strongly correlated with organizational commitment (weakly related to
job performance again because of the pros and cons associated with a
strong culture).

Organizational Structure
Chapter(s) covered in the textbook: 15
Organizational Structure
Define - formally dictates how jobs and tasks are divided and coordinated
between individuals and groups within the company
What is an Organization Chart?
Defined a drawing that represents every job in the
organization and the formal reporting relationships between
those jobs - they vary in five elements of structure: Work
Specialization Chain of Command Span of Control
Centralization Formalization
Types & Elements of Structure
Work specialization
tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs
Improves efficiency (at least theoretically, may actually cause low satisfaction
with the job itself)
Chain of Command
signifies formal authority relationships
Who reports to whom?
The specific flow of authority down through the levels of an
organizations structure
Span of Control

how many employees each manager in the organization has


responsibility for?
o Narrow vs. wide, tall vs. flat
Centralization
Where decisions are formally made in organizations?
Centralized Top managers have the authority to make final
decisions
Decentralized Lower-level employees feel empowered to
make decisions on their own
Formalization
When there are many specific rules and procedures used to
standardize behaviors and decisions.
A necessary coordination mechanism for standardization

Elements in Combination
As a short-cut, some elements tend to go hand-in-hand with other elements
E.g., Wide spans of control will likely be associated with decentralization in
decision making
Element combinations try to balance efficiency and flexibility
Mechanistic (efficiency)
Efficient, rigid, predictable, and standardized
High formalization
Rigid and hierarchical chain of command
High degree of work specialization
Centralization of decision making
Narrow spans of control
Organic (flexibility-based)
Flexible, adaptive, outward-focused
Low formalization
Weak or multiple chains of command
Low degree of work specialization
Decentralization of decision making
Wide span of control
Design
Business environment - stable vs. dynamic
is the business environment (customers, competitors, suppliers,
etc.) stable or dynamic? Stable = mechanistic; dynamic =
organic
Company strategy - low cost vs. differentiation
how does a company try to capitalize on its assets to meet
objective and goals?
Low cost strategy = mechanistic
Differentiation (unique product) = organic

Technology - routine vs. changing


the method by which inputs are transformed into outputs.
Routine technology = mechanistic
Changing technology = organic
Size - large vs. small
As organizations become larger they need to rely on some specialization,
formalization, and centralization to control activities (i.e., become more
mechanistic)

Types of Structure
Simple
Used by small organizations
Flat organization - one person is the central decision-making
figure
Low degree of formalization and only very basic differences in
work specialization.

Bureaucratic
Designed for efficiency, and rely on high levels of work
specialization, formalization, centralization of authority, rigid and
well-defined chains of command:
1). Functional
High degree of work specialization thats centrally coordinated
Issues? Employees dont communicate as well across functions as they do
within functions

2). Multi-divisional
o Product

Business units are grouped around different products


If the products are not different enough there may be
competition and cannibalization between divisions

o Geographic
Based around different locations where the company does
business
May better address customers in different regions with
specific preferences

o Client-based
May be useful for very large customers that act in similar
ways

Common themes in multi-divisional structures:


Each division operates autonomously
Emerge because interests & goals become too diverse

Issues? Potentially cant learn from and communicate with


each other
Matrix
Combination of functional and product structure. Benefits:
Flexible teams are assembled based on experiences &
skills
Gives each employee two sources of info from two
groups (but belonging to two groups can be stressful if
there is conflict between the groups

Distinguish the differences and their unique characteristics. Any issues or benefits
of each structure?