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CHC2D1 History Notes

Key Words:
Prominent figures:
Balkans- a cultural area in Southeast Europe that includes: Croatia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, and more.
Billy Bishop- The greatest fighter pilot in the British Empire in WW1 and Canadas
best-known pilot. He participates in over 200 dogfights and had 72 kills. He won the
Victoria Cross, Britains highest honor.
No. 2 Constructions Battalion- a construction unit made of of only black men to
support the front lines
Bluebirds- A group of over 3000 Canadian women that served on the battlefield as
nursing sisters. They were called bluebirds due to their blue outfit.

Dreadnaught- a type of battleship introduced in the early 20th century, larger and
faster than its predecessors and equipped entirely with large-caliber guns.
Ross Rifle- A weapon used by the British and Canadians in WW1 that was very
defective and jammed easily, resulting in many deaths and raised controversy
Zeppelin-A German airship used for bombings and reconnaissance. It is large and
looks like a huge sideways balloon.
Convoy- A group of ships or vehicles travelling together, typically accompanied by
armed troops, warships, or other vehicles for protection
U-Boat- a German submarine used to torpedo enemy ships and convoys

Key Places:
Western Front- the land in Europe on which WW1 was fought
Ypres- A town in Belgium and the scene of many battles and sieges in WW1
The Somme- A river in France where over a million casualties were recorded during
Valcartier- the training center in Canada where 32 000 of the first Canadian troops
received minimal basic training and were then sent to England
Vimy Ridge- The place where the Battle of Vimy Ridge took place and where Canada
won its most celebrated victory. 1 out of 10 people who fought that day were killed.
However, many new tactics were successfully employed during the battle and had
taken more guns, ground, and resources than any other previous British attack.

Tactics and policies:

Victory Bonds- savings bonds sold to Canadians to help pay for the war. The
government would basically ask for money, and they would pay it back plus interest
after the war.
Carrier Pigeons- Pigeons used in the war to send messages from battlefront to
Militarism- A countrys policy to maintain a large military that is constantly ready for
Creeping Barrage- A type of attack where the artillery continues to fire even after
troops leave their trenches so that the soldiers can throw shells over the enemy lines,
forcing enemies to keep their head down.
War Measures Act- An emergency act created in 1914 that gave the Cabinet the power
to make quick, unchallenged decisions in times of war
Propaganda- ideas or statements that are often false or exaggerated and that are spread
in order to help a cause, a political leader, a government, etc.
Conscription- A government policy that forces civilians into military service

Censorship- A government review of media before public release to eliminate material

considered obscene, threatening to national security, or otherwise inappropriate

Mobilize- to get ready for war
Trench Warfare-A type of Combat in which troops combat from trenches facing each
Pandemic- an outbreak of a disease across a nation or the entire world
Pacifists- people who believe in nonviolence

World War One

Going To War

On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip killed the heir to the Austria-Hungarian
throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. Princip was part of a terrorist
group known as the Black Hand
Caused Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia, thus dragging the nations
that these countries were allied with into war with them
Causes of War:
Militarism: Countries wanted to prove they had the strongest army and
navy at all times, and constantly wanted the best weapons, resources, and
the largest amount of soldiers.
Alliances: Many countries were in alliances with other nations, so when
one country was at war, all other countries in the alliance were forced to
participate in order to back up their ally.
Imperialism: Almost all the land in Europe was discovered and claimed,
so countries constantly fought over borders, land, and colonies.
Nationalism: Countries had great pride for themselves and constantly
competed to be at the top.
Europe was called a powder keg since there was such high tension between
the countries that it was like a barrel full of gunpowder and the slightest spark
would set off a massive explosion.
Canada did not have a choice to enter WW1 because Britain had control over
their foreign policy. Foreign Policy includes:
Ability to declare war
Trade agreements
Embassies and consulates
Should Canada go to war?

Reasons For War:

Supports Britain
Chance to get more territory
Canadian pride
Chance for Canadian identity

Reasons Against War:

Many casualties in the end
They would make unnecessary rivals
War was being fought very far from Canada
Military was not ready
They do not have much to benefit even if they won

French Canadians did not want to fight

Canadas Military at the time only had about 3000 men, but in
2 months, they had over 30,000 men enlisted

Battles Fought

Canadians entered in 1915

Ypres is in Belgium
One of the first times poison gas was used along with chlorine gas
Soldiers had to pee in their handkerchiefs and hold it up to their faces to
neutralise the gases
The Canadians won, but 6000 men died as well


Fought in 1916
Was supposed to be the big push that would destroy the German lines and
win the war
Ultimately ended up with over a million casualties (both sides combined)


Fought in 1917
Considered Canadas most glorious victory
Canadian forces along with General Arthur Currie actually strategized this
battle instead of recklessly charging into battle
Dug 11 tunnels so troops could move secretly and safely
Used the creeping barrage (refer to key terms for definition)
Canadians attacked at the perfect timing, during a snowstorm on April 9, 1917
10% of those who fought died
First time Canada was really acknowledged as a country


Fought in 1917
General Douglas Haig ordered an assault on Passchendaele even though
General Arthur Currie warned of a slaughter.
They won the town, however they suffered 15,000 casualties.
Russia surrendered to Germany and pulled out of the war
United States entered the Allied Lines
The slaughter was so bad that Canadian Prime Minister Borden warned the
British Prime Minister that if there was to be another battle like
Passchendaele, The Canadians would no longer participate in the war.

The Hundred Days

In 1918, the Triple Entente was in sight of victory

Germany was starving since the British blocked off trade
Germany suffered massive losses in a sweep known as the Hundred Days
By the end of the sweep, Canadian forces advanced 130 kilometers
Took over 30,000, over 600 pieces of artillery, and over 2500 machine guns
4500+ casualties
War ended November 11, at 11 A.M.

The Treaty of Versailles

On November 11, 1918 an armistice was signed and the war ended
32 countries met at the Palace of Versailles in France

Wanted to make sure Germany never rose to such power again

The treaty was signed in 1919 after lots of negotiations
The main ideas of the treaty are as follows:


Poland, Austria, And Czechoslovakia were independent countries

Germany no longer had any colonies outside Europe
12% of territory had to be given up to neighboring countries


Germanys Border with France was to be demilitarized (all forces removed

from there)
No more tanks or heavy artillery in the German Army
German troops brought down to 100,000
No more German air force
Reduced German Navy


Germany was forced to accept full responsibility for causing the war

Germany had to pay $32 billion for losses during the war to Great Britain,
France, and Belgium