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Determination of the solubility product

constant of Silver Acetate


Introduction:
Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve. The two participants involved in the
dissolution process are the solute and solvent. Solubility is defined as the maximum
amount of solute that can be dissolved in a solvent at equilibrium.
The solubility product constant, Ksp , is the equilibrium constant for a solid substance
dissolving in an aqueous solution. It represents the degree to which the compound can
dissociate in water. The more soluble a substance is, the higher the Ksp value it has. A
solubility product is a specific form of the equilibrium constant. In any water solution,
the solubility constant has a constant value.
Consider the general dissolution reaction below (in aqueous solutions):
aA (s ) cC (aq)+dD (aq)

As with any other equilibrium constant, to solve for the Ksp, the concentrations of the
dissolved ion products are raised to a power equal to their stoichiometric coefficients.
This is shown below:
K sp=[C]c [ D]d
As you can see above, the reactant aA, is not included in the expression, the
concentration of the solid aA does not contribute to the equilibrium constant because
the concentrations of solids do not change the expression, and any change in the
concentration is insignificant and therefore, can be omitted. Hence, the solubility
product constant represents the maximum amount of solid that can be dissolved in
solution.
For example, the Ksp for lead iodide would be:

2+ +2 I
PbI 2 Pb
Pb

2+

K sp=
One important effect on the solubility product constant is the common ion effect. The
common ion effect reduces the solubility of an ionic precipitate when a soluble

compound containing one of the ions of the precipitate is added to the solution in
equilibrium with the precipitate. If the concentration of any of any one of the ions is
increased, according to Le Chateliers principle, some of the ions in excess should be
removed from solution, by combining with the oppositely charged ions. Some of the
salt will be precipitated until the ion product is equal to the solubility product. This
can be illustrated with an example below:

Lead (||) chloride is sparingly soluble in water, and this equilibrium is set up between
the solid and its ions in solution:

If sodium chloride is added to this saturated solution, according to Le Chateliers


principle, the position of the equilibrium will shift to the left to remove the chloride ions
by making extra solid lead (||) chloride. This happens because sodium chloride shares
an ion with lead (||) chloride, the chloride ion is common to both of them.
In this experiment, the solubility product constant of silver acetate was determined.
The equilibrium between the very slightly soluble salt, AgC2H3O2(s), and its saturated
solution is represented by equation (1).
AgC2H3O2(s)

Ag+aq) + C2H3O2-(aq)

(1)

The solubility product constant expression for the above reaction is given by equation
(2) in which [Ag+] and [C2H3O2-] are the concentrations of Ag+ and C2H3O2- ions in the
saturated solution.
Ksp = [Ag+] [C2H3O2-]

(2)

Equation (2) signifies that in any system containing solid AgC2H3O2(s) in equilibrium
with its ions, the product of [Ag+] times [C2H3O2-] will, at a given temperature, have
a fixed value, regardless of how the equilibrium system was initially made up.

Procedure
Apparatus:
Burette
250ml beaker
Funnel and filter paper
50ml flask
Thermometer
125ml flask
Graduated cylinder
Test tubes
Pasteur pipet
Dropper
Chemicals used:

0.2000 M Silver nitrate solution AgNO3


0.3000 M Sodium Acetate CH3OO-Na+
Ferric alum indicator FeNH4(SO4)2
Potassium Thiocyanate solution KCNS
Solid lead (||) chloride PbCl2
0.1M Lead nitrate solution Pb(NO3)2
0.1M Sodium oxalate Na2C2O4
3 M Dilute sulfuric acid H2SO4
Dilute Nitric acid HNO3
10% Sodium sulphate solution Na2SO4
10% Barium Chloride solution BaCl2
30% Calcium Chloride Solution CaCl2
50% Sulfuric acid H2SO4
Dilute hydrochloric acid HCl

Part A

As much lead chloride PbCl2 (s) as could fit on a spatula was picked up on the tip and
was added into a test tube, then using a graduated cylinder, 10mL of water was added
and stirred for several minutes. The saturated solution was filtered into a dry test tube
and an equal volume of dilute hydrochloric acid HCl (3M) was added to the
filtrate.
Equation:
PbCl2(s) <--> Pb2+(aq) + 2 Cl- (aq)

Observation: White precipitate of lead (||) Chloride, PbCl2.

Part B
5mL of 0.1 M lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2 solution were added into two test tubes. To
thefirsttesttube,5mLof0.1MSodiumoxalate Na2C2O4 was added, and to the second
test tube, 3mL of 3M dilute suphuric acid H2SO4 was added. The solutions
were shaken to mix, and the precipitates formed were allowed to
settle. The liquid above the precipitates was removed using a Pasteur
pipette, and lastly, 5mL of dilute nitric acid HNO3 (3M) was added to
each tube and stirred with a stirring rod.
Equations:
Na2C2O4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) ----> PbC2O4(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)
Sodium oxalate + Lead(||) nitrate = Lead (||) oxalate + Sodium Nitrate
Observation: a precipitation forms; cloudy solution. The precipitate settled and the
liquid above it was decanted. After dilute nitrite acid was added some precipitate
dissolved and solution remained fairly cloudy.

Pb (NO3)2(aq) + H2SO4 = PbSO4(s) + 2HNO3(aq)


Lead Nitrate + Sulphuric acid = Lead Sulphate + Nitric acid
Observation: White precipitate of lead Sulphate PbSO4 , more precipitate

Part c:
1. 10 ml of 10% sodium sulphate solution Na2SO4 was added to a clean 150 mL
beaker, then 1 drop of 10% barium chloride BaCl2 was added.
Equations:
1) BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) ------> BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)
Observation:

White precipitate of Barium Sulphate BaSO4 was formed as


soon as Barium chloride solution was added.

2. A fresh 10mL portion of 10% sodium sulphate Na2SO4 was measured out into
another 150mL beaker. A dropper was used to add 30% calcium chloride CaCl2
solution. The solution was swirled after each drop, and this process (adding
drops then swirling after the addition of each drop) was repeated until a white
precipitate starts to form.
Equations:
Na2SO4(aq) + CaCl2(aq)--> CaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)
Observation:
White precipitate of calcium Sulphate CaSO4 was formed after 10 drops of
calcium chloride CaCl2 was added
3. Another 10 mL portion of 10% sodium sulphate (Na)2SO4 was measured out
and added into a clean 150mL beaker. 8 drops of 50% sulphuric acid H2SO4
were added and the solution was swirled. The number of drops with swirling
after each drop of 30% calcium chloride CaCl2 needed to produce a precipitate
of calcium sulphate was counted.
Equations:
Na2SO4(aq) + CaCl2(aq)--> CaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)
Observation:
white precipitate of calcium sulphate CaSO4 after adding only
one drop of calcium chloride CaCl2 solution.

Part D
40.00 ml of the 0.2000M Silver nitrate solution AgNO3 was added to
30.00 ml of the 0.3000M sodium acetate solution CH3OO-Na+ in a dry
125 ml flask. The solution was swirled to induce precipitation. The
solution was continuously swirled for 30 minutes. The solution was
filtered through a dry filter paper and a dry funnel into a dry 250 ml
beaker. The temperature of the filtrate was then measured and
recorded. A clean, dry burette was assembled and filled with the
potassium thiocyanate solution and the initial burette reading was
recorded. Then, into a clean 50mL 5.00 ml of the filtered silver
acetate solution CH3OO-Na+ was pipetted. 30 drops of the indicator
(saturated ferric alum in 1.0 N HNO3) were added along with a few
drops of the potassium thiocyanate. The potassium thiocyanate
solution was then added dropwise, swirling after each addition until
one drop gives a permanent light orange colour. The whole process
of titrating silver acetate with potassium thiocyanate was repeated
two more times on two batches of 5.00 ml sample of the saturated
silver acetate solution.
Equations:

Ag+(aq) + CNS-(aq) <--> AgCNS(s)


Observation: White precipitate of silver thiocyanate was formed.

Results
The following results were obtained for part A, B and C.
Chemical equation

Observation

Part A

Pb2+(aq) + 2 Cl- (aq) <--> PbCl2(s)


Lead (||) chloride + Hydrochloric acid <--> Lead (||)
Chloride

White precipitate of of lead (


Chloride, PbCl2 was formed

Part B

Na2C2O4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) ----> PbC2O4(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)


Sodium oxalate + Lead(||) nitrate = Lead (||) oxalate + Sodium Nitrate

a precipitation forms; clo


solution. The precipitate
settled and the liquid ab
it was decanted. After di
nitrite acid was added so
precipitate dissolved and
solution remained fairly
cloudy.

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + H2SO4 = PbSO4(s) + 2HNO3(aq)


Lead Nitrate + Sulphuric acid = Lead Sulphate + Nitric acid
Part C1

BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) ------> BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)


Barium chloride + Sodium sulphate ------> Barium Sulphate + Sodium
Chloride

White precipitate of lead Sulph


PbSO4 , more precipitate

White precipitate of
Barium Sulphate BaSO
was formed as soon as
one drop of Barium
chloride solution was
added.

Solution became turbi

Part C2

Na2SO4(aq) + CaCl2(aq)--> CaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)

White precipitate of calcium


Sulphate CaSO4 was formed
after 10 drops of calcium
chloride CaCl2 was added.

Sodium sulphate+ calcium chloride ----> Calcium sulphate +


Sodium chloride

Solution became turbid.

Part C3

Na2SO4(aq) + CaCl2(aq)--> CaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)


Sodium sulphate+ calcium chloride ----> Calcium sulphate +
Sodium chloride

Table(1)- Results of part A, B, C

Part D Results
The following results were obtained for part D:

Table(2).Results of part D

Temperature of filtrate
(C)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trail 3

26

23

22

Final reading (mL)

0.00

18.00

27.10

Initial reading (mL)

18.00

36.05

45.20

Volume used (mL)

18.00

18.05

18.10

Discussion