A COURSEWORK
Submitted to
Glasgow Caledonian University
GLASGOW
2014
CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................... ii
1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 1
2. DESIGN PROBLEM .................................................................................................... 3
2.1 SIMULATION ....................................................................................................... 3
2.1.1 Transient Analysis ..................................................................................... 4
2.1.2 Commonmode Rejection and Commonmode Rejection Ratio ............ 4
2.1.3 Resistor Matching ...................................................................................... 5
2.2 PHYSICAL IMPLEMENTATION ........................................................................... 6
2.3 PHYSICAL IMPLEMENTATION ........................................................................... 8
2.3.1 Evaluating the Design................................................................................ 8
3. DISCUSSION AND OBSERVATIONS ...................................................................... 10
4. CONCLUDING REMARKS ....................................................................................... 11
APPENDICES
A. DEMONSTRATION OF 3 OPAMP INAS GAIN................................................. 12
B. LM324AD DATASHEET...................................................................................... 14
REFERENCES .............................................................................................................. 15
BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................... 15
ABSTRACT
ii
1.
INTRODUCTION
An amplifier is an electronic device which has the function of increase the input
signal by a factor previously determined. There are two main types of amplifiers, the
singleinput amplifier and the differential amplifier. The first one, as its own name says,
has only one input, therefore its output is the simple product between input signal and
amplifiers gain. Consequently, if an input signal has noise attached for any reason, the
device will amplify its noise as well, which in many applications is unwanted.
On the other hand, the differential amplifier has two inputs to avoid noise
amplification. Thereby, the device amplify only the difference between the two inputs,
reason why its called differential. Since noise tends to be common (or with a slightly
difference) among the input, considering the input wires relatively close and noise
caused by an external factor, it will be subtracted by itself inside the amplifier, resulting
only the desired signal to be multiplied by devices gain.
a commonmode voltage in the output. Thus, as illustrated in figure 2 below, a 3 OpAmp INA has seven resistors in which amplifiers gain is mainly determined by
2.
(1)
Where,
=
(2)
(3)
CMR causes a large, timevarying error that often changes greatly with frequency and,
therefore, is difficult to remove at the IAs output. Also, another important specification
is the commonmode rejection ratio (CMRR), usually given in decibels (dBs), that
expresses the quality of a differential amplifier, since it is the ratio between the wanted
signals gain relative with the unwanted gain (commonmode gain):
= 20. log
(4)
2
2.
DESIGN PROBLEM
This section will cover the circuit to be studied with its simulation process
followed by a concise explanation of its construction, showing its voltage measures and
their respective mathematical analysis.
2.1
SIMULATION
In order to determine amplifiers gain (both differential and commonmode) and
circuits behaviour when submitted by different conditions, it was used the software
Multisim previously mentioned. Therefore, the circuit (illustrated in Fig. 2) simulation,
voltage values and its respective wave forms could be obtained so that it is possible to
analyse it properly.
Before running the simulation, the total gain can be determined from the
resistance values substituted in equation 1 (see Appendix A for a further
demonstration):
= 1+
2.10
2
10
= 11
10
(5)
Also, given the input voltage, the output voltage will be:
= 11.
= 11. 0,1.
(0,1.
(6)
) = 2,2.
to 5
instead of 1
Calculating the differential gain with peak voltages stated from the transient
analysis:
=
2,1768
196,8918. 10
= 11,0558
(7)
Although the differential gain was expected to be 11 (as stated in equation 5), it
had an error of 0,51% due to the commonmode gain.
2.1.2 Commonmode Rejection and Commonmode Rejection Ratio
4
To determine this parameter, set the differential voltage to zero, thus simulation
will show the circuits behaviour over a single input signal, which is the commonmode
voltage.
From equation 3 and since the differential voltage was zeroed, resulting in an
output voltage completely determined by the commonmode signal,
can be
calculated as follows:
=
1,9643. 10
5
= 0,3929. 10
(8)
11,0558
0,3929. 10
= 88,9862
(9)
Which is an value within the interval provided in the amplifiers datasheet (see
Appendix B) and indicates a good performance of this circuit [3].
2.1.3 Resistor Matching
To demonstrate how much a resistor value affects the CMRR,
is increased
22,8932. 10
5
= 4,5786. 10
(10)
= 67,6571
(11)
11,0558
4,5786. 10
(EAGLE), it is possible to design a printed circuit board for this circuit placing the correct
components (according to their sizes, which are displayed when selecting them in the
programs library) in the schematics worksheet of the program.
After connecting all the components and checking the schematic with the
Electrical Rule Check (ERC) tool, as illustrated in figure 7 above, the circuit can be
exported to the board. Once exported, the components have to be rearranged in such a
way that their connections (routes) can be drawn in the board without improperly shortcircuits between components. The final model of this PCB is shown in figure 8 below.
2.3
PHYSICAL IMPLEMENTATION
In practice, the circuit is susceptible to a number of factors which might change
its expected behaviour, before applying any voltage on it, the circuit must to be exposed
to a continuity test and an equivalent resistance measure. The continuity test is useful to
find any undesirable shortcircuit and opencircuit (that may damage the integrated
circuit of the OpAmp if not repaired) or a defective component. Also, the equivalent
resistance can be obtained by circuit analysis without the IC:
Since this circuit is not being connected by any voltage and the absence of a
component matches as an opencircuit, it can be affirmed that the resistors are
connected in series. Therefore, the equivalent resistance should be approximately their
sum associated with respective tolerances, which is equal to 5% for each of them,
causing the effect of the propagation of error:
=
= (62 1,229)
(12)
in
corresponding
(
(
(
(
) ,
) 13,743
)
,
) 2,781
13,750
13,760
13,734
11,011
8,206
5,528
2,732
5,505
8,297
11,052
13,782
14,279
,
14,275
,
0,011
14,270
= 11,028
(13)
procedure was done in view to comprehend the inversing and noninversing input
effects over the gain:
Table 2. Output voltages when the noninversing input is fed.
(
(
(
(
) ,
) 14,326
)
,
) 2,812
14,328
,
14,332
,
5,564
8,262
,
13,810
,
,
10,990
,
11,016
13,708
,
8,244
,
13,705
5,493
2,828
,
13,703
,
13,704
,
0,003

= 11,070
(14)
It is possible to notice that the first output voltage acquisition had a negative
gain, whilst the second acquisition had it positive. Therefore, it depends on in which
input is being applied a voltage, so that if the inversing input is grounded while the noninversing input is fed, then the output is expected to be positive.
For the case that the circuit is composed by three OpAmps (indicated in figure
2 as
1 ,
and
1 ), the
opposite signal value which, in turn, will have a voltage drop due to
signal acts as the inversing input of
opposite value of the signal
to have an
. Hence, this
and
to +10 ,
( )
(
) 10,34 13,33 16,31 19,26 22,20 25,12 28,03 30,93 33,84 36,73
As stated before, the gain is calculated dividing the output voltage by its
corresponding input voltage, therefore:
=
=
,
= 3,042. 10
(15)
Since it is not an ideal differential amplifier, the output shows a small value
(though not negligible) instead of zero due to the commonmode voltage amplified by a
commonmode gain. It is noteworthy that the output is given in a factor of thousandths
of a volt, leading the gain to be low as well.
3.
as well its practical results. In spite of the fact it has a very small loss due to commonmode voltage, there is another relevant factor to be considered before its use: according
to [4], most instrumentation amplifiers are simply not fast enough to faithfully track fast
commonmode signals. However, a simple solution to this problem is to add a highpass filter before the instrumentation amplifier [4].
10
4.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
For the correct performance of this circuit, was necessary a theoretical
11
Knowing that by its infinite input impedance the amplifier has a virtual shortcircuit in its input and, consequently, there is no current flowing through (which, for this
circuit, means that it has only one current), from Kirchhoffs Current Law:
Isolating
and
( . 1)
from equation . 1:
( . 2)
+ .
( . 3)
:
.
+
( . 4)
12
Replacing
= 2 :
.
+
, knowing that
.
+
( . 5)
= 10 and also
( . 6)
Substituting . 2 and . 3 in . 6:
10
(
2
10
(
2
( . 8)
= 11.
( . 9)
) =
+ 10(
) ( . 7)
Since
Hence:
Finally:
= 11
( . 10)
13
14
REFERENCES
[1] TRETTER, K. (2013) Whats The Difference Between Operational Amplifiers And
Instrumentation Amplifiers? Available: http://electronicdesign.com/print/power/whatsdifferencebetweenoperationalamplifiersandinstrumentationamplifiers Last accessed: 5th Nov 2014.
[2] KITCHIN, C.; COUNTS, L. (2006). A Designer's Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers. Available:
http://www.analog.com/static/importedfiles/design_handbooks/5812756674312778737Complete_In_Amp.pdf Last accessed: 10th Nov 2014.
[3] LAMPEN, S. (2012). CMRR: What is it and how do you get a good number? Available:
http://www.belden.co.uk/blog/broadcastav/CMRRWhatisitandhowdoyougetagoodnumber_020540.cfm Last accessed: 10th Nov 2014.
[4] DUFF, M. (2007). Five basic mistakes to avoid when using instrumentation amplifiers. Available:
http://www.planetanalog.com/document.asp?doc_id=527518 Last accessed: 14th Nov 2014.
[5] KUGELSTADT, T. (2005). Getting the most out of your
instrumentation amplifier design. Available: http://www.ti.com/lit/an/slyt226/slyt226.pdf Last accessed:
17th Nov 2014.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOYLESTAD, R., NASHELSKY, L. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (10th edition), Prentice Hall,
2009.
STOREY, Neil. Electronics: A Systems Approach (4th edition), Prentice Hall, 2009.
15