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Introduction to Communication

Engineering
(H61ICM)

Outline
An Introduction
Modern Communication systems
Building Block of the Communication
Systems
System Requirements
Spectrum

EMT waves
Energy
EMT properties

Job Opportunities
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An introduction

Modern Communication System


Applications of modern communication systems
Fixed and mobile phones
Satellite dish antennas communicating with orbiting
satellites
Commercial radio and TV
Broadcasting
Radars that can locate ships and planes

Communication distance can be varying


From one electronic device to another
Around the world
From one planet to another

Basic Communication System


2 endpoints to a communication system a
circuitry that converts the signal source into a
signal thats compatible with the rest of the
system
Transmitter (Tx) put the converted signal into the
communication pathway or link
Receiver (Rx) signal is received and converted into
the signal format as needed by the user.

Iain Paterson-Stephens

Iain Paterson-Stephens

Iain Paterson-Stephens

Iain Paterson-Stephens

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Iain Paterson-Stephens

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Iain Paterson-Stephens

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Communication System Requirements


In a communication system various factors need
to be established:
The mode of communication simplex, duplex, half
duplex
Type of modulation AM , FM , PM,QAM, PCM
Type of link wired; wireless; optic
Bandwidth requirements
Coding error coding, channel coding

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Communication System Requirements


Simplex
Data in a simplex channel is always one way.
Simplex channels are not often used because it is not
possible to send back error or control signals to the
transmit end.
Public addresing systems; TV and radio b/cast

Tx

Rx

Tx
Rx

Rx
Tx

Half duplex
it is possible to perform error detection and request the
sender to retransmit information that arrived corrupted.
channel/ access which is used alternately
2 way radios

Full duplex
channel/ access which is used simultaneously
Ordinary telephone systems
Consumer which uses a cable connection to not only
receive TV channels, but also the same cable to support
their phone and Internet surfing.

Tx/Rx

Rx/Tx

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Communication System Requirements


In a communication system various factors need
to be established:
Type of modulation AM , FM , PM,QAM, FSK,
QSK PCM
AM
CARRIER

ASK

INFORMATION

(AMPLITUDE)
MODULATED
CARRIER

FSK

PSK
QAM
FM
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PCM

NRZ

Manchester
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Communication System Requirements


In a communication system various factors need
to be established:
Type of link wired; wireless; optic

UTP unshielded twisted pair


Microwaves

Fiber Optic
STP shielded twisted pair

Coaxial Cable used in LANS,


(being replaced by fibers)

Satellites

Cellular

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Bandwidth
Bandwidth (BW) is that portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum occupied by a signal
The range of frequencies that can be transmitted
with minimal distortion
It is a measure of the transmission capacity of the
communication medium
High bandwidth applications include web browsing, ecommerce, audio /video streaming, video conferencing
etc.

The demand for bandwidth keeps growing as the


need for communication of data, audio and video
traffic increases
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More Room at the Top


Today, virtually the entire frequency spectrum
between approximately 30 kHz and 300 MHz
has been utilized.
There is tremendous competition for these
frequencies, between companies, individuals,
and government services in individual carriers
and between the different nations of the world.
The electromagnetic spectrum is one of our
most precious natural resources.

Spectrum Management and Standards


Spectrum management in Malaysia
MCMC Malaysian Communications & Multimedia
Commission deal with spectrum management.

Standards -ensure compatibility between transmitting


and receiving equipment.

ITU -assemble experts from around the world to


develop international standards known as ITU-T
Recommendations which act as defining elements in the global
infrastructure of information and communication technologies
(ICTs)

ETSI -produces globally-applicable standards for


Information and Communications Technologies (ICT),
including fixed, mobile, radio, converged, broadcast and
internet technologies

Multiplexing
Multiplexing is process where more than 1 signal
is combined for transmission over a single
communication path.
Enables efficient utilization of limited bandwidth

TDM time division multiplexing


FDM frequency division multiplexing
WDM wavelength division multiplexing

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http://www.iphelp.ru/doc/3/Cisco.Press,.Optical.Network.Design.and.Implementation.%282004%29.DDU/1587051052/images/1587051052/graphics/04fig02_alt.gif

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EMT waves and energy

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EMT waves and energy


How is information transmitted by a
communication system?
EMT energy carries the information from one
point to another
Signal <=> information

What is EMT energy?


Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of
photons, which are massless particles each traveling in a wave-like
pattern and moving at the speed of light. Each photon contains a certain
amount (or bundle) of energy, and all electromagnetic radiation consists
of these photons. The only difference between the various types of
electromagnetic radiation is the amount of energy found in the photons.
Radio waves have photons with low energies, microwaves have a little
more energy than radio waves, infrared has still more, then visible,
ultraviolet, X-rays, and ... the most energetic of all ... gamma-rays.
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EMT waves and energy


How is EMT spectrum allocated?
the total span of frequencies and
the corresponding wavelengths are
used in the communication systems

http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Spectroscopy/F
undamentals/Electromagnetic_Radiation
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EMT - waves
EMT radiation is the creation of the magnetic and electric
fields in free space or some physical medium.
The waves that propagate are known as transverse
electromagnetic waves the electrical and magnetic field
and the direction of travel of the wave are all mutually
perpendicular
The speed of propagation of
an emt wave in free space is
the same as that of light
(3x108ms-1).

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http://ritemail.blogspo
t.com/2013/08/sothis-is-what-wi-fiactually-looks.html

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Artist Nickolay
Lamm, a blogger for
MyDeals.com,
decided to shed some
light on the subject.
He created
visualizations that
imagine the size,
shape, and color of
wi-fi signals were
they visible to the
human eye.

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EMT waves and energy


How is EMT measured and expressed?
Actually, the electromagnetic spectrum can be expressed in terms
of velocity, frequency and wavelength

Transverse emt waves are characterized by v=f


Wavelength, - (m)
the distance between peaks of the oscillations of the energy wave
(equivalently the distance traveled in time to complete a cycle)

Velocity , v - (m/s)
The speed at which the energy travels through the communication
medium

Frequency, f (Hz or s-1)


Number of oscillations or cycles per second

=v/f
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The propagation velocity


The speed at which wave travels depends on the
medium through which it travels
It is fastest through vacuum at the same speed of
light, c = i.e. 3x108 ms-1
The speed drops by 60% to 85% of c in the
transmission medium depending on the wire type,
construction and insulation.
EMT has the following propagation
characteristics:
Reflection
Refraction
Difraction
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Examples
What is the wavelength in vacuum for a
frequency of 1 million Hertz?
What is the frequency when the measured
wavelength is 6m?
A signal is normally sent through vacuum
at a frequency of 60MHz. However, it is
also broadcast through air, with a
propagation factor = 0.98 of c. What is
the wavelength in vacuum and air?
Ref Nt
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EMT properties

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EMT properties -reflection


The angle of incidence =
angle of reflection (on a
smooth surface)
Reflection do not need
smooth surfaces to occur
The property of reflection can
be used to emt transmission's
advantage
The property of reflection can
also be a disadvantage. It
causes the signal to scatter
and also cause multipath
distortion
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EMT properties -refraction


The transition of emt waves
from one medium to another
causes bending or refraction.
Ionospheric propagation is
based on the refracting property
of the emt wave

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EMT properties -diffraction


Diffraction is due to bending of
waves around an obstacle
Diffraction allows radio reception
behind a tall building or beyond a
mountain, however a finite
shadow zone does appear.
Diffraction can also cause
multipath fading a scenario
where the direct and diffracted
wave are out-of phase and
cause cancellation at the
receiver
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Job opportunities
The electronics industry is roughly divided into
four major specializations:
1. Communications (largest in terms of people

employed and the dollar value of equipment


purchased)
2. Computers (second largest).
3. Industrial controls.
4. Instrumentation

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Basic communication system


Communication systems design factors to
be considered.
Understanding EM wave and its properties

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Note:
All material in this slide has been
compiled/sourced/extracted from various
sources; electronic and non electronic
media for the purpose of teaching.

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