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INTI International University

A report for
MEE3220 Fluid Mechanics 1
BMEGI Programme
Titled
Experiment 3: Osborne Reynold Experiment
Conducted on:
September 13th, 2016
Prepared by:
Hon Siong Lin
Woo Wei Siang
Chiew Chee Wah
Youssaf
Submitted to:
Dr. Chuah Keng Hoo
Date submitted:
September 20th, 2016

Contents

Objectives.................................2
Introduction...............................2
Theory.......................................4
Experiment Procedure...............5
Result And Calculation...............6
Discussion...............................11
Conclusion...............................12

Experiment 3
1

Osborne Reynolds Experiments

Objectives

To study the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow along with velocity profile.
To perform a classical Osborne Reynolds experiment concerning fluid flow condition.

Introduction

The apparatus used here to demonstrate critical velocity is based on that used by Professor
Reynolds who demonstrated the nature of the two modes of motion flowing in a tube, example
laminar and turbulent.

One way to determine if a flow is laminar or turbulent is by flow visualization. Osborne


Reynolds performed a series of systematic experiments in which water from a constant-head tank
flowed through a clear tube. He injected a thin stream of dye into the flow. In laminar flow, the
dye remained in a thin filament. There was little dispersion of dye, except for slow molecular
action. In turbulent flow, the dye stream dispersed quickly into myriad entangled threads.

Critical velocities and Reynolds number


Reynolds obtained the loss of pressure head in a pipe at different flow rates by measuring the
loss head (hf) over a known length of pipe (l), from this slope of the hydraulic gradient (i) was
obtained. When Reynolds plotted the results of his investigation of how energy head loss varied
with the velocity of flow, he obtained two distinct regions separated by a transition zone. In the
laminar region the energy loss per unit length of pipe is directly proportional to the mean
velocity. In the turbulent flow region, the energy loss per unit length of pipe is proportional to the
mean velocity raised to some power, . The value of being influenced by the roughness of the
pipe wall. For Example, The dimensionless unit Reynolds number:
(Re) = vd/
and has a value below 2000 for laminar flow and above 4000 for turbulent flow (when any
consistent set of units is used) the transition zone lying in the region of Re 2000 4000
(example lower critical velocity LCV at Reynolds number of 2000 and upper critical velocity
UCV at a Reynolds number of 4000)

Theory
Laminar and turbulent flow Professor Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912) first realized that there
was a critical velocity at which the law relating loss of pressure energy and velocity in pipe
flow changed. He first demonstrated this with his famous Colour Band (on the die-line)
experiment. This consisted of injecting a line jet of dye into the flow of water visible through a
transparent pipe. At low velocities the dye-line was unbroken, but as the 4
velocity of the flow through the pipe was increased, the dye-line broke up and eddies were seen
to form. From this and further experiments, he came to the conclusion that there are two distinct
types of flow: 1. Streamline or Laminar Flow (Latin lamina = layer of thin sheet). The fluid moves in layers
without irregular fluctuation in velocity. Laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds Numbers. (The
flow of oil in bearing is Laminar).
2. Turbulent flow. This results in the fluid particles moving in irregular patterns carrying an
exchange of momentum from one portion of the fluid to another. Reynolds investigated these
two different types of motion and concluded that the parameters which were involved in the flow
characteristics were:
- the density of the fluid kg/m3
V - the velocity of the flow of the fluid m/s.
D - Diameter of pipe m.
- the coefficient of viscosity of the fluid Ns/m2.

He arrived at a dimensionless constant (Reynolds number):


(Re)=vd/.
The value of which was concerned with the fluid motion. Fluid motion was found to be laminar
for Re numbers below 2000 and turbulent flows for Re greater than 4000

Experiment Procedure
1.) Fill the reservoir of the dye injector with dye and lower it until it is just above the bellmouth
inlet. With the flow control valve closed, slowly fill the head tank with water to the overflow
level, then close the inlet valve. Open and close flow control valve to admit water to the flow
visualization pipe. Allow the apparatus to stand at least ten minutes before proceeding.
2.) Open the inlet valve slightly until water trickles from the outlet pipe. Then open the control
valve for a small amount, so that a low-speed flow occurs in the pipe. Turn on the valve
controlling the dye injection. The traces of the dye in the flow visualization pipe show the
character of the flow. At first, the dye should remain in a steady, narrow stream, indicating
laminar flow.
3.) Next open the control valve in small increments, so that the flow speed gradually increases.
At a certain flow speed, the flow will become transitional and finally reach a fully turbulent state.
4.) For each flow state, collect water discharging from the flow visualization pipe in the
graduated cylinder. Next, record the volume of water collected and the time required to collect it.
5.) Repeat for increasing flow rates by opening the flow control valve. Take a specific
measurement of flow rate at the critical condition.
6.) Repeat the procedure for decreasing flow rates, taking a specific measurement of flow rate at
the critical condition.

Result And Calculation


Laminar flow
Volume(mL) Time(s)

Q(m/s)

V(m/s)

118

1.788x

0.0228

Reynolds
number
228

0.0224

224

0.0218

218

66

10

178

101

1.762x
6

10

234

104

5 2
A=7.854x 10 m

1.711 x 106

=1.0 10kg/ms =1000kg/m d=0.01m

m
Q= s

V= A

118
1 m3
Q1 = 66 ( 1000 x 1000 ml )

Re=

vd

178
1 m3
Q2 = 101 ( 1000 x 1000 ml )

178
Q3 = 104 (

1m
1000 x 1000 ml )
6
=1.788x 10
m/s

V1 =

1.788 x 106
7.854 x 105

=0.0228m/s
Re1=

1000 (0.0228)(0.01)
1.0 10

6
=1.762x 10
m/s

V2 =

1.762 x 106
7.854 x 105

=0.0224m/s
Re2 =

6
= 1.711 x 10 m/s

1.711 x 106
V3 = 7.854 x 105

=0.0218m/s

1000 (0.0224)(0.01)
1.0 10

Re3 =

1000 (0.0224)(0.01)
1.0 10

=228
6

=224

=218

Transitional Flow
Volume(mL)

Time(s)

Q(m/s)

V(m/s)

82

15

5.467x

0.0696

Reynolds
number
696

0.0856m/s

856

0.1068

1068

10

168

25

218

26

6.72x 10
8.385x
6

10

5 2
A=7.854x 10 m

=1.0 10kg/ms =1000kg/m d=0.01m

m3
Q= s

V= A

3
82
1m
Q1 = 15 ( 1000 x 1000 ml )

Re=

vd

3
168
218
1m
Q2 = 25 ( 1000 x 1000 ml ) Q3 = 26 (

1 m3
1000 x 1000 ml )
6
=5.467x 10
m/s

6
=6.72x 10
m/s

6
=8.385x 10
m/s

5.467 x 106
V1 = 7.854 x 105

6.72 x 106
V2 = 7.854 x 105

=0.0696m/s

Re1=

=0.0856m/s

1000 (0.0696)(0.01)
1.0 10

Re2 =

8.385 x 106
V3 = 7.854 x 105

=0.1068m/s

1000 (0.0856)(0.01)
1.0 10

Re3 =

1000 (0.1068)( 0.01)


1.0 10

=696

=856

=1068

Turbulent flow
Volume(mL)

Time(s)

Q(m/s)

V(m/s)

112

8.88

5
1.261x 10

0.1606

Reynolds
number
1606

156

10.21

5
1.528x 10

0.1946

1946

228

13.1

5
1.74x 10

0.2215

2215

5 2
A=7.854x 10 m

=1.0 10kg/ms =1000kg/m d=0.01m

m3
Q= s

V= A

112
1 m3
Q1 = 8.88 ( 1000 x 1000 ml )

Re=

vd

156
1 m3
Q2 = 10.21 ( 1000 x 1000 ml )

Q3 =

228
1 m3
13.1 ( 1000 x 1000 ml )
5
=1.261x 10
m/s

1.261 x 10
V1 = 7.854 x 105

=0.1606m/s

Re1=

1000 (0.1606)(0.01)
1.0 10

5
=1.528x 10
m/s

1.528 x 10
V2 = 7.854 x 105

=0.1946m/s

Re2 =

1000 (0.1946)(0.01)
1.0 10

5
=1.74x 10
m/s

1.74 x 10
V3 = 7.854 x 105

=0.2215m/s

Re3 =

1000 (0.2215)(0.01)
1.0 10

=1606

=1946

=2215

Laminar to Transitional Flow


Volume(mL)

Time(s)

Q(m/s)

V(m/s)

122

43

2.837x

0.0361

Reynolds
number
361

0.0402

402

0.0427

427

10

50

158
238

3.16x 10
3.352x

71

10
5 2
A=7.854x 10 m

=1.0 10kg/ms =1000kg/m d=0.01m

m
Q= s

V= A

122
1 m3
Q1 = 43 ( 1000 x 1000 ml )

Re=

vd

158
1 m3
Q2 = 50 ( 1000 x 1000 ml )

Q3 =

238
1 m3
71 ( 1000 x 1000 ml )
6
=2.837x 10
m/s
m/s

2.837 x 106
V1 = 7.854 x 105

=0.0361m/s

Re1=

1000 (0.0361)(0.01)
1.0 10

1000 (0.0427)(0.01)
1.0 10
10

6
=3.16x 10
m/s

3.16 x 106
V2 = 7.854 x 105

=0.0402m/s

Re2 =

1000 (0.0402)(0.01)
1.0 10

6
=3.352x 10

3.352 x 106
V3 = 7.854 x 105

=0.0427m/s

Re3 =

=361

=402

=427

Turbulent to Transitional Flow


Volume(mL)

Time(s)

Q(m/s)

V(m/s)

Reynolds
number

158

12

1.317x

0.1677

1677

0.1301

1301

0.1296

1296

10

184

1.022x

18

10

224

1.018x

22

10
5 2
A=7.854x 10 m

=1.0 10kg/ms =1000kg/m d=0.01m

m3
Q= s

V= A

3
158
1m
Q1 = 12 ( 1000 x 1000 ml )

Re=

vd

3
184
1m
Q2 = 18 ( 1000 x 1000 ml )

Q3 =

224
1 m3
22 ( 1000 x 1000 ml )
5
=1.317x 10
m/s

11

5
=1.022x 10
m/s

5
=1.018x 10
m/s

1.317 x 10
V1 = 7.854 x 105

=0.1677m/s

Re1=

1000 (0.1677)(0.01)
1.0 10

1.022 x 10
V2 = 7.854 x 105

=0.1301m/s

Re2 =

1000 (0.1301)(0.01)
1.0 10

1.018 x 10
V3 = 7.854 x 105

=0.1296m/s

Re3 =

1000 (0.1296)(0.01)
1.0 10

=1677

=1301

=1296

Discussion
Laminar flow-highly ordered fluid motion with smooth streamlines
Transition flow-a flow that contains both laminar and turbulent regions.
Turbulent flow-a highly disordered fluid motion characterized by velocity and
fluctuations.

In this experiment we have to firstly is to observe the characteristic of the flow of the fluid in the
pipe, which can be laminar, transitional, turbulent flow by measuring the Reynolds number and
the behaviour of the flow, secondly to calculate the range for the laminar and turbulent flow and
lastly to prove the Reynolds number is dimensionless by using the Reynolds number formula.
After complete preparing and setup the equipment we run this experiment. But firstly we have
to calculate the area of bell mounted glass tube, the viscosity of water and the density of water.
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The density of water is 1000kg/m, the area of glass tube is 0.00007854 m

,While the

viscosity of water is 1.0 10kg/ms, this is done for easy step by step calculation.
We observed the purple dye line change with increasing the flow rate of water. The shape
change from thin threads to slightly swirling which still contains smooth thin threads and then
fully swirling. We can say that this change is from laminar flow to transitional flow and then to
turbulent flow.

Conclusion
The laminar flow occurs when the fluid is flowing slowly and the turbulent flow occurs when it
is flowing fast. In transitional flow, the flow switches between laminar and turbulent in a
disorderly pattern. As the water flow rate increases, the Reynolds number calculated also
increase and the dye line change from thin thread to swirling in shape Laminar flow occurs when
the Reynolds number calculated is below 228; transitional flow occurs when Reynolds number
calculated is between 228 and 1600; turbulent flow occurs when Reynolds number calculated is
above 1600. It is proved that the Reynolds equation is dimensionless. Under most practical
conditions, the flow in a circular pipe is laminar Re 228, turbulent for Re 1600 and
transitional in between. That is,
Re 228
228 1600
13

laminar flow
transitional flow

Re 1600

turbulent flow

Reference:
http://maelabs.ucsd.edu/mae171/watdocs/Reynolds%20experiment.htm
http://documents.mx/documents/lab-report-osbourne-reynolds-apparatus.html

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