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Chapter 3 outline

Joel Mattfolk

Although firmware implementations vary from manufacturer to
manufacturer, most BIOS and EFIs provie an interactive facility to
configure them.
o To enter this tool, you press the delete key or function key during
the boot sequence.
o You’ve just installed Linux on a new computer with a single SATA
hard disk. What device identifier will refer to the disk?
 /dev/sda or /dev/hda

IRQ: an interrupt request is a signal sent to the CPU instructing it to
suspend its current activity and to handle some external event such as
keyboard input.
o You can explore what IRQs are being used by using the cat
command: Cat /proc/interrupts
o What are common IRQs for Rs-232 serial ports?
 1, 4

I/O: once a linux system is running you can explore what I/O addresses
the computer is using by examining the contents of the /proc/ioports
file. To do this use the command: cat /proc/ioports
DMA Addresses: Direct Memory addressing is an alternative method
of communication to I/O ports. Rather than have the CPU mediate the
transfer of data between a device and memory, DMA permits the
device to transfer data directly, without the CPU’s Attention.
o To check what DMA channels your system is using use the
command cat /proc/dma
BIOS: The bios boot process begins with the computer reading a boot
sector from a disk and then executing that code.
o Boot options for BIOS based computers are limited. You can only
select the order in which various boot devices are examined to
find a boot sector
EFI: The boot process for EFI involved the computer reading a boot
loader file from a filesystem on a special partition, known as the EFI
System Partition(ESP). This file either can take a special default name
or can be registered in the computers NVRAM.
o EFI computers have an extended range of boot options including:
default boot loader files from various devices, and multiple boot
loaders on the computer’s hard disk.

Hard disks are built from platters. Modern disks squeeze more sectors onto outer tracks than inner ones. fitting more data on each disk. o If you leave a removable disk as the default boot loader this opens a door to intruders who have physical access to the computer. which are further broken into sectors o Typing fdisk -1 /dev/sada produced a listing of four partitions: /dev/sda1. D-bus: The Desktop bus provides a further abstraction of hardware information access. o In LBA a single unique number is assigned to each sector on the disk. each of which is broken into tracks.  Examples: Ethernet. o Some Viruses are transmitted by BIOS boot sectors. Coldplug and hot plug devices: o Coldplug: can be physically attached and detached only when the computer is turned of o What tool would you use to disable a motherboard’s sound hardware if you don’t want to use it?  Firmware  Examples: CPU. or /dev/sda2 is an extended partition o Problems with CHS Geometry:  All but the earliest hard disks use variable numbers of sectors per cylinder. and hard disks. so this can lead to viral infections. . More used mode today. o Hotplug: can be physically attached and detached only when the computer is turned on. CHS geometry: a holdover from the early days of the x86 architecture. exports information about devices so that user-space utilities can access the information. and the disks firmware is smart enough to read from the correct head and cylinder when given this sector number. memory. and IEEE-1394 Sysfs: the sysfs virtual filesystem.       Problems with boot sequences o If you use a removable disk and somebody leaves a CD or DVD in the drive it will prevent the system from booting. /dev/sda2  Either /dev/sda1. HAL Daemon: The hardware Abstraction Layer daemon. PCI cards. is a userspace program that runs at all times and provides other user-spaceprograms with information about available hardware.  CHS tops out at 504 MiB LBA: Logical block addressing. USB. mounted at /sys.

16. and 0x83. You may be able to back up more easily then you could if your partitions were large.ko Why Partition? o Multiple OS support: keep the data from diferent OSs seprate o Filesystem Choice: you can use diferent filesystem data structures designed to hold all of the files on a partition on each partition. but the standard config is usually sufficient for common hardware. what can you conclude about the disk?  The disk holds a partial or complete linux system Fdisk: the linux tool for MBR disk partitioning. o Which of the following directories is most likely to be placed on its own hard disk partition?  /home o You discover that an MBR hard disk has partitions with type codes of 0x0fm 0x82.    o D-bus runs as a daemon. o To use fdisk type the command name followed by the name of the disk device that you want to partition  Example: fdisk /dev/had o You run linux’s fdisk and modify your partition layout. These problems can be the result of bad hardware or errors that creep into filesystems. Splitting a disk into partitions provides some protection against these problems o Security: you can sue diferent security-related mount options on diferent partitions o Backup: some backup tools work best on whole partitions. . o D-bus enables processes to communicate with each other as well as to register to be notified of events. o you can configure udev through files in /etc/udev. o To use it type: insmod /lib/modules/3. By keeping partitions small. o Disk Error Protection: Disks sometimes develop problems.6/kernel/drivers/Bluetooth/Bluetooth. Assuming these type codes are accurate. o Disk Space Management: you can lock certain sets of files into a fixed space. both by processes and by hardware. o What is the purpose of udev?  TO manage the /dev directory tree Insmod: inserts a single module into the kernel. Udev: creates dynamic device files as drivers are loaded and unloaded.

Because ReiserFs uses carious tricks to dqueeze the ends of files into each other’s unused space. and for small disks o Ext3fs: the third extended file system is basically ext2fs with a journal added. o A new linux administrator plans to create a system with separate /home. These small savings can add up when files are small. It recovers from power outages and system crashes more quickly then ext2fs. and and I/o Addresses?  /proc ioports. /proc/dma /proc/interrupts o Ext4fs: the fourth extended. direct-memory access channels.  Type q o Display the current partition table: to do this type p. /usr/local. It adds the ability to work with very large disks or very large files as well as extensions intended to improve performance. It was created for linux and was the dominant linux filesystem throughout the late 1990s. o What does the following command accomplish? Mkfs -t ext2 /dev/sda4  It creates a new ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda4. overwriting any existing filesystem and data o Which of the following best summarizes the diferences between windows fdisk and linux’s fdisk? . it can be a good choice for a small /boot partition. Common file system types o Ext2fs: the second extended file system is the traditional linux native file system. or if you want to display only the current table type fdisk -1 /dev/had o Create a partition: type n o Delete a partition: type d o Change a partition type: type t o List partition types: type l o Mark a partition bootable: type a o Get help: type m or ? o Exit: type q to exit the program without saving. Its good at handling large numbers of small files. Type w to write your changes to the disk and exit the program. o Which files contain essential system information such as IRQs. Which of the following best describes this config?  The system wont boot because /etc contains config files necessary to mount non-rott partitions o ReiserFS: designed from scratch as a journaling filesystem for linux.

you type mount /dev/sdc1 /media/flash as root  All of the above Which of the following /etc/fstab entires will mount /dev/sdb2/ as the /home directory at bootime?  /dev/sdb2 /home reiserfs /home defaults 0 0 What filesystem options might you specify in /etc/fstab to make a removable disk mountable  User users owner What is the minimum safe procedure for removing a usb drive. and then unplug the driver  o o o o o o o o . mounted from /dev/sdb1 at /media/usb from a linux computer?  Type umount /media/usb wait for the command to return and disk activity lights to stop. although Linux’s fdisk is more flexible What mount point should you associate with swap partitions?  None of the above Which of the following options is used with fsck to force it to use a particular file system type?  -t Which of the following pieces of information can df not report?  How long the file system has been mounted What is an advantage of journaling filesystem over a conventional file system?  Journaling filesystems require shorter disk checks afgter a power failure or system crash. To access files on a USB flash drive.The two are completely independent programs that accomplish similar goals.