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1 994
YEARBOOK OF

JEHOVAH'S
WITNESSES
Containing Report for the
Service Year of 1993

Corporate Publishers
WATCHTOWER BIBLE AND TRACT SOCIETY
OF NEW YORK, INC.
INTERNATIONAL

BIBLE STUDENTS ASSOCIATION

25 Columbia Heights
Brooklyn, N.Y. 11201, U.S.A.
Branch offices appear on last page
Made in the United States of America

0 Jehovah . virtue." -Provo 3:5. Heb. 1:3) With the help of The Watchtower. WITNESSES 1 994' I N D E X Highlights of reports from around the world Worldwide report for 1993 service year Acts of Jehovah's Witnesses YEA R BOO K R E P 0 R T 3 33 in Modern Times: Greece 67 Haiti 117 Poland 171 "Come. And how marvelously Jehovah has answered our prayer for divine teaching! During this past year.. we want to be taught by Jehovah. most appropriate is our 1994 yeartext: JEHOVAH'S "Trust in Jehovah with all your heart. having a balanced view of secular education. as well as how to cultivate such qualities as godly subjection. and as we prepare to be eternal subjects of Jehovah. and such topics as safeguarding our family life. the one who perfectly reflects his Father. 86:11) Like the psalmist David. and walking in wisdom with regard to the world. (John 8:23. our earnest prayer as Jehovah's Witnesses has been: "Instruct me.As we deal with the pressures of the last days. By means of the Service Meeting and the Theocratic . we were also fortified by studying about Jehovah's mercy and forgiveness. we benefited from an in-depth study of the greatest man who ever lived. as we approach the great tribulation. God's only-begotten Son. at our Congregation Book Studies. faith. and See the Activities of God" (Letter from the Governing Body) 1994 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses English (yb94-E) © 1994 Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania All rights reserved 253 I NHARMONY with our yeartext for the past year. You People.. Unify my heart to fear your name. providing loving help for the sick and the elderly. and self-control." (Ps.

there are over 100. or lukewarm. From around the globe come reports that give evidence of the sort of zeal that springs from such a unified heart. Actually they are now busy in more than 70 lands where there were no Witnesses 40 years ago. five in Europe. Jehovah helps us to unify our heart so that we will not be halfhearted. and many people promptly stopped to read them Locomotive Stadium in Moscow. devoting a combined total of 1. one in Africa. As a result of Jehovah's blessing on our united efforts. This is true of two lands in North America.743 attended international convention of Jehovah's Witnesses I an Ministry School. These Kingdom publishers everywhere truly gave of themselves.057. Even in war-ravaged areas. In answer to our prayer. Receiving divine teaching is not merely an intellectual exercise. in our worship to God but will be zealous in the doing of the divine will. during the past service year. our brothers are endeavoring to keep .709.889 expended them- selves in Jehovah's service. where 23.000 Kingdom proclaimers.341.972 hours to the field ministry during the 1993 service year. three in Latin America. the service year was crowned with the wonderful "Divine Teaching" District Convention. Altogether. a peak of 4. How beneficial all of this has been! And in many lands. we were helped to become more effective in our ministry and to show greater personal interest in people. sharing personally in telling others about God's Kingdom. Such teaching is designed to mold the person we are inside so that we do not have simply a veneer of Christianity.The public readily accepted Bible tracts. and two in the Far East. Jehovah's Witnesses are preaching in 231 lands. In a growing number of countries.

It is just as if Jehovah were saying: 'Listen and apply the counsel. repeatedly arrested because of his faith. Regarding the instruction given."-Acts 14:27. Of these. Memorial attendance rose to 11. Russia. "Divine Teaching" Conventions How spiritually refreshing and practical the "Divine Teaching" District Conventions have proved to be! Hundreds of them have already been held. Hungary. the love. Montenegro. As a young woman.'" As a result of the generosity of Jehovah's people.667 missionaries and international servants were able to attend conventions in lands where they had lived and served in the past. an elder in the Netherlands said: "We pray so often to Jehovah for help and guidance in our work.587. others are yet in progress.006 Witnesses around the earth shared in some branch of the pioneer service. Serbia. Japan was able to report that in April the pioneers there totaled 100. to a new high of 4. Among those present were brothers from Croatia.402 were baptized He first learned the truth in 1942 in Bessarabia (now Moldova). a convention provided the entire program in Croatian and Serbian. as well as delegates from Albania. or 56 percent of the total publishers.Worldwide Report 7 In order to provide needed supervision and literature for this global work of education. and Macedonia. All of them are members of a religious order that is devoted exclusively to the ministry. In Munich. And they express heartfelt thanks to all who helped to make that possible. Thus a congregation in central Bosnia reports a monthly average of 34 hours per publisher. Romania. A large number of Romanies (Gypsies) were present. Their experiences made us think of the occasion when Paul and Barnabas reported to the congregation in Antioch "the many things God had done by means of them.922 serve at the world headquarters. and it is heartwarming to observe that. 1. All of these had come to benefit from divine teaching. now a circuit overseer Kingdom interests first. 296. Home Bible studies being conducted increased by 237. 13. New York. Slovenia.714 attended and 7. of these.460 worldwide. in Brooklyn.515. and the unity among Jehovah's people! It contrasted with the strife in the areas from which many of .004 progressed during the year to the point of dedication and baptism.441. How pleasant the peace. each month 623. not including the pioneers. This convention has been an answer to our prayers. and nearby facilities. and that he had opened to the nations the door to faith. Germany. and Ukraine.828 volunteers care for assignments as Bethel family members worldwide.765. It was truly heartwarming to visit with them and to hear from them at the various conventions. 4.865. On an average. she learned the truth from German Witnesses in 1944 in the women's concentration camp in Ravensbruck Stadium in Kiev where 64. Bosnia and Herzegovina.

and in Kiev. What people! They have such open faces. delegates from 30 lands viewed it as a special privilege to be among the 23.402 individuals presented themselves for water bapt ism in symbol of their dedication to Jehovah God. Georgia.743 who gathered there. Kyrgyzstan . with an attendance four times as great. others coupled informal witnes sing with their sight-seeing. over 2. Two weeks later . a police officer exclaimed : "I have never seen a th ing like this. . when. Kazakhs tan. some local resident s asked if they could help.8 1994 Yearbook these delegates had come-some of them forced to flee as refugees.000 who had come from Armenia. Russia.714 in attendance were nearly 53. and Russia. an outstanding aspect of the program of divine instruction involved week-lon g seminars Memb ers of the Governing Body along with bran ch personnel at the seminar held at WaUkill . waved greetings to th em. Although it was necessary to limit the size of the convention in Moscow. Ukraine.000 int erested people turned in their nam es and addresses. the convention in Moscow was a grand success. Some got up early to do it. This was the largest of such baptisms in Christian history. observing the Witnesses and the spirit they showed . Point ing to the stad ium. ." Many people in Kiev. a slightly smaller number were immersed. as well as from Ukraine. the audience rose and burst into thunderous and sustained applau se. What joyful. I can't figure out why you people were Worldwide Report 9 persecuted." During the conven tion. Among the 64. a muc h larger conventi on was held in Kiev. Between sessions they seized opportunities to meet those in the various language groups. heartwarming. Yes. eclipsing the one in New York in 1958. requ estin g th at Jehovah 's Wit nesses visit them as soon as possible. In spite of some oppositio n. W hen brothers were making toilets for use at the stadium. O f special interest to Jehovah's Witnesses everywhere were the intern ational conventions in Moscow. The climax of the convention was reached when 7. in the United Stat es . W hy? They rep lied : "We also want to do something to serve Jehovah. They were impressed when they saw the Russian people not only readily accept a tract in their own language but often stop what they were doing and read it from start to finish. faith-strengthening experiences they had in doing so! The conventioners also took time to share in the field ministry. I am already in the new world. One simply has to wonder about all of thi s . Jehovah has raised up th ousands more as his Witnesses to share in the grand work th at he is having don e in this part of the earth during th ese final days of the old system! Instruction at Branch Seminars During the past year. Mold ova. When the final speaker on the program expr essed gratitude to Jehovah for all th at He had done to make this con vention possible.

5 tons of used clothing. they also picked up cereals to drop off in areas of need along the route. At times. As the Society's trucks made deliveries of literature. 2. 24 branches-including most of the major printing branches-were represented at a seminar in the United States. 2:15-17. (jas. 6 tons of beans. 6:10. the remainder of the African branches were given special atten tion. Writing. -Gal. walked 70 miles one way so that they would not miss their special assembly day! Much of Zambia was similarly affected by the drought. people from affected areas fled to refugee camps. floods. The brothers also shared with one another what they had . The Society assisted with needed . However. at a meeting in the new branch facilities in Zambia. The program featured material provided by the Personnel. they endeavor to help others. and Publishing Committees of the Governing Body. But the missionaries observed that. severe droughts. Representatives of 17 branches in Central and South America convened at the recently dedicated branch in Colombia in January. our refugee brothers-381 of them. Teaching. another seminar. Service. During a time of civil strife in Rwanda. Love moves us to share with them whatever we have.800 quarts of cooking oil. the Society's branch purchased and distributed 14 tons of cereals early in the year. A seminar during April was convened in Puerto Rico to care for the needs of lands in and near the Caribbean. too. a seminar held in Australia involved eight branches that receive a major portion of their literature supplies from Australia. During March. So that the load would be distributed. It was designed to enhance the unity of the branches and all the congregations as they exert themselves vigorously to accomplish the preaching of the good news. in Austria. then by flood and theft. having no money for transportation. and 6. nor do we want to do that . 1. where conditions were extremely difficult.10 1994 Yearbook with branch personnel. and later in the month. as the brothers planned to attend. these supplies were distributed in connection with assemblies. they were divided up among a number of congregations. including Mozambique. The same week a meeting in Nigeria was giving attention to west and central Africa.7 tons of rice. and as they are able. was attended by personnel from 16 branches in that part of the world.were lovingly cared for by the congregations. The branch office in Maputo formed relief committees to coordinate efforts to provide basic food and clothing for brothers and sisters in need . 1 John 3:17) Jehovah's Witnesses certainly do that. Simultaneously. This involved distribution of 25 tons of maize meal. A group of 10 brothers from Ile. and wars that have filled the news during recent months deeply affect the lives of millions of people. Some people lost harvests first by drought. one of the worst droughts in living memory scourged large parts of Africa. it was the spiritual provision that they most eagerly anticipated. Thi s was followed by meetings in the Philippines for 12 branches in southeast Asia and the Pacific. To help brothers who were unable to benefit from the government's relief program. and the help was greatly appreciated . In February. We cannot simply wish our brothers well and then fail to Wortdwide Report 11 share with them the necessities of life. including Jehovah's Witnesses. During 1991-92. Eight of such seminars were held from January through April. Relief Operations -An Expression of Our Love The violent storms.

1 WATCH fO W[ R • LIEF. take th e lead in field service. Only about 800 people live on that coral atoll in the South Pacific.12 1994 Yearbook W atch Tower relief truck. Am on g them is one unbaptized publi sher who lost his hom e and all his possessions as a result of a tidal wave thi s past January. One hundred and fifty-three tons of food and 23 tons of clothing. when a group of 70. Even before the storm hit the island of Kauai. Roads had been destroyed . In each instance. there were still some 15 police and milit ary checkpoints along the route. Some were eating only once every three days. as well as spiritual provisions. conduct meetin gs. and Switzerland have been very generous in giving of the ir means to assist Witness es in the war-torn area formerly known as Yugosla- Worldwide Report 13 via. As soon as the brothers on another . But. Likewise.the brothers were equipped. fund s. after customs formalities. Monrovia. th ough they had lost virtually everything materially. were taken to them thi s past year. th e work crew and th e family involved discussed the text for the day and prayed toget her. and material s for building a temporary Kingdom Hall. repair and rebuilding was don e on 400 homes of the brothers. clothing. cleaning materials.. Italy. from Angola were forced to flee int o Nam ibia because of civil war. accompanied by their wives. and medical supplie s. and at each one they left magazmes with the sold iers. a brother reported that. experienced elders. Hurricane Iniki smashed into the northwestern Hawaiian Islands in September 1992. served as auxiliary pion eers during tho se difficult months. About a th ousand brothers in Zaire were left destitute as a result of tribal warfare. On th e other side of th e globe. food. melting snow had turned the track to mire. Our brothers in Austria. the local brothers quickl y looked after them . Finding that the camp to which the Witne ss refugees had been taken was not ready to care for them.. th e eld ers there were organizing to help their brothers. During the following weeks. blankets./. the brothers provided tents. from other island s also went to th e disaster area to provide shepherding. It proved to be the worst natural disaster in the history of Hawaii. Germany. soap. Brothers volunteered to do the trucking in spite of danger to themselves. Many of these displaced publishers. As for th ose receiving the aid. Liberia . th e hearts of th e brothers went out to those in Zaire. Others started regular pion eer service. adult Witnesses and their children. The office promptly reported the situation to the Governing Body and then dispatch ed 24 tons of food . and qualified brothers made regular VISitS to give spiritual encour agement . But our brothers counted it a privilege to serve in this way. Do you kn ow where th e island of Niutao is? Not many people do. and medical supplies to alleviate th e situation. th ey are deeply grateful and feel more th an ever that th ey are truly part of an international family. Regard ing one of the trips to Sarajevo. For a period of six months. and at times explosions were so close th at th e brothers th ought they had been hit. Spirituality was kept to the fore. and assist in filling out complicated govern ment and/or insurance-claim form s. before work began on a specific home . When the office in South Afr ica received word about thi s.

835 new congregations formed in the past ten years).14 1994 Yearbook island in th e Tuvalu group realized what damage had been done . In Brazil. There.512 new congregations are formed in a single year (2. a neighbor of one of our sisters said: "Your Jehovah God really loves you.383 more . Among other things. Last year. 108 Kingdom Halls were completed. The branch is endeavoring to develop an arrangement that would simplify construction procedures and would provide the help of special construction crews trained at the branch." Yes. to provide such a service for you people . and many of these are still in need of more suitable places in which to meet . And what a vast amount of it there was this past year! In the United States. In Japan. Nigeria I . he truly does. 528. 73 Regional Building Committees assisted with Kingdom Hall construction. they helped to build some 200 new Kingdom Halls and remodel another 200. But many more are needed. to care for the rapid growth in Colombia. they provided food and other help.524 baptized and 26.687 Witnesses during the past five years. with the help of volunteers Recently built Kingdom Hall at Igieduma. Those who volunteered to help with the work provided not only skill and labor but also other resources. 57 new halls Worldwide Report 15 were completed. but these had to be designed to withstand earthquakes and typhoons. It took longer to get together necessary building materials and to ship these to Niutao. The love thu s shown by the Witnesses has been the talk of the island . Then they rebuilt his home . with th e cooperati on of tens of th ousands of willing volunteers. that involves construction work . The brothers in Argentina have made it their goal to see that each of the more than 1. Upon observing what Jehovah's people were doing to help one another in war-torn Liberia. where th ere has been an increase of 120. where quick -construction methods are also used. During th e 1993 service year. Building to Fill Needs of Rapid Growth When 296.004 people get baptized in a year and 3. More Kingdom Halls are needed. much needs to be done to care for all of the m. But there are 3. In rur al areas in South Africa. also. More than 800 new Kingdom Halls have been bu ilt in the Philippines during th e past six years. it has been impossible to keep up with the need for new Kingdom Halls. some congregations make their own concrete blocks and. and construction began on 1. But 93 new halls were completed this past year.500 congregations there has a suitable place to meet for worship.332 congregati ons. new Kingdom Halls usually are built in about three or four weeks.

to ask for land to purchase for a new Kingdom Hall. Brazil Hall. This became evident when the government assigned a choice piece of land in Munda on which the brothers could build a Kingdom Hall.The Organization Behind the Name. the area's traditional ruler. He was deeply . But they could not pay the sum that he demanded. one of the elders lent the Onojie the video Jehovah's Witnesses. To hold down expenses. Who could do the work? The brothers in Honiara said: "If our brothers from overseas could use their money and time to help us build an Assembly Hall and a branch. Families picked berries in order to obtain money for the construction. but it also demonstrates in a vivid manner the love and unity among Jehovah's people . The work of multiracial construction groups in such strifetorn areas as Soweto requires great caution. and the hall was built in just 10 days. The self-sacrificing spirit shown by the brothers who had traveled from abroad to help build the branch and the Assembly Hall in the Solomon Islands deeply affected the Witnesses there. Six family heads in Korea took out bank loans and then donated the funds to their congregation for its new Kingdom New Assembly Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses I in Rio de Janeiro. In Nigeria. One of these now is in Hammerfest. four brothers from a small congregation approached the Onojie. Resourcefulness was shown by a congregation in Slovakia in which half the publishers are pioneers. the brothers personally shouldered responsibility for repaying those loans. are able to complete a neat. Brothers and sisters from 13 islands and tribes were involved. 4. Some months later. there are 21 Kingdom Halls above the Arctic Circle. But the congregation was small. affordable hall in three to six weekends. the brothers in Hungary built two of their new Kingdom Halls on property that was formerly used for large Russian military bases. the northernmost city in Europe. As their contribution to the project.16 1994 Yearbook Worldwide Report 17 provided through the Regional Building Committee. Reflecting the spirit of Isaiah 2:3. they also obtained sand and stone from a nearby creekbed. why can't we give up our vacation and go to Munda to build the Kingdom Hall?" That is just what they did . In Norway.

18

1994 Yearbook

impressed. After watching it five times, he made the needed
land available to th e brothers for th eir new Kingdom Hall.
In many places it has also proved practical to have our
own Assemb ly Halls. Such halls were built in Colombia and
in the Uni ted States this past year. Two others were dedicated
in Brazil, two in Costa Rica, and one in Jamaica. In Pern,
an Assembly Hall adequate to accommodate district conventions of 10,000 was dedicated in February 1993. The open
ends, as well as sides that are open for about 10 feet from the
ground, afford good ventilation . The gently sloped concrete
floor makes it possible for the entire audience to have a clear
view of the platform. The brothers in France built their fifth
and largest Assembly Hall this year. Many workers and their
families gladly used their persona l vacation time to complete
th at project-in just four months! In Italy, a new hall was
compl eted in th e province of Catanza ro, and th e brothers in
Spain dedicated their fourth Assembly Hall.
Of course, growth in the number of Witnesses also
requires enlargement of branch facilities in order to provide
needed literature and super vision . Large new branch facilities were under construction th is past year in Poland, Puerto
Rico, and Zambia, also in Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
France, Mexico, and Taiwan. In the United States, major
enlargement of facilities has been continuing in Brook lyn,
and excellent progress has been made on the Watchtower
Educatio nal Cen ter at Patterson. Extensive expansion has
also been under way in Britain and Canada, as well as in
Australia, Brazil, Germany , Korea, New Zealand , South
A frica, and Spain. New branch build ings of smaller size have
been going up in Hungary , Jamaica, Mozambique, Paraguay,
Sri Lanka , Suriname, Tahiti , and Western Samoa. Many
thousa nds of broth ers and sisters have made themselve s
available to share in this work. What a year thi s has been !

Worldwide Report

19

Branch Dedications
After the dedication of Jehovah's temple in Jerusalem in
th e days of Solomon , th e people returned to th eir hom es
"rejoicing and feeling merry of heart over all the goodness
th at Jehovah had perform ed" for his people. (1 Ki. 8:66)
Likewise in modern times, th ere is great rejoicing in connection with the dedicati on of branch offices of the Watch Tower
Society, which are also used to promote true worship. Where
were branch facilities dedicated during the past service year?

Colombia
Nearly 9,000 feet up in th e Andes Mountains of South
America, at Facatativ a, Colombia, La Torre del Vigfa (The
Watch Tower) has a new office and printery, as well as
New office and printery at Facatativci, Colombia

I

20

housing for the volunteer workers. These were dedicated on
November 1, 1992. The setting is beautiful, 26 miles northwest of Bogota, on the edge of the plateau where the
Colombian capital lies. Here, full-color editions of The
Watchtower and Awake! are being printed in Spanish for use
in Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, Ecuador, and Peru.

At the
top,
Zambia;
center
above,
Puerto
Rico; at
the right,
Hungary

22

I994 Yearbook

When con struction began on these new branch facilities,
the re were 34,261 of Jehovah's Witnesses in Colombia.
During the five-year construction period, the number of
Witnesses in the country increased by 63 percent, to 55,69 3.
Home Bible studies are now being conducted with 100,927
individua ls and family groups . In 1993, at the Memorial of
Christ's death, 249,271 were in atten dance . This tru ly is a
joyful time of spiritual harves ting in Colomb ia.
Four hundred Witnesses from Co lomb ia, along with a
hundred international servants, made up the core of the
construction team that transformed what was form erly a
poultry farm into a center for theoc ratic education. Another
3,000 volunteers from nearby congregation s helped on
ho lidays and weeken ds, and some 1,500 ot her s from abroad
came-some for a few weeks, others for a few months-at

I Poland branch in Nadarzyn, near Warsaw

Worldwide Report

23

their own expense. Local businessmen could hardly believe
that th is was the case, and one of them person ally quest ioned
both Colombian Witnesses and foreigners to make sure that
it was so. Another bus inessman, deep ly impressed by what
he saw and heard , accepted a Bible study. Now he and his
wife are baptized Witnesses.
There were 1,500 guests, from 14 lands, for the dedication program. Included among them were Milton Henschel
and Daniel Svdlik of the Governing Body. What joyous
reunions there were! And what happiness over the spiritual
prosperity that Jehovah has bro ught to his servants in
Co lombia!

Poland
The same month, on November 28, ano the r branch was
dedicated, th is one in Nadarzyn, near Warsaw, Poland.
Theodore Jaracz, of the Governing Body, who was on hand
for th e occasion, declared: "This dedication is truly historic.
. . . It is the first new branch constructed and now being
dedicated in territory formerly known as 'behind the Iron
Curtain.' But that so-called Iron Curtain could not prevent
the onw ard march of Jehovah's organization! And the
evidence of it is right here!"
Some of the guests had personally waited decades for th is
occasion . Among th em were Witnesses who had faithfully
served Jehovah, despite severe trials, for 45, 50, or more
years. A number of these had carried out Bethel work
underground for more than 40 years. Their hearts were
deeply moved as Zygfryd Adach, coordinator of the Branch
Committee, said : "Beloved, you were going to great pains to
share in the work of God's organization in distributing
spiritual food during hard times, even exceptionally hard.
After years in prison, you often willingly offered to continue
the work . Sometimes this was repeated four or five times and

Seemingly unobtainable supplies were made available. extensions to the office and the services build ings. Brothers and sisters qualified in various trades and professions eagerly volunteered their services. and Niuean. offered themselves willingly. as well as other representatives from Brooklyn. The number of publishers on the island had increased from 5.'" -Ps. Thus. A "stop work" order from the Commune Council was reversed. over half of the new offices would be used for tran slation work. and tools. with its international team of workers.000 by the time the new bran ch was dedicated on Apr il 17. Again and again. was moved from Brooklyn to these new facilities. Those on hand for the program felt specially privileged to have as speakers for the occasion Karl Klein and Albert Schroeder. so with absolute conviction we quote the words at Psalm 124: 'Had it not been that Jehovah proved to be for us when men rose up against us. All of us remember that time. Blessed be Jehovah. To care for their needs. 124:2-7. too. On hand for the occasion was Lloyd Barry. There were also guests from neighboring South Pacificcountries. the hearts of the workers were thrilled as they saw evidence of Jehovah's direction and blessing. were dedicated . as well as traveling overseers and their wives. Four years of hard work by th ousands of brothers and sisters resulted in a fine complex of buildings in paradisaic surroundings. 1993. who has not given us as a prey to their teeth . But there was more to it. As explained at the dedication program. were present. In just two years and six months after receiving the construction permit . the number of Kingdom proclaimers there had increased by over 30 percent. But how appreciative they are for the excellent support and hard work of the newer on es who have joined with them in praising Jehovah! Puerto Rico The branch facilities erected 24 years ago in Puerto Rico had long been overcrowded. food supplies.. to benefit people on various South Pacific Worldwide Report 25 islands. following the dedication. on Februar y 27. the new facilities had already been put to use for a seminar attended by represent atives of 14 bran ches.24 I 994 Yearbook even more. The trap is broken. however. The majority. Our soul is like a bird that is escaped from the trap of baiters. refrigerators. a member of the Governing Body who grew up in New Zealand and began his service to Jehovah there . . When announcement was made that a branch was to be built. the response was spontaneous.400 in 1969 to over 25. the site of a despoiled motel was transform ed into an attractive complex of buildings for the Poland branc h. As one of the speakers pointed out. There were older ones who had spent years in prison. All the members of the Bethel and construction families. New Zealand During the six years since a new branch in New Zealand had been dedicated. Maori. then they would have swallowed us up even alive . Internati onal servants came from ten countries. Numerous young ones. the facilities had to be enlarged. and we ourselves have escaped. Congregations brought in coal and wood. the Spanish Translation Department. Rarotongan. of the Governing Body. were New Zealand residents who had been baptized before 1955. 1993. it was these older ones who did the work that laid the foundation for what was taking place at that dedication program. . because literature is transl ated here into Samoan. as well as additional housing. During the week leadin g up to the dedication. Then.

And the Zambian Witnesses were wholehearted in giving of themselves and their resources to get the job accomplished. Designing and engineering were done at the Society's officesin the United States. both Milton Henschel and Theodore [aracz. stone. Why there? Seeds of Bible truth had been sown in this country as early as 1911.26 1994 Yearbook Zambia One week after the dedication in Puerto Rico. At the time of the dedication program. two large truckloads of other supplies were sent in each week from South Africa-a round trip of 2. Cranes were donated by brothers in America. were present to share with the Zambian brothers in that happy event. Hungary It was a specially happy day for our brothers in Hungary on July 31 when Lyman Swingle. The building of the new Zambia branch was possible because of the international cooperation that is typical of Jehovah's organization. But. The only building materials readily available locally were sand.993 congregations in Zambia. of the Governing Body. and wood. cement. England . of the Governing Body. Radio equipment that made possible telephone installations was sent as a gift from New Zealand. dedicated their newly built facilities for additional residence and a translation office. small study groups had been formed. on an average.204. Now there are 80. and Japan. and Memorial attendance in 1993 was 362. Europe. I Added branch facilities in London. a new branch complex of 13 buildings was dedicated on the outskirts of Lusaka. These had been constructed in just five months. This is a fruitful field for Kingdom expansion. with the help of local congregations as well as Witnesses from eight other lands. and the completion had been announced by the Hungarian National News Agency.488 publishers associated with 1.200 miles. By 1924. Zambia.

Some 133. volunteers who are also able to make themselves available for such work .000 bricks were used. At present we have at least some current publications in 236 languages. many of the translation teams that care for languages used in the magazines were being strengthened. and Africa. Albert Schroeder. but the effectiveness of the work of preaching and disciple making is greatly enhanced when literature is available in the mother tongue of these people.28 r 994 Yearbook After decades of harsh persecution. Translation of the Bible and Bible literature plays an important role. That year. training. Reaching people of all these groups is a tremendous task. and equipping translators. and those that are working on another 70 languages were being trained.-1 Cor. we are confident that he will provide whatever is necessary to get the work accomplished during the time that yet remains. Some 5. . Included among these are languages used in Eastern Europe. a peak of 9.300. Translation Services The Governing Body is keenly interested in doing whatever is necessary so that the great crowd will truly be drawn out of "all nations and tribes and peoples and -.990 publishers reported some share in the field ministry.000-square -foot factory and administrative complex. How many bricklayers were required to do that job? Just seven sisters.347. He delighted the audience by relating details of the growth of the Kingdom work in Britain since 1937. It is a privilege to be his fellow workers. when he was sent to the British Isles to supervise the work and to encourage at least 1. Responsible brothers are constantly working to locate and train translators and to provide needed equipment-if necessary .000 volunteers shared in the work. southern Asia. as well as among Indian tribes in South America. of the Governing Body.803 of them are in the pioneer service each month. a 200. What a joy to see that there are now 127. there are more languages that need attention. 12. using the tilt-up method for concrete wall panels.395 Kingdom proclaimers in Britain and that. The Watchtower is regularly printed in 116 languages. checkers. During the past year. Since then Jehovah's Witnesses have devoted upwards of8. on an average. All of these must be dedicated Christians.000 to enroll as pioneers. was dedicated. On August 7. to design new type fonts and computer software to handle it. Jehovah's Witnesses in Hungary were granted legal recognition in 1989. 1993. 3:9 ." as the Bible states. many of them spoken by more than a million people. and the number of Kingdom proclaimers has risen to 14. and proofreaders. the latest addition. The factory buildings at the rear of the site were constructed in just 17 months. with two brothers to supervise. one that can be successfully completed only with Jehovah's spirit. The administrative block is a brick building. Britain The first branch office of the Watch Tower Society was established in London in 1900. Worldwide Report 29 tongues. (Rev. Can people be reached without literature in their own language? Yes. A contractor who visited the site shook his head in disbelief when told who did the work. 7:9) The accomplishing of this has been a matter of prayer at the world headquarters and among Jehovah's servants worldwide.000 hours to the field ministry in Hungary. and by peoples on the Pacific islands . As we review what Jehovah has already done. Developing such teams involves locating. Of course. was present to share in the dedication program. Its facilities have had to be enlarged many times.

Philippines. such brothers have been used in Arabic. And when people are away from the stro ng community pressures of th eir homeland. 29 classes of this school have given valuable training to more than 684 elders and ministerial . Bulgaria. th ere is considerable territory where no regular preaching is do ne. and Western Samoa. This has been a great help . Japan ese. Russia. pioneer service has been effectively encouraged. French. Romania. special pioneers. Korean. Of these single elders and ministerial servants who have offered themselves willingly. the United States. Accordingly. and th e Far East to serve in br anches and as missionaries. especially among young er ones. A number of graduates who were in a position to accept foreign assignments have been sent to Eastern Europe. in a large congregation. and Vietnamese language groups and con gregations. Persia. Quite a number of those going through the school are \ Worldwide Report 31 able to speak other languages. Turkish. too . some of th em are happy to study th e Bible. field activity has increased. and traveling overseers. They are among the "company of young men just like dewdrop s" described at Psalm 110:3. Where graduates of the Ministerial Training School have been assigned to serve in such areas of special need in their native land. Yet. Syria. Reaching People of All Nationalities In some lands. Solomon Islands. In this way. Chinese. servants. it can truly be said"that their efforts are bearing fruit . and elsewhere. and more personal attention has been given to the many new ones now associating. Many congregations lack brothers to take the lead. and in the territory of Latin-American branches where Spanish-speaking students from 16 different countries were enr olled.30 1994 Yearbook Ministerial Training School Held on Six Continents Gile ad Sch ool has now been in operation for 50 years. where. The school in Australia benefited brothers who came from Fiji. We meet interested ones from Lebanon. the school has contributed toward the advancement of the Kingdom work . there may only be on e or two elders and about the same number of ministerial servants. Papua New Guinea. Italian . Russian . parts of Africa. Spanish. At five locati ons in Europe. These . Thus the Cyprus br anch reports: 'A new territory is opening up here in Cypru s. New Zealand . in Europe and the United States part icularly. This is particularly true in Latin Am erica. and its grad uates have shared in advancin g Kingdom interests in upwards of 200 lands. what was formerly Yugoslavia. Nigeria. Classes were held in Japan. What a grand 'heap of witness ' has resulted from the work of thes e self-sacrificing servants of Jehovah! More help to fill urgent needs has been provided as a result of the Ministerial Training School. Some of this territory is in cou ntries th at do not welcome missionaries. During the past service year. C roatian . which offers specialized training in an intensive two-month course. th e immigrant field has proved to be the most productive. brothers from 12 different countries were train ed. in recent years. In a number of places. milli on s of people from th ese lands have immi grated to cou ntries where intensive preach ing is regularly being don e by Jehovah 's Witnesses. PUblishers have found th at foreign missionary fields are coming to them.

There is a fertile field among the Russian-speaking immigrants as well as the thousands of Orientals who have taken up residence in Canada in recent years.". a girl from Mongolia met and marr ied a young man from Guyana.5 Number Baptized: 296.483.515. Large nu mbers have come from the former Soviet Union.057. The brothers in Norway have now begun to make special visits to all the places where such refugees are housed. she is eager to share the Kingdom message with her family and others in Mongolia.•••• 231 Peak Publishers: •••••••••••••••••4 .889 Average Publishers: 4. and a goodly number are showing interest in the truth .587 Memorial Attendance: 11. Wit hin Canada.709. in Guyana. Are there people in your terr itory who do not speak the local language? What are you doing to share the Kingdom message with them? Jehovah's will is that "all sorts of men should be saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth. In England. 2:3. Many peop le seeking asylum from harsh conditions in their homeland have traveled to Norway. th ere are congregations serving the needs of 11 language groups. the brothers are learning to widen out in order to help fill the spiritu al need of people from other lands.006 Number of Congregations: 73. Meetings are now regularly held in Lond on in 8 languages.004 Average P ioneer Publishers: 623.972 Average Bible Studies: 4. too. Worldwide Report t 1993 Grand T otals Number of Cou n t r ies : •••••••••••••.070 Total Hours: 1. immigration has opened up a new field for witnessing. In Israel. and some meetings are held in 4 othe r languages. requested a home Bible study.865.900 Percentage of Increase Over 1992: •••4.693 Number of Branches: 100 .32 1994 Yearbook \ people who have come to work and start a new life are often more inclined to listen than are others. they began to read some Watch Tower pub lications. as well as to other lands. 4.341 . Their children are also publishers of the good news. Later. As for the mother.' While attending a un iversity in eastern Germany. and were baptized in 1993.l Tim.765 Memorial Partakers Worldwide: 8.

300.425.183 260 6 892 359 335 61 46 Av.531 102 2. 1992 2.204 1.439 405 30.952 32.685 117.699 386 1.275.303 249 802 509 99 172 1.826 1.405 2.553 4.413 1.803 85 98 2 1.927 204 259 159 387 22.283 102.649 1.537.000 4.311 103 852 218.543 8.000 27.105 294 107 263 76 52.317 3.408 80.783 22.000 3.000 8.233 76 361 15 933 1 3 66 24.607 474 1.043 320 491 147 58.880 459 55.180 82.819 5 41 88 34.318 145 13.048.120 30 2.433 122.500.399 34.000 3.074 136 13.148 3.318 141 575 287 81. Nos.244 790 478 119 190 No.840.084 15 9.612 322 42.000.499 30 370 93.892 56 25.946 7 724 1.449 10.897 3.585 328.627 120. Hours 28 1 3 2 2 263 1 4 1.494 381 524 449 1.865.402 211. Bptzd.364 51 291 1.000 19.003.330 2.390 254.275 51.395 445 13 21.568.583 4.703 56.026 4.505 1.872 23 67.812 226.097 590.621 108.737 275.276 11.097 132.039 19.859.457 2 244 12 4 -4< 3 5 1 9 4 2 2 7 3 3 2 -5< 2 4 13 -2< 8 10 -13< 12 5 1 0 61 6 New 7 2 27 2 10 7 3 -10< 11 100 12 7 2 7 11 0 5 JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES WORLDWIDE locatio n o n endshee t maps.517 517 1.715 1 63 2.737 760.265 144.000 2.924 41 1.109 322 37.231.157 8 27.460 6.000 11.645 4.223 36 1.053 303 20.245 8 347 537 3 17.262 37 1.401 5.634.285 3.704 5.606 11.471 300 41.648 8 215 507 16.033 427 25 280 314 210 102.146 55 253 704 341.615. 89 80 14 3 5 1.297 415 127. Av.487 1 346 13 1.796 152.000 7.030.000 5.345 20.179 4 2.671 187.400.154 20.000 13.460 99 1. 216 27 6 35 18 1.000 440.000 53.974 1.955 2 56 12.624 355 135.975 131 59 279 369 27.799 1.644 23 5.929 23. 1992 Av.057.294 I 21 1 359 22 83 4 137 1 8 20 5.403 981.800.812.650.171 450.463 21.269.884.040 17.371 6 17 1 440 1. Bible Studies 1.500.284 880.569 103.794 165 5.512 26.000 9.016 2.014 234 4.000 1.694 61.735.412 571 91 1.707 174.877 15. Pubs .032 11.756 2.746.063 2. 21-46 back endsheet.200 128 35 1.384 1993 No.537 801 Memorial Attendance 4.326.336 16 1 45 14 448 3 751 59 3 230 116 72 17 15 Av.614 11.164 3.505 394 136 9.563 56.652 803 366.270 49 51.598 154 100.714 1 5.715 105.910 258.000 1993 Peak Pubs.975 174.268 664 109.665 4.350 4.528 2 2.681 1.854 558 5 90.891 639 58.723 202 1.254 23 286 99.712 18.706 1.758 3.774 1.296 4. of Total Congs.924 5 1.668 296 1.262.187 1.268 5.271 16 10.776 2.860 61.000 19.423 852 27 79 107 2 1.319 190.927 15 7.039 183 3.210 2.451 219 9.703 22 283 90.951.000 27.479 17.599 9.482 398 1993 % Inc.650.656.219 307 15.377 345 44.216 1.580 44 57.581 413 605 15.443 1.516.198 1.201 723 93 1.937.754 909.899 1.485 22.612 67.800.890 82 332.1993 SERVICE YEAR REPORT OF Letter and number fo llow ing each country 's name ind icates the co untry's Country or Territory Population Alaska (A-3I) Albania (E-8) Algeria (H-6) American Samoa (N-29) Andorra (E-6) Angola (N-8) Anguilla (J-42) Antigua (J-43) Argentina ( P-42 ) Aruba (J-42) Australia (0 -22) Austria (E-7) Azores (F-2) Bahamas (H-41) Bangladesh (H-17) Barbados (J-43) Belau (K-22) Belgium (D-6) Belize (J-39) Benin (K -6) Bermuda (0 -42) Bolivia (N-42) Bonaire (J-42) Bosnia & Herzegovina (E-8) Botswana (0-9 ) Brazil (M-43) Britain (C-5) Brunei (K-20) Bulgaria (E-9) Burkina Faso (K-5) Cambodia ()-18) Cameroon (K-7) Canada (B-37) Cape Verde (J-3) Cayman Islands (H-40) Central Afr.513 6 698 277 18 22 373.000 52.226 155 1 198 29 2.230 262.413 11.000 2.700 7.478 278 51. (K-8 ) Chad (J-8) Chile (0-4 1) Chuuk (K-24) Colombia (K-41) Comoros (M-ll) Congo (L-8) Cook lslands (N-31) Costa Rica (K -40) Cote d'lvoire (K-5) Croatia (E-8) Curacao (J-42) Cyprus (0-10) 618.000 9.056 36 58 191 157 17.280 271 164 19.825 323. Rep.000 12.776 15 8.513 32.591 3.062 408.172 72.819 16.925 53 25.294 197 41 2.145 1. Pubs. 1-26 fronr and Nos.963 977 2. Over Pubs.219 12.951 863 36.000.483.065 509 1.084 129.570.538 110 16.145 134 12.509 8.800 53 186 7 216 16 2.281 10.000 65.042 .532 1.006 3.057 250.571 679 61 191 11.336 401.298 49 60. One Publisher to: 2.438 50 292 627 324.000 235.069 478 56.599 33.000 16.391 1. Pio .309.295 3.123 119 10 300 83 5.846 22.528 72.389 5.281 91.627 370 8. Ratio.439 1.034 12.803 63.941.538 17.386 410 249.056 149 456 55 1.798 62.527 960 178 107 14.381.195 15.784. 2.557.088 124 65 199 150 18.432 935 2.961 364 9.912 499.120.669 1.666 3.461 1.303 13.

860 6. 110 34 182 799 24 1 221 2.180 10.772 66 Ratio .109 20 2.622 492 109.559 127 469 6.828.025.1 63 273 1.000 122.609.870 74 93.5 19 24.573 14 130 .321 542 34.821 282.157 28 158.453 75 53 7 6.748 147 172 8 11.625 27.057 7.992 144. Total Hours 267 225 6 244 382 359 2. Republic of (F-2l) Kosrae (K-26) Latvia (e -9) Lebanon (G -I0) Lesoth o ( P-9) Liberia (K-5) Libya (H -8) Liechtenstein (E-7) 10.507 372.532 66.952 165.679 792 58 30.463 15.973 133 287. P'l1 74.46 1 34.256.124 5.300.957 467 13.797 3.298.596 1.558 1.000 16.175 175 11.000.6 18 23.605 421 17 1.532 4.012 75.684 1. One P u b.597 8.000 10 29. P io .717 24.494 12.347 262.600.498 6.727.515 2.667 420 714 161 720 1.181 71.601 2. 800 62.250 I 136 208 190 163 Av.04 7 4.838.24) Guatemala (j -39) Guinea (K-4) Guinea-Bissau (K·4) Guyana (K-43 ) Haiti (j -41) Hawaii (H -3l) Honduras (j.849 1.677 50 5 1.199 35 3.242.30 1 1.000 25.145 1.000 1.117 144 92.817 13.000 493 9.28 6 6 45 Mem orial A ttcndan ce 35.052 57 44.597 3.00 0 150.315 3.000 18 760.839 18 328 3.970 8.159.493 19.476 16.363.000 4.360 22.087 74.876.45 6 53.793 23.718 5.242.763 117 69.529 931 385.1 87 128.048 1.571 2.525 99 8 1.784 58 1.03 1 201.273 8.000 3. Bptad.028 1.245 2.216 51.089.955 17 0 2.000 1.484 5.982 18.786 280 15.889.39 ) Hong Kon g (H -20) Hun gary ( E-8) Icelan d (A-3) India (H -15) Ireland (0-5) Israel (G-IO) Italy (E-7) Jamaica (j ·4l) Japa n (F-23) Kenya (L-IO) Kiribat i (L-27) Korea.34 1 10.474 7.206 9.614 7.587 1.738 9.462 31 482 499 7 1 2 17 10 18 2 9 -7' 1 0 1 4 14 4 3 55 5 9 6 4 13 11 7 8 4 6 4 1 7 12 14 6 6 17.794 290 8.216 4.054.010 5.778. 192 6.478 2.215 15.54 5 3.080 2.546 204 132.237 5.685 35 63 416 94 1. (j -4 l) Ecuador (L-40 ) EI Salvador (j -39) Equator ial Guinea (L-7) Esto nia (B-9) Ethiopia ( K.238 9 10 643 1.697 6 .097 25.504 3.408 1.532 208 41.100. Pubs.377 11.533.129 11 2.281 7.540 212 1.880 4.000.680 627.500. Country or Territory Population Czech Republi c (0-8) Denmark (C-7) Dominic a (j ·4 3) Dominican Rep.000 45 1 444 196.056.427 282 246 677 3.358 175 19 -8' -11' 5 2.347 2.468 44 68. 126 159 1 1.880 4 15 48 4 1 38 289 1.450 2.957.378.006 10.565 4.510 44.836 428.418 3.30 2.025.1' a a 5 8 -8' -38' 2 a 409 13. 167 10.194 387.021 2.985 1.926.079 6 47 273 305 323 No. 871 1.607 982.997.668 846 1.340.685 37.968 111.056 2.420.224 7.378 16.270 70.208 15.961 41.342 368 33.326 21.440 2.760 127 476 6.596 28.415 24.909 116 24.871.2 30 111.668 7.329 1. 280. 271 1.754 8.753 232.156 2.930 4 18 188.775.870 29.958.342 123. 522 5.000 486 369 227 406 383 184 54 304 665 20.596 .884 46.053 255 11.334 985 80.287 43 8.835 2.065 4.4 29 1. P u bs . lisher to: 199 3 Av.871 117. Bib le St ud ies 14.628 .104.5 12 13.019 19.713 5.500.875 53 1 112 1.720 1.419 2.085 328 11 1.272 33 161.90 0 62.387 8. O ver 19 92 199 2 Av. 1.500.500 20.757 897 12.350 27.924 5.547 5.705.097 1.1993 Peak P ubs .941 32.674 506.867 140.368 1 5 64 48 39 Av .382 17.000 389 1.000 14.00 1 1.956 98.000 1.526 9 30.020.147 1.000.000 8.465 8 61 93 70S 5.333 1.279 .150 10 735.823 6.804 109 2.592. 8 8 12 3 14 14.855 125 24.628 19 1.672 48.078 968 1.215 6.662 28. 124 220.46 4 25.388 44.831 17.848 127 10.970 7.995 17.154 14.259 1.328 532 13.396 4.830 1 88 1 10 20 4 11 19 1.906 12.633 28.358 429 215 496 15.942 199 1.050.207 33.384 501. of Co ngs .596.317 591 405 6.949 5.575 368.469 54 11 223 1.608 16 17 1 1.700. P ub s.5 12 1.268 1.200 184 20 10.012 8 5.000 8.972 673 2 335 7 7 81 7 210 14 1 31 175 83 114 29 212 7 381 103 8 2.175 1.457 89.227.834.828 372.9 32 172 18 5.289.278 55.000 499 7.254 120.284 .996 718 920 69.07 1 177.000 41 80.5 88 4.000 1.000.858 1.895 1.115 6.597 5.951 259 14.458 183.115 626 3.730 986 1.96 1 136 589 8.019 29 1.203 5.809 6. 106 274 472 117 825 25. 123 2.892 41.349 5 62 % Inc.738.460 6.000 3.275 15.583 172 3.040 363.362 4.4 37 57.684 713 15. 139 58.023 1.978 15.50 6 1.285 105.236 50 72.000.062 29 1 125 947 384 447 167 1.000 457 56.792 431.176.900 14.ll) Faeroe Islands (B·5) Falkland Islan ds (S-43) Fiji (N-28) Finland (A -9) France (E· 6) French Guiana ( K-44) Gabo n (L-7) Gambia (j -4) Ger many (0-7) Ghana (K-6) Gibralta r (F-5) Gr eece (F-9) Gree nland (A-44) Gre nada (j -43) Guadeloupe (j -43) Guam (j. 120 1.000 9.373 272 12.798 89 1.000 3.505 15.189.343 166.980 . 123 56.000 423 3.390 18.495 10.485 992 373.632 339 17 1.364 197 6.070 1. 1993 No.498 2.293 1.119 119.193 285 904.527 46.4 84 14.000 1. 656 32 1 248 494 428 251 1.021 9.968 108 9 1.6 11 7.

285 11 2.205 994 29 343.000 2.723 53 1.900 4.202 106 52 38 157 12 700 59 2.192 104 80.244 653 19.459.012 3.413 182 174.004 27 10 9.705 16 7.559 I 8.956 359.007 71 105.766 40.915 76.770 41.780 5.000 631.238 2.567 1.078 1.811 60.035 11 1.060 6 9 41 No .493 22.501 1.942 38.388 7.600 253.031 9.021 2 124 671 856 22 8.084 25 5 9. On e Publisher to: 4.191 2.400 150 3.171 28. 214 94 3 667 65 1.802 68.936 337 1.859 25.982 34 70 166 740 Memorial Attendance 2.129 2.508 14.818 400.056.357 7.906 21.626 43 4.882.62I 20.302 31.888 1 31 2.632 520.599 130 26.711 2.341 I 413 537 40 1.071.009 23.770.219 34 28.976 776.695 13.127 57 8.757 9.464 12.117 36 47 7.828.146 31 26.551 41.433 494.695 15.Country or Territo ry Population 1993 Peak Pubs.356 474 252 114 270 403 42.881 12 137 148 532 0 4 26 10 8 3 8 13 4 13 0 4 5 10 7 -3' 38 27 8 8 17 10 1 0 3 2 9 13 7 -7* -50' 0 10 3 6 6 7 2 -10' 5 4 0 7 -3* 15 -9' 29 0 0 10 6 1992 Av.093 4.920 3.075 29.657 2.514.000 19.459 12 137 135 504 1993 No.763 14.362 5.000 1.289 74.760 2.495 39.397 631 307 27 I 325 I 39 1 2 2 7 150.I3l 27.522.043 32 366.080 16 151 157 564 Ratio.388 309 235.854 2. Kirts (J-42) St.049 19.098 4.000 64.799 46 544 54.501 2.289.108 200 53 54 6 18 326 121 9 51.401.201 40 56 10.242 20.080 164.598 .000 7.536 25.450.000 804 1.000.182 10.028 36 6 3. Helena (N-5) St.954 5.115.515 108 1.529.183 70 14.480 332 7.151.000 35.331 106 448 30 155 3. 0 1.258 507 90 212 437 338.550 1.348 17.611 1.144 10.809 14.813 768 26.115.777 4 290 21 520 252 324 4.582 28 9 9.786.983 780 177.098 35.968 1.534 76.933 1.239 2.579 307 281 12.459 386.309 11.796 1.332 1 1.353 267 6.954 87. Pubs.998 150 124 29.000 13.015 806 217 3.708 37 34 5.532 1.929 47 12.000 88.842 25.871.710 11.961 3.063 5. Hours Av.110.408 1.349.905 37 1.377 714 25. Pio .080 8'.086 4.525 4.188 707 8 117 32. Bible Studie s 8 28 2 81 12 583 24 2 6 3 2 35 13 1 9.678 52.532 3.000 1.485 371 242.082 4.000 2.412 13.749 37 1.363 116.587 86.291 151 154.419 111.000 16.535.997 43.797 77.997 720.511 301 6.795.000 1.344 508 43.782 227 297 500.689 3.888 28.019 64 110.085 34 380.000 3.529 2.410 1.025.000 462.770 1.173 3.160 757 473.583.087 553 853 97 966 8.224.570 1.881 5.435 12.603 70.733 61 5.642 89.711 6.937 598 6 93 30. 1992 714 1.139 953 507 549 521 339 224 140 285 1.244 59 526.538 4.266 1. Lucia (J-43) 3.977 700 1.527 13.782 7.088 170 164.837 37.370 122 79. Bptzd.010 32 23.682 5.576 69 113.348 12.124 40 1.093 24.000.222 392 261 74 338 3.065 2.870.127 825 30.000.574 1 2 244 91 17 1 2 381 1 18 156 179 7 3.563 10.289 101.164 2.500 45.579.865 3.441 10 1.625 5 8 U 72 292 68 22 1.162 41 76 13)87 1.318.498 105 13 22 6 5 190 83 Av.086 407 612 10.312.000.500 34.500.433 120 468 34 155 3.287 1.000.104 12 6.593.083 645 7 102 30.796 157.750. Pubs.329 233 8 1.641 416 11.330 22. of T otal Congs.056.534 18.033 147.908 1. Over P ubs.826 2.856 46.200.370.625 357.847 3.629 823 218 252 105 974 2.448 45. Lithuania (C-9) Luxembourg(0 -6) Macao (H-20) Madagascar (N-12) Madeira (G-4) Malawi (M-IO) Malaysia (K-1 9) Mali (J-6) Malra (F-7) Marquesas Islands (M-33) Marshall Islands (K-27) Martinique (J-43) Mauritius (N-13) Mayotre (N-l1) Mexico (H-38) Monrserrar (J-42) Morocco (G-5) Mozam bique (0 -10) Myanmar (H-18) Namibia (0 -8) Nauru (L-26) Nepal (G-16) Nerherlands (0-6) Nevis (J-42) New Caledonia (N-26) New Zealand (Q-27) Nicaragua (J-40) Niger (J-7) Nigeria (K-7) Niue (N-29 ) Norfolk Island (0 -27) Norway(A-7) Pakistan (G-14) Panama (K-40) Papua New Guinea (L·23) Paraguay (0-43) Peru (M-41) Philippines (J-21) Pohnpei (K-25) Poland (0-8) Portugal (F-5) Puerto Rico (J-42) Reunion (0-13) Rodrigues (N-14) Romania (E-9) Rota (J-24) Rwanda (L-9) Sr.741 94.691.880 142.861 357 7.281 1.948 9.239.628 140.430 8.245 74 10 16.912 4.374 94.092 2 668 4 2 13 86 31.158 183 I 3.875 702 3 313 11.706 137.421 1.693 121.479 132 492 36 186 3.969 294.693 54 4.000 7.000 405.946 353.256 3.239.345 1.280 47 300 378 1.102.056 24.141 Il3.289 1 I 177 7 151 102 68 U 71 3.755 259.532 1.763 94 35 203 252 1993 % Inc .476 24.802 10.796 8.363 666 1.101.019.270.071 6 138 1.557 2. Av. 10 1.500 5. Eustarius (J-42) St.897 2.143 3.869.587 42 19.49.000 10.

335 181.462 848 51.636 6.573 331.993 626 71. 376 1.744 2 60 6.238 4.246 4.607 190 9 251 157 14 1 91 623 97 621 10.004 623.31 9 1. last year .014 345 96.R.195 2.910 .097 4.357 476.267 3.S .2 18 1.983 20.000 8 W estern Samoa (M-29) 161.955 185.975.662. P io .64 9 65 Trinidad & Tobago (K-43) 1.700 4 Tonga ( N-29) 94.606 1.586 17.593.859 8.056 3 118 9 7 207 105.144 Vanuatu (N -27) 142.783.368 18.D20 11.965 666.948 73.872.434 Togo (K-6) 3.488 Zimbabwe ( N-9) 10.300 10 St .062 28.400 6.184 1.859 23 1 65 33 18 12 128 10 132 549 138 101 6.789 I 67 1 17 I 2 21 9.272 30 1.015 17.630 211 Venez uela (K-42) 21.218 12.3 61 1.62 8 49.S.170 4.889 Rati o .043 58 46 1.6 16 ° 12 Countries of Form er U.549 455.902 1.344.084.000 64. (U .206 102 Senegal (j -4) 7.944 Zambi a ( N-9) 8. Over 1992 1992 Av.049 854 126 367 195 53 2.080 5.694 248.973 407.874 1.204 29.528 4.843 2.683 586.942 96 1 Sout h Afr ica (P-9) 39. P u bs.670 479 1.670 Th ailand (j -18) 57.767 21.148 31 977 57 54 905 866.071 145.403 23. 530 4.428 11.446.242 110.000 75.354 .962 .400 23.300 GRAND TOTAL (231 coun tri es) 4.9 14 U ruguay (P-43) 3. 344 36.765 3 1 6 3 2 1 15 2 22 184 30 37 1.834 75.111 1.796 2.026 2. 14 Av.665 92.737 296.0 58 2.525 275.00 0 1.094 2 310 6 42 4 3 155 41.655 1.412 T unisia (G-7) 8.338 6.210 180.219 Spain (F-5) 39.923 3.S.972 70.463.644 1.786.456 193 260.IO) 27.587 11.044 705 19 54 1. P u bs .S.178 37 24 55 359 320 28 31 110 39 97 9 1.699. Me mo ria l A t te n dance 299 738 6 23 488 878 221 442 50 277 416 355 1.180.08 1 Virgin isis. 170.244 6.875 545 314 4. Pierr e & Miq uelon ( D-43) 6.038 4.691.995 Av. Latvi a & Lithuani a incl ude d o No co mparison figu re.788 184 59.631 14.) (j -42) 101.984 309.973 "24 Othe r Count ries 67.889 3.000 56 Uganda ( L-10) 18. 107 16 16 7 26 62 5 77 806 122 47 3.421 1.712. 283.767 22.848 4.600 2.335 5.658 362.967 31 68 2 17 37 7 315 396 8.000 143 Sao To me & Prln cipe (L-7) 124.606 55.324 6.362 8.204 .404 1.289. 1993 No.4 54 310.734 Swaziland (0 -10) 876 .515.391 2.985 119 2 831 4 9 1 6 1 39 1.274.713 222 17.R.517 908 53.342 19.845 40.S .600 231.515 275 331 676 336 116 158 1. 141.683 1.559.366 25 76 2.065 1.540 1.000 9 .744 182 San Marin o ( E-7) 23.902 12.460 86.227 351 694 40 1 10.1 OO Slovenia (E-8 ) 1.646 1.257 % Inc .769 .077 13 0 9 16 2 30 8 2 9 4 4 7 3 4 8 2 9 1 1 13 11 8 8 5 0 2 2 -3' 7 2 -15' 20 1 4 9 6 1 6 67 7 4 14 10 -2' 6 4 168 9 230 135 138 70 576 95 570 10.041 4.440 1. Incl uded with co untries of former U .428 2.359 11.830 4.78 8.707 47.887 65.570 19.600.308 Zaire (L-9) 42.348 139 656 878 232 1.019 269 297 203 2.459 10.715 60.64 1 60.74 8 57.151 71.000 1. Bi b le Studies 44.443 2 59 6.277 23.89 2 4.105 1.15 3 2.0 14 4.467 17.0 00 7.806.822 21.195 U.841 8. ( E-8) 10.000 926.626 Suriname (K-43) 400.965 1.550.002 5.000 147 Virgin Isis. (Brl r.581 588 11 4.420 2.3 15.500.834 2 233 76 8.726 64.038 256.680 Sweden (A-8) 8.489 3.947 1.865 .082.599 Solomon Island s (M-26) 336.502 4.603 607.057. Vincent (j -43) 107.074 905.178 I1.142 16.000 715 Slovakia ( D-8) 5.S.276 195 Co unt ries 4.709.944 14.703 40.927 131 281 1.529 23.904 .770 76.0 00 4. of Congs .478 11.600 17. 503 553 107 489 3.070 6.235.22 2 370.000 1.164.894.092 31.113 668 6.500.318.000.787 17.40 1.030.4 83.255 9.125 T okelau (M-29) 1.784 6.064 147.088 103.602 2.341.08 9 1. ) (j -42) 17.730 24.564 12.598 265 Saipan (j -24) 45.000 653 Seychelles (L-13) 70.023 73.223 1.000 .942 1.440 169 56.763 231 522 363 386 118 9.158 138 83 144 920 818 171 194 503 92 421 Total Hours * Percent age o f d ecr ease # Work bann ed and re port s are in com plet e '" Repor ts com hined for co mpariso n with 19 91 se rvice year • • Estoni a.000 20 1 St.026.295.121 77.41 1 1.762 2.553 13.823" 14. of America (F-38 ) 255.5 58. 119 630 406 251 161 1.492 36.000 33 Turkey ( F-IO) 60.540 . (H-4il 12. R.000 80.153.825 140 608 5 278 27 2. 299 534 425 1. F. N o.800 645 W allis & Futuna lsls.066 315 75 157 6.335. P ubs.500 138 576 3 261 26 1.771 92.996 .261 4.605 2.018 221.908 Tahiti ( N-32) 195.654 Taiwan (H -20) 20.3 12 17.176 5.93 1 882 20 10.298 296 Yap (K-23) 10.852 1.070 1.928 129.Co untry or Te rrito ry Population 199 3 Peak Pubs.440 375.900 29 7 4. One Pub.079 Turk s & Caicos Isis.920 795 1.000 1.394.32 9 58. (N-28) 15.014 23.154 226.982 Switzerland ( E-7) 6.162 1. lis h er to : 1993 Av. 595 Sri Lanka (K-16) 17.64 6 11.973 3.877 5.133 1.304 1.5 55.763 106 Sierra Leon e (K-4) 4. Maarten (H2) 24.333 55. 189 20.32 1 Tan zan ia (M.038 32 Yugoslavia.084 878. Bpred.600 71 Tu valu (M-28) 9.006 177 161 15.410 1.39 1 163.165 834 1.000 97.16 7 198 514 2.303.424 1. St.933 88.

Darmen. he protected it from being looted. and he had conducted meetings in his own home. to keep their interest in the truth alive. An auxiliary pioneer started a study in a village in Mauritius. asking: "What is your purpose?" She answered directly: "It is to start Bible studies with people. Civil war has severely disrupted the lives of people in Liberia. a special pioneer couple arranged to study with them. When he learned about the daily text. especially his mother. After a few weeks. Many thousands throughout Africa are giving convincing evidence that they are part of that happy throng. Thirteen from that family are now baptized. Though he did not feel qualified to use the Kingdom Hall. South Africa. he discussed that with them. a Hindu. out of all nations and tribes and peoples and tongues" will become united in the worship of Jehovah. The man has made excellent progress.. a curious young neighbor boy.." A fine discussion was held with this Jewish man. Darmen talked to all his relatives in that village-brothers. and our sister arranged to return with her husband.42 1994 Yearbook Africa and Islands Nearby Africa is a continent fragmented as a result of tribal and nationalistic strife. uncles. What he heard he repeated to his parents. he said to his family: "Come and meet these people. She became convinced that what she was now learning was the truth. and three times he has read the entire book The Greatest Man W hoEver Lived. he has read the Bible from cover to cover four times. Family ties can play an important role in spreading the truth. He was among those baptized at the "Divine Teaching" Convention this year. When the publishers from Mano River were attending a convention in Monrovia. sisters. aunts. In Cape Town. The day our sister first called. and cousins. so she demolished the Hindu shrine in her garden. listened with interest. four others are unbaptized publishers. He is also busy sharing the truth with his relatives. But one unbaptized publisher who had been left behind continued to preach. Some everiings." He had been contemplating suicide. their home area came under attack and it was impossible for them to return all year. And Darmen? He is now married. for God has sent them to us. He is most grateful that Jehovah opened Worldwide Report 43 his eyes to the truth. He explained that he had also endeavored to make "shepherding calls" on those who had previously been studying. brothers-in-law. let's start now. since he had not yet been baptized. and both he and his wife serve as special pioneers." To her surprise the man replied: "Well! Come in. 1993. over 30 shared in these discussions until late. one of our sisters was taken aback when a householder interrupted her. with the prospect of survival into his peaceful new world. that . In addition to his study. But Revelation 7:9-14 foretells that "a great crowd . The highlight of the year in the Central African Republic was the government decree on January 20.

no one was at home. then replied: 'No. and they zealously share with others the news of God's purpose to make all the earth a paradise. 167 magazines every month and has started seven Bible studies there on the train. 'Then why are there not some here?' the chief persisted. have repaired and painted all five Kingdom Halls in Bangui and are using them again as centers for pure worship. Finally. they now have legal recognition. After inquiring to learn what had happened. I do not want your money. She later wrote: "I remembered Gehazi. I said to them. on an average. she even makes return visits on people who listen to her. 5:20-27. Those who chased you away are members of your churches. but as commuters ride the same train every day. they have welcomed and protected them. Schools. Though the brothers had enjoyed considerable liberty for several years. he said: 'Now you see why Jehovah's Witnesses say that your religions are false. A sister in Japan who has to work full-time to support her family also enjoys pioneer service.' "-2 Ki. On the contrary. A pioneer sister who was doing this for her students in Zimbabwe was surprised when they offered to pay for her services as a tutor. Though a pioneer sister in Malaysia called several times at the home of a woman with whom she had been studying. and many government offices in the country are not functioning because of lack of money for salaries. Therefore. the chief asked: 'Are there any of Jehovah's Witnesses here among you?' They made inspection. This has made it possible for them to reopen their Kingdom Halls. and how he was struck with leprosy.' Where illiteracy is a problem. hospitals. a group of Kasaians who had been chased out by the Katangese took refuge at the house of the chief in a village near Kamina .' they replied. As a result of ethnic strife in the south of Zaire. How does she manage it? By making good use of the time she spends on the train each day. The contrast between Jehovah's Witnesses and other religious groups is clearly evident to some African observers. She places. However a fierce-looking neighbor . The ride takes an hour and a half each way. there are hundreds of thousands of Orientals who give evidence that they do appreciate Jehovah's righteous ways.44 1994 Yearbook completely removed the ban on the activity of Jehovah's Witnesses. Worldwide Report 45 Asia It was in the Orient that Jehovah planted the original paradise and placed the first humans. despite their own financial problems. She has to be discreet.' The chief asked: 'Why not? Are there none in the village?' 'There are some. but Jehovah's Witnesses have not chased away their brothers. Yet. They failed to appreciate what Jehovah had done for them. 'My reward is seeing you making progress in learning the truth and practicing what you learn. publishers may find that they need to teach not only Bible truth but also reading and writing. But in our day. Elisha's servant. Jehovah's Witnesses.

He was shown from the Scriptures what he needed to do in order to have Jehovah's blessing . and he did so with some excitement too . "Why not talk to th is man?" the sister reasoned. they received and read the book Mankind's Search for God. were unable to save themselves . From that point on. It was this that thoroughly convinced them of the wrongness of idol worshi p. his former objects of devotion. amazingly. once again. The girls got rid of their Ouija board. he promptly threw out all his spiritistic equipment. I would like to thank you from the bottom of my heart for the beautiful present. They expla ined to the ir mother what they had learned. the household experienced release from th e power of the demons and made good spiritual progr ess. many young people are searching for an swers." He greeted her rudely : "What do you want? What are you up to?" But. along with a colleague who was a staunch member of a sect of Christendom and who tried to stop the Bible study. after telling her that the woman had moved away. But after observing the sister's calm and reasoned replies to the verbal attacks. and perhaps he can tell me where the woman is. but when he learned that the Bible condemns spiritism. In October all four of us got baptized. So." Worldwide Report 47 Publishers in Thailand find that an increasing number of peop le in the ir terri tory are being harassed by the demons. he listened to the Bible's message and actually agreed to study. "He is the re everytim e I come. She is reading it over and over. His faith was greatly strengthened when he saw that the idols. When sharing in the house-to-house work. Some are being helped by the brochure Enjoy Life on Earth Forever! and the book Questions Young People Ask-Answers That Work. In tim e. the husband mentioned that all sorts of strange things were happening in their home and were hindering their sleep. his wife was also present. In November two of us became regular auxiliary pioneers. A Buddhist mother in Sri Lanka wrote: "I take this opportunity to thank you from the bottom of my heart for helping my daughter find the correct way. a pioneer sister in India met three girls who were attending college." . and she then disposed of her idol gods. Later they said: "The year 1992 was an unforgettable one for us. He was a spirit medium by profession. I think it is the most valuable gift she has got in her life. The man acknowledged that what it described was exactly what they were experiencing. In August we became unbaptized publishers. A husband and wife in Nakhon Sawan lived in a house that was full of idols . Though Hindus. they accepted the offer of a Bible study because they were seeking answers to many questions. I was very glad when I saw the book that you've given to my daughter. he told his colleague to mind his own business and let him study as he pleased. (Deut. The publisher directed their attention to material in the brochure Spirits of the Dead. 7:25. and even I myself have read it. As the couple progressed in their Bible study.46 1994 Yearbook always eyed her suspiciously. In April we started attending the meetings regularly. Because of uncertainty as to what the future holds for th em . and in December we were conducting ten Bible studies. including one with our 71-year-old grand mother. she felt as if someone was holding her back. Progress was rapid. 1 John 5:21) The following day he asked the brothers to help him remove from his home all the idols as well as other religious objects-enough to fill a pickup truck-and to burn them in his presence outside the city. The first time the study was held.26. preventing her from leaving the house. In January we stepped out of 'Babylon the Great' by removing the idols. He also said that when his wife tried to go to the Kingdom Hall. He and his wife are now regularly attending congr egation meetings each week.

only one person showed up." The study was conducted in three languages-Swedish. and they presented themselves for baptism as Jehovah's Witnesses in 1992. Later on. when the study was moved to the sister's home. They met a man who. In January of 1993 he was conducting 21 studies. What appeals to these people even more than the blessings of the new world is God's love as well as the impartial and unprejudiced attitude evident right now among Jehovah's people." He also started to study. One study was with a group so large that he requested use of the Kingdom Hall. because of prejudice. But Jehovah's servants have "plenty to do in the work of the Lord. She said: 'The others are not interested. after seeing how a Kingdom Hall was built in a couple of days. Yet. she read it. When the circuit overseer went with him for the study. What part are young publishers having in this? Here is an example: A sister in Finland was in the field service together with her five-year-old girl. Many congregations in Portugal cover their territory every week. But the new brother said: "I cannot understand where everybody is tonight. he could not refuse it. 15:58) Instead of mourning over unemployment. Soon she was baptized and entered the pioneer work. the husband has been able to start many Bible studies. economic conditions are difficult.' Within a month she was conducting two studies herself. She ordered the Live Forever book from the Society and started to read it." (l Cor. I pray to Jehovah to help me find someone interested in studying the Bible. .48 1994 Yearbook In many lands. and they are still finding sheeplike ones. When publishers again came to her door. With a view to avoiding duplication of work and making the best use of resources. Witnesses in Finland have been seizing the opportunity to spend more time helping people to see why times are so difficult and why we need the Kingdom of God. She liked what it said about the hope of paradise . Her husband opposed. and both of them were baptized after one year. he said: "If Jehovah's Witnesses can do things like this. But when her daughter gave him a tract. was not willing to talk to the sister. One sister relates: "Before leaving for the service every morning. Later. when his wife found the tract on the kitchen table. and Romany. 26 adult Gypsies were in the apartment. a couple in Sweden got married in harmony with Swedish law. major changes have been made in the work at a number of branches.I Though united according to Gypsy (Romany) custom. waiting for the study. Because of the respect in which he is held by other Gypsies. The Netherlands and . there Worldwide Report 49 must be something much bigger behind the organization. but I am. Usually we are between 40 and 50 persons here. Croatian. a Bible study was started." One day she arranged for a study with those working in a hairdresser's shop.

Michael. Another brother from Switzerland is being transferred to Nigeria. also Michael's younger brother and his wife. four to Germany. Equipment from Switzerland will be used to upgrade the printing in the Philippines. so two were assigned to Britain. This was true of an elderly couple in Bobron na Orave. he tried to avoid the publisher. In time. During 1993. The publishers simply reminded Michael of the study arrangements. But the printing of Dutch magazines. she and another sister went to the bar to find him because they felt that there was genuine interest. When the publisher realized what was happening. but he had replied: "Hanka. did agree to study. though she was at first suspicious of the warm interest of the sisters. The Netherlands branch cares for Dutch translation. Now they agreed to study the Bible with the Witnesses. she pointedly asked a young woman: "Do you smoke?" When the woman replied in the negative. A publisher in Tipperary started a Bible study with a local man. May's brother and his girlfriend. and I forgot!" But he realized that he could not dodge the sisters anymore. and their patient persistence continues to payoff. How true the words of Matthew 21:16: "Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings you have furnished praise"! There was great rejoicing among Jehovah's Witnesses in Slovakia on March 24. is a very outgoing child and frequently talks to people passing her house. 1993. seven people are benefiting from the truth. On one occasion. although she had been raised as a Witness! she had lost all contact. the Netherlands. He married May. and a couple from Switzerland will go there to help for a while. Then Michael and May began to share with May's sister Breda what they were Worldwide Report 51 learning. on September 1. She asked Sara's mother to visit her. For more than a hundred years. So. She explained that. though. the woman answered. . As the woman later said. because our sister was persistent. Some of the Bethel family who were serving at Emmen. I was supposed to fix her cooker. he tried to cover it over by saying to the other men: "Sure. After that. they had subscribed for a number of religious magazines." Yet. it also coordinates production and distribution of videocassettes for Europe. They were making changes in their lives in harmony with what they were learning. a hush settled over the place. Some of them are searching for the truth. right from the beginning of her conversation with the pioneers she felt that God himself had sent them. Sara was ready with her next question: "Are you one of Jehovah's Witnesses?" Somewhat bewildered. Others will serve again as pioneers. There are many people in these lands who are disillusioned with religion and with politics.50 I994 Yearbook Switzerland were included. began to study and to attend meetings. When they entered the bar. volunteered to help in other branches. as well as the storage and the shipping of literature for the Netherlands. This was followed. the printing and shipping formerly done in Switzerland are now being handled in Germany. in Austria. all three of them got baptized. who. The woman had questioned the priest about the Bible. and seven to Nigeria. After they left. she and her husband persisted in reading the Bible. Five-year-old Sara. where the four-color press from the Netherlands is being installed. Michael made good progress. by similar action in the Czech Republic. Slovakia. Similarly. is now being cared for by the branch in Germany. choose some better book for reading. Meanwhile. thus officially ending a ban that had been imposed over 43 years ago. when the religious association of Jehovah's Witnesses was legally registered. "Yes!" This led her to talk to Sara's mother. everyone knew who the sisters were. To satisfy their spiritual hunger. our brothers have been witnessing in Ireland.

" At th is the householder said: "No. She called the bank and said to the teller that if.m . too.351 in June. and he is attending meetings at the Kingdom Hall. In one well-worked territory." The sister used the opportunity then and on future visits to the bank to give a witness. 445 new congreg ations were formed.' and they are happy to be part of the "mighty nation" that is praising Jehovah worldwide.349. she put it into her purse. In spite of concerted opposition by the Catholic Church. No doubt you told some of our compan ions. she found th at th e teller had given her 1. A. spiritual interests'are thriving there.200 bolivares (US $13) too much.998." Shortly th ereafter the sisters encountered the same woman at the Kingdom Hall. A. but not so often. 65:14) This good spiritual cond ition of heart is evident among Jehovah's Witnesses in Mexico.200 bolivares.R. The contrast between Witnesses and others attracts lovers of righteousness. for the first time publicly identifying their Kingdom Halls. They now look forward to putting up signs. 60:22. Publishers totaled 375. The number attending the Memorial was 1.. he should let her know. the government of Mexico registered our two religious associations : La Torre del Vigia. he came to the sister's home and said that he was missing 1. This past year. at the end of the day. When the sister handed him the money. 1993. You can still call on me. Venezuela. Soon a Bible study was started with that young man. But on arriving at home. the branch reported its 21st consecutive peak in publishers. went to the ban k to get some money .-Isa. 'the little one has become a thousand.52 1994 Yearbook Middle and South America "Look! My own servants will cry out joyfully because of the good condition of the heart. two sisters called at a home where the exasperated householder exclaimed : "I have already told you that I do not want you coming to my house with your message. he exclaimed: "This is the first time anyone has ever done this! I could have lost my job.5 hours per publisher in the field service each month. he discovered that some money was missing. please. Why can't you pay attention?" One of the sisters replied: "Well. Worldwide Report 53 we are many preachers . . In th at land. on May 7. In April. she had agreed to study the Bible! Although French Guiana has the smallest population of the countries in South America. Without counting it. What had happened? When another publisher had called . you don't have to go to that extr eme." (Isa . we can make arrangements so th at no one will call on you. As of that date Jehovah's Witnesses became an officially recognized religion. An elderly sister in Caracas . However. and th ey are averaging 14. Please give us your name and complete address and we will pass this inform ation to all the Witnesses in th is area and then no one will call on you again. and Los Testigos de }ehova en Mexico. As the publishers increase. At 5:00 p. the territory is worked more frequently.R.

How grateful those pioneers were that Jehovah had used them in this way! At times. His parents exclaimed: "Peace has come again to our home!" Because of the changes that he made. three others in his family are also studying and attending meetings. . Might they know of someone who had a vehicle and who would take them to Antuco? The man of the house had a better idea: "Why not stay overnight with us?" When the pioneers accepted. One day the man wanted to know what she t~ought of a chapel he had built on his property and filled with images. the anointed ones . With some people. and a 24-mile uphill walk lay before them. "I'll do it this very day. the last bus to Antuco passed them by. a Witness who is an ex-nun. How could she smile and thank them when they had been so rude to her? They were so impressed. she met the husband. he said: "I want you to help me get rid of all these images. and she took advantage of the opportunity to start visiting them. On the main road.54 1994 Yearbook As they witness. without any signal from them. As Proverbs 25: 15 states. (l Cor. 3:9) A couple in southern Chile were ready to head home after a nine-hour day in remote territory. and said that she hoped to talk to him at another time . When the wife saw the Witness. the wild beast." (Heb . the whole town was impressed. however. He'll never change . At that. and so forth! The couple had obtained the Live Forever book and studied it until they knew much of it by memory. "Will you do what the Bible says you should do?" she asked. So she proceeded to show him what his Catholic Bible said about the use of images. Oh. Then." Brumilda Castillo. called on a devoutly Catholic family in Ecuador. and said that surely she would be able to speak to her at another time. it is not refutation but kindness that penetrates the hard exterior of opposers. they were perplexed. who not only responded as his wife had but also ordered Sister Castillo to get off his property. When they reached a town and got off." he promised. She asked if he would get angry with her if she told him the truth. thanked him. the task may seem impossible. how they had prayed that someone would help them to understand more! "And here you are!" After a long and satisfying conversation. thanked the woman. Again she smiled. When husband and wife discussed what had occurred." he replied. As they walked. they remembered a couple they had met some months ago. It was getting dark and cold. so they climbed aboard. she hurled verbal abuse at her. In northeastern Brazil a young man who agreed to study th e Bible had a very bad reputation. His parents constantly feared that he would be killed. His family said that almost daily someone came to the ir home to collect debts he had incurred when drinking. they wondered what Jehovah had in mind for them. the great crowd. All who become servants of Jehovah need to put on the new personality. The Witness invited them to a meeting. she simply smiled. They apologized profusely to her. 4:12) When the man gave up drinking and immorality. too." It took four days to clean them all out and burn them. the hospitable family served th em a delicious meal and th en showed them a comfortable bed . that the husband invited in the next Witness who called. the lady of the house was delighted and exclaimed: 'Now we will have you all to ourselves to answer our questions!' And ask questions they did-about Jehovah. passed as if the couple did not exist. pioneers in Chile are well aware that Jehovah is directing the work. They were tired and hungry. a bus going in the opposite direction stopped for them. and they came. "Of course not. Other vehicles. Our sister did not try to refute the charges. Who should be the first to greet them? The sister they had treated so badly. the faithful slave. Everyone told the pioneers who were conducting the study: "You are wasting your time with him. "a mild tongue itself can break a bone." But "the word of God is alive and exerts power. Worldwide Report 55 As our sister was leaving.

"As never before. I asked whether she wanted to continue. She said that her mother was one of Jehovah's Witnesses but that her own life was filled with hardship and she did not believe that God could do anything to better her condition. . two publishers caught sight of a couple inside who were kneeling in prayer. she was able to start four Bible studies and place a considerable quantity of literature. and in recent years the local Witnesses have been glad to welcome upwards of 150 other Witnesses who have come from abroad to help with the ingathering. the publishers were greeted with the words: "Thank you. At first I was fearful. In time. 'Her family situation was bad. 7:25) Turning to his wife." she said. for listening to our prayer.' A pioneer sister who is also a schoolteacher in Jamaica says that by taking an interest in people and being kind to them. where she had been offered employment. As a result. The tempo of this activity is about twice what it was in years past. she left Martinique for France. A sister in Martinique writes: 'One morning when driving to work. when scriptures condemning the use of idols were discussed. What she was doing changed the attitude of those who observed. With that. accepted. They waited until the couple had finished praying. they promptly excused themselves and gathered up all the images in their home. But he had been deeply impressed by the Worldwide Report 57 change in his wife and by my own conduct. On the way to town. the man asked: "Are we with Jehovah or with the Devil?" "Jehovah. better suited to our work than what we had before. 'Some time later. when her husband.56 1994 Yearbook North America and the Caribbean Islands On more than one occasion. ordered her out of the house. her husband came to my door. He had come to ask for a Bible study. After the month. Jesus emphasized the importance of loving one's neighbor as oneself. (Deut. I offered a ride to a young woman who did not look well." They eagerly accepted the offer of help in studying the Bible. When the people came to the door. the fields are white for harvesting in the Dominican Republic. I A recently acquired airplane. so she kindly gave them extra assistance. they burned up all the images-and they had many . I helped her and her children. She observed that some students in the institution where she was employed were having difficulty with a particular subject." she responded. Two days later. To help them to appreciate the value of education. Spiritually speaking. then knocked again. There are many ways in which such love can be shown. and she . I spoke to her about God's purpose and the blessings of the new world. God. she is also often able to help them spiritually. is being used by the Alaska branch to speed up the work of witnessing in isolated villages. When calling at a home in the Dominican Republic. she also used material from the Young People Ask book. who had another woman. Later. I proposed that she study the Bible with me for one month.

she came to realize that there might be a potential for Bible studies right where she worked every day. for religious reasons. As she examined her circumstances. Arrangements were made to meet her at the same location the following week. But she definitely was interested. our sister has learned that positive results and much joy can come from informal witnessing. and she found prayer to be an important part of her preparation. At first it was difficult. she expla ined the Scriptural basis for her refraining from participation. Slowly she began to develop progressive Bible studies. they made contact. After asking Jehovah for courage and support. a teenage publisher in Australia observed a Filipino woman weeping at a grave. With the help of the telephone book. She longed to share the joy being had by publishers who related experiences about fruitful Bible studies. When in a cemetery. Sure enough. . Concern for people along with persistence brings good results. He and his mother searched through funeral notices in the local newspaper until they found a name that seemed to be Filipino. public or private . In one case. It upheld the right of Jehovah's Witnesses "to refuse to salute the Philippine flag on account of their religious beliefs. The woman explained that she had missed the appointment because of transport problems. poke to her mother. new opportunities opened up. but she failed to arrive. and arrangements were made for a Bible study. One student introduced her to a dear friend who also showed interest and who.58 1994 Yearbook Islands of the Pacific March 1. singing the national anthem. So many showed interest that our sister had to ask other publishers to help her care for them. Many times she prayed to Jehovah about it. she prepared well. and sister-in-law. Yes. She looked for literature that would be particularly appropriate to each person. was an important day for our brothers in the Philippines. and a study was started. A sister on the island of Guam who works secularly full-time wanted to expand her ministry. and reciting a prescribed patriotic pledge . she began talking to her fellow workers. When worldly celebrations came up. brother. those who showed Worldwide Report 59 interest were ridiculed by the others. from saluting the flag. He engaged her in conversation and pointed to the inscription on his grandfather's gravestone: "Sleeping awaiting a resurrection. the young woman became curious. When transferred to another department." This opened the way for a further witness. in turn. In order to reach various ones with the good news. 1993. The young publisher persisted." Thus students were not to be barred from schools. On that day the Supreme Court unanimously reversed a decision made by that court in 1959. she simply read her Bible quietly where a workmate could see her. because they refrained. All of them studied regularly.

Almost everyone welcomes the message. 1993. 1993 . Approval was given for two missionaries . They conducted 163. An isolated group of six publishers rejoiced when 150 turned out for a talk by the circuit overseer.088 were in attendance at the Memorial. bans have been lifted or the religious association of Jehovah's Witnesses has been legally registered . also 20 special pioneers from Finland. The brothers report: "The population of Estonia is very eager to discuss the Bible. And nationa television covered the building of the first Kingdom Hall in this country. At least 200 other publishers have moved to Estonia to serve in territories where the need is greater. there have been no Witnesses in Cambodia. amazing changes have taken place. However. The minister was pleased . 310. But Brother Crawford explained that Jehovah's Witnesses teach people to live by Bible laws and principles and that this yields spiritual. the Cambodian government refused to renew visas for George and Carolyn Crawford. so they had to leave that missionary assignment. The director wanted to know how the Cambodian people would benefit if our missionaries were again allowed in the country. On Jan uary 8. During most of the time since then. What sort of results are they having? One missionary couple report that they are conducting studies with 70 persons. and (4) the Witnesses must tell the in habitants of Maardu the Bible's message and teach them the right way to live. More than 25 years ago. the Supreme Court in Zaire declared the ban on Jehovah's Witnesses to be illegal. some of whom began conducting studies with others after only two or three months. ten missionaries have been assigned to this terr itory.454 home Bible studies. last year Brother Crawford was kindly received by the director at the Cambodian Ministry of Religion . (2) the Kingdom Hall must be completed W orldwide Report 61 by October 15. Further. obstacles have been cleared out of the way for freer proclamation of the Kingdom message. This year. Estonia. 75. In many of these countries. but certain conditions were set out by the mayor: (1) They must trim the small park next to the hall. (3) meeti ngs must be open to all the inhabitants of the town . What a vast field this has opened up! What is being done to culti vate it? Twelve missionaries have been sent to Estonia. the brothers were given property free on which to build their Kingdom Hall.60 1994 Yearbook Lands Where Conditions Have Become More Favorable -. and practical benefits. moral. The brothers were more than hap py to agree to all four requests of the mayor! Since th e work of Jehovah's Witnesses in Cape Verde Republic was legally registered in 1991. In at least 35 lands.944 publishers shared in the field ministry there." In Maardu. Other religious groups promised material benefits. During the past five years. also how those who do this become better citizens.

What a cause for rejoicing! Developments in Albania have truly been encouraging. throngs of people have flocked to the meetings of Jehovah's Witnesses.951 attended the Memorial-nearly five times the number of publishers. This is Mal awi. and questioned them. they built no fence. examined the ir identifica tion papers. a letter was received in which the Watch Tower Society was granted permission to open an office in the capital city. three times a week. 1993. Some publishers are taking the initiative to reach out to areas where there were no Witnesses. 1993. Already. But in one circuit they realized that local officials who were aware of their meetings were no longer taking action against them . In one of these countries. Even in some lands where Jehovah's Witnesses are still under ban. Then. they had started 90 Bible studies ! In Gjirokaster. It was a joyful day of theocratic service. Worldwide Report 63 In another land where Jehovah's Witnesses were cruelly mistreated. Once a month. they would put up a grass fence around the house so that light from the lamps would not show outside. In one town. though they were just beginning to learn the language. a brother nearly 80 years of age. a local official who saw him said: "Do not be afraid of us anymore.62 1994 Yearbook to enter th e country right away. We want you to preach. In September 1991. Who conducts the meetings? At first. Phnom Penh. 35 miles from Buchares t. like Saul of Tarsus. After one week in Albania. calling at every home instead of skipping about in order to avoid being detected. This past year." Since the ban on Jehovah's Witnesses in Benin was lifted in 1990. After a 40-year ban on Jehovah's Witnesses in Romania. 130 Kingdom Halls have been constructed or are under construction. th e publishers are now working their territory more thoroughly. they were granted legal recognition in 1990. when they had a small assembly. Listen to them. In another area. On January 20. for the preaching of the "Jehovah" Christian religion . at last. Soon others joined in. so. they are able to carryon th eir min istry with less hindrance. to conduct the meetings. two pioneer sisters moved to the small city ofUrziceni. at the time of a recent assembly. In late October. 15." In yet another area. The authorities apologized for having bothered them and let them go. The brothers explained tha t they were students of the Bible and that they wanted to share with others what they were learning. One congregation with 37 publishers had 698 in attendance! . a man who. They have made good use of their changed circumstances. and they even sang songs. on August 12. the sisters organized and conducted them. th ey have recently been meeting and preaching more openly. the authorities stopped a group of publishers. There was a IS-percent increase in Kingdom proclaimers this past year. They will discuss how to keep a happy family life and teach you what the Bible says. travels a distance of 18 miles. 16 special pioneers from Italy and 4 from Greece were sent to Albania . Now a ministerial servant. with more to follow. the 26-year-Iong ban on Jehovah's Witness es in Malawi was lifted . was a leader of those who persecuted the Witnesses accepted a Bible study. Open your doors . the number study ing as a result of his changed course rose to 66. After th e first man got baptized. and 66 attended the Memor ial. now 10 are baptized . and the number of those studying rose to 26. elders from Bucharest give a public talk and conduct the Watchtower Study for the group . when a brother was preaching in the market. and even we should be one of you. a radio announcer was so impressed by what he was learni ng from one of the special pioneers that he announced over the air: "Jehovah's Witnesses will be calling at your home . Formerly. At tha t time there were no Witnesses in this city.

671 attended the Memorial there this past year. during which some 300. Read how Haitians are responding to the good news of everlasting life in a new world.64 1994 Yearbook In 1992. Now. it is evident that these lands.125 publishers conducted 19. of whom just 3 partook of the emblems . became one of the first lands in Europe to receive the good news of God's Kingdom.200 publishers. 7:9. In 12 of th ose land s. the capital.973 new disciples were baptized. in 33 congregations. Schemes have been devised repeatedly to discredit the Witn esses-if possible. thu s mark ing the end of a ban that had been imposed in 1978. Yes. . . Th eir struggle makes a gripping account. renowned for achievements in art. some of the most exciting conventions in 1993 were held in that part of the world . . 14. 1993. and gifted artists have been part of the changing scene. ther e are 4. during the past year our brothers devoted a total of 14. the Governing Body arranged for a new branch office to go into operation there on June 1.165 hours to the work of Kingdom proclamation.180. history. literature. Even though there was political turbulence.014 home Bible studies. too. they preach by example..000 refugees fled from Lome to nearby countries. In modern times. How encouraging this was to the brothers in Togo! In February 1993. Haiti Haiti has had an interesting. and architecture. They urgently need more places in which to meet. famous writers. In Lome. Black heroes. Acts of Jehovah's Witnesses in Modern Times Greece A ncient Greece. Poland Th e faith of Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland has been tested as in a crucible. will be well represented in that 'great crowd out of all nations and tribes and peoples and tongues' that will survive the coming great tribulation with th e prospect of eternal life in Jehovah's righteous new world.-Rev. 256. In 1993. and 67. though turbulent. But no weapon formed against them has had lasting success. the 23-year ban on Jehovah's Witnesses in Cameroon was lifted. 14." Despite the lon g ban .268 Witn esses in Cameroon . What about countries that were within the former Soviet Union? As noted earlier. with freedom of worship granted to the Witn esses. and at the time of the Memorial of Jesus' death. they display behavior that has nothing in common with the hypocrisy of th ose around them. the 7. "all the old churches of Christendom face a formidable challenge .242 gathered. Thousands of people were eager to study the Bible with Jehovah's Witnesses. one Cameroon newspaper wrote regarding Jehovah's people: "Socially. there are 19. to destroy their organization. May yourreading of these experiences str ength en your determination to trust fully in Jehovah. genuine hope is being held out to those who seek to be more than mere memories from the past. meeting in six Kingdom Halls. the final steps were taken toward granting legal recognition to Jehovah's Witnesses in Togo." The paper added that. Jehovah's Witnesses have endured tremend ous hardships as they have worked to reestablish pure Christianity in this land. When commenting on the government' s decision.

So.GREECE N May 25. None too pleased with this visit from Jehovah's Witnesses. he called the police . was a cantor in the Greek Orthodox Church. 1993. Kokkinakis appealed to the European Commission of Human Rights. which rejected his appeal. a mighty lega battle finally ended. the Supreme Court of Greece. it turned out. In March 1986. and fine all the way to the Court of Cassation. an elderly couple named Kokkinakis went from door to door discussing the Bible with their neighbors on the Greek island of Crete. They spoke with one woman whose husband. Minos Kokk inakis fought his subsequent conviction. The couple were arrested. sentence. made up of 23 jurists representing the member nations of the Council of O . in 1988. This Commission. It began over seven years earlier on a sun-drenched Mediterranean island and reached its climax in the most esteemed court of Europe.

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Yearbook

Europe, ruled that the European Court of Human Rights
should hear th e case. It did so in the fall of 1992. On May 25,
1993, by a vote of six to three, th e Court delivered its
judgmen t: G reece had indeed committed a violation of
human rights-n amely, of the freedom of religion .
But what had led up to this tit anic struggle over basic
human rights? Why do Jehovah's Witnesses find themselves
fighting such battles in a land long famed for its devotion to
exalted ideals? What kind of country is Gre ece?

The Tides of History
Throughout the ages, tides have washed against the
shor es of Greece . This land lies at the base of a broad
peninsula jutting southward into the Mediterranean Sea and
is surrounded by hundreds of islands in the Aegean and
Ionian seas. So its myriad shores have weathered more tides
and more storms than man has counted . Ever since the
waters of th e Noachian Flood withdrew, G reece has borne
the brunt of a greater tide : the ebb and flow of human
history. Some even say that Western civilization was born
ther e.
The family of Noah's grandson [avan formed a tid e of
hum anit y that flowed over from th e East; Greece att racted
many of these settle rs. * They evidently bro ught with them
tales of the great Flood and of th e world it inu nd ated back
in Noah's day. Some myths of ancient G reece bear all th e
earmarks of being corr upted and distorted versions of actual
event s recorded in the Bible.
In fact, the history of ancient Greece is int ertw ined with
Bible history. The Hebrew prophet Daniel foretold in the
sixth century B.C.E. that th e forces beh ind th e tides of
* Th e Ioni an Sea, which flanks the western sho re of G reece, likely
de rives its name from th at of [avan ,

Greece

69

history wou ld carry Greece to th e pinnacle of world power.
So accur ately did Daniel 's words match Alexander the
G reat's stunning conq uests, his sudden demise, and the
subsequent division of his empire into four inferior parts that
some schol ars have tried- unsuccessfully-to prove tha t
the se passages were written after the fact.-Dan . 7:2; 8:5 -8,

20-22.
Although the Bible does not detail the age when Greece
dominated Israel, th e C hristian Greek Scriptures clearly bear
the lingering imprint of that era. Many of Jesus' first-century
followers spoke and wrot e Greek, the common language of
the civilized world at that time. The ideas of such Greek
philosophers as Plato and Ari stotle were prevalent amon g the
Jews of Jesus' day. No doubt the apostle Paul had such lofty
thinkers in mind when he wrote to the congregation at
Co rinth th at th e word of God could 'overturn strongly
entrenched reasonings.'-2 Co r. 10:4, 5.

Christianity Flourishes and Fades
Greec e was th e first European land to be visited by an
apostl e of Jesus C hrist. Paul landed at the port of Neapolis
and visited cities including Philippi , Thessalonica, and Beroea in th e north and Athens and Cori nth in th e south . Wit h
th e vigor typica l of early C hristianity, congregations soon
flouri shed in such cities. Paul's letters to th e Christians in
Philippi, Corint h , and Thessalonica, as well as letters to
C hristians elsewhere, which he wrote while he was in Greece,
have strength ened th e faith of millions of C hristians since
then .
Sadly, th ou gh, it was not long after the death of the last
apostle, John-who recorded the remarkable revelation
given to him while he was exiled on the Gr eek island of
Patmos-that anot her tide flooded over Greece. A dark wave
of apostasy swept through th e C hristian con gregation and

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Yearbook

polluted the faith of the majority. Congregations adopted
such unscriptural teachings as the immortality of the soul,
hellfire torment, the Trinity, and clergy-laity distinctions.
Centuries of spiritual darkness ensued. During that time ,
the pope of Rome was accorded primacy over Christendom.
However, the patriarch of Constantinople was in charge of
the church in Greece and lands to the east. In 1054, years of
tension between East and West culminated when a debate
over an obscure theological point erupted into the Great
Schism, which severed the Eastern Orthodox from the
Roman Catholic Church. Greece has maintained its loyalty
to the former. To this day, in fact, 98 percent of the ten
million inhabitants of Greece belong to the Greek Orthodox
Church, a self-governing member of the Eastern Orthodox
Church.
The Eastern Orthodox Church has a long history of
political involvement. While the Muslim Ottoman Empire
dominated all the European Orthodox countries except
Russia from the 1400's into the 1800's, the conquerors made
the patriarch of Constantinople the secular ruler over all
Orthodox "Christians" in the empire.
In the 1820's, when Greece rebelled against Ottoman
rule, the Greek Orthodox Church played a major role,
promoting Greek nationalism and independence. The clergy
have been a dominant force in Greek politics ever since, even
being paid by the government. Because of the clergy's
enormous influence in that land, the modern history of
Jehovah's people there has largely been a history of persecution.

The Land and Its People Today
Shortly after the turn of this century, the tide of true
Christianity began to sweep across Greece once again. In

Greece

71

many ways, the early 20th-century preachers found the land
and its people to be much the same as Paul had found them
some 19 centuries earlier .
With its rumpled, deeply indented coastline and numerous islands-which make up 20 percent of the country-no
part of Greece is far from the sea. So fishing and shipping
are still popular trades. The land is rocky and mountainous,
with little arable soil, though there are some fertile valley
plains in a few coastal and central regions. The climate, with
its hot, dry summers, is ideal for cultivating olive groves and
vineyards.
What about the people? Greeks are known the world over
as vibrant, colorful, and passionate, full of life and generosity. They generally hold strong opinions and do not hesitate
to make them known. When Paul first visited Athens, he
found that "all Athenians and the foreigners sojourning there
would spend their leisure time at nothing but telling something or listening to something new." (Acts 17:21) To this
day, Greeks love to sit in the agora, or marketplace, and hold
forth on politics, philosophy, and religion. They are a fiercely
loyal people too-a trait that the Orthodox clergy have
sometimes exploited.

The Early 1900's
The waters of truth returned to Greece as a result of
migration. Many Greeks moved to the United States, came
in contact with the Bible Students, as Jehovah's Witnesses
were then known, and began to love Bible truth. Soon they
were eager to share with their relatives back home the things
they were learning. The letters and tracts they sent proved
to be seed that often fell on good soil. However, many
realized that just sending tracts back home was not enough;
some traveled to Greece to visit, while others returned to
settle in their homeland.

d

1. George Koukoutianos in 1927. 2. Nicolas Kouzounis in the
notorious Kavcilla prison in 1948. 3. Grigoris Grigoriadis at his desk in
Bethel, Kartali Street, Athens. 4. Re!Jairing fishing nets in Levkcis.
5. George Douras (see arrow) with the Athens Congregation.
Background: Kavcilla,
ancient Neapolis, the port
where the apostle Paul first
landed in Europe.

" setting out the volumes on the low wall around the Greek parliament building and answering questions for pedestrians. a Greek who had learned the truth in 1900 in the United States. who embraced the truth in 1910. or Mars' Hill. Brother Russell visited Athens and Corinth in 1912.-Acts 18: 11. where Paul once spent a year and a half building up the congregation of anointed Christians. Afterward." He also spoke on the Areopagus. Much to Brother Russell's surprise. Then Michael Triantafilopoulos. Soon another group was organized in Piraeus at the home of Brother Kossyfas. John Bosdogiannis. But this time many Greek Orthodox priests attended. (Acts 17:22-34) Later.74 1994 Yearbook George Kossyfas.E. one of the first to show interest was a paralyzed man named Ekonomou. was sent to Greece in 1905 by Charles Taze Russell. Brother Rutherford Visits On September 28. the well-known bookstore on Stadium Street in Athens. F." . Brother Rutherford aptly wrote: "Greece is a priest-ridden country. In Athens. They used Studies in the Scriptures and other literature of the faithful and discreet slave class for their discussions. Rutherford. 1920. J. So he would write Bible verses on pieces of paper and throw them out the window. but we believe the people are awakening to the fact that they have been duped and misled by their blind guides. traveled to towns and villages distributing more tracts and helping interested persons to get in touch with one another. aboard. hoping that some passersby would find them. Brother Kossyfas also did "street work. On Crete. They were then printed and distributed to bookshops in Athens and the port of Piraeus-even displayed at Hestia. We believe there is a wide field for a witness to the truth there. it was arranged for him to speak in the Greek Orthodox Church of St. There were only about 12 publishers in Greece then . 24:45-47) No doubt they were thrilled to learn that Brother Russell planned to visit Greece. The theme of his talk was "The Great Hereafter. About 1910 he also eagerly accepted the truth and was zealous in sharing it with others. or common Greek. (Acts 17: 16) So many came to hear the talk that a second one had to be arranged . Brother Russell made his way to C~rinth. By train. Later. The first meetings were held at Brother Ekonomou's home. a young man who had just learned the truth. Greece 75 Brother Russell Visits Greece In the course of his world tour. as well as several priests and army officers. Brother Russell answered many Bible questions. the Smiplon-Orient Express pulled into the station at Athens with the Watch Tower Society's second president. But he was confined to his bed. as well as English. and raised an uproar. John Bosdogiannis found an eager student-a photographer named Athanassios Karanassios. the very city where Paul had been irritated by rampant idolatry some 19 centuries earlier. who lived in Exarhia. He took Studies in the Scriptures with him. The newspaper Athina announced his talk on the theme "Millions Now Living Will Never Die. He gave a talk at the Businessmen's Club Hall in Athens. the mayor took him on a guided tour of that ancient city. Paul! The town's mayor was there. (Matt. president of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. and he was asked to repeat it. interrupted the talk. a preacher and English professor on the island of Crete. He would also send tracts and write letters to interested persons. He even studied ancient Hebrew and Koine. sitting at the bedside of Brother Ekonomou." It was well received. where Paul had given such an effective witness about 50 C. translated the volumes into Greek.

or traveling mini ster. When the talk "All Nations Marching to Armageddon. with Ath anassios Karan assios as th e branch representative.' to be given in a coffee sho p. Salonika (or . I read a copy in just one night . George Doura s. a well-known poet and student of law. from 1922 to 1925. Thessaloniki) is the second -largest city in Gree ce. Dimitris Logiotat os recalled: "The whole community were as startled as I when they saw the advertisements for the talk 'Million s Now Living Will Never Die. The good news spread to Alexa ndroupolis in the northeast. A public talk gave the preaching work its start in th e very town where Paul first arr ived in Europe -i-Kavalla. Sakkos. It is an ancient city. The newspaper Athina adverti sed the talk in banner headlines. As early as 1926. About th at tim e th e newspaper Simaia advert ised a public talk entitled 'Milli on s Now Living Will Never Die. Tremp ela. and it was repeated in th e Od eon Hall on Phidi ou Street .76 I 994 Yearbook Greece 77 Brot her Ruth erford also saw the need for bett er organization in Greece. Present was Pavlos Grigoriadis. professor at Athens University. the small Athens Congregation went into action . and ." Public Talks Spread the Good News Public talk s played a key role in spreading the good news in th ose early years. I sat beh ind Mr. as well as to Nea Orestiada . His brother Grigoris also learned th e truth and is still associated with th e Bethel family in Gre ece. He served as a pilgrim. travelin g speakers were sent to the main cities. Spyros Zacharopoulo s. Before 1922 there was no official organization . It was a triumph for TRUTH! Aft erward I obtained a number of booklets with the same titl e as the talk. After the talk.' I caught every detail of the spiritual fight between the Bible Students and th at prominent theologian. closely associated with th e mini str y of the apostle Paul and his companions. but Million s Now Living Will Never Die" was to be given. When I arrived. Full of joy. in this century the good news spread to Macedonia slightly later tha n to the southern and central parts of Greece. I ran to distribute thes e wonderful booklets to my friend s and relatives. In all. Brother Karanassios delivered th e talk to a packed audien ce.' I decided to go and hear it. learn ed the truth in 1920 through readin g a tr act. I obtained th e booklet Can the Living Talk With the Dead?" Deeply moved by what he had learn ed. The Town Council permitted the use of the Athens Muni cipal Theater free of charge. th ere were then about 20 tirele ss workers in the field. In November 1923 he gave a publi c talk in a cinema at the west coast port of Patras. ancient Neapolis. As the work became organized." (Acts 16:9) Whereas Paul's travels took him to Macedonia first . Brother Kou zounis soon joined a companion in spending mon th s at a time traveling by car to preach in th e villages and towns as far as th e Turki sh border. who was known as the 'nightingale of th e Orthodox church. In that same year. and the C halcidice prefecture. Nicol as Kouzounis recalled being there back in 1922: "I had been feeling troubl ed spiritually. In 1922 a branch of th e Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society was established on Lombardou Stree t in At hens. a theo logian and "Step Over Into Macedonia and Help Us" Christians the world over are familiar with the urgent call that the apostle Paul received through God's spirit to preach in the territory of Macedoni a: "Step over into Ma edonia and help us. others were sent to smaller towns and villages. Many obtained the booklet Millions Now Living Will Never Die. the hall was full. a former milit ary man . a well-edu cated man who later became a Bible Student. Brother Dour as gave a public talk in the town of Kalamata .

where another congregation was formed. the egg basket fell at once. was traveling when bad weather led him to spend the night in Kalamaki at the home of Dimitris Pardalos . The result? Dimitris and two other townsmen. After asking Jehovah for guidance. from Kavalla. Their lives were not without lighter moments. and the water was cold. was exiled to the Chalcidice prefecture in 1938. The Early Years in Thessaly In Thessaly. Of course. I ran to convey this joyous news to the brothers in our area. Theodoros Pardalos and Apostolos Vlahavas. came to know Jehovah. most notably in two small villages. Kostas Ekonomou from Larissa recalls: "As soon as I learned of the new name. In Nea Moudania a group of women became believers -Sisters Mastoraki. returning to their village to renew their strength and to earn enough money to finance future campaigns. though. I made the mistake of asking my companion on my back if he was all right. From there the good news spread to Galatista. Starnpouli. The result was that from 1930 onward. 'We cannot be changing names. . These three began witnessing from house to house in the Greece 79 surrounding villages. Then. Brother Kouzounis. When they distributed the tract Ecclesiastics Indicted. were preaching in that area. As I tried to catch it. When the villagers there asked why he was exiled. He witnessed to his hospitable host. How did the good news reach those far-flung areas? Some of the brothers who were punished with exile for their irrepressible preaching work were allowed to choose their place of exile. these brothers said. However. the Witnesses were sometimes detained in police stations and then brought before the courts. as I tried to save these. carrying a load of literature and any produce they were given in return. One of them related: "Once we had to wade across a river. It was winter. with the result that a congregation was formed there as well.' They didn't want to be called Jehovah's Witnesses. I dropped our shoes. But when we came to the middle of the rver.78 1994 Yearbook Thanasis Tsimperas. a region in central Greece. though. he would tell them it was because he was a Christian. This thoughtprovoking answer led to many discussions-and he handled the Scriptures quite capably. The truth then spread to Kassandra. They taught others in Floyita. a schoolteacher who had been fired because he was a Bible Student. the brother fell from my back into the river!" They laughed over that memorable crossing for years. the good news made early progress. and literature. At the same time. Eastern Macedonia and western Thrace received the message of the Kingdom through the faithful preaching of Yiannakos Zachariadis. They also spent two or three months every year preaching in outlying territories. not everyone accepted it. But persecution strengthened their faith and zeal for the Kingdom . I suggested to my companion that I carry him on my back. socks. I carried our literature bags in one hand and our shoes and socks in the other. As I was the larger of us two. In time a congregation was established in Nea Simantra. Kalamaki of Larissa and Eleftherohori of Trikkala. Strangely. They traveled on foot. and Nteniki. The work in the rural areas was challenging. Diogenis Kontaxopoulos carried the good news to the villages in the Serrai prefecture from 1928 to 1933. In November 1922. To save a second trip. I clenched my teeth on the handle of a basket full of eggs. God's people adopted the name Jehovah's Witnesses. he chose the village of Nea Simantra. Some Opposition From Within In 1931. the congregation in Kalamaki steadily increased in number. George Koukoutianos. a teacher.

seeing the difference between her husband' s conduct and that of his accusers. believing th at Jehovah would give me another congregation . Their response? All ten brothers there got up and threw me out of the meetin g! But the next day I started preaching. Vasilis Avgerinos was a schoolteacher in Eleftheroh ori when he first met the Bible Students back in September 1927. and the two of them preached regularly in nearb y Eleftherohori. "As soon as I arrived. I approached to listen to what they had to say." he recalled . at the Memorial of Christ's death. But now justify yourself in front of th e teacher!'" But just a few days later. Growing Despite Opposition in Eleftherohori In 1923 the first flash of truth illuminated the village of Eleftherohori in the region of Trikkala. there were only 97 publishers of the good news in Greece! As the preaching work became more organized. denounced to the police and the Ministry of Education. His reaction? He recalls: "Now at last I had found the TRUTH!" Both he and his wife joined in the preaching work. graduated from the Watcht ower Bible School of <3ilead in 1975. his relatives told him to leave Valtino . Greece 81 When Nicos Karath anassis accepted the truth. are you uneducated goat th ieves from Exalofos going to teach us the gospel? We have our priests and bishops. But Geor ge awoke just as his wife. Persecution came from all sides." He soon joined them in the preaching work. soon he wanted the whole series. and in 1928. Kostas Karathanass is. this teacher asked Brother Papageorgiou for the first volume of Studies in the Scriptures. was about to strike. His brother Dimitris responded. please. His cousins even grabbed him by his hair and were about to th row him to the ground when his father inter vened. Maria. That made me th ink . I reproved them for their attitude. But in that same year. Only one or two brothers remained faithful in Larissa. A brother named John Kostarellos returned from America to his native village of Exalofos and started to preach from house to house. educated men! You get on with your own business. He spoke to her so kindly that she put the ax down. and you present yourself as an educated man. He and his wife. too. The preaching work was a test for some. those who refused to take part were gradually sifted out . She progressed in the truth. ax in hand . In 1928. I said to them : 'Tell me. 168 persons partook of the emblems. but they came back later. This first group of brothers stopped meeting together and gradually dispersed. They laughed and said: 'We villagers don 't know very much." Others. serve as missionaries in Cyprus.80 1994 Yearbook "At our next meeting. "I was told that in the village a 'Freemason' named George Papageorgiou was disturbing the community with false teachings. Together they continued the preaching work. I was to 'put him in his place. and the villagers were impressed with the rhetorical way in which he answered me.' They left. who later related: "At first I was opposed. George Papageorgiou's nephew as well as his son-in-law from nearby Valtino accepted the truth. And what did I hear? 'It is written' in this or that book of the Bible. His brother George began to serve Jehovah as well.''' Brother Papageorgiou related: "I had a discussion with this teacher. In 1924 they met George Papageorgiou. Brother Avgerinos related: "We were publicly abused. Fanatical relatives even persuaded George's wife to tr y to kill him while he slept. One of George's sons. brought before the . and more persecution followed. In 1925 all three of these brothers traveled to Athens and were baptized. Being a teacher. appeared within Jehovah's organization who did not readily respond to the direction of the organization. There were now seven publishers in the area. and so did other relatives-whole families began to serve Jehovah. cursed in the streets.

The next day Penelope and I were present at a discussion. The apostle Paul visited some of those rocky limestone shores in the Aegean Sea. recalled how he first learned of the truth: "In January 1926. we were baptized. a testimony to the endurance and hard work of the brothers and sisters over many difficult years. and now here he was. 15) Evidently he also spent time in Crete. I heard one of the Bible Students speaking at a shop and introduced myself." The Greek Islands-Crete The Greek islands are known the world over for their sun-soaked beauty. Professor Bosdogiannis began publishing his own booklets and refused to cooperate with the Society any longer. "We decided to visit all the villages on the island with the only publication we had. Expelled from his home. They showed me the book The Harp of God and how to study it. From such small beginnings. Three brothers grouped together in Douliana. Back in 1938 he was the very first of Jehovah's Witnesses in Greece to be arrested for violating the law against proselytism.' they told me . who had translated C. (Acts 20 : 14. 1:9. Samos " One of the early Witnesses on the island of Samos. when a pilgrim. But much to our joy. and Samos as he returned from his third missionary tour in 56 C. In March 1928 a priest brought me and a sister who was from the United States before the court-although he had beaten us. At the hearing the presiding judge asked the priest: 'Didn't . However. Dimitris Makris. some of these mockers and accusers later became our brothers and joined us in the preaching work. 'You need to study the Bible. he also visited the towns of Canea and Iraklion on the island of Crete. with subtitles that asked 'What Is It? Who Are There? Can They Get Out?' In one village after another. he was brought to court and was sentenced to a year of exile on Amorgos Island of the Cyclades group. suddenly a man named Kokkinakis arrived from Crete. he gave up his job as a teacher and joined the pioneer service in Iraklion. He later got in touch with John Bosdogiannis in Canea. though. Three years later. Toward the end of the year. He stopped at Mirylene . and some other Greek islands have been used for exile in modern times as well. T. It was in the sea at Amorgos that this companion of mine was baptized. Brother Koukoutianos. In 1927 we held a small assembly in Samos with 40 persons present from the island . Russell's books. he has been arrested over 60 times for peacefully pursuing his worship. After Brother Rutherford visited Athens in 1920. (Titus 1:5) The apostle John was exiled on Parrnos. In all. His most recent legal battle was mentioned at the outset of this account. covering the whole city. He went from house to house. being exiled for his new convictions! At last I had a companion with whom to study Greece 83 The Watchtower. Chios." Brother Kokkinakis is now 84 years old and has served Jehovah faithfully for 54 years. For this activity. we were beaten. a booklet entitled Hell.-Rev. He recalls: "After I had been there for six months. I had spoken the truth to him back there. So a group of five of us studied the book each night until the early hours of the morning. Sadly. but whether he visited other Greek islands is unknown.E. visited.82 1994 Yearbook courts and disgraced. there are now 13 congregations on Crete. He had been interested. Nicos Benierakis from the village of Douliana saw the book The Harp of God in a shoe shop. a humble teacher named Manolis Lionoudakis did progress in the truth. I asked the brothers how they could give answers from the Bible so readily.

"To cut down on the number of arrests. Brother Kaminaris recalls: "As the work progressed. In the front sat some members of the legal profession. but it was out of order. Small Beginnings on the Island of Corfu In 1923 there were four brothers on Corfu. Charalampos Beratis.500 Witnesses located on the scattered islands around Greec e. we had dozens of court cases on the issue of proselytism. However. and announced: 'In the name of the law and of the king. and in the village of Prasino. but I went ahead without dwelling on the dangers and the loneliness. Finally. George Douras and Christos Papakos recalled the work in those years: "We decided to give a public talk in a theater in the capital. it was full. Brother Douras. all the villagers were gathered in the square. Many times people would say: 'We can imagine how much money you receive to come and reach us as far as here. the local priest led an attack on us. In the village of Magouliana. There are now three thriving congregations in Samos. In the prefecture of Messenia together with Aetolia and Acarnania prefecture. I prayed silently to Jehovah to direct me as to what to do .' The speaker. I celebrated the Memorial alone that year. opposite the Italian mainland. the opposition intensified. At 10 a. Upon learning that the archbishop was responsible. nobody said a word.' He tried to call the police by telephone. with about a thousand present. a beautiful island off the west coast of Greece. the chief of police came and informed us that the talk could not be given. I introduced the Society's literature." Brother Kaminaris has been a member of the Bethel family since 1945. Before long he was joined by Michael Triantafilopoulos. I just picked up my book bag and shouted: 'In the name of Jehovah.m . I take my bag and Greece 85 leave. and many accepted the books . the Society's first printery in Greece-using a secondhand Offenbach . overflowing with a desire to preach the good news full-time. putting confidence in Jehovah. The Pioneer Work Even in those difficult early years. Efforts to Silence the Preaching Work To support the burgeoning preaching work. then the whole audience followed them. These two covered several regions of Greece. A lawyer in the audience was upset and demanded a reason. tugged at my coat.84 1994 Yearbook you have [a tree] in the village to hang him from?' I was sentenced to two months' imprisonment. the safest place to sleep was the local graveyard. Come with me to the French consulate. Then the village priest appeared. the Society advised us to work alone rather than together. In this theater it is prohibited to hear this talk. I am the consul of France . It was hard to work alone without someone to talk to. Just imagine the spectacle as the crowd made its way along the streets of Corfu to the French consulate to hear the talk!" A colporteur (full-time minister). one of the early pioneers.' Little did they know that oftentimes I was hungry and didn't even know if I would have a place to sleep. returned to Greece in 1934.' There was complete silence." Jehovah has blessed the brothers' endurance and hard work. The number of regular pioneers has soared from 8 in 1938 to about 1. I simply left and continued my preaching work!" There are now some 47 congregations with 2. also ran into opposition on Corfu about 1923. was the first to follow the consul. some zealous Greeks wanted to make a career of their ministry. He related: "In a village named Pagi.800 in 1993. Sometimes when I was in a hostile area. I arrest you. the lawyer shouted: 'Gentlemen. we faced a n1'ob. There it will be allowed. Michael Kaminaris.

possessing absolute authority. all th ose arrested broth ers faced pressure to sign a declar ation saying th at they would return to the Greek Orthodox C hurc h. The brothers were thrilled. 1940. 1936. But I am sure my wife didn't sign . All told. others received life sentences. So he told the president: "These people are not our political opposers . In 1938. recalls a typically devious pressure tactic: "Mr. th ey were senten ced to death. like th at of Emmanuel Paterakis of Cr ete. All communication with the brothers at headquarters was severed. What are th ey doing? They are awaiting God's Kingdom. Not for long.86 I 994 Yearbook flatbed press-started up on February 19. the Society's books were banned. and the Society's property was confiscated . sign what? That it is a bad thing to worship our Creator?" A man who was on friendly terms with the president was also familiar with Jehovah's Witnesses. In October 1939 at a meetin g in Athens. articl es from older Watchtower magazines were reproduced on a duplicating machine. The printery was closed . On August 4. However. After April 1941 the spiritual food was supplied via underground means. Nineteen of the brothers lost their lives. Christou. Kostas Christou . They were threatened with exile to remote island s in th e Aegean Sea. In a few cases." Convinced. killing many . all branch property and money was returned. was arr ested at th e Society's offices . It would be a pity for her to be alone and you in exile on the island of Seriphos!" But Greece 87 Brother Christou an swered : "My wife depends on Jehovah. there was a change of government. th e undersecret ary of communication and postal services had prohibited the postal distribution of the magazine. It will be good when it come s. under German occupation. Martial law was declared . the branch servant . one of the 85. And besides. However . when the number of publi shers had reached 212. Among the 225 publi shers. After a court hearing. Some received sentences of from 7 to 20 years in prison . The next day Brother Karan assios. loannis Metaxas became the new president of the country. that th ey would cont inue to receive the magazine regularly. plunging the country into World War II. She will be freed . the dictator ordered that the decision be canceled at once. Italy declared war on Greece. So the August 1936 edition of The Golden Age an no unced th at und er clergy influence. But worse lay ahead . Ath ens. but some continued to reach the brothers. though! The War Years On October 28. Thi s law has been one of the toughest obstacles to the preaching work in Greece ever since. in the basement of 51 Lombardou Street. only 6 of the 85 arrested had compromised under pressure. a law prohibiting proselytism was enacted. The Watchtower was still produced in the United States. not me. German and Bulgarian armies invaded Greece . many brothers faced court-martial because of th eir neutral stand. as Were th e books Religion . The securit y police kept th e 35 sisters in one room while dispersing th e broth ers to various police stations for detention. During the occupation. th e clergy did not want th is new magazine to be circulated . At the clergy's instigation . no death sentence was carried out in Greece . this press was used to print The Golden Age {now Awake!}. We also are expecting it. he thought the decision to exile them was monstrous. So in May of that year. It assured subscribers. th ou gh. your wife has already signed a statement. The branch office and printery began to function freely again. 85 brothers and sisters were arrested . She is free to decide. 1936.

Phyllis. Fisherman in Molivos. Michael Kaminaris (second from the left). The Corinth canal. 3. 2. Athanassios Karanassios. the Society's first branch representative in Greece.1. who is still a member of the Bethel family in Greece.E. Background: Patmos. 5. . 4. on the island of Mytilene. Plato Idreos with his wife. the island where the apostle John received the Revelation from Jesus Christ in 96 C.

Costas C hrista nas. church bells would ring. As the brothers went from house to house. thi s leader set about freeing Brother Papageorgiou. D uring the beating. If I deny my beliefs. He asked : "Are you a Bible Student?" Brother Paleologos replied: "Yes!" The officer confided: "My mother is a Bible Student in Germany. who had a base there. Nicos Papageorgiou . who decided that Nicos Papageorgiou." and th en left and took the soldiers with him! Greece 91 Wartime Persecution At Elefth ero hori another long-established congregation was weather ing the war years. the officer recognized some books and magazines on the table as the forbidd en publications of Jehovah' s Witnesses. th en execute me right away. would arrest the brothers and haul them to court. a suburb of Athens. The brothers. inviting thos e who showed further interest to meet with small groups . The brothers got away free! At times German soldiers would encircle an area and kill all the men in retaliation for acts of sabotage. Many learn ed th e truth in thi s way. The brothers continued to preach. they were led to a nearby village and handed over to th e authorities. suddenly. T he brot hers were led to a mountai nside village. I reached out and took hold of his right hand. rolled partway down the mount ainside. 1944. on ly one did not endorse the execut ion. th e war soon claimed th e lives of all of those who had orde red this execution . When they refused. The death sentence was read to them. When th e Germans arrived. along with the priests and rur al guards. The brothers were beaten repeatedly d uring eight days and then freed .90 1994 Yearbook and Salvation and the booklet Refugees. German soldiers rounded up all the men for execut ion . On October 18. guerr illa groups were form ed among the Greek people. they plundered the houses and set the empty ones on fire. then you should cry for me. four of our brothers were charged with treason and sentenced to death by th e guerrillas at Tourkolekas. a village near the city of Megalopolis. They would lend booklets to interested people. None of them were Witnesses. told the villagers th at th ey should flee to the mountains for protection. and the head of th e village. He said th at he would try to help me bu t that I would have to help him too. decided to stay put. On August 24. W hen the brothers refused ." Communist gro ups and local leader s once arrested the broth ers and ordered them to stand as guard s. . Elias Panteras reports: "The decade of 1940-50 was a time of fiery test. 65 people were killed.'" Evidently moved. Am on g the fewer than 80 families in Kalamaki. Nicos Papageorgiou recalls: "The team leader of the Nation al Liberation Front took me to his office and told me th at he was sorry to inform me that he had been authorized to execute me. Ger man artillery laun ched a surprise attack. In Kallithea . who was tied hand and foot. the German Army invaded Kalamaki in Thessaly. after prayer. and Costas Papageorgiou sho uld be executed. saying: 'If you love me. they were beaten mercilessly. Of th e seven-mem ber committee. and th ey were tied up and beaten . Two thirds of th e houses were burned but not those of Jehovah's people . They tried to force them to make the sign of the cross and kiss th e religious icons . and the guerrillas scattered. They searched th e hom e of Thanasis Paleologos and were about to arrest him when . but informally. As they were being led to the place of execution. 1943. where a congr egation had long been active. stopping on ly on a ledge just above a river. O n two occasions nation alistic groups led by a police officer searched th e brothers' homes and led them to the Orthodox church. Interestin gly. The leftist guerrillas. Some Narrow Escapes To fight th e German occupying forces.

He prepared a written defense. I had found the truth!" This young man began witnessing in the str~ets. Years later. when Yiannakos Zachariadis. Polikarpos Kinigopoulos. now 90 years old. and Brother Zachariadis got acquainted with him.. The young men were unabl e to walk for a month. and Panagiotis and Nikos Zinzopoulos were arrested on October 3. and that was how he found a fellow Witness. It was a stranger.' In the meantime. A Church Dignitary Learns the Truth Despite all the clergy-inspired persecution during the war. Clearly. Timoleon Vasiliou. The stranger then asked . who was just then giving a talk.' I said. 'This is the truth. noticing a stranger present. as well as Helen Kouzioni. where the apostle Paul and his companion Silas were beaten and imprisoned in about 50 C. 'we must study first. He obtained more books from Christos. Jehovah blessed one faithful brother -John Kostarellos from Exalofos-to become hundreds. put on a brown suit. It so happened that a street bootblack. who was then serving as a traveling overseer. a former policeman named Christos Triantafillou. who had learned the truth in 1926. lies a village called Kyria. They were taken to a police station. Interested. Afterward. where they were beaten continually for 24 hours -particularly on th e soles of their feet. As we left. As for me. 1945. cut his hair. he told me about the conversation. Now he was no longer "Father Polikarpos" but Brother Kinigopoulos. In 1941 an archimandrite [a church dignitary ranking below a bishop] and teacher of theology whom I knew well. -Compare Isaiah 60:22. In 1940 th e clergy hired a man to kill Brother Zachariadis. but none paid any attention. and gave it personally to the church authorities. together we went to the home of George Douras." Toward the end of 1943. preached to Mr. I am not going to church anymore. Kinigopoulos while cleaning his shoes. 'but I'll stay here. He asked to see Brother Zachariadis. one of Jehovah's Witnesses. was assigned to my school. adapted his talk accordingly. Two congregations thrive in Eleftherohori today. and he immediately had his beard shaved off. I said to the theologian. and soon a congregation of eight young persons was formed in Rodholivos. They promised this hired killer that he would go unpunished. we will study. So it was that during a meeting in Brother Zachariadis' home . Of these brothers. the friends greeted the man. he and his fleshly sister Sophia Iasonidou. covered the surrounding area with the good news. a family in the village of Rodholfvos accepted the book Gooernment. "Then a local priest began looking for witnesses to lodge accusations against Mr. That was the first time I heard of God's purpose to make the earth a paradise. just because they were Jehovah's Witnesses. Thanasis Kallos. in 1940. he visited all the bishops he knew in the Athens area. I warned my friend of the danger. He recalls: "I spent hours on the roof reading the whole book . The brothers asked the man to sit down . giving the reasons why he had become one of Jehovah's Witnesses. Kinigopoulos . In modern times. Helen Kouzioni learned the truth through a priest! She relates: "I was working as a teacher in a high school for girls in Athens. were baptized.' 'Don't be in a hurry. 19-year-old Timoleon Vasiliou visited that family and found a pile of books on the roof-Gooernment among them. You can go where you like.' 'Sure. Greece 93 Increase in the Region of Philippi Near the ancient Macedonian city of Philippi. is still vigorous in Jehovah's service. there was an unexpected knock on the door. Brother Zachariadis. and came out looking like a different man.92 1994 Yearbook Brother Papageorgiou.' he cautioned me.E.

Plato Idreos was appointed the Society's branch representative. the nu mber preaching was about 35. But God protected me from shedding innocent blood. from 178 to 1. Henschel. A highlight of the year was the visit to Greece ofN. opposit ion began. the circu lar was too late. the clergy tried new tactics in 1947. T he preaching work." As a result. They distributed them amo ng the Witnesses immediate ly. What good news when.94 1994 Yearbook Brother Zachar iadis to come alone with him into an adjoining room ." The number of publis hers in 1939 was 23. After that. He took his revolver out of his pocket. The books were seized and . Athanassios Karanassios. The 1938 Yearbook said about the work in that land: "There also Satan through the Roman Catholic Hierarchy has acted against the proclamation of the message of the Kingdom. Sadly. Egypt. the Society's third president." Because of the faith ful efforts of these brothers.770. when there were 50 publishers! Gileadites Arrive The year 1946 was a milestone. Dhraviskos. the brothers had already picked up the books. the number of Kingdom publishers had increased nearly tenfold. W hen a brother paid a visit to Albania in 1948. and M. along with the money he had been paid. and this is the money I was paid to commit the crime. A circular went to he customs authorities stat ing that 'the impor tation of these books sho uld be prevented by any means possible. When the Greece branch at last regained con tact with Brook lyn. there was difficulty in keeping in touch with the broth ers in th at land because of the political situation. Knorr. Jehovah's spirit directed his servants for the work of gathering in his sheep. 152 carto ns of literature arrived by ship from Brooklyn. The Ministry of Education and Religion issued a circular to all government departments stating that all publications of Jehovah's Witnesses should bear the words "Heresy of Jehovah's Witnesses. . G. notwithstanding the petitio ns to the Albanian Government. Since the Greece branch was caring for the work in Albania. Palaeokomi . and Mavro lofos. when some literature came in from the brothers in Alexan dria. When agents of the church came to the branch to seize the books. This is the revolver. un til now they were not given back. Ren ewed Contact With Brooklyn Contact with the organ ization outside Greece was not restored until 1945. visits were made there from time to time . con trary to what they told me. as well as th e work of translation. the work Greece 95 in Albania was legally recognized in May 1992. He helped me to realize th at you are a man of God. the books were long gone! Undaunted. Two Gilead graduates were sen t to G reece : Ant hony Sideris and James Turpin. was reorganized. In Jun e 1946. post offices and customs houses refused to let us receive literature from the United States or to mail anything within Greece unless so marked. and said: "The bishopric authorized me to come here to find you and kill you. the two Gilead graduates were forced to leave Greece . in November of that same year.' However. Arrangements were made for new branch premises at 16 Tenedou Street in Athens. congregations were organ ized in Rodholivos. after decades under ban . The work has continued to grow in these northern areas of Greece. H. As soon as the clergy learn ed about the ship men t." Between 1940 and 1945. who had served faithfully as the branch servant for many years but had become ill. they reported : "T he tru th cannot be bound. who eventually became its fifth. was replaced by Brot her Sideris.

stripped. When a fellow believer went to visit them in the evening. 'stay as you are. He was taken to an underground room in the police station and beaten unconscious. similar violence broke out in nearby Eleftherohori the very next day. In 1946. who had already been in prison for five years. but some villagers intervened. The villagers stood by and watched. hanged upside down. none of this brutality stopped the preaching work. Grigoris Karagiorgos. into the small street behind the station. during just five months.808 publishers. Exile! Many family heads were exiled to isolated islands. thrown to the ground. ten Witnesses who refused to violate Christian principles were beaten with clubs and guns. Passersby took him to a pharmacy for treatment. he received the same treatment. and now they were being punished again for their Christian neutrality. and it was a month before he was able to relate what had happened to him. With me were Michalis Garas and George Panagiotoulis. Some were even executed. 1946. George Constantakis. Similar atrocities took place on June 26. In fact.96 1994 Yearbook Report to Government Regarding Persecution After government officials declared that there was no religious persecution in Greece. Karditsa. Incited by the bishop of Trikkala. there was new peak of 2. In the same village. For 15 days he remained unconscious. After torturing the brother and smashing his jaw. a family man and Witness from Paleokastro. In the village of Vrondarnas.' 'Well.' I said and started to put my clothes on. a pioneer. "After many days of forced labor. he fell into the hands of a group of self-appointed vigilantes who put him through a medieval-style inquisition that eventually resulted in his death. 1947. a sister was confronted in her home by armed police. and trampled on so brutally that they were disfigured. such as Yiaros and Makronisos. 442 of our brothers were brought before the courts. They were then thrown into a lime pit and rolled in the lime. and tortured. a sister had her arm broken because she would not make the sign of the cross. a group of armed police found Panagiotis Tsembelis conducting a Bible study with a Greece 97 newly interested woman. 'No!' they said. He was then shot and killed by armed police. Of course. Both were beaten. some soldiers came into our cell one night and woke me with the words: 'Stand up! We are going to execute you!' 'All right. One brother tried to use the press to protest this maltreatment of Jehovah's Witnesses. persecution was reaching ever new heights. They threw him. a report was submitted to the government in August 1946 documenting the illtreatment of Jehovah's Witnesses. bleeding. During the 1949 service year. the police wanted to hang the woman. even though over 700 brothers and sisters were brought before the courts. they bound him and dragged him a mile outside the village. near Sparta. 'We are going to execute you.' After a while they said to me: 'Aren't you going to say anything?' 'No! What shall I say?' I answered. Both were severely beaten when we arrived . was taken into the nearby woods and executed. also refused to compromise his religious principles. and you say nothing?' 'I have nothing to say. Theodoros Neros remembered: "We were taken to Makronisos by boat in February 1952. On August 15. in Phiki. In nearby Goritsa. are . They had been released. In March 1946. Thessaly. The latter was waterless and desolate and was infamous for the harsh treatment meted out to prisoners detained there.

assigned to watch the Witnesses when they studied with other exiles. But a Greek Orthodox theologian and professor at Athens University supported the execution of Brother T soukaris. they were able to get some letters through to him. The brothers in the Larissa Congregation had tried in vain to obtain his release. then let it be known to you that the image of/gold that you have set up we will not worship and your gods we will not worship. Brother Tso ukaris wrote: Greece 99 "My dear brother.. and this impressed them. 1949. if it is so. but let us always have confidence. 1949." The years 1950-51 saw a 26-percent increase in publishers.' they said." Executions of Integrity-Keepers The April 8. 1948. dated February 7. Do not let us fear man because the Bible says: 'Trembling at men is what lays a snare. That turned out to be a comp lete Watchtower. father of four children. but we ate The Watchtower!' Something good did come out of all that suffering. For the first time in many years. Still. and consulates to protest such executions. those words! Military Law Ends When martial law ended at last. a 28-percent increase in the pioneer ranks. we remember those experiences of bygone years. Of course. 1948. It also stated that government authorities had executed John Tsoukaris of Karytsa. Those who did so were so eager to sample the loukoumia tha t they overlooked the packing underneath. however. the brothers and sisters had greater freedom of movement to preach the good news." Sadly true.''' On the 9th of February. and let us entreat Him. saying: "To refuse to take up arms because of conscience is a thing entirely unknown and inconceivable among us. 'Don't you know we cannot execute you unless we court-martial you first?' The whole thing had been a ploy to break my integrity!" Brother Neros also related how Jehovah provided spiritual food for the brothers in exile. who said quite clearly: '0 King.' Let us have such faith as Shadrach. When we meet. execution by guerrillas of 37-year-old Christos MouIotas. Awake! readers sent thousands of letters to government ministers. and Abednego. 'they already know that I might die.' 'Then let's go. A special letter was sent to the Greek minister of public order protesting the March 5. they took me to Mizourlo [the place of execution]. Meshach. but he that is trusting in Jehovah will be protected. they were able to offer a bound book to the public-"Let God Be True. he was led to Mizourlo and executed. "One day a box of loukoumia [a Greek sweet] was sent to me. but they did not execute me. all parcels were examined. Outside. Of course. an officer shouted: 'Make him stand by the wall! Turn him around!' But then a soldier said to me. I don't know if my execution will be tomorrow morning. Awake! reported on the persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Greece. The brothers commented: 'The soldiers ate the loukoumia. became a Witness himself 25 years later-as did many of his family. the persecution did not stop. This morning .. They . embassies. my situation rests in the hands of Jehovah of hosts . Larissa. During the few days before his death. as they said the hour was too late. for his refusal to render services to them. In his final letter. they saw my courage. A prison warden. the God whom we worship can deliver us from the fiery furnace. and a 37-percent increase in Bible studies . if he does not. In 1950 the Greek Orthodox Church resorted to another tactic. on February 9.98 I 994 Yearbook you not going to write your relatives?' 'No!' I replied.

the milit ary took over th e Gr eek government. whose parents had reared him in th e truth from infancy. As . Blessings Continue Despite Attacks When th e Society's film The New World Society in Action was shown in 1955 in Athens. That year saw a new peak of 4. th e city's largest cinem a. The film made quite an imp ression. was forcibly bapt ized and given th e name "Demetrius"! In December 1951. including priests." according to an Athen s newspaper . and hotel rooms had been booked. 27 brothers and sisters were bapti zed in the same river near which Paul once preached to people who had met for prayer. The police had granted the permit. it was necessary to build new branch premises . " In mid-1966 a young Witness named C hristos Kazanis was sentenced to death for his stand on Christian neutrality. t he joy of the 1. By law. professors. under pressure from the Orthodox Church. The major Athens newspapers commented extensivel y each day about the sentence and th e beliefs of Jehovah's Witnesses. came und er harsh criticism in the matter. Articles of th e Constitution protecting freedom of assembly and of the press were suspended. the Society rented the "Panathinaikos'' stadium in Athens. on the night of April 21. 1963. by October 1954 a new three-story building was ready to house th e Bethel family. when the Society announced a five-day Greek-language convention to be held in Vienna. canceled the assembly. In Macedonia. Brothers Knorr and Henschel paid their second visit to Greece . With th e increase in theocratic activity. One 17-year-old youth named Tim othy. th ousands of visitors from foreign land s had been invited. To see what kind of film it was. factory . A week later Brother Hen schel visited Salonika and spoke to 1.Acts 16:12-15. The printing of The Watchtower had to stop. Some of the disappointment this caused was alleviated in 1965. Austria. Its goal: th e "wiping out of Jehovah' s Witn esses.915 at a th eater and at th e Bethel Hom e in Athens. The 12-car tr ain chartered for th e journey became a "moving Kingdom Hall.100 1994 Yearbook tried to baptize the children of Jehovah's Witnesses by force. Nin e brothers were charged with proselytism. C hr isostomos. and offices. The site selected was in downtown Athen s on Kartali Street. and police officers. these brothers spoke to 905 Witnesses in various houses.250 brothers and sisters who made the trip was boundless. near ancient Greece 101 Phil ippi. Smaller assemblies were held throughout the country. 1967. Far from bein g wiped out. Political Takeover Suddenly. The film and projector were con fiscated . God's people were greatly blessed that year. no more than five person s could attend any meeting. Brother Knorr visited in May and spoke to 1. th e authorities showed it to some 200 guests.931 publishers. Finally the sentence was reduced to four and a half years' imprisonment.250 at the Olympi on . The film and equipmen t were returne d to th e brothers after a favorable court decision. Work started in 1953. The preach ing work had to be carried on with cauti on . But suddenly th e government collapsed! The new govern ment. 80 brothers and sisters were arrested. This case received widespread publicity and led to a tremendous witness through out Greece and beyond. . since he gave the impression th at he approved of executing a young man who refused to use a gun. As th e police refused to give a permit for an assembly. The Greek Orthodox Church declared 1959 to be an "antiheretic" year. and a number of newspapers commen ted on th e matter. For a one-day assembly on July 30. The archb isho p.

1979. When F. labeled it "The Middle Ages in all their wretchedness. the child's body was kept in a refrigerator for four days. On the adjoining grounds. today this assembly site is a landmark in the area. Many were therefore simply termed "lecture Greece 103 halls.800. was built. visited Greece in 1969. Why? Newspaper reports explained that the parents were Jehovah's Witnesses. but until recently. whose baby died shortly after birth. with its variety of flowers and shrubs. . the Malakasa Assembly Hall. which would have 27 bedrooms. Hatred of Jehovah's Witnesses was especially apparent in a case in 1974. offices. more space was clearly needed. he spoke to over a thousand brothers in a forest near Salonika.102 1994 Yearbook usual. As the dispute dragged on. who later became the Society's fourth president. an Athens newspaper. But during the previous government. To Virna. the Kingdompreaching work continued to progress. as many as 20. During that time the number of publishers had incr eased from under 5 thousand to more than 18 thousand. the Ministry of the Interior had sent out a decree saying that all marriages that had been performed by Jehovah's Witnesses were invalid. and other facilities. they were not allowed to call them Kingdom Halls. a factory. The brothers had to meet in isolated places in the forests. there is room enough to hold district conventions. the brothers often remark: "This is a touch of paradise. The number of publishers rose from 10.000 have attended special gatherings there. In a most beautiful area of mountains and pine forests.940 in 1967 to 17. Bible studies and meeting attendance also soared during that difficult time. and Lyman Swingle represented the Governing Body for the occasion. On the island of Crete. valleys. a suburb of Athens. blends in beautifully with the landscape." Yet. and this had the support of the Greek Orthodox Church. were refused a permit to bury the infant. tarnishing his family name and his own conscience.500 persons. So the local registrar insisted that the parents had to state that their child was illegitimate before he would allow a burial. only about 25 meeting places in Greece bear the name "Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses. some years ago the brothers purchased a piece of land on a hillside amid mountains . In 1977 the brothers bought about 13 acres of forest land some 22 miles north of Athens. The terraced hillside. and vineyards. In 1962 a 2. A couple named Polvkandrins. And in the Salonika assembly grounds." Despite the hardships of military rule. The work continued underground. The tranquil atmosphere is ideal. W. married as such in 1954. General opinion in Gr eece condemned this bigoted persecution . some 117 congregations with about 9. He was not prepared to lie." For 25 years the branch premises had been located on Kartali Street in Athens." To date. The father refused .500 Witnesses meet just in Athens alone! However. Jehovah's people have been able to build in Greece. Construction Projects for an Expanding Organization Jehovah's Witnesses have many meeting places in Greece. It has a special feature-the sliding walls can open up to accommodate as many as 3. Franz. thousands can enjoy their circuit assemblies and district conventions. This was now an ideal place to construct new Bethel premises.073 in 1974.5-acre site was purchased in Marousi. They built an amphitheater and two Kingdom Halls there. with a seating capacity of 1. the Orthodox clergy used the prevailing conditions to cause trouble for the brothers. When the Word of God is being expounded from the platform. The dedication took place on July 16.

Two members of the Governing Body. They hired dozens of buses to convey the demonstrators. . in June 1986. the talks were interpreted into several European languages as well as into Japanese. Exasperated. but the police came to disperse them. resulted in steady increases once again. the newspaper I Larisa reported that a crowd led by priests gathered in front of the Ga laxias Cinema where 700 Witnesses had assembled for a circuit assembly. The clergy were forced to see Greece 105 that they were fighting a losing battle. Starting in July 1986. and the assembly grounds near Salonika.500 mark although 2. Sitting beneath the shady pine trees of the assembly grounds. The newspaper I Alithia of Larissa compared the mood of the mob to that of the crowd who cried out for the death of Jesus. there was some stagnation. George Gangas. much to the delight of his audience. 35 of which the brothers won outright. The mob was bent on stopping the assembly. What was the problem? Some uncleanness in the congregations needed attention. but as it turned out. The number of publishers remained near the 18. And a few brothers. Street Witnessing In 1983 the clergy of the Greek Orthodox Church received a shock. The Watchtower and Awake! began to appear simultaneously with the English editions. who had served as the Society's representative for over 30 years. For the first time. Hundreds of delegates came from 17 cou tries.134 were baptized during that period. Assemblies Under Attack The following summer. was now getting along in years and was succeeded by several other Branch Committee coordinators during the following years. and 368 were baptized. Personality clashes and pride at times got in the way of the work. once taken. it seems. . . outside Athens. This was a difficult period for the Bethel family in Athens. noting: "And unfortunately their 'leader' was a raving . At one point he . one could hear a multitude of voices singing Kingdom songs. The love among the brothers from so many parts of the world was especially evident during the midday breaks. the brothers organized street witnessing in connection with a district convention. But with the constant help of the Governing Body and other faithful brothers. spoke to the conventioners in Greek. .104 1994 Yearbook At the new branch. The result was 38 court cases.367. Three sites were selected: the Apollo stadium in Athens. while 3 went to the court of appeals. A Period of Readjustment The 1980's saw a need for readjustments within the branch organization. the organization was strengthened. Brothers Gangas and Barry. Apostasy also raised its ugly head during these years. and with much success. viewed the words "elder" and "ministerial servant" as titles rather than as indicating the responsibility to care for Jehovah's sheep . himself a Greek. Such measures. priest! He threatened and blasphemed. For the benefit of the visitors. Hundreds of Witnesses were arrested and taken to local police stations. Special Convention of 1985 In 1985 the Society chose Greece as a site for one of the special conventions that year. and the congregations had to be cleansed of this divisive influence as well. From 1977 to 1981. further technological advances enabled the brothers to produce higher-quality magazines and books . the Assembly Hall and its grounds at Malakasa. The response was dramatic. they called a protest rally to demonstrate against Jehovah's Witnesses. Plato Idreos. gave a . were present. not enough people showed up to fill even one bus! God's people have continued ever since to witness in the streets. The total attendance for the three conventions was 37.

In a cour t case on Crete. a prominent clergyman raised a tremendous protest-even ordering that the bells of the churches be rung. But despite the stadium's idealistic name. The matter went to court. The greatest enemy of Jehovah's people in that land has been and still is the Greek Orthodox Church. For the 1988 district convention. It turned out well-to the delight of all 30. However. He went so far as to threaten to take over the stadium if the permit to use the stadium was not revoked. By influencing various governmental agencies. the Governing Body decided to publish two articles on the subject . For example. Notable Court Cases and Decisions in Defense of the Good News When writing to the congregation at Philippi in ancient Macedonia. during the "antiheretic" year of 1959.000 hours cleaning the facility. representatives of the Central Jewish Council in Greece announced to the leaders of the Greek Orthodox C hurc h th at such accusations had no foundation whatever. the inhabitants found that a strange item was included in their electric bill. convincing many that some disaster such as war had struck. the apostle Paul men tioned "the defending and legally establ ishing of the good news. Jehovah 's Witnesses spent 6. In a letter dated September 21. The Jewish community in Greece was disturbed by this propaganda. Another tactic the Greek Orthodox Church has often used is to claim that Jehovah's Witnesses are a Jewish organization supporting world Zionism. The power company threatened to cut off their electricity. some of the dec isions that have been handed down by unprejudiced judges have aided Jehovah's Witnesses in the preaching work. under such pressure the legal contract was broken-although only three days remained before the convention was due to begin. 1986. T he hierarchy of the Greek Orthodox Church had posed a question to the Sup reme Court as to whether Jehovah's Witnesses are a "known" religion . There was an additional charge for "the building of the C hurc h of St . otherwise 'we will come inside and smash their heads. the brothers rented the modern Stadium of Peace and Friendship near the port of Piraeus." The newspaper Avgi mentione d that the Ministry of Justice had to set up a special service to handle the t housands of protest letters received daily. Witnesses refused to pay this extra charge .000 letters from 208 countries sent by Jehovah's Witnesses. In the town of Parras. where the Greek Orthodox Church had objected to allowing the . the clergy have made God's people suffer terribly. 1:7) The modern organization of Jehovah's Witnesses in Gree ce has Greece 107 repeatedly had to resort to the courts in order to preach the good news. Jehovah granted a notable victory. With the contract signed. So the October 22. 1986." In view of such attacks. 1976. issue of The Watchtower contained the article "Religious Liberty Under Attack in Greece . The brothers worked day and night to prepare another area for the four-day program." (P hil. and the obligatory contributions were ruled unconstitutional.000 who were able to follow parts of the program directly or by telephone hookup. knowing that it could hurt them as well. An drew. The opinion of the Supreme Court was that Jehovah's Witnesses are a known religion a d hence are protected by the country's Constitution.106 1994 Yearbook five-minute ultimatum for those inside to vacate the hall. Sadly. issue of Awake! carried an article entitled "Religious Persecution in Greece -Why?" and the December 1." The resu lt? Members of the Greek government were inundated ! The newspaper Eleftherotipia announced : "200. Satan uses subtle means in his attempts to get the brothers to compromise-even in connection with the paying of their bills ." Of course.

Prepared in the 19th century. At three convention sites. that this new release was greeted with applause. between 1988 and 1992. One of them presented his case to the Council of State. although more contemporary than the Koine of the original Christian Scriptures. preachers of the good news have used the Vamvas translation of the Bible. Little wonder.108 I 994 Yearbook Witnesses to form a corporation. His appeal was upheld-a double victory in that it acknowledged Jehovah's Witnesses as a known religion as well as affirmed that Witnesses who are recognized by the government as ministers are exempt from military service. is nonetheless too outdated for the modern reader. the final day of the "Divine Teaching" District Convention. The Greek military does claim to exempt from military service those "who are religious ministers. Most notable among these is the use of the divine name. this version uses Katharevusa.000 copies to the conventioners in less than five minutes. He appealed the order to join the military and appealed his subsequent prison sentence. monks. a puristic Greek that. Still. July 18. All were thus able to follow along as Brother Schroeder noted some of the many improvements in this new publication over the Vamvas version. the accusation that we are a Zionist organization had been one of their chief arguments. . Before 1977 the brothers would be called to serve prison sentences repeatedly. several of the brothers who are recognized as ministers of religion were serving prison sentences for their neutrality. Another underhanded tactic of the clergy had been foiled! Victories Involving Neutrality The issue of neutrality faces all the brothers who are called for military service. and even tears-in abundance. Young people in particular find much in the Vamvas translation difficul to grasp. The new rendering also includes 68 pages of indexes. Three other brothers took similar court actions and were likewise released. attendants passed out some 30. the judges accepted this statement. some spent over 12 years in prison! A representative of the Netherlands presented this matter to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg on April 25.The Christian Scriptures Rendered From the New World Translation. the Greek Witnesses were thrilled when Albert Schroeder. scholarly notes on the text. then. on the average. A BIBLE EASY TO UNDERSTAND The 1993 "Divine Teaching" District Convention represented another milestone in the history of Jehovah's Witnesses in Greece. Jehovah. and Bible Topics for Discussion. The Council's decision resulted eventually in limiting the duration of imprisonment to one four-year term. This has hampered progress in Bible understanding. there are 400 brothers in prisons in Greece at any given time. In an appeal court hearing. stating that he was a recognized minister of religion. Nonetheless. which were connected by telephone hookup. 1977. maps. So on Sunday. and trainee monks of a known religion if they so desire. 237 times in the text ." according to the official Government Gazette. cheers. A legal representative of the Jewish community submitted that Jehovah's Witnesses have no connection with Judaism. announced a new release . 1993. of the Governing Body. For decades.

th e more you realize th at every semblance of human decenc y and person al dignity becomes submerged and completely lost in that labyrinth . Faithful brothers and sisters speak of extre me abuse: of being punched. of bein g whipped. of spending weeks in prison cells flooded with water. First enacted in 1938 and amended in 1939. was a resound ing victory for religious freedo m in Greece. 11:1-5. only a basic sense of surv ival . Extreme Physical Abuse Human Rights Without Frontiers. beaten black and blue . of freezing winter months in unheated cells open to the wind. and of all manner of psychological and emotional torm ent. th rough th orns and thistles on the bare ground. all lovers of justice can find comfort in knowin g th at th ere is a Court far higher th an any human court. stoned. judgment of thi s high cour t. of food deliberately contamin ated with excrement and other unspeakable filth . the Europea n Commission of Human Right s reviewed the case. th e journal quotes one such prisoner as follows: "O nce in custody. This gave Brother Kokki nakis the opportunity to lodge an individual appeal to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. Its divinely appointed Jud ge reads all human hearts. completely naked. For instance. burned. However. all manner of severe deprivation and torture which. fines. and jur ies will respond to the May 25. recently reported exten sively on this proselytism law. you begin by descending down into a prison basement. this law was reaffirmed in th e 1975 Constitution. The further down you go.110 1994 Yearbook The Proselytism Law The law against proselytism has been a formidable obstacle in Greece. It voted unanimously that Gr eece had committed a serious breach of Article 9 of the Euro pean Convention on Hum an Rights. as noted at th e outset of thi s account. whereupon his sentence was reduced to three months' impri sonm ent and converted to a fine. As to how th e G reek courts. The case was pronounced "admissible" and was referred to th e European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. The result . a journal published in Belgium. The most outstand ing case involving proselytism is that of Kokkinakis v. spat upon. Brother Kokkinakis was fined and sentenced to four months' imprisonment for proselytism . From then on. he will brin g about justice whether man does or not . 1990. In April 1988. th e Court of Cassation. tortured. the Supreme Co urt refused to admit the appeal. as well as agonizing death. slapped. tied up with ropes and chai ns. He appealed th e case. O n December 7. in many cases. calling it "infam ous" and adding: "[The law] provided Greece III a 'legal alibi' for the unleashing of a pogrom of religious persecut ion in Greece d irected against all th ose who dared to not be followers of the 'dominantly prevailing' religion of th e land. 1993. An appeal for an ann ulment of the sentence was lodged with the Suprem e Co urt of Gr eece. beating and kickin g me at th e same time. has resulted in permanent physical illness and disability of its tormented ." In confi nement th e brothers have suffered terribly. Greece. rendered bloody and senseless." It noted that th is law has resulted in "deliberate violations of human rights" ranging from court trials. and shot. innocent victims. They speak of being wrenched away from family.-Isa. set upon by mobs." This same journal quotes extensively from Witness survivors of such persecut ion. which refers to religious freedom . of slow starvation . judges. of insufficient or no nexistent medical care. and exile to "br utal physical abuse. thrown to the ground and stomped on . Savvas Tzezmetzidis recalls: "They stripped my clothing off and they tied my hands and feet together and th ey dragged me. time alon e will tell. stabbed.

2 executed. it lists 4. . the preaching work continues to prosper in Greece. . In fact. I couldn't use the sheet for long either. Expansion Calls for New Branch Facilities Despite all the opposition. and the desperate need you feel swelling up inside you to finally hear the bellowing voice of the Head Guard calling out your name that sounds like a message from heaven calling you out of this 'hell on earth' into paradise . 2. . . since strict building laws do not allow for combining a residence building with a factory. and he made it clear that it was not by his own strength that he end ured. and the refugees from everywhere who softly moan to themselves sad songs in strange-sounding languages. 1. On the filthy walls of those basements are written the history. He wrote: "For all thi ngs I have the strength by virtue of him who imparts power to me. The first nights they were literally crawling all over me when I slept . The squalid grime. . This was not easy. the Greek people have historically been known for their love of justice and freedom." For the period between 1938 (when the proselytism law was passed) and 1992. But these measures were only temporary. At first the branch solved the problem by renting apartments nearby.." (P il. The apostle Paul was abused and imprisoned in that very country.5 miles away. the one pitifu l lightbu lb that tries so valiantly to brig hten the darkness.. the torn -up sponge rubber mattresses which offer a few minutes of instant bu t troubled sleep. a search began for a site on which to build a new branch facility. As far as toilet 'facilities' were concerned. 42 sentenced to death. 'What day is it anyway?'. Humidity [was] dripping from the walls. The clothing I wore on my back was very lightweight. Eventually.000 publishers. The branch facilities at Marousi were now too small to house the growing Bethel family. the rats. it adds: "Thousands of other persons have been subjected to all kinds of degrading treatment. Regarding this last list. 68 exiled. meters. . I had to tear it up into small pieces to stuff up some rat holes in the walls . puddles. Jehova h's Witnesses the world over hope that honesthearted ones in the Greek government will soon move to safeguard their country's international reputation by curtailing the influence of the Greek Orthodox Church and by protecting innocent peop le from persecution.828 cases of physical abuse. . .269 people tried. the pain and the misery of men who have had the misfortune to spend some part of their life in there. the suffocating air. for "conscientious objectors. Fotis Lazaridis recounts: "I would sleep on a dirt floor covered with used paper bags .up need les and syringes. . a tiny cell measuring only 2 xl . and the coffee-vendor who slaps everyone around and outrageously charges three hundred drachmas for a plastic bottle of water. all I had to use were the corners of my cell... With the permission of the Gove rning Body.000 arrests Greece 113 for proselytism. the piles of garbage and trash." How can human beings endure such harsh treatment? Violent persecution is nothing new to true Christians. the dirty . finally." Similarly. 4 :13) It is just such an abiding faith in Jehovah God that has enabled tho usands of Jehovah's Witnesses to en dure such suffering. the journal lists nearly 20. and 4 tortured to death. the abject and miserab le-looki ng faces remind ing one of the pathetic inmates of the men tal asylum of Leros. and 252 by priests. the used. later by purchasing a small hotel some 2. the 1985 service year ended with more than 20.809 of these perpetrated by military officers. the clogged and overflowing toilets..059 by police. and lost sou ls who pitifully ask you." it lists 2. and the 'lifers' who try behind a screen to release all their sexual repression. However. the stains of blood on the floor and the cement benches.112 1994 Yearbook at any cost and a need to escape govern everything and everyone .

114

I

994 Yearbook

Arrests
(cumulative)

Publishers
25,000

25,000

IJ
20,000

V

15,000

I

10,000
5,000

o

1/
..... V
1938 1950 1960 1970 1980 1992

20,000

1/

15 ,000
10,000
5,000

o

.1/

I

1/

1
I
I

1938 1950 1960 1970 1980 1992

40 miles north of Athens, 54 acres of land was purchased
near the national highway connecting Athens and Salonika .
After waiting two and a half years to obtain the permit to
build, the brothers were able to start work on the project in
1989.
The site is in Eleona, on a hillside with a view of
mountains and well-watered valleys. The branch facility is
visible to those passing either by road or by rail. The living
quarters consist of 22 houses, each of which accommodates
eight people. All the buildings in the complex follow the
same pleasing, rustic style.
Of course , the Orthodox clergy opposed the project from
the beginning. They even organized a demonstration at the
site with some 2,500 persons. However, the authorities sent
a squad of 200 riot police to bar the hooligans from
trespassing on the property, so the protest fizzled . Priests also
led marches through the streets of Athens carrying banners
protesting the project.
The new branch was dedicated on April 13, 1991, and
the brothers were delighted to have Milton Henschel and
Albert Schroeder of the Governing Body with them for that
milestone in the history of Jehovah's people in Greece.

Greece

115

Thousands of brothers and sisters volunteered their time and
energy to help with the project. The love and care from
Jehovah God and his earthly organization was evident. Even
worldly onlookers stood by in amazement as buildings
"sprang up like mushrooms." Despite all the opposition,
Jehovah has performed a modern miracle at Eleona. Paul's
words at 2 Corinthians 13:8 come to mind: "We can do
nothing against the truth, but only for the truth."

A Tide of Truth Advances!
From small beginnings in 1905, the number of praisers
of Jehovah has now passed the 25,000 mark. The waters of
truth have advanced from a trickle to a veritable flood tide.
The activity of Jehovah's people in that land bas resulted in
a tremendous witness to the name of Jehovah our God. This
report mentions only a few names, but in reality thousands
of our brothers and sisters have contributed to it. The flame
of truth burns brightly in many Greek hearts, the hearts of
humble men and women who have fearlessly spoken the
good news throughout Greece and its islands. More than a
few have suffered grievously and even given their lives for
the sake of Jehovah's name . Their loyal integrity has made
Jehovah's heart rejoice.-Prov. 27:11.
The battle against falsehood must continue until the end
of this system of things . In this land, where Paul stood on
the Areopagus to defend the good news and where John
received the Revelation while exiled on the island of Patmos,
Jehovah's Witnesses continue to put up a hard fight for the
faith. Despite thousands of court cases and persecution
engineered by the clergy, despite even the death of some true
worshipers, the light of truth has never been extinguished.
Today it shines more brightly than ever. It will shine on! The
rising tide of waters of truth will continue to advance until
not only the land of Greece but the whole earth will be "filled
with the knowledge of Jehovah as the waters are covering the
very sea."-Isa. 11:9.

N A reef off the Caribbean isla d that
Haiti shares with the Dominican Republic, the flagship of Christopher Columbus
was lost during his 1492 voyage of exploration.
Nevertheless, that journey laid a foundation for
the colonizing of a New World for Europe. He
found peaceful Amerindians, the Arawaks. From
their language came the name Haiti, meaning
"Land of Mountains." Since 1492 this "Land of
Mountains" has undergone many changes.
Columbus claimed the land in the name of
Isabella, queen of Spain, and named it Espanola
(Spanish Island), Spanish conquistadores subjected the Arawaks to harsh slave labor. Soon there
were few Arawaks. Then Africans were brought
in to replace them.
In course of time, French adventurers settled
on the western part of the island, which France
claimed as Saint-Domingue in 1697. The land was

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1994

Yearbook

fertile, large plantations developed with the help of slave
labor, and Saint-Domingue became a prosperous territory.
Some 100 years later, Toussaint Louverture, a man of
royal African descent but born a slave, won military and
diplomatic victories to free the slaves. He became ru ler of
Saint-Domingue in 1801. Jean-Jacques Dessalines, also born
a slave, later drove out the French and changed the name
of the territory back to what the Arawaks had called it. Thus
the first independent black nation of the Americas came
into existence in 1804: the then wealthy country of Haiti.
After the death of Dessalines in 1806, Henry Christophe
took control of the northern part of the country. Some of
his accomplishments helped to make the nation one that,
for a time, ranked among the strongest in the New World.
He built the imposing Sans-Souci palace and the fabulous
Citadelle Laferriere-s-a fortress on a mountain peak. In
time, however, leadership struggles, revolutions, and misuse
of public funds impoverished the country.
Nevertheless, Haiti still has a unique character in language, culture, and people. Many speak French, but the
language of the people in general is Creole-an expressive
patois that combines French words with the grammar of
West African languages . The population blends African
and European traits in a colorful, beautiful people. Picturesque mountains continue to dominate the land. But most
have become stark-stripped of trees-and once-fertile
plains have grown dry.
This is a land that glories in its past, bemoans the
present, and hopes for a better future-a new world.
Fittingly, good news of a truly new world under God's
Kingdom is reaching these people, even in remote villages
behind the mountains.

Haiti

119

Good News Comes to Aquin
Recollections as to how the good news of God's Kingdom
first reached Haiti are hazy. As early as February 1887, Zion's
Watch Tower lists Hayti (or, Haiti) among the places from
which letters written by interested persons had come. However, it was not until decades later, during the winter of
1929/30, that a Witness, a pioneer, who devoted her full time
to witnessing to others about God's purpose, spent several
months here. Then, in 1938, a lawyer named Dernosthene
Lherisson somehow obtained in Port-au-Prince the books
Creation and Prophecy and the booklet Cause of Death. He took
these home to Aquin, on the south coast. What was the
result? From what he read, he became convi n'ced that these
publications pointed the way to true Christianity. He rejected
the Catholic Church and began sharing Bible truth with
others, including his nephew.
After the lawyer died, this nephew invited friend s to
study the books with him, and they did so regularly . One of
them said : "We realized we were living in the last days of this
world, that the Kingdom of Jehovah was established in the
heavens since 1914, and that the religions would be destroyed
because of being part of this world." They were beginning to
put their hop e in a new world .
About 1943, in Cayes, a large town to the west of Aquin,
a traveler who had returned from Cuba had several Watch
Tower publications in his possession . That literature got into
the hands of Solomon Severe, who lived in Vieux-bourg,
about six miles from Aquin .
In time the interested ones in Aquin and those in
Vieux-bourg got together. But some of them adhered to the
teachings of a minority religion known as Christianism, or
Solomonites, and certain ones of its practices, such as
plurality of wives, definitely were not Christian. Those

became th e first branch overseer th ere sincerely seeking the truth came to rea lize that they needed to break th eir ties with Christend om and to quit sharing in its practices.500 hours devoted to that activity during the year. H. 164. and the tot al number of hours th ey devoted to publicl y preaching the Kingdom message soared to 6. Franz . arrived in Portau-Prince in Au gust 1945. members of the Vieu x-bourg group often talk ed to a man na med Cassindo. at seven o'cl ock the next evening. they spent the entire first day . By 1944. Eleven atte nded a meeting held in the missionary hom e tha t even ing for just the W itn esses. five more joined in th e field mini stry. respectively president and vice president of the Watch Tower Society at th at tim e. they now had to learn Creole. arri vin g on March 19. Excitement ran high among the Vieux-bourg gro up. When visitin g Port-au-Prince in 194 8. but as they soon discovered. he listened to one of the mission aries giving a talk at Place jerernie and afterward told th e mission ary th at peopl e wh o spoke like him were at Vieux-bourg. also came to Port-au-Prince. They con tac ted th e mission aries. W. a group of 74 assembled in the m ission ary hom e to hear Brother Knorr speak on the subject "Be Glad . preaching with the aid of testim on y cards and pho nog raphs. Roland Fredette and Harold Wright . Cassind o returned hom e with the news. They had studied French at the Watchtower Bible Sch ool of Gilead . on the no rth coast. "Genyen moun kom sa yo nan Port-au-Prin ce" (There are people like the se in Portau-Prince) . What joy th is br ou ght to the group in Vieuxbourg! They were so happy. Keen on seeing th e preaching of the good news becom e well organized in Haiti . who then went down to visit th em. He announced th e establishment of th e Haiti br anch of the Watch Tower Society. Five new mission aries arrived. who arrived in Haiti as a mis sionary in 1945. 1946. They became a Haiti 121 famil iar sight as th ey moved aro und . and th ey reported a total of 1. with Brother Fredette as branch overseer.120 1994 Yearbook Roland Fredette. two well-trained mission aries became part of this gro up. seven individu als in Haiti were having a part in preaching the good news to others. from North Am erica. The First Watch Tower Missionaries Two young Watch Tower missionaries. and the preaching of th e good news spread out to towns near Port -au-Prince and as far north as Cap-Hartien . The followin g year." The br an ch office was opened on April 1. Knorr and F. Brother Knorr spoke about organ izing the preaching work in Haiti . Soon after. Vieux-bourg Meets the Missionaries During t his tim e. government recogn ition was given the Watch Tower Society . After a talk by Brother Franz. Ye Nat ion s. 1946. N. Then. Near the end of the service year.

Severe rebelled and influenced some to follow him in withdrawing from the congregation. I ignored this because I saw that they contained the truth. Maurice Sanon. with a population of about 400.-Acts 20:29. (Matt. a native of Dominica. and the group was organized into a congregation. a few of Christendom's clergy unwit tingly helped to bring the truth to their own church mem- Haiti 123 bers. All of them were Canadians. Quoting Gamaliel. When I started to study them. one of the first in Haiti. Vieux-bourg. and soon became a baptized publisher. At that. they did much to intensify the preaching of the good news in Port -au-Prince. the senior pastor declared that he would not allow Jehovah's Witnesses to take root in Haiti. A final break came after we had a debate on the doctrine of immortality of the soul." Defeated. the chief pastor of the church brought several Watch Tower publications from the United States for his own use. 30. a slim man with a calm perso iality. Diego. tell us what happened in his own case: "While I was pastor in a Pentecostal church. (Acts 5:39) He started studying with the Witnesses. By 1949. A Pastor Learns About the New World During this time. Every afternoon this former schoolmaster sat studying the Bible with the help of his father-in-law's book. no one cou ld stop them . Others Learn and Quickly Begin to Share Four more Gilead graduates came to Haiti in 1948 . reported 21 publishers -more than there were in Port-au-Prince . Let Diego Scotland. That evening a Bible talk was given in the public square under the light of an oil lamp. On a follow-up trip. But much happened before Sunday came. So a brother who showed more humility was appointed to be congregation overseer. Fred Lukuc was 23 years old that year and had been a pioneer since 1943. This man's son-in-law. tension grew between us.122 I 994 Yearbook I Congregation at Vieux-bourg-d'Aquin. 23: 10) This brought rich blessings. he warned me against losing my sanity. he began pointing out to his friends the . After arriving in Haiti. Solomon Severe tended to lord it over the others. he placed the book "The Truth Shall Make You Free" with the owner of a shop that made leather products. saw the book and started to read it. Working from their missionary home at 32 Rue Capois. But there were problems. replied that if Jehovah 's Witnesses had the true religion. in mid-1950's with their visitors in the field service. progressed quickly. and he promised to return that Sunday. those who qualified were baptized. The 12 who remained recognized Jesus Christ as their Leader and loyally continued in Jehovah's service. Within a few days. But when I began refusing to conduct church services.Alexander Brodie and Harvey Drinkle in April and Fred and Peter Lukuc in the summer.

only 86 publi shers were reporting. and corr ecting th ose who were attending meetings but who had wron g motives. (2) Alex and Marigo Brodie. became dedicat ed Witnesses." In tim e.' I replied. as I had com e a lon g way by bicycle. (5) Fred Lukuc false doctrines th at the Cath olic Church had been teaching them.124 1994 Yearbook Haiti 125 more of th e Bible th an th e people out there. and some made fu n of them. Broth er Knorr gave instru ctions on improving congregation organization. and this whole family. near Port-au-Prince. But when I invited him to go with me in the service. He progressed rapidly. He was impatient to meet Fred Lukuc. This man too was thirsting for the truth. (3) V ictor and Sandra Winterburn. "Dumoine Vallon asked many doctrinal qu estions." Brother Lukuc stated some years later. He has rem ain ed a loyal minister of the good news. I will do th e talking. People had to learn th at Jeh ovah's Witnesses are not like the Prot estant s. as agreed . "and we started a Bible study. training publishers. thi s energetic man did most of the talking. I was disappointed ." With the help of a home Bible study. who were gaining converts from the Catholic Church by offering material advantages.' He agreed. 'You know Our First District Convention Our first district convention was held in 1950. with some neph ews and nieces. Brother Knorr advised that the . his wife and four childre n joined the study.' he said . (4) Peter Lukuc. Some of the early missionaries in Haiti: (1) David and Celia Homer . sharing th e newfound truth with relatives and others. he made rapid progress and got baptized in June 1950. But from the first call. Brother Knorr att end ed and shared with the publishers in wearing "sandwich signs" to advert ise the public talk. Noting that after five years of missionary activity. " Fred related. "Maurice asked many questions. he objected : 'I don't know enough." What had happened? Fred says: "He soon came in and explained that he had been out preaching to people in the vicinity . "I returned the next week. But how happ y th ey were when 474 atten ded the talk in an outdoo r theater beside the harbor! Earlier that day 13 had been baptized at the C lub Thorl and beach . 1949. The following year. 'They krlow nothing about God. A nyway. but he was not at home. At thi s unu sual spectacle. Fred met a sincere 40-year-old Prote stant at Carrefour . people gathered aro und them along th e roads.

More Fruitage in the South The Vieux-bourg Congregation had been reaching southward to Saint -Louis du Sud. However. He met 32-year-old Rodrigue Meder and placed with him the book "Let God Be True. good results came quickly . a well-known businessman who had been studying with the Witnesses since 1946. (5) Diego Scotland ministry could possibly be more productive if Creole instead of French was used for meetings and field service. even having a priest say prayers for nine days to make me stop. Rodrigue himself admits: "I took the book to get rid of him. (3) Dumoine Vallon. My wife opposed this. So we studied elsewhere. He was also preaching. but Alex rarely found him on subsequent visits. Benoit was baptized the following March. This system made The Truth Won Out Alex Brodie was witnessing in a b usiness district on Rue des Miracles in the capital one day in 1951 when he stopped at a shop called The Elegant Tailor.126 1994 Yearbook Haiti 127 Creole easy for English -speaking people to pronounce." This well-groomed master tailor agreed to a Bible study. Benoit was one of those sworn in by a judge in Port-au-Prince. In 1950. Brother Knorr also announced that the booklet Can You Live Forever in Happiness on Earth? would be translated into Creole. the group of seven publishers there in Saint-Louis du Sud became the second congregation in the south. (2) Albert Jerome. He recalls: "I tried to defeat him with a question about the Virgin. When the change was made. home of Benoit Sterlin. When Alex offered a study. When Haitian brothers also began to be appointed as marriage officers. the truth won out. I Up to then. so the booklet's circulation was limited. and he and his wife became very active publishers. the translator used a phonetic system prepared by a German named Laubach. but it was not what the Catholic population had been accustomed to." . and then I started to study seriously. A few who were already zealous Witnesses in Haiti by the early 1950's: (l) Rodrigue Midor . But then. only a few missionaries were licensed to perform marriages . My wife and I were ardent Catholics. (4) Benoit Sterlin. I dodged each time." However. but he answered it satisfactorily. I told him he could come.

and she was baptized three years later. But event ually his changed focus of interest impressed her. They traveled by horse. At first thi s man tended to belittle the truth ." At public talks in Cre ole given in a park on th e edge of Port-au-Prince. For mon th s they had been dr awing the government's attention to th e issue of flag salute. The letter accused the Witnesses of being "anti national" and of using Awake! to propaga te communist ideas. or mule and slept right under the stars if night overtook them on the road. Why th e change] T he clergy were behind it. using material in the books "Equipped for Every Good Work" and Qualified to Be Ministers. the Ministry of Religious Affairs informed the branch office that all activity of Jehovah's Witnesses in Haiti must cease. It took over three months and many letters to convince the authorities that they had been fed false information and that Jehovah's Witnesses had no politica l connection s. When the brothers in a town in the south went to the police station to reque st the return of Kingdom Hall equipment th at had been seized. and he progressed rapidly. giving public talks as they went. A Bible study was finally started with Albe rt. After he was baptized. serious problems arose in Haiti. This contributed to Albert's becoming a valuable minister in the con gregation . Also. five more Gilead graduates had arrived. He was baptized in Februar y 1952. Much interest was being found in th e Carrefour area. where Dum oine Vallon lived. was calling on Albert Jerom e in his little grocery shop. And what was taking place in Vieux-bourg? The publish ers were zealously preaching in the surrounding countryside. while th e ban was on. The mission aries brought their portable sound system by bicycle and mounted th e loud speakers in palm trees. donkey . For example. and sometimes by th e seasho re. his wife also sta rted to study. 1951. work for Jehovah until the end!" . "Down with the communists!" was what they often shouted against th e Wi tne sses. So a Co ngregation Book Stud y Haiti 129 was estab lished in his home. he took decisive action. A Sudden Ban! In a letter dated April 19.128 I 994 Yearbook After Rodri gue learned what the Bible said about use of images. Then. "but the desire to learn shown by the student made up for thi s inconvenience. the capt ain handed it over and said: "Go . Finally the ban was lifted in August. How had all of th is affected the work? The police had closed the Kingdom Halls. att endance was always good. Then." Alex Brodie recalls. but explanation s had to be in C reole for most people. the ten publ ishers at Carrefour had been form ed into a congregation. abruptly. David Homer. Catholics were den ouncing the brothers as communists. During July. But feeling there was "something genuine" in th e man. In some areas th e only light available in the evening was from a small oil lamp made from a Carna tion milk can. Observing th is. after the ban was lifted . An other missionary. "T he light was dim . People brought th eir own chairs or sat on the grass. removing the image of th e Virgin from th e sitti ng room and smashing it. His wife was furious. with Peter Lukuc as overseer. But meetings had contin ued in homes where Con gregation Book Study groups met. David continued calling. they quickly received residence permits . they con tinued to st udy together. T he books were in French. Spreading the Good N ews in Creole Conducting Bible studies presented unu sual challenges to th e missionaries. Rodri gue was spend ing nights reading Bible literature instead of going out with his friends.

So th e humble old man arra nged for me to go by truck to Port -au-Prince.p pieces of literatu re. T hat night I lodged with an elde rly interested man . Victor Winterburn and his companion bicycled 320 miles. Fred Lukuc left Hait i in 1952. The next day's ride. He greatly appreciated the assistan ce the brothers gave and the warm . His hands were tied to a post behind him . we found Frank semiconscious on a cot in a voodoo temple. A nd we could not remove him. doin g tailoring at home. and three years later he returned to continue the fine work he had been doing. so he was hospitalized . and eventually remarried. he regained his health. "We visited his parent s and pieced th e story together. Let them relate what happened: "In 1952. . but she ignored us. my condition became critica l. We tried to talk to the mambo (pri estess). for this ride of 108 miles. his parent s called one of the broth ers. On one such trip in November 1951. followin g up on reports from brothers. reaching Les An glais in th e sout h. I passed th e first night at Vieux-bourg-d'Aquin and took th e last of my medicine. Frank Paul. His feet were also tied. Even the police said th at they could not touch him. Victor Winterburn and Alex Brodie went to Frank's aid. They averaged nearly ten hours a day in th e service on that journey and placed over 50. who tried to return him to th e hospital. Th e congregation provid ed his meals-a service normally rendered by the patient 's family. We Haiti 131 wondered if he would recover. When Fred Luku c was visiting these con gregations in th e spring of 1952. he had to cut shor t his visit because he came down with malaria. his parent s tra nsferred him to the temple. was endangered by vood oo superstitions. A gag prevent ed his mouth from closing. We could not communicate with Frank. as I pedaled throu gh the hills to G rand Goave. He was admitted onl y after a sister with nursing experience offered to buy the requir ed drugs and take care of him. " Eventful Circuit Trips The br an ch overseer. and had been pioneering since 1946 . used to visit th e congregation s as circuit overseer.130 I 994 Yearbook An Encounter W ith Voodoo Victor Wi nterb urn was one of the newly arr ived missionaries. Yet. my bicycle loaded with personal effects and literature. Peter Luku c too eventually had to return to Can ada to be tr eated for severe amebiasis. But he had an indomitable mission ary spirit. and my doctor recommended that I ret urn to Can ada to recuperate. T he fever and perspiring left me weak. Soon after Victor became branch overseer in September 1951. But with the same ten acious spirit. he was 23. supportive spirit of his con gregation. He later wrote: "I started hom eward from Cavaillon. the hospital did not want him. was exhausting. Believing he was possessed by a bad spirit. A Canad ian. he also came back to continue serving in Haiti. We were later told that the sick are beaten and hot pepper is put in their eyes to dr ive out the evil spirits. and he was raising his child by himself. resumed his ministry. "The doctors said he had typh oid and malaria. the life of one of th e Wit nesses. He fell ill and became deliriou s." Because of thi s. But knowin g where he had been . since he had been taken th ere by his parents. His lips were cracked . I slept little. preaching all along the route. His wife had left him . usually accompan ied by another mission ary. His emaciated face was covered with blisters. "Growin g afraid because his con dition worsened. Back in Bethel. was baptized in 1940 at the age of 12.

he managed to turn his truck around. with Frances wrapped in a blanket on a camp cot. Naomi had a first-aid kit and was able to dress the wourt'd. we heard a vehicle approaching and knew it could not pass. Alex Brodie and Harvey Drinkle were making trips northward through the swamps and rice fields of the Artibonite plains to Saint-Marc and on to Gonarves in cactus-filled country. People rise early in rural Haiti. and Frances was injured. These missionaries would make their first call by six o'clock in the morning and continue preaching until after dark. and Frances Bailey: "In January 1952 we took passage on the Clarion-a sailboat with an auxiliary motor. recalls that her first contact tized in 1990 at with the truth was through one of them over 30 years ago. The road was narrow. and we became thoroughly seasick." Many people still remember and talk about those courageous missionary sisters. "We went by cam ion (a truck used as a bus) as far as Anse-d'Hainault. and Frances Bailey made valuable contributions to the preaching activity in Haiti Reaching Into New Territories There were now congregations in Port-au-Prince and along the southern route to Cayes. "A boy had heard the crash from the valley below and came up with an iron kettle. who was bapyears of age. 133 Haiti Marigo Lolos. To our astonishment. At 10:00 p. Helen D'Amico. Warmly. some cassava. We returned to Port-auPrince the next day. tells of her trip to [erernie with three other single missionary sisters-Naomi Adams. during which his right eye was removed because of cancer. Efforts were also being made to develop groups in other regions. He and Alex traveled unpaved roads on bicycles loaded with literature while they visited the homes and villages along the way.m. but we were stranded in the mountains. In Saint-Marc and Gonaives there were hotels in which they could stay. So Naomi went toward it with a flashlight and signaled the driver to stop. Virnette Curry. He built a fire and cooked us a meal-an act of kindness that touched our hearts . the boat rocked and rolled. Praying in our hearts." Other missionaries were pushing far into the southwest. visiting these vivacious people. with a sheer drop on one side.132 1994 Yearbook Gloria Hill. Then they would stay the night in the small thatched houses of the hospitable rural folk. he took us to [erernie. One Haitian sister. and plantains. we had a collision with another truck. The sea was rough. Much later he underwent surgery in Canada. But he returned to Haiti to continue in his assignment. but we reached [eremie. Naomi Adams. "Night fell. where we enjoyed preaching and placed much literature. Harvey was a quietly courageous person. Men passengers stayed atop the load of produce on the truck. On the way back. who later became Alex's wife. cold and dark. Alex later said: "This was an enjoyable time. She says: "I wish now that I had studied with her and become n . we settled down by the roadside. and to our relief. happy to have shared in spreading the good news in that outlying territory.

" one manager revised his broadcasting schedule to make time for it. After seeing the script for the Watch Tower's public service program "Things People Are Thinking About. This film was shown to large audiences all over the country. was now expiring. it is it that will die). Brother Henschel recommended that local brothers be given greater responsibility. Then I would not have lost all thos e years th at I could have been serving Jehovah . confid ent in God's Word. This member and others started to study with us. our brothers were bold. the n his descendants would have been born perfect. no t un der condemnation of sin . Milton Henschel's visit to serve a convention coincided with the Memorial on Ap ril 17. To stimulate the brothers to action." Jehovah's Witnesses in the News Up to the early 1950's. Haitian Brothers Take On Greater Responsibility Two directors of the Watch Tower Society visited Haiti in 1954. at 39 Rue Lafleur Duchene. W hen shown in his own Bible th at Ezekiel 18:4 says: "L'ame qui peche est celle qui mourra" (The soul that sins. Another station asked that the program be increased to 30 minutes. The topic was imm ort ality of the soul. He could not explain how a soul that does not die could be resurrected. Brother Henschel also left a set of reels of the film The New World Society in Action. the congregation overseer. But things changed at the time of the New World Society Haiti 135 Assembly at Yankee Stadium. and th at if God had pardoned him . I showed him that Adam had sinned willfully. and Congregation Service Committees were soon composed entirely of Haitians . translated by L. he recommended locating the branch office and Kingdom Halls in better areas of town . there had hardly ever been anything in the local papers about Jehovah's Witnesses. He said th at God pard oned Adam's sin when he covered him with animal skins. Segond) The brother narrates some of th e further developments: "I asked him: 'W hat is the destiny of the wicked and of the righteous?' He replied that the wicked suffer etern al fire. The lease on the building that housed the branch office and the missionary home." A Pa stor Makes a Poor Showing When witnessing to the clergy. So adjustments were made. the pastor bluntly said he could not believe it. This left the missionaries freer to carryon the field ministry. knowing what he was doing . By reasoning on several Scripture texts. In August. and before long . when Fred Franz visited Haiti. In 1954 a publisher had such a discussion with a Protestant pastor and three of his church members. During his visit. Six papers gave free coverage to news about the Haitian delegates . and the brothers enjoyed having him give the discourse. we will be holding meetings under the stars. (La Sainte Bible. did provide a temporary hall "under the stars" in . as well as a Kingdom Hall. in July 1953. Radio stations in two cities also gave us free broadcasting time ." The new location for the branch office. are resurr ected to rejoice with God in his Kingdom. one of them started in the preaching work . repeatedly told them: "If we do not find our own hall . while the souls of the just. New York. "Some days later one of the churc h memb ers told me that his pastor wanted to know where Jehovah's Witnesses learned the Bible so well. includi ng Adam .134 1994 Yearbook a Witness at that time. Maurice Sanon. Le National pub lished a picture of the first day at the stadium and later reported about plan s to have a convention with a similar program in Haiti.

last price. The end less displays of wares." The markets are partially under enormous sheds." A Man Can Do It! The ranks of the Gilead graduates in Haiti were again reinforced in 1956. unexpectedly met Roland Fredette. But they also spill into the open air. Let us visit one of these markets. we headed for the public fountain. and carried it for us. He says: "We got to Bethel from the airport and had lunch. What should he do? "In September 1955. gather up the limes. who had been a missionary in Quebec and so already spoke French." Fred later wrote. George was plunged right into the field ministry. I prayed. 70 cents. grabbed the pail. What a privilege! But could I do it? I did not feel strong enough. These included Max Danyleyko. Texas. He arrived in February and was assigned to work with Grady Haiti 137 Rains. We squeeze through the crowds. who urged him: "Fred. 'Sixty cents. Meetings were held there for some months into 1955.' and we walk away. Fred Lukuc. who had been in Haiti since 1952. My first day in Haiti! And a strange language! But Haitians are considerate. Missionaries for Saint-Marc When missionaries George and Thelma Corwin arrived in Haiti in April 1956. the Society invited me to do circuit work in northern Haiti. We pay 60 cents. You will do better there. the Brodies returned to Canada just before the move to the house on Lafleur Duchene. They now live in Toronto. Fred Lukuc Returns During the 1955 district convention in Dallas. I returned to Cap-Hattien with Roland Fredette. Then I wrote to the Society: 'I will try it. During the next six years." Fred was then serving at the Watchtower Farm at Norval. where Alex serves as an elder. Spotting some nice limes. So.136 1994 Yearbook its large paved yard. and this exchange follows: 'How much for four piles?' 'Eighty cents. then he asked me to go to one while he did another. they removed the interior walls of the house to create an area more than double the size of the area that had been used as a Kingdom Hall in the house on Rue Capois. with the owner's permission. come back to Haiti. we approach the woman squatting near them. Then she makes a hissing sound to call us back. Realizing they would soon be parents. Later we began seeing other men following our example. stepping gingerly around the traders or over their goods. A few months later. if not arranged on long tables under the roots." . "The Society and all the brothers were very kind. They said: 'Yon nonm pa kapab Ie sa!' (A man cannot do thatl) That was the woman's job. Canada. and ask: 'Wa ban m' degi? ' (How about a gift?) She smiles and hands us a free lime. I actually gained 40 pounds and recovered my health completely.' We say. weighing only 119 pounds.' So I resumed circuit work in June 1956. Brother Danyleyko says: "The home we rented in Petit-Goave had no running water. Everybody is happy . The same thing happened at the market. and he had relapses from time to time. Then. but women came running. We visited a few homes together. pail in hand. who was trying to regain his health. until the brothers leased a bungalow on Grande Rue. are right out on the paved road outside. I was richly blessed by Jehovah. But his health was poor. then Peter Lukuc invited me into the service.' 'No. and I was able to cope.' 'I will give you 50 cents. It was some time before we made them understand that a man can do it. With reference to his early experiences.

listened and learned. using their generator. he was showing the film The New World Society in Action in the towns he visited. and songbook. Then he rewound the reel. they were given some subscriptionexpiration slips. In the inland town of Hinche. Brother Fabien." What a pleasant reunion that was after some 30 years! It was also in Mirebalais that a 20-year-old youth became a courageous example for the brothers. the presiding overseer. Among those with whom the Corwins studied was Marc-Aurel Jean. While looking for a woman named on one of the slips. then with Bible. Haili 139 Like some other early missionaries here. George and Thelma Corwin covered their territory on a motorcycle Electricity was not available at Mirebalais. Emmanuel. but he did permi t the few brothers to attend. a retired schoolteacher named Adele Cane!. The sergeant arranged for it to be shown in the military barracks. he chose a location in a park facing the Catholic Church. Now I am your brother. booklet. Florida. south of Hinche. introduced himself and said : "You called on me in 1957 when I was sergeant in Mirebalais. His father. theirs in English. Soon both were attending meetings and sharing in preaching-the older man reciting his sermon by heart. My daughter is a regular pioneer. he started a Bible study with a fisherman. The audience of 75 also included the soldiers' wives and friends . As the church services ended. I left the army in 1971. Soon this couple screened off part of their room for their quarters and set aside the larger part for the meetings. From 1956 on.138 I 994 Yearbook The Corwins were sent to Saint-Marc along with Peter Lukuc. Though there were only two special pioneers and two other publishers in Hinche at that time. after Fred Lukuc gave a talk in the French congregation in Delray Beach. On the Circuit With the Society's Film As circuit overseer. As a start. Both his legs were . and so the Saint-Marc Congregation got its start in 1956. Both became Witnesses. Fred Lukuc visited many parts of the country. Her husband eventually joined in. the Corwins met her sister. Many years later. he showed a few of the opening scenes of the first reel to attract the attention of people leaving the church. the audience numbered about a thousand. So how could the film be shown there? Fred witnessed to an army sergeant and mentioned this problem. In time. gave his introduction. he would be off to conduct the study. opening and closing with song and prayer -just as at the meetings. Together they studied "Let God Be True"-her book in French. even though he could not read. in 1988. in his tailor shop. and ran the entire film. The townspeople could not be invited. He would first go over a few paragraphs with his son and absorb the information.

21:4. they managed to reach the already flooded town safely. a former Church of God pastor. Thinking this to be the first time the town would receive a witness. the river had receded to just below shoulder level. driving rain soaked the passengers. 5) Immediately he returned to his village in the mountains. He had to be carried piggyback into and out of the Kingdom Hall for the meetings. was the fact that the brothers were finding truth seekers. About 800 came to the showing of the Society's film in a park. six for the first time . then walked the 12 miles home by moonlight. Fred also clearly remembered some of the publishers in the Ouanaminthe Congregation on the Dominican Republic border. . But a publisher whom he had met in Miragoane was already there . From two miles away he could hear it roaring down from the mountains. and showed them what the Bible says about earth's real future . However. Mounted on his donkey. At Petite-Riviere-de-l'Artibonite. Even more beautiful. assembled the members of the church. The next day they sent a delegation to Miragoane to ask the Witnesses to come and teach them the Bible. he saw ominous clouds gathering. also his sister and her husband. Brothers were also witnessing in Miragoane. they had been joined in the field service by several Bible students. death. so Peter waded across.140 r 994 Yearbook paralyzed. These included Gaston Antoine (a pharmacist) and his wife. Meanwhile. Eleven shared in the field service that week. including the preacher. he also engaged in field service in his village. Peter waded barefoot through the mud to witness and place magazines at a few homes. and badness. as the boat headed back toward Anse-a -Veau. People on both sides waited all day and all night. 11 miles from town. there was another storm. And many. and sheeplike people were responding. Peter still had GrandeRiviere (Great River) to cross. attended the meetings in the evening. but a fur ious storm broke out while he was Haiti 141 on the boat. Through Storm and Flood Peter Lukuc made a circuit trip in the south in 1957. By the next morning. a town subject to flooding . He saw the reasonable conclusion that not all good people would go to heaven. So the boat pulled in to Petit-Trou de Nippe s. however. he went out preaching in the rain that afternoon. (2 Pet. He went by motorboat from Anse-a-Veau to Baraderes. many more were showing interest. En route from there by land. He recalled that three of these faithfu l Witnesses who lived 12 miles from the Kingdom Hall came on foot for Sunday-morning field service. He was impressed by proof from the Bible that the earth will be a paradise free from suffering. This brother was thrilled to see Peter again. He was among the 54 who were baptized during the district convention in Port-au-Prince in 1957. but he came to town on his donkey for Fred's circuit visit. 3:13. and some 30 became Witnesses. The weather did not stop Peter. What results were they having? After just 14 months there. he saw some picturesque landscapes. It J as impassable. Most of that church group. Over 30 years later. Next morning. One day the son of a Baptist preacher sat in on a Bible study in which the future new world was being discussed. began to study. along with his father. Rev. and the other meetings were also well attended. Productive Pioneers As Fred traveled. a quaint seaport northeast of Vieux-bourg. After he gave a public talk to an audience of 30. 7:9. He left by boat the next morning. Fred visited two special pioneers. They spent all day in the service.

people who were deeply involved in church activities were gratefully embracing Bible truth. he took a copy of each publi cation they had. A new congregation that coul d meet in th is home and hold meetings in French was formed. Impressed by their explanations. . Don Adams of the Brooklyn headquarters was present as zone overseer. ' She asked. with six changes of government in ten months.' she replied. during political unrest in 1957. Francois Doccy and Jean Senat rejoiced to have found a number of people who were eager to serveJehovah. A conversation between Fred Lukuc and a Catholic girl reveals who some of these were. on the north coast. "The false prophets have arrived!" they said. Here is how he recalls it: "She asked: 'Did you go out alone today?' I replied : 'No. the clergy reacted with warnings. For example. The work was continuing to expand in Port -au-Prince too. and many accepted literature. 'His wife is also a Witness. continued into 1958. . stunned. T he political unrest. the Bethe l Home and office were moved to 3 PontPradel in Bois-Vern a.' 'I will. his wife. A prominent man in the town.' I said. after seven months in Port-de-Paix. 'Yes. Fred Lukuc. and Lucianne Lublin in front The brothers tact fully refuted the accusations. a missionary from the fourth class of G ilead. O ther people began listening. "American spies are in the village. began visiting the people in Mont Organise. nine persons shared in field service.-Gerard?' she asked. engaged in a three-hour discussion with the brothers. 22 miles south of Ouanaminthe.' I said. But the brothers kept preaching Go d's Kingdom as the real answer to probl ems of . So when the lease on that house expired .142 1994 Yearbook They Were Pillars of the Church In the north too.-Gerard. and this contributed to the need for a larger branch office. the vicinity of the branch building at Lafleur Duchene became a hotbed of violence." Those mentioned above and others got baptized at the district convention in December that year-1957. Rock St. 'he was president of the association of Legionnaires! A pillar of the Catholic Church!' Then I added. in 1957. Rock Sr-Gerard was with me. When Roland Fredette. During the visit of the circuit overseer. She attends our meetings and goes out preaching with us. instead of arguing. Francois Codi o. Progress Despite Opposition The penetration of the good news into new areas brought false accusations from church leaders. 'you should study too. 'But. 'He is one of Jehovah's Witnesses now.' She interrupted me: 'That makes four pillars of the church!' 'Well.' 'Rock St.' She said: 'My! My! She was president of the Croisee organization!' I said: 'Then there is Lucianne Lublin . a better section of town . Furthermore." "Beware of the commu nists!" Haiti 143 Some early Kingdom proclaimers in Port-de-Paix: Special pioneers Francois Doeey and Jean Senat in the rear. 'Is it true that Irlande Sarette is studying with you Witnesses?' I said.' she exclaimed. and Hiram Rupp .

I heard you got baptized. Fruits of Good Work By 1958 the small group of publishers in Saint-Marc had been molded into a mature congregation. a Haitian pioneer.I later. and two new ones started preaching.' Thinking she meant. she was the same person I had helped into the truth 27 years earlier. and they quickly found that learning French was not enough. In August. with the onset of family responsibilities. as Seneque was leaving for Ouanaminthe to see his parents and be baptized by the Baptists. and Maceo Davis-arrived in 1958. who said: 'I believe God is with you people. Stanley Boggus added this footnote to his experience: "In 1987 I was asked to help teach the Pioneer Service School for the French circuit in New York City . was talking to a woman who kept saying." Not to Be Outside With False Religions Shortly after arriving in Mont-Organise in May 1960 to work as health inspector. a fine example of spiritual stability and zeal for the service! George Corwin and his wife were happy to have had a share in building this congregation. Indeed. So Francois lent him the book "Let God Be True. Two months later they met Edele Antoine. As I reviewed the enrollment list. Later on. they left Saint-Marc in May 1960 and returned to Canada. in October 1960. 'M'pa sou sa. But then. 'I am not interested in that. One day Stanley. became a Witness. 'I did not know that.' Stanley told her he was there to tell her about it. This was seen in August when they were left on their own while the missionaries attended the international convention in New York. they found Peter Lukuc waiting for them in the room where they would be taught French. It was encouraging to see her there among the pioneers. her husband kissed her and the three children and said: 'Welcome home. Max told him that she was saying. The field service of the local publishers was better than in any previous month. When Daniel Eyssallenne brought them home from the airport. Will you teach me how to worship him?' She made fine progress in spite of violent opposition from her husband and neighbors. Stanley Boggus says: "We were amazed that people did all they could to help us express ourselves. he expressed a desire to know more about the Bible. and they remained in Cayes as special pioneers. Steve Simmons. and remained faithful until his death many years . I came across the name Edele Antoine. Francois encouraged him to visit the Kingdom Hall there and contact a pioneer named Mercius Vincent. accompanied by Max Danyleyko as circuit overseer. Mercius questioned Seneque about his beliefs and saw that he understood that church doctrines are quite different ."and Seneque studied it from cover to cover. More Missionaries to Help Four more missionaries-Roland Sicard.144 I 994 Yearbook government. to her great surprise." Three months later Stanley and Steve were assigned to Cayes. When she returned from the assembly. and she got baptized at the next circuit assembly.' So Stanley settled down to learn Creole. as they had always done . Stanley Boggus. A month later they began trying out their new language on people near the missionary home. Yes. while remaining neutral. Haiti 145 A Husband's Change of Heart Stanley Boggus married Bertha Jean. Seneque Raphael accepted Francois Codio's invitation to meetings he held in his home . An eager young man of 24. Some 25 years after he left Haiti.' He started attending meetings.

makes this comment: "I was serving in Artibonite as a regular pioneer with Emile Cineus and was eager to be a special pioneer. dark-skinned young man. barber's shears. looking closely at this stocky. Seneque read it. the branch overseer encouraged qualified brothers who were free of family responsibilities to enroll as special pioneers. Dumoine Vallon served as presiding overseer here for a number of years. Max Danyleyko was now called to Bethel as branch overseer. When they poured the concrete roof. although his wife did. Seneque Raphael. So I left my employment with the Health Department. at 84 years of age. and they began to build a hall that would be large enough. and about a year later. 67 volunteers worked hard all day on the construction. 1960. After his first study. the Bible says here in Revelation 22: 15 that anyone who loves and practices a lie is outside. Seneque asked.146 I 994 Yearbook Haiti 147 from what the Bible teaches. never did become a Witness. Fred Lukuc gave the dedication talk in this new hall to a large. who submitted an application. there were over 800 publishers in 23 congregations in Haiti. he was still serving as such in the Thorland-Carrefour Congregation." After a pause. That includes those who teach falsehoods. He became a special pioneer in 1978 and in 1993. In 1961. Speaking on pioneering. Fred Lukuc was called to work part-time in the branch office and to serve as instructor for the Kingdom Ministry School from May through August. he said: "Now. and a pair of scissors with which I hoped to . The training of 40 overseers and special pioneers in this two-week course was very timely. appreciative audience. he returned to Canada with his wife to care for oncoming family responsibilities. By mid-1960. who had introduced him to the truth. But Francois Codio. he attended the meeting that evening and then joined in the field service the next morning. while the sisters prepared meals for them. The district convention in January 1962 also prep ared the local brothers to carryon an expanded field min istry. I had $40. So. learning much of it by heart. On December 17. He got baptized in January 1961. Victor Winterburn was planning to get married. "What shall I do?" Mercius gave him the booklet "This Good News of the Kingdom" and promised to study it with him the next morning. compared with 99 publishers in 1950. officer. Preparing for More Growth The Carrefour Congregation had increased to 54 publishers. as it helped to equip and fortify them for tests that the brothers were soon to face. So you will be 'outside' with them if you belong to that religion.

Andrew. Donald. they were kept under guard. and they were released . She says: "I stood behind the locked door and prayed. Both girls were in their last year of school and were excellent pub lishers." Seneque had no idea that government action against jehovah's Witnesses would begin a few days after he had submitted that application.148 1994 Yearbook provide for my needs-but these have always been provided for. (The news item was a quotation from articles in the magazines Le Monde and Le Soir that mentioned the practice of voodoo. They came to the bathroom door. told him what was happening. another missionary who lived in the home. Rodrigue was able to visit the imprisoned missionaries at night and receive the key to the Society's post office box from them. and check for mail. Another sister was also expelled at that time. were living in Bethel. the three Canadians were taken under guard to the airport for departure to Kingston. so Max sent him with a note telling the brothers to contact the Canadian embassy. a guard remained outside until nightfall. thanks to jehovah. 1962 (in French ). and then he began contacting other qualified brothers. But since they did not have onward tickets to Canada. On Sunday. They were interrogated throughout Wednesday but were not told the charges. and the stock of Awake! of january 8. There they saw Albert jerome. the airline refused them passage. and they went to search the rest of the house. They hoped that she would remain free to tell the others what had happened. This officer ran errands to buy them food. came in from the service. 1962. Andrew and Helen D'Amico. Rodrigue Meder was studying with a sergeant who was on duty. When they left. Max. contact the brothers. Max Danyleyko and Andrew D'Amico were arrested at the branch office." She heard men searching the room. jamai ca. Next morning they were brought before a high-ranking official who referred to an item abou t Haiti in the january 8 Awake! and lectured them on the equa lity of the races. March 18. No explanation was given. Through the sergeant. missionaries from Canada. was confiscated. he sent Helen to stay with the sisters in the other missionary home." This occurred in connection with the expulsion of a young sister who had written to the principal of her school explaining why she could not salute the flag. Arrested! On january 23. sitting on the floor when not standing. Three weeks later. the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Religion said: "We will have to expel the children of jehovah's Witnesses from our State schools. and Helen were personally notified by the ch ief of police that all the missionaries had 24 hours to leave the country. who was now the city servant. since there was no room to lie down. Helen escaped arrest because Andrew had told her to conceal hersel f in the bathroom.) He Haiti 149 dismissed them without allowing them to reply. A number of . But one made some comment about another closet door. Told what had happened. Deported! Four weeks later. He left just before Donald Rachwal. However. The principal -a Roman Catholic nun-had sent the letter to the government authorities. They were then taken home to collect their passports. on February 14. Meanwhile. They slept as best they could. and in a brief exchange. on March 17. Back at the police station. the arrested brothers were confined with 17 other men in a tiny cell at the police station.

Donald Rachwal. was deported along with the remaining missionaries on April 3. had seen an Adventist man tear a page from his own Bible when he could not refute the texts with which a Witness confronted him. Fred Lukuc served in Congo-Brazzaville and Cote d'Ivoire. Fulgens admitted that Jehovah's Witnesses knew the Bible well. Renan Sanon (who had served briefly as circuit overseer}. Stanley Boggus. the work continued to grow remarkably. For health reasons he and his wife were transferred to the Canada Bethel in 1985. Chad. But it should be noted that Jehovah's Witnesses had not been banned. The congregations kept on growing so well that in 1963 the thousand-publisher mark was passed. who was from the United States. who was traveling in the circuit work. The clergy had also told the Witnesses that they were only awaiting a government order to get rid of them. Returning to the United States in 1971. For example. a Protestant pastor at Liancourt. Those with businesses even gave them "pioneer rates"-reduced prices for goods and services. Central African Republic. resigned from his church. was assigned as circuit overseer in the north. Growing numbers were taking up the pioneer service.150 1994 Yearbook brothers were at the airport. a 22-year-old. These included some who had learned to read and write in the congregation literacy classes. After a few months in Canada. Peter is presently serving with Spanish congregations in the United States. Nigeria." The clergy expected the Kingdom work to end. The rest of the missionaries still serve Jehovah loyally or have died faithful. Though a loyal Catholic. His small circuit could be covered in four months. Fulgens Gaspard. where they remained (or a few weeks before going on to Canada. and Max Danyleyko was able to speak briefly to Albert Jerome and a few others. now an ebullient speaker. Religious Leaders Gloat Religious leaders had been busy telling government officials that Jehovah's Witnesses were communists who do not support the government. and now Cote d'Ivoire. became branch overseer. he has continued to serve with the French congregations in New York. To the chagrin of opposers. and got baptized. and the local brothers Haiti 151 carried on as best they could. Even some from the ranks of the clergy accepted the truth. flew out separately. and Don Delva were chosen to care for the three circuits. and Seneque Raphael. A new circuit was formed during the year. So he used the "free months" to visit towns where there were no Witnesses. with a total of 1. The next day they were taken under guard right into the plane and sent off to Kingston. One evangelical radio station on the south coast gloatingly broadcast the news in this fashion: "Christ and the State have expelled the false prophets from the country.036. Emile Cineus. Max Danyleyko went on to serve in Congo-Brazzaville. Haitians Carry On Andre Rene. Two More Promising Young Men Among those who became Witnesses during this time were some who became zealous promoters of pure worship. The brot~ers encouraged and helped these pioneers. one of the first Haitians to receive Gilead training. Back in 1961. He later served in Zaire. Seneque Raphael had a long discussion about the new world with Augustin [osernond. This man accepted a Bible study. So they joyfully welcomed the missionaries' expulsion. He had found that he could not understand what he read in the Bible he used to . He and his family of ten children are very active Witnesses.

But these sisters and the few other publishers there continued to preach and to hold meetings in private homes-varying the locations and meeting days. 1 am informing you that you are no longer welcome among us. in January 1969. stopped going to church. so he asked this Witness to help him. saying: "You have been denounced by public outcry as undesirables in Limbe. received a note from the prefect at Limbe. He had been baptized in 1960 and had begun pioneering in 1962. was studying Marxism with other youths. son of Diego Scotland." The mayor told them he could not allow them to preach and hold meetings unless they had permits from the authorities in Port-au-Prince. He had the Kingdom Hall closed . he was appointed to be a special pioneer. The office was now situated at the corner of Ruelle Waag and Avenue Christophe in Port-au-Prince. and other literature. Three months later he was called to work at Bethel and then. Another student. In 1962 Wilner Emmanuel. his next goal was to be a pioneer.152 1994 Yearbook borrow. he applied to be allowed to teach part-time. pleasant to hear." Wilner made quick progress and got baptized in August 1965. used to lend him The Watchtower. A man with a quiet disposition.)ey were being arrested in Port-au-Prince. the one then serving as branch overseer proved unfaithful to his Christian trust and was disfellowshipped. local officers took action against our brothers. Soon he started to attend meetings. Some days later. became branch overseer and served for the next six years. This was refused. and was pioneering since 1961. at 15 years of age. Wilner now says: "I read the entire book that night and began to view myself as dedicated to Jehovah. Furcina married Jacques Francois. Prophete Painson. he resumed holding meetings in the Kingdom . In 1967. When he got baptized in March 1965. A few months later. Many people hurried to destroy the magazines they had obtained and would no longer receive the brothers favorably. Furcina Charles and Yolande Fievre. But he believed that God existed and was responsible for the order in the universe. a special pioneer. This led to the rumor that t1. baptized just two years earlier. Since he planned to pioneer. Awake!. The government ordered a search for subversive literature that the Witnesses were allegedly using . was working as a schoolteacher. he began serving as circuit overseer. They studied every Sunday. he had already become a fluent public speaker. And Alphonse Hector. a 35-year-old neighbor who was not yet a Witness. in 1966. She was astonished at how well I understood what I had read. Alphonse arranged for Sister Derenoncourt to study with me. Two special pioneer sisters. a mild-natured and cautious man of 29. Jacques was 29. though they had no directive from the central government to do so. had been baptized in 1959. Fulgens Gaspard. But before he could submit his application to be a regular pioneer. Meanwhile. He too developed into a hard worker for Jehovah's Kingdom and the new world . Facing Down Opposition In 1969 the clergy again started the rumor that Jehovah's Witnesses were communists. On arrival in Limbe. gave him the book "Let God Be True" and advised him to study the Bible. She was 39. In isolated cases. so he resigned from his job in the hope that he could earn Haiti 153 a living by means of his hobby as an artist. and began to share in field service.

However. the militia chief said he had nothing against them. The first French-speaking congregation was formed in 1969. the minister fell into disgrace. So they built a simple one at Mariani. then began studying. They began using it in 1970 and added to it as attendance grew each year. with the support of the Minister for Internal Affairs. Shortly after they left. the town mayor sought to discourage him. the Society decided to test the situation further by sending four new Gilead graduates for missionary work. he began studying with the Witnesses in 1966. but this was better than nothing for the 2. A Haitian Abroad Returns to Help By this time the exodus of Haitians to North America was gathering momentum. The then recently deceased president of Haiti had studied with the Witnesses as a youth. you have done your studies. The false rumors made it hard for our brothers to rent halls for assemblies. but he became friendly toward the Witnesses. and I know of no decree banning them. He said: "Jehovah's Witnesses are a recognized religion. and the priest attended the Memorial. Port-au -Prince. He was trained in Gilead School in 1971 and assigned to Haiti as branch overseer . Though he chose a different way of life.154 1994 Yearbook Hall. The prefect told them that he had no charges against them but that the mayor was responsible for the action. a senior official told them they would be prosecuted if they were still in the country after their visitor's visas expired. The mayor did not. In time her sisters followed her example. he still had respect . However. but she took a firm stand for the truth and was baptized.049 publishers reporting in 1970. Some had their own prejudices." Now he and Furcina were arrested and taken to the prefecture. Then a stocky unmarried man of 34. Other Witnesses were coming on their own to serve as pioneers where the need is greater. saying: "Father. she is now a regular pioneer and the wife of an elder. Josette. it Haiti 155 became a flood of people leaving in flimsy boats by the late 1970's. A Haitian resident in the United States. he was friendly and showed good leadership ability . Their action was not an official government stand. The Mayor's Daughters Were the Sheep At Bassin-Bleu a special pioneer began conducting a Bible study with the priest in 1970. In turn." Finally the priest stopped the study. since efforts to get missionaries into the country were not successful. From a trickle in the 1960's. Then. So they continued holding the meetings with no further problems. It is not proper for you to sit before this little Jehovah's Witness to be taught by him . while faithfully serving as an elder in Port -au-Prince. He progressed quickly and got baptized in 1967. was dismissed from office. There were already enough Haitians in New York in the early 1960's to make up a French-speaking missionary territory there . Her father opposed this. the senior official died. and went into exile. the mayor's oldest daughter. His coming was particularly welcome. in 1972. An Unexpected Defender Acts of opposition were mostly by officials who were incited or embarrassed into action by clergy propaganda. It was hot under the corrugated iron roof. Three months later. However. and it is out of this that Michel Mentor came. As for Josette. Jacques died in 1993. The next day the mayor told them that the militia chief was responsible. So they went to Puerto Rico to await a new assignment.

intervened before I could reply. Antoine took evil pleasure in criticizing the book sentence by sentence in a program on MBC radio in Port-au-Prince every Sunday afternoon and made malicious comments about the teachings of Jehovah's Witnesses.156 I 994 Yearbook for the brothers. For example. The radio programs also aroused the sympathy of high government officials for Jehovah's Witnesses. Certain clergymen even used material from it in their sermons. They were enthusiastic about using it. In 1972 a Catholic priest even displayed it in the cathedral in Port-au -Prince and said: "If Jehovah's Witnesses offer you this little blue book. the Witnesses' honesty. The opposite happened. Many of these became Witnesses. After considerable effort to find another place.'" Seeking Better Branch Facilities However. 'Are you the one giving us so much trouble?' Then he spoke about the pastor on the . "Yes. political neutrality. the drawing room. accept it. Rodrigue Meder says: "Michel Mentor and I were summoned by the Minister of Religious Affairs on the question of flag salute." Praised by Some of the Clergy. But when he learned that it was for Jehovah's Witnesses." he replied. the clergy in general were enraged on seeing church members quitting their flocks. and on the stairs. but that house was too small for our needs.' The other. and respect for law earned them the admiration of other highly placed persons. Michel Mentor recalls: "We had to stock literature supplies in bedrooms. and she accepted her son's offer to study with her. since there was no branch office owned by the Society. Condemned by Others In 1968 the brothers received the book The Truth That Leads to Eternal Life. She then told him what the priest had said. She became a baptized Witness. People often stopped the publishers on the streets and asked for Uti liv po hIe a" (the little blue-covered book). What is more. However. It remained there for four years before being moved to Delmas in 1975. Protestant pastors-Evane Antoine. and she had been opposing him . a government minister. She returned home and asked him if Jehovah's Witnesses had a little blue book. I would put all of you Jehovah's Witnesses in prison. He told the man that. a pioneer relates this experience: "As I offered magazines to two men in Port-au-Prince.-Gerard to the Society. one of them said: 'If I had the authority. from what he had seen in his travels and at religious ceremonies. he refused to renew the rent contract. and the book saw wide distribution from 1972 to 1975. So the zone overseer advised us to look for another place. and the idea of finding land on which to build began to develop. Then he added : 'Jehovah's Witnesses are the ones practicing true Christianity. Her son was a Witness. the branch office moved to a house on Rue Cheriez at CanapeVert . and others-began making antiWitness radio broadcasts. They bigan criticizing the Truth book from the pulpit. People became curious. This publication helped to win the hearts of young ones over Haiti 157 to the Bible." One woman stared at him in astonishment. Louis Desire. only omitting the name Jehovah. In 1971 a lawyer had rented a house situated on Rue St. Regarding this. all religions except Jehovah's Witnesses mixed spiritism into their worship. His purpose was to turn people against the Truth book. He recognized me as his tailor and said. the work of Jehovah's Witnesses in Haiti lacked dignity and identity in the eyes of some. It is the truth.

that they were being embarrassed by this problem. Many fine halls have been built since this was done in 1978. Defense Joseph took up residence in the United States . And the Truth book continued to have phenomenal distribution . 'Why not reply?' he asked. One congregation of 100 publishers had over 400 at the Memorial in 1975. and this earned people's admiration and respect. Once its goal had been achieved. By then. God's purposes. The program did not enter into controversy with the pastors' statements but dealt with subjects such as earth's future. However. in effect. I explained that we were not seeking public debates. and later the Governing Body put in place an arrangement {o help finance Kingdom Hall construction. But they knew him well and respected him. Some newspapers carried anti-Witness articles. Material was taken from the Society's publications. Seneque Raphael. Branch Committee The Branch Committee arrangement began operating in 1976." on Radio Haiti every Wednesday evening . Some congregations succeeded by obtaining loans from brothers who could afford to provide such. Government ministers summoned Rodrigue Medor and informed him. and Defense Joseph. some of whom were influenced by church loyalties. which would only compromise the dignity of our message. religious leaders and people under their influence renewed the attack by again publicizing the issue of flag salute in the schools. imposed restraints on Jehovah's Witnesses. such Haiti 159 officials took advantage of the fact that the Witnesses did not have a locally incorporated society. When the booklet Blood." Jehovah's Witnesses on the Air However. the Society began presenting its own 30-minute program. attendance would soar on certain occasions. the program was lifted to a higher level than those of the pastors. . Its goal was to promote better knowledge about Jehovah's Witnesses and to counteract prejudice that the anti-Witness broadcasts created. and family interests. such as Is the Bible Really the Word of God? and Awake! Thus. After the talk. so they rented small buildings. To hinder the granting of permits to build Kingdom Halls. "Your Word Is Truth. many of them have shown respect for the stand of Jehovah's Witnesses against blood transfusions . Since then. and since it had to be paid for. the hall problem was mainly financial. the Branch Committee asked Wilner Emmanuel to contact the medical faculty of the University of Haiti. However. More were outside the hall than were inside. Medicine and the Law of God (in French) was received in 1978. The dean assembled the medical students and requested that Wilner explain the viewpoint of Jehovah's Witnesses on the matter of blood. they were happy to receive complimentary copies of the booklet. So the authorities again became concerned about the question. who had begun to serve as a special pioneer within 11 months of his baptism in 1962. as professional doctors. to care for his family obligations. Yet. so they left it at that. Some people hesitated to attend meetings in such humble places. Most congregations could not afford to build. the program was discontinued in November 1974. Problem of Inadequate Halls A few officials. The original members were Michel Mentor. people had seen that Jehovah's Witnesses defended themselves well. Some way had to be found to build Kingdom Halls.158 1994 Yearbook radio. in April 1973. Rodrigue Meder was made a member of the committee in 1977. most of which lacked basic facilities. In 1980.

Maybe people had to listen more carefully to understand her. as well as the rich in their palatial homes. At 55. France. Nigeria. there are many who have personally taken the initiative to come to Haiti to serve where the need is greater. she could no longer cope with the mountains. who have done productive work in Petionville and Thomassin. Other missionaries from Canada. Her husband had forsaken her and Jehovah's organization.160 1994 Yearbook New Missionaries at Last! At last. and other parts of the Caribbean are also contributing to the progress of the Kingdom work here. businessmen. doctors. Betty Wooten started "pioneering" the day she got baptized in 1962. a missionary couple was again able to enter the country and obtain residence visas. Then they were called into Bethel in January 1983. at the age of 75. where they had been very effective in the ministry. Commenting on John's way of preaching. while also serving as a special pioneer during the months when there were no assemblies. John and Inez Norman had been in circuit work in Canada. in May 1981. She served as a regular pioneer in Thomassin until 1992 when. She did not realize that she should submit an . People of both classes-judges. a community many thought would not produce any Witnesses. a district overseer once said: "It is interesting to go out with him because one never knows what he will do from one door to the other. Many studied with her and became Witnesses." John was born in Montserrat in the West Indies in 1940 and grew up in Canada. They enjoy working among the masses of the poor in their dwellings huddled together on the edges of gullies. Belgium. and now she serves as a pioneer in Florida. in the face of local opposition. she endured 23 years in that mountain territory. she was beginning to feel her years. a Canadian. but her warm interest and sincerity attracted them. they were assigned to pioneer for a while . Michel Mentor had supervised the branch office well for eleven years. She returned to the United States for medical attention. and John was appointed coordinator of the Branch Committee. They love the people. After coming to Haiti. His parents had served where the need was greater in Liberia. Her limited French and Creole sounded more like English . tradesmen. Among these are Maxine Stump and Haiti 161 Maxine Stump and Betty Wooten have each contributed more than 20 years to serving here where the need is great Betty Wooten. To Serve Where the Need Is Greater In addition to the missionaries. Maxine was located in Thomassin. His wife. He has originality. He now entered the traveling work as district overseer. traders. the United States. had started to pioneer in 1968. Yet. and laborers-have joined them in preaching to others about the coming new world. John got baptized in 1954 and started pioneering in 1958. engineers.

He had a coffin made. since he did not die at that time. he received no spiritual help.Haiti 163 with a total approaching 700 publishers in 1993. he served began to harass him and even announced his death. colorfully painted vehicles. packed with passengers. But both vehicles and streets were more jam-packed than usual December 5-8. anytime is an opportunity to offer magazines. he used the coffin to store foodstuffs that he harvested. in territory formerly cared for by one congregation. she slips out of her imperfect Creole into English. Irilien Desir began to wonder about God and felt a desire to quit voodoo. and another in Kenscoff-seven congregations Among those who have become Jehovah's Witnesses in Haiti is a former voodoo priest-a houngan-at Labiche. She is black. In 1989 he died faithful to Jehovah. Then his sons in Port-au-Prince and overseas wrote telling him they were studying with Jehovah's Witnesses and they advised him to do the same. Her formal field service is an extension of her informal witnessing. The 4. She can now look back over her 22 years in Haiti. He expressed this openly to the Catholic priest and brought him his ceremonial materials. In shops. Then he donated a piece of his land on which to build a Kingdom Hall. A Houngan Finds the Truth I This Assembly Hall at Santo serves most circuits in Haiti application! She was actually appointed in 1967.260 at the public talk "God's Times and Seasons-To What Do They Point?" . I know there will be a resurrection. Why this success? She is always preaching.Prince are usually a moving patchwork of gaudy. satisfied that she has shared in helping more than 70 people to take up Jehovah's service! There are now four congregations in Petion-ville. so he returned to voodoo. and he got baptized. but he said: "I do not fear death anymore. Since coming to Haiti.048 publishers were amazed at the attendance of 16. and Bible studies. books. The spirits. A Revolution but Not a New World The crowded. He kept on riding there twice a week to study with them and attend the meetings. someone in the subscription department asked them. when she goes to a restaurant. Sometimes in the intensity of explaining the Scriptures. or !oas. exuberant. at gas stations -anywhere. But her sincere presentation of the truth and her forceful reasoning make people listen and respond. 1985. Haiti was host to hundreds of Witnesses from other lands. While John and Inez Norman were visiting the Canada branch office in 1982. "Who is Betty Wooten?" The department was processing dozens of magazine subscriptions that she had obtained. He joined in preaching with pioneers who were now assigned to Labiche." However. two in Thomassin. subscriptions. They were attending the "Integrity Keepers" Convention in the Centre Sportif de Carrefour. narrow streets of Port-au. she has served in Petion-ville as a special pioneer. However. and looks much younger than her 57 years. As a resul \ he rode his horse 30 miles to L'Azile to find the Witnesses.

The director was delighted and ordered 40 books right away and more later-a total of 301. and Your Youth-Getting the Best Out Of It. The book You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth (in French) has helped thousands of people understand the Bible. The brothers are proud of these branch facilities. Since 1962 the . Some of the students who received this literature have become Witnesses. A number of schools use it as a textbook for social and cultural classes. making it possible to listen to the program in comfort. 1987. up to 19921 Building a New Bethel Meanwhile. and others are now unbaptized publishers. a revolution ended the 28-year Duvalier rule on February 7. which are also open to nonWitnesses. had been helping them to build new branch facilities on 11 acres of land at Santo. and they have been placing large numbers of it. Official and Legal Recognition Legal recognition of an association to represent jehovah's Witnesses was once again granted in 1989. The U-shaped Bethel complex comprises offices. this is especially useful in Haiti. Betty Wooten says: "The grounds are beautifully landscaped and adorned with trees and flowers. It is a useful textbook in congregation literacy classes. In Canape-Vert. who became a Branch Committee member in 1987. expresses appreciation for the fact that "it is well ventilated. In 1990 the owner and director of a vocational school for girls in Port-au-Prince asked her niece if she had any ideas as to what she could give the girls as prizes. hoping for better conditions. It was a stimulating and joyful occasion. near Port-au-Prince. An Assembly Hall was built at the same time. The hall-with modern conveniences-is designed for Haiti's tropical climate. But in 1989 the booklet "ThisGood News of the Kingdom" was published in Creole. This niece was then studying with jehovah's Witnesses. so she suggested the books Questions Young People Ask-Answers That Work. and hundreds of others volunteered for the work.164 1994 Yearbook Two months after this. jehovah's Witnesses were anticipating a different historic event. these classes. a lively young schoolteacher. skilled international volunteers. and of course. helped 1. The brothers welcomed it as a fine tool for helping people to visualize the new world. But the ruined economy and the quality of life continued to worsen as political instability brought six changes of government in six years. But what do they think of the Assembly Hall? Summing up their feelings. Since 1989 the book Questions Young People Ask-Answers That Work has captured the interest of youths both inside and outside the congregations. Young people frequently stop Witnesses on the streets to ask for it. Making Your Family Life Happy. placed over a hundred copies of the Young People Ask book with students in her school in one month. from North America and other places. literature depot. and two-story residential quarters. Haitian Witnesses with building skills were hired. Since November 1984. 1986.343 people learn to read and write . Many b oks are being placed in schools by students or teachers. It is an honor to jehovah's people. Charles Molchan from the Brooklyn headquarters gave the ded ication talk. From 1987 to 1992." Fulgens Gaspard. which classes have contributed Haiti 165 to the high literacy level among jehovah's Witnesses. The nation rejoiced. These facilities were dedicated on january 25. and it is still in great demand. Nelly Saladin. In [acmel a teacher ordered several cartons of it to give to students as prizes." Highly Appreciated Literature The brochure Enjoy Life on Earth Forever! was published in Creole in 1987.

Two soldiers arrived and stood one at each end of a narrow lane. However. 6: 10) They show th eir kindhearted and patient fellow Haitians that it is not God's will for people to suffer hunger.. Haiti 's official journ al. Let your will take place . L'Association Chretienne les Temoins de Jehovah d'Haiti (Christian Associatio n of Jehovah's Witnesses of Haiti) became a legal corpor ate body. But Jehovah's Witnesses remained a recognized religion because the constitution guarantees freedom of worship .' I Happy missionaries serving Kingdom interests in Haiti . Good Citizenship Recognized Jehovah 's Witnesses desire to help people understand why Jesus taught his disciples to pray: "Let your kingd om come. Port -au-Prince. Many recognize the benefits the Witnesses bring to the nation by this work. So the branch office's Legal Committee applied to the new government for recognition . prop erty for Kingdom Halls and the branch propert y had to be acquired in the names of brothers. Jehovah's Witnesses continued preaching. " This is important becau se such an organ ization can own pro perty.166 I 994 Yearbook Watch Tower Society had not been considered accredited in Haiti. But it was the government change in 1986 th at brought a favorable climate for success. honest lives so that they can qualify for everlasting life in that new world. 1989. forcing the looters to pass them and receive strokes from a whip . people began hiding because the police started arresting them for questioning. They explain th at God's will is for earth to become home to the new world-with a paradi se that includes Haiti.. When a murder was committed in Saint-Georges in 1984. This was approved and. stated that "con sidering that l'Association Chretienne 'LES TEMOINS DE JEHOVAH D' HA ITI' has been con trib ut ing for many years to the educa tion of the masses in rural and urban areas of the cou nt ry by literacy classes. people started looting in Cite Soleil. after some months. And they are teaching people Haiti 167 to be law-abiding and to lead good. And the sisters? Each holding a Watchtower." During riots and demonstrations in 1991. Concerning this. upon earth. while two young sisters were witnessing in the same area." it is recognized as a "public service organization" with "the rights and prerogatives connected with a corporate person. Over the years Rodrigue Meder had repeatedly met with government ministers. he let them pass unscathed. they walked toward one of the soldiers. and violen ce or to grow old and die. Now ownership cou ld be placed in the name of the association. It is as a military officer in Thomassique declared in 1991: 'I know that the Jehovah's Witnesses' youths would not be involved in such riots and demonstrations and looting." (Matt. trying to obtain legal stat us for the Association of Jehovah's W itnesses. sickness. They are not the ones who committed this crime. Recognizing them as Witnesses. on Febru ary 20. then resumed the whipping. Said one policeman: "Jehovah's Witnesses preach about the end of wicked people. Previous ly. and the police allowed them to circulate freely.

on Sunday. John Norman. an increasing number of people are realizing that God's Kingdom is the only hope for removing mankind's ills and tha t efforts to patch up this old world are only temporary. construction began in pouring rain on Thursday.000 . where the first Port-au-Prince congregation was formed . There were 44. by 1:00 p. 24: 14.000./ 10. So they gladly receive the "good news of the kingdom" . using quick-construction methods. Rodrigue Meder. After much preparatory work. The 18 brothers from Port-au-Prince and the local brothers worked hard through each day. for less than $5.500 concrete blocks had to be mortared into place one by one. so the 1.000 I 30.000 8.m. This is an important consideration in view of the very limited financial means of the brothers. ready for the first meeting there-an abbreviated Watchtower Study and the dedication talk. And Jehovah's Witnesses are now the largest religious group in Carrefour.000 .433.000 Ir U 2. The branch's building committee had now shown that modest halls could be built for rural congregations. . Yet. There was a new peak of 8.000 50.476 at the Memorial in April 1993. The number of Witnesses grew by over 1. with 81 present. the hall was painted. Seneque Raphael attendance at the six "Divine Teaching" District Conventions (1993) was 19. The need for halls is growing. Jehovah's Witnesses in Haiti are happy to help such people live a better life now by teaching them to apply God's Word and by imparting to them the sure hope of everlasting life in Jehovah's righteous new world.-Matt. The I Branch Committee (from left to right): Fulgens Gaspard.J 1950 1960 1970 1980 1993 o 1/ I~ 1950 1960 1970 1980 1993 The First Quickly Built Hall A congregation of 14 publishers in the southern village of Bidouze holds the distinction of being the first to have a quickly built Kingdom Hall. Looking to the New World Yes. The building was not prefabricated.the good news of a better world.900 between 1990 and 1993. 1990.168 I Publishers Haiti 169 Memorial Attendance 10. November 1.000 IJ 6. and some continued until long after sundown with the help of moonlight and a gas lamp.000 40. It was built in four days.000 J 4.000 o 994 Yearbook j 20 .392 in 174 congregations in June 1993.

To scient ists. in Warsaw. Poland brings other things to mind. On the other hand. Though it once was an A . Germany on the west.COUNTRY of well-watered /plains and rapidly growing cities. This is Poland. it turns on its axis once a day. a discoverer of radium . who developed the theory that the earth moves around the sun and that. Madame Curie (Maria Sklodowska -Curie). But in the case of music lovers. A country bordered by the Commonwealth of Independent States on the east. heartache has been part of the history of Poland. It is associated with compos ers such as Frederic Chopin as well as pianists such as Ignacy Jan Paderewski and Arthur Rubinstein. Home to over 38 million people. was also born in Poland. Poland is the birthplace of Nicolaus Copernicus. at the same time. Slovakia and the Czech Republic on the south. and the Baltic Sea on the northwest.

Some still do. In the 16th century. or parliament. in several passages. ever since 1950. . For years. In 1985. They later rejoiced over news that in 1991 the number of Witnesses in Poland had surpassed 100. .. Poland 173 For centuries after the country became Catholic. The oath administered to Polish kings from 1573 onward had included such guarantees as this: "I . under penalty of death. however. As a result. promise and solemnly swear by Almighty God that . in recent years that barrier has crumbled. and just a chosen few had access to them."-Isa. . who belonged to a small group of people desirou s of adhering to God's Word and who called themselves simply Christians or brethren. Catholic dogma was challenged. Poland had been a land known for its religious toleration. we call to mind these words recorded by the prophet Isaiah : "Any weapon whatever that will be formed against you will have no success .172 1994 Yearbook empire that extended across Europe from the Baltic down toward the Black Sea. I will preserve and maintain peace and quiet among those that differ with regard to religion. for a hundred years it virtually disappeared from the map. In answering that question. As a result of what they learned. of course. But only one manuscript of each of these Bibles was made. 54:17. however. how was this possible? After all. when Prince Mieszko I was baptized according to rites of the Roman Catholic Church. Poland was cut off from the rest of the world by an "Iron Curtain. This is the hereditary possession of the servants of Jehovah .. be given three years' time-and later a year was shaved off th at period-either to become Catholics or to leave the country. How did this come about? A marked change had come over the land. Later they adopted the name Polish Brethren. Yet. translators more frequently made the Bible available in vernacular languages so that the public could read it. Jehovah's Witnesses around the globe began to hear reports of large international conventions of their Christian brothers in Poland . The Psatterz florianski (Florianski Psalter) of the l-lth century and the Biblia krolowej Zofii (Queen Zona Bible) of the late 15th century are the oldest preserved Polish translations. Actually. and will not in any way . decreed that the Polish Brethren. . The Holy Scriptures were increasingly viewed as the sole criterion. including Poland. they rejected the Trinity dogma. the Bible was not available to the Polish people. in many European countries. the Polish Sejm. that they suddenly became good Christians.000 and that twice that many had been at the commemoration of the Lord's Evening Meal. it was again dismembered and came under foreign domination during World War II..116.. How the Bible Found Its Way to Poland Poland has been considered a "Christian" country ever since 966 C. Victims of religious persecution in other lands had sought refuge in Poland.E. not even to the clergy. It was published by Szymon Budny." However. Mass baptisms of his subjects also took place-not meaning. people continued observing pagan Slavic traditions and superstitions for hundreds of years. when the Witnesses in Poland numbered only 18. their activity had been prohibited there. Jehowa (Jehovah). The Polish people were just clearing away the rubble of that war when. In 1658.I A Polish "New Testament" that appeared in 1574 used the Creator's name. After a brief existence as a republic following World War I. like other Central and Eastern European lands. religious views underwent drastic changes.

They had shrewdly directed their influence toward the royal court. some began to change their way of thinking. Under the headin g "Progress . The Jesuits had begun operations in Poland in 1564. during whose reign the Polish Brethren were banished.174 1994 Yearbook . the Con stitution declares: "The Republic of Poland shall guarantee freedom of conscience and religion to its citizens. the one that had been inculcated in them at home and in church. 14-16. he translated inform ation from the books for ano the r man from Poland who had also been hun gerin g for spiritu al truth. he became convinced that he had found what he was seeking.) explained that though he grew up in the Russian sector of partitioned Poland and was reared by Catholic parents. Some of them returned to th e land of their birth in order to publicize the news of Christ's presence. had taken th at oat h. in a letter to the Watch Tower Society in 1891. conditions were at times very hard for the people. Joh n II Casimir Vasa. T he Roman Catholic Church has been forced to abandon the policy of keeping God's written Word away from the people. -Matt. At the same time. religious freedom has been established by law in Poland. moved abroad -some to the United States. Poland lost much of its territory. Duri ng this period. suffer anyone to be influenced or opp ressed by reason of his religion. Antoszewski (then living in Chicago. several good Polish Bible translations have been published . and Jehovah's Wit nesses make good use of them. Surrounding nations seized one portion of the country and then ano ther." More of the Polish people are availing themse lves of that freedom and are turning to the Bible for directio n. Poland as an independent nation disappeared from the map of Europe. The guarantee of religious freedom was gradually eroded. But there can be no doubt th at his training for the Jesuit priesthood. are eager to examine 'whether these things are so. No longer does the law forbid Roman Catholics to change to another religion. As Jesus advised . Hence the common notion that "a Pole is a Catholic. either willingly or unwillingly. prior to his becomin g king. Many Poles. 5:3. Those trained in the Jesuit-controlled schools were imbued with a spirit of religious into lerance. As of 1993. Among the Polish immigrants were th ose who not only accepted precious Bible truths readily but also shared these with their family and friends in the Old Country. As an example. as it did und er the Polish Constitution of 1791. Once again. in 1795. with th eir traditional environment left behind . A considerable number of them sought to preserve a nati onal identity by practicing that faith. like th ose noble-minded people referred to in the Bible at Acts 17:11." However. was Roman Cath olicism. .A. The Bible came to be viewed as a forbidden book. some 84 years before John Casimir came to the throne. Since the end of World War II. W hen the Witnesses share with Poland 175 others the good news of God's Kingdom. The religion of their parents . they did not 'hide this spiritual light und er a basket.' The Light of Truth Reaches Emigrants As Poland came und er th e domination of other countries. Alm ost every evening. th ey sought to gain contro l of the schools and thereby mold the thinking of the populace . until. however. he had been searching for the truth. influenced his attitu de regarding religious freedom . When he came into possession of some of the Watch Tower literature.' Together they began to visit other Polish families to share the good news with them. . U. C. manifest in violent attac ks on th ose who adhered to other faiths as well as on th eir homes and on their places of worship. many.S ." Indeed.

and Kremer. an edict of the Russian czar in 1906 granted to all religious denominations the right to engage in peaceful religious activity. Seeds of Truth Begin to Sprout In the fall of 1905. restitution and the high calling. Problems began to develop in Warsaw." At first they had to use whatever literature was available in English and German. When Poland regained its independence after World War I. Kokosiriski. Polish territory under Russian control was affected as well. the light of Bible truth scarcely penetrated the darkness and went largely unnoticed except by close relatives and acquaintances of people already interested in the Bible. Yet. Soon they were holding regular discussions. as pioneer service was then called. This was a period of protest and turmoil in Russia. Some longtime fighters for the truth still recall or remember hearing from their parents about brothers active in the pre-1914 Warsaw Congregation. Barcikowski. and his home became a meeting place for people who wanted to learn about genuine Christian brotherhood. The Watch Tower was being printed regularly in Polish each month. . They succeeded in placing much literature and found people who were interested in learning about the upcoming end of "the times of the Gentiles. the first president of the Watch Tower Society. he won their confidence. Rudas. a Bible Student named Mr. paid a short visit to Warsaw. a Polander who received the truth into a good and honest heart some three years ago. A condensed Polish edition of material from Studies in the Scriptures also appeared that year.176 1994 Yearbook of the Work Abroad. however. These were visited several times by Brother H. considering current events in the light of God's Word and with the help of Bible literature. Charles Taze Russell. King James Version) In 1913 some of these who were showing interest in God's Word formed a group in L6di. so that an edict was issued granting them legal recognition. Bente. And by 1915. reported: "Brother Oleszynski. 1895. the management of a Warsaw lace factory was taken over by a new director from Switzerland. the light did seep out beyond Warsaw. as well as in other places." (Luke 21:24. For a time the Bible Students operated normally. What a joy for the group of about 20 persons who came to hear him! Three of them were so enthusiastic that they applied for colporteur work. which supplied the groups with literature. Herkendell from the Society's office in Barmen-Elberfeld. But the work of sharing Bible truth with fellow Poles was greatly helped in 1909 when the Watch Tower Society published Polish tracts for free distribution. Despite having to communicate with his workers through an interpreter. New Stimulus In May 1910. Brother Dojczman and Sister Maron were active in other areas. Nonetheless. has gone to his native land to search out consecrated ones to preach to them the grand gospel of ransom. in connection with holding public gatherings." Zion's Watch Tower of June 15. Germany. But a military official who had recently taken an interest in the truth intervened in behalf of the Bible Students. Among them were Brothers Kacki. Still. that edict issued in 1913 by the military general who was governor of Warsaw provided a legal basis for the activities of the brothers. The Russian police were becoming suspicious of anything that looked like preparations for an uprising . Poland 177 and small groups were formed in other towns.

who was then president of the parent corporation. Because of the zeal shown by the Polish brothers as well as their respect for the organization that Jehovah was using.178 1994 Yearbook When war broke out in 1914. Polish colporteurs numbered 36. a seventh volume of the Studies was publis ed. Thus. Jehovah blessed their efforts . the decision was made to merge with the Society's Pennsylvania corporation. means "Watchtower Bible and Brochure Society. those of Polish origin were among the largest and most active. called pilgrims.942. At the beginning of 1919. in July. Hymns of the Millennial Dawn. In 1921 a new songbook. In time this group found more people who were searching for the Biblical explanation of world events. F. Poland 179 As early as 1920. was thereafter published in Brooklyn. Once the war was over and Polish-American brothers came to help. Its Polish name. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. For example. A small group still held meetings in a Warsaw apartment. and within a year 45. with a total attendance of 2. The Polish Watch Tower. difficult living conditions -especially in the cities-caused families in the Warsaw and L6di groups to scatter. Boleslaw Uchman was baptized in 1916 and then served as a pillar in the Warsaw Congregation for over half a century. the 1921 Memorial of Christ's death was celebrated in Polish in the United States in 65 places. From then on. A translation of the booklet Millions Now Living Will Never Die was received with enthusiasm. to be their president. they set up a legal corporation especially to care for the needs of the Polishspeaking congregations. as well as to help spread Bible truth in Poland. The Polish Watch Tower appeared regularly twice a month. And in 1923 the Chicago Polish Congregation . as well as books and booklets. the work picked up momentum. Later. to visit Polish congregations.Towarz:ystwo Biblijne i Broszur. The Detroit office was simply viewed as the Society's Polish branch. appeared. this corporation arranged for ten travel ing representatives. some time later. Moreover. it was even more evident that the Detroit office served as a branch of the Watch Tower Society. By 1918 as many as 50 persons were attending public talks ." It was not designed to compete with the parent corporation. the activity of the Bible Students did not come to a standstill. 73 Polish congregations and groups reported Memorial celebrations.692 persons. A year later. In May 1922 that branch moved to Brooklyn. Straznica. the Polish group showed init iative in serving Jehovah in an organized way. The Polish brothers had no desire to be independent of thei r English-speaking brothers. The 622 pub lic lectures they delivered were attended by 211. Rutherford. They registered it in Detroit. For example. in January 1921 the directors of the Detroit corporation chose J. as was the book The Harp of God. Congregations were able to replenish their supplies of booklets as well as of volumes of Studies in the Scriptures in Polish. Michigan.545 copies had been distributed. Although the Bible Students in the United States were undergoing severe persecution. especially during 1918-19. Nevertheless. It was meant to supply the congregations with spiritual food from the organization and to provide encouragement to faithfulness during a difficult time. Flourishing Polish Congregations in the United States Of all the foreign -language groups of Bible Students in the United States at that time. during the corporation's general meeting. which since October 1919 had again been the Society's center of activity.

Although the Roman Catholic Church was given a privileged position. The office began operation in 1921. which was in the hands of the opposition. explaining Bible truths to them and sometimes even staying to form congregations. it seated more than 400 persons. This Group II was composed of brothers loyal to the Society. especially when a representative of an opposition group traveled from the United States to Warsaw to influence the group there.180 1994 Yearbook had 675 persons in attendance. Despite the problems the brothers had faced. only in New York City (906). The following year. False Brothers Sought to Subvert Faith During World War I. Happily. and these caused difficulties. 500 were in attendance from various parts of Poland. Unsettling rumors about divisions among the brothers in America also arrived. at which . reached 657! That same year several conventions were held. 1921). and after remodeling. Watch Tower publications were sent to Poland. War broke out between Soviet Russia and Poland.029). the fourth-largest figure in the world. for example. freedom of conscience and religion was guaranteed for all. In ever-increasing numbers. who was chairman of the Society's Michigan corporation. This became easier in 1921. or traveling speaker. In greater numbers than ever before. Sunday public discourses were advertised in newspapers and by handbills distributed on the streets . This greatly ampered the work. the opposers gained control of the legal corporation that was then being used by the brothers in Poland. the Society kept Brother Kasprzykowski in Poland as its representative. loyal Polish brothers in America also arranged to send a delegation to Poland. however. Arriving in Poland in 1920. the Polish brothers began visiting their families in the Old Country. It consisted of Poland 181 W. London (1. they were joyfully received by brothers in Warsaw. the brothers located a building to use as a new hall. With legal recognition once again. causing inflation on a scale heretofore unknown. accomplishing. it replaced the former corporation. over two years after the fact. Kolomyjski. It was not until 1919. the brothers in the Polish sector of Russia had been cut off from contact with the outside world. for example. and C. the registration of the Bible Students Association Group II. Also at that critical time. this resulted in the loss of the meeting place of the Warsaw Congregation. By drawing away most of the brothers for themselves. prospects for progress looked bright. Also. To facilitate the work there. that the Warsaw Congregation received news of Brother Russell's death-and even then. At the request of the Warsaw brothers. He showed great initiative. That same year Satan struck another blow. Among other things. During 1921 these talks were sometimes attended by as many as 700 people. when Poland adopted a democratic constitution. and 14 got baptized. the remaining brothers rented movie theaters for congregation studies and public talks. The effects of this were also felt in Poland. where he continued to serve as a pilgrim. Brother Kolomyjski came down with typhoid. At the first general convention (October 30 to November 2. the Bible Students could organize public talks on a grander scale. and Los Angeles (850) were attendances higher for any language. at 32 locations throughout the country. only through private channels. a pilgrim. Kasprzykowski. After recuperating. Memorial attendance. Having lost their regular meeting place. he returned to the United States. announcement was made in 1919 of plans to establish a branch office in Warsaw.

speaking through Catholic papers. hellfire. He offered 10. But he was arrested and charged with slanderi ng the pope. he quickly man aged to generate interest among a small group of sincere people. and so forth . The work was moving ahead at a good pace. reported th at schoolc hildren were being instru cted to amend the ir catechism prayer so that they said: "From sudden death. 'because of the sacred nature of the things involved.' as they put it. Though himself new in the trut h. war. Arrogantly the church newspaper declared: "We will see who is right . Not to be intimidated. confession to priests.000 Polish marks to anyone for each doctrine that the person could prove to be based on the Holy Scriptures. [ozef Krett. 0 Lord . they would prosecute Franciszek Puchala for slandering the church. a large city in the territory of former Austria -Hungary. he called for a public discussion . a fair-minded man. In court he relied on the Bible to defend himself. In 1922 that house served as th e site of a debate between three brot hers and three Cat holic theologians. Otherwise. "It was like poking a stick into an anthill. celibacy of the clergy. The judge. Brother Puchala agreed. The previous year Franciszek Puch ala had returned from Am erica and privately publ ished a leaflet containing a list of 13 church doctrines. Brother Wini arz. and the pestilence of American heresy. in 1920. W as He Slandering the Pope? Jan Kusina returned from the United States to Krakow. however . purgatory. preserve us. acquitted him. accompanied by two other priests. a wealthy but self-sacrificing man. the clergy agreed to a discussion." Brother Puch ala later wrote. After con sulting the Roman Curia. About the same time." The well-known Jesuit theologian Jan Rostworowski led the Catholic delegation. demanded a public renunciation of the leaflet. hun ger. Here in Krak6 . So sure were the clergy that they would win that they arranged to have present a lawyer who was to launch legal action against the brothers as soon as they were defeated.182 1994 Yearbook 108 individuals presented themselves for water imme rsion . . a pilgrim brother from the United States who visited Warsaw and Krakow. Included were immortality of the hum an soul. fire. all he had done was to share Bible truths with others.the centuries-old Roman Catholic Church or this pitiful handful of misled creatures who are incapable of even correctly reading the Holy Scriptures. In fact. but only behind closed doors." Theologians Try to Discredit Bible Students An oth er repatriate. they declared. sacrifice of the Mass. bought a house in Krakow to use as a meeting place. use of th e rosary. Franciszek Puchala offered a sizable reward to anyone who could prove from the Bible certain fundamental church teachings The clergy.

The result? By 1923.. saying: "The one among you without sin should strike me Poland 185 with her club first. More than once hired killers threatened his life. Scheider that he had found the truth. Why? Because the husbands were upset at having been forced to wait so long for dinner! Store Owner Shares Truth With Schoolteacher In 1919 the owner of a large shoe store in the textile center of Lodi went to Gdansk for medical treatment. Study of the Society's publications along with the Bible likewise convinced Mr. The clergy. Mrs. which had an initial circulation of 10. Despite trials and tribulations. She returned home with a stack of the Society's literature and enthusiastically spoke to friends and acquaintances about what she read. T he clergymen asked that point 13 on the leaflet (immortality of the soul) be considered first. but Jehovah protected him. The clergy refused to grant permission for burial in the cemetery. a burial plot was obtained in a small Muslim . A policeman was sent to take notes at meetings held in his home. Her arg6ments deeply impressed a young teacher who was urged by a friend to attend meetings with her. There this businesswoman.000 copies and was reprinted a number of times. and left. When he arrived. In 1920 this teacher. They lay in wait for Brother Puchala from early morning until late afternoon. as well as several persons to serve as witnesses. Mandowa. he addressed them calmly." Eventually the women withdrew. Wilhelm Scheider. the theolog ians excused themselves. Mandowa later became a Bible Student. But after Sister Mandowa died in 1922. Stenographers. This gave rise to a storm in the media . of course. The brothers had only their Bibles and Greek and Hebrew dictionaries. After a three-day struggle in which even the police had to intervene. She accepted it into an honest heart. A group of overly zealous women were anxious to do the priest's bidding. were also presen t. they did confess in a newspaper article: "We must admit that the Bible Students . 240 miles away. they were struck by their husbands with the very clubs they had taken to use on Brother Puchala. however. saying they had no more time. They tried everything possible to make his life difficult.184 1994 Yearbook The Bible Students were represented by Franciszek Puchala and two other brothers. After two hours or so. heard the truth from the Holy Scriptures for the first time. there were 69 persons present for the Memorial celebration in Krakow. arranged to be transferred from a rural area to Lodi so that he could have closer contact with the small group of interested persons there. The traditionally religious community of Krakow along with the surrounding area was forced to sit up and take notice. Giving a Bold Public Witness in 1:. and he was later hauled into court several times. The Jesuits came equipped with two large suitcases full of books.6di At first the activity of the Lodi group was rather limited as to any public witnessing. the problems involved with her funeral marked a turning point. never forgave Brother Puchala for publicly undermining the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. Although never publicly conceding defeat. and the group meeting with her was supported by brothers who occasionally came by train from Gdansk. Upon returning home." The entire discussion was published in a book let entitled Bitwa na niebie (The Battle in the Heavens).. During a sermon in the village of Wawrzenczyce. a priest incited the people to attack Brother Puchala with wooden clubs when he came to give a discourse. are not totally ignorant. he faithfully built his life around it until the end of his earthly course in 1971. Mrs.

pride later became a stumbling block for him . Later. later. That same year. By th e time he left Poznan in 1922. And in 1924. at 18 years of age. by 1924 attendance at the Memorial celebration in Poznan had risen to 91. Zealously he rented halls in Poznan at his own expense and gave encouraging Bible discour ses.000 inhabitants was too small. he con tacted a group in Poznan who were reading th e books written by C. Hundreds. as the disciple James expressed it. he became an outright opposer of his former brothers.186 1994 Yearbook cemetery. he devoted himself to Jehovah's service. he . Future growth seemed assured. but soon even the largest theater in that city of 500. He had learned the truth before 1914. During the next few years. if not thousands. the con gregation had grown to some 20 regular members' T hen Brother Kacki moved from Warsaw in order to care for the congregation in Poznan. T. As a result. as well as 625 who attended in 13 other Polish cities and towns if we count only groups where at least 20 person s were present. curious to find out what the Bible Students really believed. In 1918. At first these were large enough. small groups were meeting in private homes to study the Bible and Bible-based literature. there were 281 in Warsaw. T hough not yet baptized. the public talks and the smaller meetings were held in both Polish and German. he was about to go to Paris for university training. at a time when . Teofil Szmidt got bapti zed and also became a servant in Poznan's first congregation . Russell. the attendance at the Memorial had jumped from 25 persons in 1922 to 92 in 1924. Meanwhile. From then on. 1:22) Nonetheless. delivered by a brother from Gdansk. The Year 1925-A Time of Division Although Brother Kasprzykowski had performed valuable service in behalf of the brothers after World War I." He got satisfying information on two subjects that had been of concern to him for a long time: Christ's return and the end of the world . There in 19 14 he heard about the Bible Studen ts and went Poland 187 to see the "Photo-Drama of Cre ation. Such large crowds wanted to see it that. About one thousand persons attended the funeral. of th ose who attended these public talks in L6di were. Teofil Szmidt had left his home near Radoms ko and moved to Germa ny to find work. "hearers only" but not "doers of the word. Since many of the people in L6di were of German and Jewish origin. When The Watch Tower began to emphasize ever more pointedly the responsibility of each one to share in preaching the good news. as a gifted sculptor." (jas. On that occasion about 200 were present. Instead. The Scriptural talk. Public Meetings Bring Growth in Poznan In 1910. during a visit by Brother Kujat from Berlin." a film that had just begun to be shown in Poland in the early 1920's. public discourses were arranged more frequently and were advertised in the newspapers. he took the lead in the stud y sessions there and cont inued to make progress. he was zealous about organi zing public meetin gs. the brothers had to repeat the showings many times. The complete program consisted of four two-hour presen tations. was the first public witness ever given in L6di. despite having engaged the biggest halls. Movie theaters were rented for these meetings. At this time the brothers were concentrating on th e new work of inviting people to see the "Photo-Drama of Creation. the brothers in L6di had a beautiful hall to use for the ir first convention. after having remodeled an unused factory in the center of the city. But serious trials of faith lay ahead. after moving back to the part of Poland then controlled by Prussia. His resenting counsel was an early evidence of this pride.

Phil. preferred to rerum to the field. after a year. Three of these opposition groups exist till this day. making good use of the Golden Age magazine (now Awake!).' as outlined in the Scriptures. Throughout the country. returned to the organization. had been registered in Warsaw as a member of the original corporation of Bible Students. This was of great help to the brothers "in the defending and legally establishing of the good news. did not like office work and. 1:7. though he was a fine speaker. who had learned the truth before World War I. Then Brother Szwed was put in charge of the office in Warsaw. but they were sharply divided. 24: 14. which began publication in Polish in 1925. Some of the places where they arranged for public talks were as far as 90 miles away. During this difficult time. Out of about 300 brothers. so the situation was deadlocked. upon seeing the spirituality and zeal of this small group in L6di. Nevertheless. Poland 189 Following these crises. as the years passed. A modest man named Calka. only 30 continued loyal to the Society. but at this critical moment. There were more obstacles. He also consented to hand over his plenipotentiary authority to Wilhelm Scheider . The authorities refused to consider the idea of a third group. But Jehovah listened to the prayers of his loyal servants and provided a solution. but after a year he was replaced by Waclaw Narodowicz.188 1994 Yearbook found willing ears among those who wanted to do no more than listen. Kasprzykowski and his followers. Many indecisive or confused ones. Brother Wnorowski was sent to Poland. the brothers loyal to the Society had no legal agency through which they could arrange public lectures. and now even Bible Students Association Group II was under the control of apostates. he tired of the situation and returned to America. -Matt. only 3 brothers and 6 sisters loyally continued to meet together for study of God's Word with the help of the Watch Tower publications. Soon other congregations were engulfed. but after a year or so. For a while the Warsaw Congregation continued to make a pretense of unity by meeting together. They also shared in the field service. Many of these became spiritually weak or fell away after that year passed. various opposition groups were actively trying to gain control of the congregations or at least to weaken them. it became obvious who had God's blessing and were 'preaching the good news of God's Kingdom. Of some 150 persons in L6di. That summer the congregation in L6di took the lead in following the Society's instructions to arrange for "missionary" groups to witness in distant territories. who. The situation came to a head at the time of the Memorial in 1925. much less assemblies. Nevertheless.-Matt. During that period. At one time he had stumbled spiritually. yet there were positive results too. he took the initiative to renew his association with the congregation. the work being done under the direction of "the faithful and discreet slave" had to start almost anew.". 24:45-47. The Work Gains Greater Stability The situation in Warsaw did not offer promise of being quickly normalized. the problems were not over. there were some whose motivation for serving God was considerably influenced by the belief that they would receive their heavenly reward by 1925 at the latest. The original corporation was in the hands of opposers. In 1927 the Society sent to Poland a pleasant and capable brother who had visited congregations in the United States .

When travel restrictions made it impossible for the brothers in Germany to give further help in Poland. Paul Balzereit was dispatched from the Society's office in Germany to find someone in Poland who would work along with the office in Germany in caring for Jehovah's servants in Poland . The congregations were told . the space that was being rented for the office in Warsaw was no longer adequate. in 1928. A temporary office was set up the re in the congregation's meeting place. But by the time he returned to Ame rica. in L6di." A Time for Sifting Meanwhile. but only 76 of these had reported any share in preaching the good news. Memorial attendance had been 1. he well realized that closer contact with the Society's headquarters was needed. not to sit down with the Lord in the vineyard. Steady growth was now evident. Finally. Switzerland. in 1932. Ludwik Kuima. in Bern. these congregations organized weeks of increased activity. general supervision of theocratic activities in Poland was put under the Society's Central European Office. so Brother Balzereit asked Wilhelm Scheider. Brother Rutherford decided to make certain organizational adjustments. if he would accept the assignment. At that time. In 1927. By the end of 1928.190 1994 Yearbook and France as a pilgrim. In 1929. a suitable building was found at 24 Rzgowska Street. some of the colporteurs were transferred to southeastern parts of Poland to share Kingdom truths with the Ukrainians there. the L6di Congregation was taking a fine lead in the field ministry. who was then a translator of the Golden Age magazine. Said the 1930 Yearbook: "More and mor e the brethren recognize that they are called. and this time he did. and 256 publishers had been regularly reporting activity. Poland 191 Wilhelm and Amelia Scheider soon after they began their Bethel service in Poland From time to time . Brother Scheider was asked to accept the assignment. However. This brother. Brother Scheider humbly suggested Edward Rudiger. Consequently. So it was decided to move the office to Lodz. everything :va~ too expensive . The search for something else in that city brought no results. Since Brother Narodowicz had left the Warsaw office. Again. and Brother Rudiger did care for the responsibility for almost a year. for the first time. Martin Harbeck went to Poland. there had been 24 congregations organized for service. encouraged many to zealous activity. but to wor k with him . In 1929 the number of congregations organized to preach the Kingdom message reached 40. in accordance with Society instructions. once again to locate someone qualified to serve as overseer for the Polish field. From there.101 persons. and in 1930 there were 55.

eternal torment. Brother Scheider represented the Society. He had a Ph. previously so willing to sacrifice. was attended by a large crowd. even though he had other buyers. The owner agreed to postpone payment. This was a time when the truthfulness of Isaiah 54: 17 was repeatedly demonstrated-yes. and said that never again would he allow himself to get involved in such a case. He solicited money to obtain an office location in Warsaw and asked that the money be given to him. who was serving as a pilgrim.D. 2: 14. (2 Pet. with blasphemy by means of printed material. A Catholic priest named Janke was called to testify. It was a time when "unsteady souls" who followed men. were sifted out. even though the stepsister had not been favorably disposed toward the truth. and was a teacher of religion in the local high school. had been traveling throughout Poland arguing that the office should be left in Warsaw and should again be under his management. Jan 5mieszko. The trial. shook his hand. 15) A big factor in this involved the activity associated with adoption of the name Jehovah's Witnesses. who was tried for blasphemy in this courthouse in Chojnice. Narodowicz did cause many brothers to become disturbed. Once again the brothers were informed of the situation. Immortality of the soul. because the 1930's-and the years thereafter-proved to be years during which Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland had to fight for survival. Afterward. Soon it became apparent. An instance of this that received much publicity took place in Chojnice. Sister Scheider was able to borrow the needed money from her comparatively wealthy stepsister. They also demanded that the people turn in any literature received from the Bible Students so that it could be publicly burned. why the congregations had been hesitant about providing funds to buy a building in L6di. But those who remained with the organization gave evidence of the genuineness of their love for Jehovah. The public prosecutor's office there charged Brother Smieszko.192 1994 Yearbook what funds would be needed in order to obtain it. Janke. Wadaw Narodowicz. Jehovah provided help from another source. and purgatory were among the subjects discussed. Why? Before the answer came to light. many 'weapons were formed' against Jehovah's servants. Although failing in his objective. however. Again there was no response. approached Brother Scheider. especially in the press. instead of clinging to Jehovah and his organization. Not everyone wanted to witness. in 1933. but the brothers. This was important. a local pioneer. He later turned apostate. acknowledging defeat. Three days before the payment deadline. . Mr. the priest who testified against him admitted defeat Attacks and Counterattacks The Roman Catholic clergy resorted with increasing frequency to slander against Jehovah's servants. but none of these succeeded in stamping out true worship. failed to respond.

a mob of 2. Mieczyslaw Skrudlik. and the editor was punished. the clergy. repeatedly so. They were permitted to keep some of the contributions received for literature. Angrily they shouted: "The Lord Jesus was a Pole and a Catholic!" Still. Ludwik Kinicki. the brothers sometimes succeeded in having the actual perpetrators punished. Poland 195 Blessings of Proper Organization Especially from the late 1920's onward. In the meantime. they often slept in a haystack or on straw spread over the floor in a barn. the Witnesses continued to show zeal in searching for sheeplike ones. and they walked many miles because only a few had bicycles. and stones. and in some instances they had very little additional income. Less often they were able to bring to justice the real instigators. Stefan Milewski recalls mentioning that by birth Jesus was a Jew. One of these zealous and self-sacrificing brothers. In wintertime.455 copies of The Golden Age. placed 177. is still remembered by many old-timers. Regional service directors. A longtime pioneer. falsely accusing them of being covert Communists who sang Bolshevik songs. opposers attacked them. he moved several times and could no longer be located. destroying Bible literature and leaving the Witnesses bloody or unconscious on the ground. and 87. Gladly they preached even in remote ~ territories where there were no congregations. Congregations were assigned specific field service territories. and he barely escaped a beating. The pioneers-some 30 to 50 at the time-also displayed a spirit of self-sacrifice. During a conversation with a group of villagers. In 1932 they spent 103. Attacks by the clergy were not all verbal. The people were indignant. The stones that had come through the roof filled six carts when gathered up! In an attempt to ward off this wave of persecution. beaten. Boleslaw Zawadzki. Witnesses traveling to distant territories to preach were intercepted. 2. greater help was given to the congregations in connection with the field ministry. their bicycles and motorcycles were smashed. were trained in the Soviet Union. and ducked in water. The opposers used fists.323 hours in the ministry. a Jesuit. wrote in his memoirs that when a meeting was being held at his parents' home in Kielce.505 books and booklets. their literature was confiscated and destroyed. This led a Warsaw newspaper to comment: "The Bible Students in Poland could hardly number more than 600. and received payment from there. frequently had little knowledge of the Bible or of secular history.194 1994 Yearbook The Krakow newspaper IlustrOUJany Kurier Codzienny (Illustrated Daily Courier) joined in the attack upon the Witnesses. feet. Not until long after midnight did the "game" end. sent to visit each congregation. They and their henchmen also resorted to violence. the brothers took the newspaper's responsible ones to court. sticks. however. Three times he asked that the case be postponed. personally published booklets that slandered the Witnesses. This arrangement was helpful and refreshing. shouting people surrounded the house and hurled stones. But when he was taken to court. not only gave talks but also trained the brothers in the field ministry. although good-hearted. Wheelbarrows were used to bring up fresh supplies.000 angry.101 Bibles. and of this small number there appears to be so much agitation as is not .000. When the Witnesses engaged in their house-to-house ministry. he claimed that he was ill. with their coat as a covering. The people they met. In this instance.

favorable decisions. Consequently. and declared that Jehovah's Witnesses were taking the same stand as did the early Christians. Once the grades were entered on school records.000 cases in which the clergy denounced the Witnesses to the police. there were lawyers who made themselves available to defend the brothers. when the brothers were in court. many congregations operated "Sunday schools" for several years. After much effort by the brothers. the clergy resorted to another. In 1933 about 100 cases of police stopping publishers were reported. There were also 41 instances of severe beatings at the hands of fanatical mobs. violating the Sunday sabbath. the state attorney of the court of appeal of Poznan refused to prosecute a Witness who was . Some public officials clearly discerned the religious intolerance that motivated charges against Jehovah's Wit nesses. In accord with the instructions provided. demanded acquittal. The charges they leveled against the Witnesses were always the same: spreading Communist propaganda. In another case. When charges based on one ordinance did not bring results . the Society issued cards stating the individual's authorization to preach on the basis of freedom of conscience and religion . soliciting without a license. the child could be promoted. rejected the charge of blasphemy. at that time the number of active Witnesses numbered only about 600! But in the eyes of some onlookers." Actually. Two years later. the little one had already become a thousand. and another. But the Society's office provided them with legal counsel. For Witness children who attended public schools and who were often I A group of Witnesses in southern Poland " ready for activity. others resulted in acquittal. The brothers could not afford to hire lawyers every time they were arrested. most of them were dropped as being without substance. the state attorney of the court of appeal in Torun. and cases that set valuable precedents. they emphasized the preaching of the good news of God's Kingdom instead of stressing legal technicalities. The Struggle Intensifies The Catholic clergy continued to exert pressure on the authorities to stop the Witnesses. But even before the cases came to trial. It sent them hundreds of documents with information about appeals. Thus.-Compare Isaiah 60:22 . the Society issued special certificates. in 1933 not promoted from one class to the next because of their refusal to attend obligatory religion classes. and another.196 I 994 Yearbook observed in any other religion . and blaspheming the church and its teachings. the Ministry of Education and Religious Denominations enacted a decree obliging school authorities to accept these certificates. For a few serious cases. however. in a case involving a Witness. These verified that the child had taken a religious course in his own religious community and had received such and such grades. there were 3. To counteract charges of peddling.

. the minister of the inWhen "Zloty Wiek" (The terior imposed a ban on The Golden Age) was banned. So. the brothers undertook printing it in L6di. Trying to Stop the Flow of Literature Again and again." began reproducing it in mimeographed form. Our brothers. . and political aims of the Roman Catholic Church. After appealing this decision. At this time. the Witnesses went ahead * Catholic Action refers to gro ups of Catholic laity. One of their objectives was to confiscate all Watch Tower literature." This agency. organized to further the religious. * set up "An Office Against Religious Minorities. Entitled Nowy Dzien (New Day). following many confiscations ordered by the censorship office. the brothers did not give up." (Compare John 8:44. Despite the risk of being caught. until. When possible. was sentenced to a year in prison. On October 1 of that same year. a ban was imposed on the magazine itself.198 1994 Yearbook charged with referring to the clergy as part of "Satan's organization. Poland 199 1936.-Acts 5:29. which fearlessly exposed religious hypocrisy.I In the meantime. Those who opposed the Witnesses finally succeeded in blocking all importation of The Golden Age from Switzerland. under the direction or mandate of a bishop. It was printed in Warsaw until the outbreak of World War II. systematically worked its own people into the highest governmental offices. determined to "obey God as ruler rather than men. which was used by Jehovah's Witnesses along name to "Nowy Dzien" with the Bible in their con(New Day) gregation meetings. The last issue of The Golden Age was dated September 1. There was nothing in The Watchtower that was subversive. but the Catholic clergy did not want it to be circulated in what they viewed as their domain. backed by Catholic Action. in turn. Each time the clergy brought pressure to bear on a printer so that he would no longer work for the brothers. social. It might have seemed to the opposers that they had achieved their aim. However.) He himself pointed to the papal court of Alexander VI. and his successor once again permitted TheGolden Age to be imported and to be circulated by mail. however. Bishop Jasinski from Lodz. they found someone else who was glad to do it. in 1930 they persuaded the minister of the interior to cancel our postal rights for the Golden Age magazine. it continued to publish articles that exposed corruption and religious hypocrisy and that upheld Bible truth. in 1933. He then contrasted this with the fine conduct of Jehovah's Witnesses and their zeal in serving Jehovah. the minister was forced from office. For example. the brothers kept right on publishing The Golden Age until the ban was upheld and Augustyn Raczek. the brothers changed the Watchtower. it was replaced by a new magazine printed in Warsaw. from which it was well-known that a grossly immoral spirit had spread out. the clergy manipulated government officials to do their bidding. the clergy endeavored to cut off the flow of literature that Jehovah's Witnesses were using in their activity. in 1937. the magazine's editor. This happened repeatedly. But only a few weeks later.

for its congregations. the authorities sealed shut the doors of our Lodi office. The western section was annexed by the German Reich . Catholic Action was responsible for violence against the Witnesses in 75 instances. the police had overlooked an emergency exit in the literature storage room . In add ition to the literature in Polish. and 250 phonograph records. remembering . For examp le.. But who was behind the action? Rather than secular laws. So day by day. the re were also pub lications in Ukrainian. each with a number of congrega tions . many books. Poland was divided into three regions . brot hers were murdered. canonical laws of the Catholic Church were often used to press charges. [ozef Wlodarczyk from the Lublin area accepted 12.200 1994 Yearbook and published two new brochures. . when there were no new deliveries. So it was decided not to pursue the matter further in the courts but to trust in Jehovah and to press forward in other ways. Bethel workers removed Bible literature. Publications could no longer be sent by post or by railway courier. The brothers in the field who leheartedly cooperated in storing up large qua nti ties of the literature for use in the troublesome times ahead. The last report dispatched from Poland indicated that there were 1. eventually tons of it. 500 "New Testame nts. he said. the minister of the interior would make sure that their activit ies throughout the country were strongly restricted. Other brothers did the same. 1938." That is certainly how the publishers in the 121 serviceoriented congregations felt about it. Ger man. and later Lviv. some 800 publishers were reporting. The midd le part. and even if the Witnesses won the case.000 booklets. Each zone was supervised by the most zealous local brothers and was responsible for mimeographing literature. The Witnesses wanted to appeal to a higher court. when sealing our office. especially The Watchtower. The "spirit of the times" had changed. Literature was confiscated in 129 instances. and distributed it to the congregations. Of 263 court cases. The 1938 Yearbook report noted: "All the Lord's people in this land are determined to carryon the witness work regardless of whether it pleases men or not. but the brothers fought successfully to have it returned in 99 cases. Russian.0401 But the opposers were determined to strike a lethal blow. Undoubtedly they thought they had done it when on March 22. and Yiddish. T hey divided the country into zones. Lublin. Krakow. which he th en carefully concealed. 99 ended in acquittal and 71 in sentencing. How would they fare? During the occupation.039 publishers. Penalties were imposed by the authorities. It would be hard to find better proof that the whole campaign was carried out under the direction of the Catholic hierarchy. including the cities of Warsaw. This organizational system successfully met the challenge later presented by the chaos of war. 500 Bibles. was called the General Gouvernement and was put under German administration. 1939. War Strikes! World War II erupted on September 1. and during Memorial month there were 1. On a monthly average. in 2 of these. both senders and recipients were liable to punishment. The 1938 ban gave the brothers more than a year to prepare for carrying on the work underground during the difficult years of World War II. . but a favorably disposed high officialconfidentially told them that it would be in vain. The rest were postponed. This was the only "fresh food" that the congregations received. Poland 201 As it happened." 500 son gbooks. that 'we must obey God rather than man. and thi s pro d most useful during the war. During 1937.

the brothers suffered in many other cities and smaller towns also. For example. In L6di the Gestapo arrested Brother Scheider and many others and put them into camps. To be found with a single issue of The Watchtower or to be foun d in th e same ph otograph wit h a Witness was taken as proof that a person was a criminal. Of course. a mountain resort of about 6. (4) Franz Schipp. 7. On the third day. From Poznan 69 brothers and sisters were sent to German camps. especially on the back and in the kidney region. 3 years The eastern part was annexed by the Soviet Union.202 1994 Yearbook A few of those who proved their faith in prisons and concentration camps: (1) Paulina Woelfle. she. (3) Harald and Elsa Abt. For them. The brother prayed to Jehovah for relief. dropped his whip. But he endured despite attempts to force him to denounce other brothers and to betray organizational matters. his swollen and battered body reacted to the blows with excruciating pain . In the western section. 2: 10) One brother relates that he was relentlessly beaten for many hours. Jehovah Did Not Forsake His People That the Creator protected his people during this time of severe persecution is evident. Those who refused to betray their brothers or to sign a declarati on renou ncing their faith were sent to concentration camps. The Witnesses as advocates of God's Kingdom were viewed as foes. What had happened? Several days later the brother spotted this man in the corridor with a bandaged hand. . Fellow prisoners told the brother that the agent had broken his forefinger-evidently while flogging. the German Gestapo arrested anyone known to be one of Jehovah's Witnesses. 5 years. The ill-treatment was repeated the next day. 22 were killed. Even the Poland 203 persecutors marveled at the loyalty of these servants of Jehovah. Despite this. only this time it was much worse . even for death. and departed. Its zeal spread to neighboring territories and he lped to rebui ld the organization in western Poland. (2 ) Jan Otrfbski. Brutal means were used to force W itnesses to d ivulge th e na mes and addresses of their spiritual brothers and sisters. Very few compromised. so many people in Poznan learned the truth during the war that afterward a strong congregation emerged. 51 brothers and sisters were taken to concen tra tion ca ps. Suddenly the Gestapo agent who was flogging him broke out in a fit of swearing. he. 4 years. fro m Wisla. victory depended not on survival but on faithfulness -until death if necessary.000 inhabitan ts at that time. Only 13 returned. Conditions differed from one region to another. The totalitarian Nazi system dealt cruelly with anyone not totally submissive to it. (Rev. 14 years.

and new groups sprouted like mushrooms. including youths. German police in Warsaw caught Stefan Milewski and Jan Gontkiewicz when they were mimeographing. The reply often opened the way to discuss spiritual matters. They met together in small groups to study the Bible and TheWatchtower. In December 1942. Many people. In the General Gouvernement T he situat ion in the central and southe rn parts of Poland was differe nt. Various methods were used to smuggle master copies of th e literature. all of them.204 1994 Yearbook The Witnesses who managed to avoid arrest did not let themselves be scattered. Rom. so while always taking precautionary measures. our brother simply could not hold back. Bydgoszcz. he had died in the concentrat ion camp at Gusen . And as for their opposers. maintaining con tacts with Poznan. where they discovered that wartime experiences had changed former att itudes. people were easily intimidated. Fritz Otto took an active part in the underground work in L6di throughout this period of occupation. In the late fall of 1940. so a brother prepared to express a few words of consolation at the home of the deceased. T hey were promptly sent to th e concentration camp at Majdanek and then to Buchenwald. about the possibility of buying something. Sometimes the opportunities to witness were unexpected. However. who was supervising the activity of Jehovah's W itnesses in the entire area known as th e General Gouvernement. Upon seeing them.-Job 31:14. and Gdansk. the brothers exercised great caution in inviting people to meetings or in introducing them to other interested ones. Two years later . Sometimes even German soldiers whose families were in the tru th unknowingly served as couriers when they returned to the eastern front after being ho me on leave. the brothers worked vigorously. but in rural areas. communication was never shut down for very long. From then on. had remained unwaveringly loyal to Jehovah. Some congregations organized witnessing excursions to remote villages. There were many heartrending experiences too. he was arrested . He had previously expressed his desire to be buried by Jehovah's Witnesses . To prevent needless problems. They prepared stenci ls for The Watchtower in Warsaw. Preaching in cities was usually done informally. he spoke about the Scriptural hope for the dead. took over their duties. The literature that the . Jehovah blessed them. At that. Katowice district. Austria. 14:12. then they mimeographed or copied these by hand. Although the line of communication was occasiona lly cut by adversaries. Had the enemy won? By no means! T hose Poland 205 brothers. were now eager to listen. But the Witnesses were zealous. and by the end of the year. in 1944. There the officials did not hunt down and persecu te Jehovah' s Witnes ses qu ite as fur iously. using the primitive duplicating devices that were available. The magazines that they received usually came from brothers in Germany. the Witnesses always held their funerals on Sundays so that as many people as possible might hear the Bible's message. died . these had been given opportunity to demonstrate before the heavenly Judge their attitude toward rulership by God . Everyone was suspicious of everyone else. in order to avoid attracting undue attention. for example. for more than an hour. the publishers began to engage in house-to-house work again even before the war ended. an interested perso nrin Wojkowice Komorne. the n the respons ible ones in each zone did the mimeographing. Ludwik Kinicki. especially around Lublin. they would start their conversation by asking. During this time of terror. But a large crowd gathered in the cemetery.

and to hang "holy" images on their walls. However. and new congregations were formed . bringing a new trial of faith. Jan Sadowski (as seen then and now) seized the opportunity to witness at length to a large crowd in this cemetery German-occupied Bialystok. but this proved to be extremely difficult. at the instigation of Catholic priests. Under this influence. for example. Some families experienced such attacks repeatedly. and replaced it with a white flag. This meant that about half of our publishers. . they were soon being urged to engage in activities that were merely the idea of an individual. women. a group of disoriented publishers swept down on the military headquarters in In 1940. its goal was to help the brothers adapt to their new situation.-Matt. A number of brothers were forced to go into hiding in order to stay alive. They tried to establish contact with the organization through Slovakia. A Final Test Before the Postwar Era Just before the end of the war. 110:3) This "new deal" spread from Lviv by way of Lublin as far as Warsaw. their spirituality was threatened by a lack of fresh spiritual food. The intruders plundered and destroyed. not looking to "the faithful and discreet slave" for direction. Satan endeavored to stop this expansion of pure worship. instead of being counseled simply to apply carefully what is stated in God's Word. and children were beaten and ordered to cross themselves. were cut off from the rest of the organization. It stressed the need of being separate from the world and of leading a life in "splendors of holiness. Although they were zealous. As the eastern front drew ever closer. They were arrested and executed that very same day. Men. going beyond what is written in the Scriptures and beyond the example set by Christ and his apostles. Of course. including Polish and Ukrainian as well as a few Russian and Jewish Witnesses. removed the swastika from its roof. A "New Deal" in the Soviet Sector A large section of eastern Poland had been annexed by the Soviet Union in September 1939. to kiss the cross. One way that he did so was by making use of guerrilla groups. Thus it was that a number of congregations became involved in a "new deal. As Christian neutrals. 24:45. people were ordered to dig antitank trenches." (Ps.206 1994 Yearbook Poland 207 brothers still had was put to good use. a new challenge faced the brothers." Initially. began fighting not only the German occupation forces but also the Witnesses. Some of them. The brothers' homes were raided at night. These events were a painful reminder of what can occur when an individual takes too much on himself.

208 1994 Yearbook Jehovah's Witnesses could not conscientiously participate. Soon additional volunteers offered to help with the work. a Polish brother was returning home from a Poland 209 meeting. Brothers lived in dugouts and cellars. Finally the years of occupation ended. A circuit overseer relates that. Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland had successfully met severe tests. The struggle went on for two hours. but the sisters protested. new literature could be received only when someone was able personally to bring it from abroad. Yet. they took up the tasks that lay ahead. were now living in areas annexed by the Soviet Union. ready to press ahead with public proclamation of God's Kingdom. and stencils were dispatched to each zone. this too served as a witness because others became aware that Jehovah's Witnesses had a faith so strong that they would rather die than abandon their God. though. and this publicly. intent on shooting him. after arriving there in 1947. however. were at peace. 11:32. the Witnesses engaged in field service with enthusiasm. he ran over a mile barefoot through the snow to the home of a Ukrainian brother. Dozens of them. the Teresin Congregation often increased by 15 to 20 new .500 publishers. when they encountered Ukrainian guerrillas . were seen in the eastern part of the country. The contrast between Jehovah's servants and others of the populace was evident. The increased interest in the Kingdom message was very apparent in some places. Nevertheless. however. Jan W~sikowski reports: "What a joy for the brothers returning from the camps in 1945 to see th at a small body of Witnesses had grown to the encouraging total of about 600 Kingdom publishers! Out of one active city congregation. were relocated to the east. but first they tore off the brother's clothes and burned them. within the new Soviet borders. three were formed . And Jehovah moved the hearts of others to support the work with material contributions. Clad only in his underwear. he saw not only burned-down houses but entire settlements that had been destroyed . Living conditions were extremely difficult." The most amazing developments. they will impart understanding to the many"!-Dan. The Polish and Ukrainian Witnesses. there were numerous outbursts of hatred between the Poles and the Ukrainians living in the eastern and southern parts of the General Gouvernement. {John 13:35) Most Ukrainians. But whenever literature did arrive. In 1939 there had been just 1. Unfortunately. because the public postal system was not yet functioning . in numbers even greater than before the war. Finally the guerrillas relented. In time he was able to arrange to use the property at 24 Rzgowska Street in L6di once again. some new in the truth. they will prevail and act effectively. 33. were shot to death.039. On one occasion. walking with three Ukrainian sisters. About half of these. Moving Ahead With the Lord's Work Those of Jehovah's Witnesses who survived the concentration camps returned in the spring of 1945. So during six year of war and occupation. Before this took place. Now. it was translated as soon as possible. During 1945 and 1946. And as regards those having insight among the people. The first postwar report revealed about 2. on the other hand. Among them was Wilhelm Scheider . Of Poznan. physically intervening on his behalf. there had actually been a 400-percent increase in the remainder of the country! How true the inspired words of the prophet Daniel had proved to be: "As regards the people who are knowing their God. including hundreds of our brothers. the congregations were growing at an astounding rate. With wartime restrictions gone. The guerrillas tried to seize the brother. and they refused to do so even under threat of death.

We met a man who was willing to exchange a cow for a single copy of the Bible! We brought him the Bible but. Many Poles who had lived in the eastern part of prewar Poland. In 1946 the Watch Tower Society invited Witnesses in the United States. but afterward each of us preached separately. as well as 250. the sister soon made contact with the German brothers. Later others joined them. and soon a congregation was formed. The people in these newly settled territories responded well to the truth. over 6. learning Polish was quite a task. of course. he was eager to get busy again. The congregation in Alojz6w had 190." Seeing the need for preachers of the good news in their . But help came quickly. On the other hand." Not all Witnesses of German origin who were living in Poland decided to return to Germany after the war. For some of them. he was totally exhausted. We did the first three houses together. Anyone with a personal copy of the Christian Greek Scriptures was fortunate. The Watchtower as well as booklets and other printed material continued to be reproduced in the zones into which the country had been divided. since there were so many German-speaking people in the area. the branch office tried to supply literature. Theirs was the first family of Witnesses to settle there. When he returned from wartime incarceration in a German labor camp. Imagine how grateful the brothers were! Hunger for God's Word on the part of people in postwar Poland was great. By 1946. Switzerland. But after a period of recuperation. But since the branch had no central printing facilities. But by taking the initiative to witness. Some publishers had only one Gospel account to use in the field service. At present. He moved his family to [elenia G6ra. Jan Pieniewski and his wife moved to Gorz6w Wielkopolski to serve. They seized the opportunity to send not only clothing but also cartons of Bibles! Shortly thereafter thousands of copies of the book "The Truth Shall Make You Free" arrived. Satisfying Their Spiritual Hunger Although the brothers had few material possessions. when a Polish sister and her family returned from France and settled near Walbrzych. . refrained from accepting the cow. .000 Kingdom publishers stood ready to help fill that need. there are nine congregations in that city. Brother Pieniewski recalls: "In February 1946 we started our house-to-house ministry. Similarly. One of the zealous volunteers serving in this area was Stanislaw Kocieniewski. they were the ones who felt like foreigners. visiting our neighbors first. who later became a traveling overseer. and even by 42 one month! By 1947 it already had 240 publishers.000 copies of the booklet Religion Reaps the Whirlwind. "What a joy!" she said. and Sweden to donate clothing for fellow believers in war-torn countries. New Fields of Activity A number of the Witnesses-both individuals and entire families-decided to move to an area that for years had been inhabited by Germans but that after the war was made western Poland. Canada. the brothers were soon being well supplied with basic spiritual food. also moved into this western area. My wife asked: 'When will we ever be able to cover the whole city?' . they felt that their principal need was for Bibles and Bible study aids. To the best of its ability. "We went with them in the house-to-house ministry. Even though the equipment was limited.210 1994 Yearbook publishers each month. visiting interested ones regularly and conducting Bible studies. which had now been annexed by the Poland 211 Soviet Union. But the Society helped them with their field ministry by preparing leaflets that presented the Kingdom message in both Polish and German.

But Jan Skiba recalls: "We used to go to many towns on foot. but the brothers were resourceful. Prior to this. and they took pleasure in using this gift to praise Jehovah. Conventions-Official and Unofficial The first two postwar conventions in Poland were unforgettable. Ev~n wood from boxes used by the Society for shipping was reclaimed. Or at times we would sleep somewhere in the straw. some of them organized amateur choirs and orchestras. In Poznan a hall seating 60 persons was already in use by late 1945. as soon as the Lodz officecould obtain the needed information. how to study Bible literature with interested people. When they performed before public lectures were given. so I started full-t ime service. now called the Theocratic Ministry School. when the congregations applied directions from the governing body. People manifested keen interest.783 Kingdom publishers! Provisions That Promoted Increase During World War II. Our brothers loved music. Our First Kingdom Halls Within a short time after the end of the war. During the early postwar years. despite postwar obstacles. Poland reported 6. or other public facilities were rented. many publishers started pioneering. Zofia Kusrnierz writes: "There were no Witnesses in the area. We would leave home at five in the morning. ." The territory was vast. meetings were held in private houses or apartments. was in the village of Bor6wek. certain brothers gave discourses on subjects of their own choosing. Others related experiences. . the brothers in Poland had no direct contact with the world headquarters of Jehovah's Witnesses. club rooms. A Course in Theocratic Ministry. the brothers began searching for buildings suitable to remodel for use as Kingdom Halls . held in June 1946. near Lublin. entire villages sometimes turned out to hear the talks . major emphasis had been put on literature distribution. As had to be the case in years gone by. About 1. No transportation was yet available. I spent five days a week in the territory . work till sundown."-Acts 16:5. "the congregations continued to be made firm in the faith and to increase in number from day to day. was unofficial in nature. Changes were made too in the congregation meetings. and how to report correctly. That two-day convention. The arrangement for visits by servants to the brethren (now known as circuit overseers) was outlined. Poland 213 was introduced. These organizational changes led to increased activity. had received only limited information about Witnesses living in German-occupied territories. walking 30 to 40 kilometers one way. What a joy it was for those present to see 260 persons symbolize by water baptism their dedication to do Jehovah's will! .500 persons attended. And as in the first century. so in modern times. movie theaters. Where necessary. which had the oversight of many European lands. Even the Swiss branch office. It is therefore understandable that the Polish Witnesses knew little about the organizational changes that had been introduced in other parts of the world. Within about a year after the end of the war. But the May 1946 Polish Informant (now Our Kingdom Ministry) explained how to make effective return visits. Sometimes I was able to help 20 persons a year to accept the truth. However. One. In March 1946.212 1994 Yearbook area." They were reaching places where nobody had ever preached the good news before. the Witnesses were preaching in every part of the country. When these were not available. and often return late at night. organized by the brothers according to what knowledge they had. Building materials were hard to get. the changes were quickly implemented.

214 1994 Yearbook Poland 215 Later that year. In some instances public auditoriums were available. 1947. Overseers and publishers alike treasured their help. their office in L6di was raided. and all the brothers working there were arrested. they visited the circuits and rendered practical assistance. Both spoke comparatively good Polish. faithfully served Jehovah in the branch office in Poland until the end of his earthly course in 1992. As part of the program to train brothers to fill various needs. stepped ashore at Gdynia from the ship Jutlandia. the assemblies were held on property belonging to the Witnesses. share with local Witnesses in the preaching work. or Urzqd Bezpieczenstwa (Office of Security). the Witnesses were devoting their efforts to helping people benefit from the Bible.6di As the organization expanded. This required that they train traveling overseers-brothers who would regularly visit the congregations. One who attended wrote later: "The two weeks at the branch office were unforgettable. Gilead-Trained Missionaries Arrive On March 19. Its overseer.300 persons. dozens of these assemblies were held throughout the country. Attendance was 5. Through that office an appeal was made to the Polish embassy in Bern. Daily I received what I needed the most. Only a few sisters were left. in September. Stefan Behunick and Pawel Muhaluk. But opposition to their activity did not cease even though they were now living under socialistic rule. As far as possible. Enthusiastic Polish Witnesses." Four from that group were invited to share in serving the congregations as traveling overseers. Raid on the Office in l:. gathered at Katowice for postwar convention in 1946 I The missionaries did not merely give counsel on organi zational matters but also kept busy in the field with the brothers. But one of the sisters was able to send a telegram to the branch office in Switzerland. a national convention arranged by the Society was held in Katowice. The first district encompassed the entire country. and they quickly got to work on the assignment that had been especially entrusted to them. and many remember it to this day.300 of them. 5. District work was inaugurated. two graduates of the Watchtower Bible School of Gilead. but when not. This program was especially designed to encourage the brothers to zealous and unified activity and to carryon their service to Jehovah in a way pleasing to him. with arrangements for regular assemblies in each circuit. and deliver helpful and encouraging discourses. During the next few years. As early as February 1946. pioneers were invited to L6di in 1947 for special courses. One of the more important of their duties was to organize the circuit and district work. At . Edward Kwiatosz. The building was put under 24-hour surveillance by guards from the UB.

4:9." How little they understood the principle of Christian neutrality! Interestingly. 15-year-old Henryka Zur from near Chelm accompanied a brother from her congregation to visit interested persons in a neighboring village. Both publishers fell into the hands of members of the Narodowe Sily Zbrojne who were staying overnight in the village. reports began reaching the branch office telling of vicious acts of bru tality against Jehovah's Witnesses in various parts of the country. when the Witnesses held a countrywide convention in Krakow. The brother was severely beaten but escaped with his life. The sister was horribly tortured for many hours.' (Matt. the following year. Meanwhile. They had not forgotten. her integrity . 7. the UB (Office of Security) tried to get the brothers to work with them in keeping the Catholic clergy under surveillance. the authorities were eager to be well thought of in other lands." suggested one of her tormentors. What they demanded was remarkably similar to what Satan wanted from Jesus Christ. for example. martyred three years after this photo because she would not make the Catholic sign of the cross In 1946. as a result of the influence of the Roman Catholic clergy. so within a week the brothers in Lodi were released. Otherwise a bullet awaits you!" Finally. as if they were the "common enemy. "Think inside whatever you want to. against Jehovah's Witnesses. Their activity was directed not only against the Communist government but also. Particularly ruthless in their opposition were the guerrilla squads of the Narodowe Sily Zbrojne (National Armed Forces). in 1948. 217 Henr>-ka Zu r. It was to be her last return visit. 10) These Catholic guerrilla squads demanded: 'Do just one act of worship to show you are a Catholic. nor did they let others forget. and the Bethel family that served there that time. "just make the Catholic sign of the cross. how severely they had been persecuted under Nazi rule.216 I 994 Yearbook Poland "The World Was Not Worthy of Them" Branch office at L6di. Satan urged: 'Do just one act of worship to me.' On March 1.000 delegates wore lapel badges similar in shape to the purple triangle that had identified Jehovah's Witnesses in the concentration camps.

Representing Poland's dominant religion. a mob of 30 people raided Jan Ziemcow's home in eastern Poland. That evening a gang surrounded their house and. "A 'Middle Ages' Bloody September" Catholic clergymen had inculcated in their flocks fanatic intolerance of anything that was not in line with the Catholic religion . the clergy inflamed their flocks by claiming that the Witnesses had come from all part of Poland to destroy local Catholic sanctuaries. a town about 70 miles from Warsaw. 1948. So determined was the mob to force Brother Kulesza into returning to the Catholic Church that they beat him to death. armed policemen. But hospital personnel." as they called the missionaries. Brothers Behunick and Muhaluk. . including the missionaries. under the influence of the nuns there. On June 12 another murder occurred. Poland 219 Of these modern-day Witnesses of Jehovah. refused to permit them to remain in the hospital.218 1994 Yearbook unbroken. into unconsciousness. where their wounds were dressed. they often took unfair advantage of school youths as well as of adults. they beat him into unconsciousness. waiting for the program to end so that they could get their hands on "the bishops. He found it difficult even to recognize the victims! After administering help. a large menacing crowd had gathered nearby. The faithful were called upon to defend their churches and their city. assigned to care for convention security. though severely beaten on that occasion. had gone to care for Brother Kadziela and his family. They mercilessly struck Brother Ziemcow with clubs and repeatedly ordered him to kiss a cross. entered the full-time ministry two years later and continues in that service to this day. By five o'clock in the afternoon. At first they tried to force the family to go to the local Catholic priest for confession and to obtain a certificate from him verifying that they had done so. they calmly sat down and ate supper before beating the rest of the family into unconsciousness. After committing this murder. In their efforts to force him to renounce the Bible and return to the Catholic Church. using them to commit acts of mob violence. Brother Kulesza and his family returned home. The Narodowe Sily Zbrojne had launched some 800 attacks against Jehovah's Witnesses in their homes. they literally beat him to death. who had been attacked the previous night. When the Witnesses left the hall. egged on by the local parish priest. mistreated the family for six hours. Less than three weeks later. Aleksander Kulesza. pulled the more aggressiveringleaders into cars and drove them as much as 20 miles out of the city before freeing them far from transportation routes. a mob of several hundred attacked.000 persons had been mistreated-60 of them murdered. On that occasion. When Jehovah's Witnesses held a district convention in Lublin in 1948. even as of Jehovah' s ancient witnesses: "The world was not worthy of them . A terrifying sight awaited him. When Bible truths were presented. 11:38. beating some. were present. after reviving him with cold water."-Heb. A crowd of religious fanatics attacked . little knowing that they had already been singled out as the next victims. Then. In 1947 a review of acts perpetrated against Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland to try to convert them to Catholicism revealed that 4. on the evening of March 18. the mob went mad. The missionaries. The situation was somewhat different on September 5. it can truthfully be said. from the Podlasie area. His son [erzy. when the Witnesses were attending a circuit assembly in Piotrkow Trybunalski. the young sister was dragged into a nearby forest and shot. The injured were taken to Holy Trinity Hospital.

She claimed they were not students at all but were Jehovah's Witnesses. This time the authorities were quick to react. We already have three districts. twice as many as in 1947 when we [missionaries] arrived. she said. Alt houg h none of the students were Jehovah's Witnesses. The Witnesses reassembled on the final day. Explanations were of no avail. the priest ordered the students to leave the church immediately . and stones. 1949. and desecrating tombs. and a baptism talk was delivered by a brother who had taken the place of or-e who had been arrested . Before the day was over. in 1949. When the brothers in charge continued. they were arrested.220 1994 Yearbook In itially the press made no mention of the incident. " as one magazine called it-something else happened in the same region. In May 1949. This episode at least slowed down th e attem pts of th e clergy to emp loy mob violence as a tool against th e Witnesses. and paintings located in the vicinity of Piotrk6w Trybunalski be cataloged. But shortly after the American embassy in Warsaw was supplied with details as to what had happened. another would step in to take his place. and 45 persons are working in the branch office. were arrested and sentenced to long prison terms. a dr amatic change in th e political climate was und er way in Poland. a parish priest's overly zealous housekeeper stormed into the church and began calling the students names. That afternoon about a thousand persons came to the public talk. There are 710 active congregations. profaning churches. In private notes about those years of service. go about breaking crosses. armed with clubs. There is greater cooperation between the congregations. sculptures.699 publishers. and house-tohouse preaching is continuing. in February 1946 an official in the district security office in L6di had endeavored to enlist the Witnesses as spies against the Catholic Church. When a secret police agent revisited the branch office four months later. Th ose coming into power sought to make religion subservient to the State. news services in the United States reported the mob action . and the stude nts began work in a local church. Brother Behunick wrote : "Now." he threatened upon leaving. the police ordered that th e pro ram be stopped. work in the branch is already better organized. a nearby town. But in Kamiensk. in other instances the police tried to disperse those who came to attend. hospitalizing six of them. Stefan Behunick and Pawel Muhaluk were forced to leave the country. during a circuit assembly near Chelm. Official H arassment Once again. stirring up public opinion. two years and four months after their arrival in Poland. A frenzied crowd. "Nobody can stop us. and in June we had 13. Rumor spread throughout nearby villages like wildfire. As soon as one was taken away. he again insisted that the brothers do the bidding of the police. including the parish priest and his housekeeper. bru tally beat the youths . Th e ministry obtaine d permission from ecclesiastical authorities. however. 27 different brothers had spoken! Missionaries Expelled On July 24. permission to hold certain assemblies was canceled. The inst igators. promising the best halls for meetings of Jehovah's Witnesses if they cooperated but warning of grave consequences if they did not." . who. Later on. The police arrested one speaker after another. Our activity is tolerated. Poland 221 As already noted. Less than three weeks later-almost like the second act in "a 'Middle Ages' Bloody September. A group of university students responded to a request made by the Ministry of Culture and Arts that the archi tectural relics. pitchforks. but the Witnesses had refused .

Poland 223 Pawel Muhaluk (left) and Stefan Behunick. Then they hid the mimeograph and other machines. That year. in accord with a new law on associations. Continuing to work at the branch under these circumstances required a great deal of courage." And suddenly. with 18. the Memorial of Christ's death was attended by 28. delivered in the hall of the district court in Lodz. Meanwhile. the Witnesses submitted to the authorities a proposed charter that described the Watch Tower Society's activity. by 1949. But documents dealing with the Witnesses' religious activity were confiscated. entering through a window. raided the l6di branch office.918 persons." The UB agents exhaustively searched the premises for evidence.222 1994 Yearbook Actually. At the same time. During this time they received letters from supposedly interested persons asking the brothers to meet them at certain locations in the city. They used up the entire supply of paper. he stated that religious minorities in the Soviet Union had unilaterally and voluntarily dissolved themselves and joined the church that was officially recognized by the State. as well as the files. these courageous servants of Jehovah began singing: "He that is faithful. more people were flocking into the organization. the others left the premises only in larger groups. was simply to lure the brothers out into the streets . Of course. nothing was found.116 publishers in 864 congregations reporting in March 1950. It was claimed that Bethel workers were spying for the United States and were "trying to overturn by force the government of the Polish People's Republic. The brothers were loaded into an open truck and driven through Lods. he that is loyal. Ten consecutive publisher peaks were reached. and sent out the literature. a large group of UB agents. never will give way to fear. The next day the Society's directors were arrested . After that happened. They began preparing to work underground." suggested a brother. the minister of justice had spoken on the subject "Religious Freedom in the Soviet Union. the activity of the Witnesses had been tolerated longer than anticipated." . in 1948. The real aim. "then let's sing. about 20 tons. 1950. On the evening of June 21. They asked that it be legally registered in accordance with the new legal situation. The guards mocked that it was like taking a holiday excursion . "If so. during the night of April 21. where some Bethel brothers were in fact kidnapped. Bethel was again raided ." During his talk. Jehovah's Witnesses understood this 'voluntary dissolving' of religious minorities in the Soviet Union to mean that a similar process would soon take place in Poland. ignoring the protests of the guards. A year earlier. however. This time almost everyone was arrested . What strong evidence that there were still many prospective worshipers of Jehovah in Poland! No Thought of Giving Way to Fear Then. missionaries expelled from Poland Those left behind at the branch decided t print as many magazines as possible and to distribute these to the congregations.

All had refused to sign the Appeal. For six days nonstop. They made him go without sleep for two weeks. VB Torture Chambers For many Witnesses this wave of arrests and investigations was the start of a long period of torture and suffering. 1950. the UB arrested and mistreated his wife and daughter. Understandably. The integrity of God's servants was . Attempts were also made to persuade the brothers to become UB informants. the Poland 225 branch secretary. "Even though you spent five years in a camp because of being against Nazism. on July 2. did the Office for Religious Affairs announce to the media its rejection of the application for registration of the Association of Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland. Two days later the cell was packed with brothers. Investigators tried to force them to confess to crimes of which they were not guilty. When he lost consciousness. all the while being beaten on the head and punched in the stomach. As a result. In a further attempt to force him to compromise." he was told . If they did not use them when provided. his skull caved in. He was locked in a dark dungeon with water reaching to his knees. First to arrive there was Wladyslaw Drabek from Poreba. the number who were able to report sharing in the field service temporarily dropped to half. 90 percent of what that source referred to as "the sect's members" came in for repressive treatment. after a few days. Altogether. Later he was transferred from L6di to Warsaw and then was thrown naked into a cramped dungeon for 24 days. His ribs and nose were broken. The same treatment was meted out to Harald Abt.-Compare Job 2:4. A lifetime would be too short to relate every example of mistreatment that Jehovah's Witnesses suffered after the mass arrests of 1950. But nothing broke his integrity. According to unpublished UB statistics. He could rest a little by sitting with bent knees on top of some timber in a corner. By administering beastly beatings. He was given nothing to eat and nothing to drink and once was forced to kneel for 72 hours at a stretch. lie down. we will still be able to prove you to have been a Gestapo man. and for refusing to bear false witness against their Christian brothers. Wilhelm Scheider was interrogated for eight days and nights without interruption.I get relief for himself. There he could not sit. for refusing to sign statements that were filled with lies. interrogators tried to force him to plead guilty to the charges they had fabricated. he suffered 32 days of ill-treatment. Many brothers were arrested. especially to acting in behalf of foreign intelligence services. But he was not intimidated into falsely accusing his brothers in order to . or stand erect. The arbitrary announcement stated that the organization was now dissolved and that its property was to be expropriated by the State. He was beaten on the heels with rubber clubs. This was called the "Roman treatment. From time to time. the water stank abominably. Edward Kwiatosz was brutally beaten and given no food for three days. he was doused with cold water until he revived." All of this they suffered simply for being Jehovah's Witnesses. Some brothers were taken to prison in Zawiercie in 1950 because they refused to sign the political Stockholm Appeal. Other brothers were mistreated similarly. Ruthless investigators threatened to hang him. they were not given a second chance . Not until after all of this. he was interrogated. were made to sit on a stool with a spike protruding from the center of the seat. Some of them.224 1994 Yearbook That same night the homes of hundreds of Witnesses throughout the country were searched. the guards gave the prisoners buckets in which to relieve themselves. when interrogated by their tormentors. Foes of God's Kingdom wanted to disband the organization and force Jehovah's Witnesses into silence. and an eardrum was perforated.

000 persons attended his funeral. Afterward he himself was forced to go into hiding in order to avoid arrest. he was summoned to UB quarters in Cieszyn for interrogation. In other cases. Faithful Even to Death Brother J. A Trial Behind Closed Doors Survivors of this inhuman treatment described attempts that were made to force them to testify against the Society's directors. they did not learn about the death of a loved one until many months had elapsed. was arrested in May 1952 in Szczecin. when the prisoners emerged from the vans. some died as a result of the inhuman treatment. Two brothers did break down under torture and Poland 227 let themselves be forced to give false testimony. He steadfastly refused to denounce fellow believers. in all parts of Poland. and a guard . (Additional cases later came to light. hoping by their presence to encourage their brothers to endure faithfully.226 1994 Yearbook severely tested. But before his death he managed to tell the doctor: "I was shot by the UB officer because I was faithful to Jehovah. From right to left in front row: Wilhelm Scheider. Wladyslaw Sukiennik." Other Witnesses suffered for years before death finally brought release. By 1956. But the UB also fabricated "evidence" of its own . Alojzy Prostak from Krak6w.) The corpses of these brothers were usually sent to the bereaved families in closed coffins. in August 1950. had died because of UB torture or because of having been refused medical care. the officials tried to get the defendants into the courtroom without their being seen. Acting at the suggestion of an attorney. his wife succeeded in having him released in 1954. By using paramedic vans. Despite the danger to themselves. he was so battered and exhausted that he had to be hospitalized. reports revealed that 16 brothers. other Witnesses of Jehovah gathered in front of the courthouse in large numbers. and not surprisingly. The brother who courageously delivered his funeral talk at the cemetery used the occasion to protest the sadistic methods UB agents used when interrogating the Witnesses. and after an hour this young servant of Jehovah died . which they were not permitted to open. However. Szlauer was only 20 years old when. which were driven into the inner courtyard. heavy sentences were imposed on Jehovah's Witnesses in 1951. Frustrated. A traveling overseer. a reminder to the defendant s that they were not alone . Using this. Harald Abt. the interrogator shot him twice during the inquiry. After two years of being held in custody in Warsaw and L6di. but he died a week later. they staged a trial in Warsaw behind closed doors from March 16 to 22. About 2. In this court in Warsaw. Edward Kwiatosz. 1951. children of our brothers who had been able to get close to the courtyard w 11 shouted words of encouragement.

The Court sentenced him to life imprisonment. one of the brothers died." As a result of the preaching done behind prison bars. Circuit overseers were appointed to carryon the work formerly done by those imprisoned. recalls: "A prison sentence was accepted as being a work assignment in territory not accessible to others. Some schools introduced military classes. The public prosecutor demanded capital punishment for Wilhelm Scheider. Their plan had been to rid Poland of Jehovah's Witnesses within two years. Three members of the Country Committee."-Acts 6:7. as well as other zealous brothers and sisters. thereby making a major contribution to the spread of the Kingdom message. True. a five-day trial began on March 10. The imprisoned brothers also organized small groups and arranged to hold short meetings daily. The other three directors were sentenced to 15 years apiece. After more than two years of preparation. and another. the rest to shorter terms. Angered by their failure. two district servants who had managed to avoid detention. They devised a communications system that proved effective for almost 40 years. many prisoners heard about Jehovah and his marvelous purposes. were sentenced to 12 years in prison each. They were given information from some of the talks delivered in New York during the 1953 international New World Society Assembly.9911 This was not what the security forces had expected. What Next? With loving concern for all the congregations. knockout blow. and attendance at marches or demonstrations was compulsory. the number preaching to others about God's Kingdom had increased to 19. But instead of becoming disheartened. Four members of the Country Committee. at school they were bombarded with atheistic ideas. despite constant harassment. During the months before the trial. were seized. . Plans were made for holding a show trial in L6di. and Wladyslaw Szklarzewicz. and by the end of 1952. imprisoned for the first time from 1952 to 1956 and released the fourth time in 1969. Political matters were often included in the curriculum. Those who resisted were mocked. Tadeusz Chodara. they plotted what they viewed as a final. "the number of the disciples kept multiplying. with due caution. began making plans to supply the brotherhood with spiritual food. In 1954.228 1994 Yearbook Seven brothers sat in the prisoners' dock: four members of the board of directors of the Society's legal corporation in Poland and three other brothers who for various reasons were viewed as important to the organization. along with several other experienced brothers. was released because of a serious illness he contracted while in prison. The result was the handing down of the severest verdicts since the Warsaw trial. a number of special meetings lasting several days were held with the pioneers. Even behind prison bars.many of these young Witnesses went into the pioneer service. Did that frighten other Witnesses into silence? Youths Demonstrate Faith and Courage Even young Witnesses attending school held firm to their faith. Zygfryd Adach. 1955. Poland 229 Jan Lorek. All were placed in a maximum-security prison. ". What a source of spiritual refreshment! How strengthening to be reminded in this way that they were part of the loving worldwide brotherhood of Jehovah's people! And what were the brothers in prison doing? Prisons-A Field for Evangelizing Wladyslaw Przybysz. Those who conscientiously objected to participation were usually expelled. A new wave of arrests ensued. several suffered nervous breakdowns.

The two brothers mentioned earlier who had given false testimony retracted it. But the Officefor Religious Affairs manifested no willingness to deal with convicts. Romuald Stawski remembers that in one prison the menu was changed so that the Witnesses were no longer tested by being given food containing blood . makeup. But there was more to it. tha t the only ones authorized to negotiate were the Society's imprisoned directors . Finally. so they engaged in it. Prison Doors Sw ing Open However. In the spring a district overseer from Krakow was released from prison and was told that the authorities were ready to negotiate with the Witnesses. and Jehovah's Witnesses accepted that guarantee. the congregations were being visited regularly by traveling overseers and were zealous in theocratic activity." The brothers understood that to . and at a rapid rate. some imprisoned since 1950. were being released. What had happened? More was involved than political changes. in May 1963. Kingdom Ministry.411. seven judges of the Supreme Court ruled: "Dissolving the religious association logically means the banning of every form of organizational activity but does not influence individual or private worship. when the brothers were in the field service. the other containing vegetable soup. in August 1956. One day two large food containers were bro ught into the cell. Soon. the imprisoned directors were inn ocent." Loyalty to Jehovah had won the day! Increased Activity in the Face of Legal Obstacles Once released. an increase of 87 percent! Later. The matter was given considera tion . Despite continuing difficulties. however. Included were three members of the board of directors and the members of the Country Committee who had been sentenced later. one full of blood sausage. and purpo se is kept hidden from the State in a shroud of mystery. Within three years the number of Kingdom publi shers had reached 37.230 1994 Yearbook Thanks to the exemplary behavior of the Witnesses. was provided for the brothers. there was also a gradual change in the attitude of some of the prison personnel. and on this basis the charges against the directors Poland 231 were formally dropped . The three brothers emphasized that they were interested on ly in getting information. and an official delegation of three bro thers was chosen to approach the Office for Religious Affairs. a well-informed agent of the security service acknowledged: "We see that making announcements about the court trials of Jehovah's Witnesses and about their propaganda has not weakened the organi zation but has had just the opposite effect. in 1972. The Polish Constitution officially guaranteed the freedom to practice religion. A second meeting also ended without apparent result s when the three brothers stressed that as far as the Witnesse s were concerned. The brothers patiently repeated their position in court and in letters that they or the ir legal representatives wrote to the authorities. the brothers promptly gave attention to the spiritual needs of the congregations and t the public preaching of the good news." the guard stressed." A new phase of the legal fight for religious freedom was about to begin. Wilhelm Scheider was also freed. many brothers and sisters. which is not punishable. Preaching from house to house was part of their worship. which offered fine coun sel on how to preach and how to make disciples. th e police arrested them "for being a part of " what was described as "an association whose existence. Still . Finally. "This [soup] is just for the Witnesses. by 1956 the official attit ude toward Jehovah's Witnesses began to change . Officials could see that Jehovah's Witnesses were growing in numbers.

so more copies could be made in less time." Poland 233 More was needed. A brother recalls: "The quality of print was poor and the number of copies small. One of their officers from Bydgoszcz bragged : "The . Security forces once discovered one of the Witnesses' "bakeries. more electric power was now required. they uncovered and put out of operation 34 of the Witnesses' literature production and distribution centers. 9:37) The number of active publishers increased rapidly. Newly started Bible studies were turned over to publishers from the neares t congregation. The workers were taken to court and charged. Later these became known as pioneer centers. usu ally consisting of a dozen or so persons. So in the late 1950's. Now the size of type could be photographically red uced. a Rotaprint offset press. a small machine. According to statistics of the security forces. among other things. Books were printed in addition to magazines. A kindly disposed manager of a small printery in Krakow showed our brothers how to use the machine and how to prepare aluminum stencils. It is apparent that it has had Jehovah's blessing. this charge was dropped.232 I 994 Yearbook mean that individual preaching from house to house was not to be considered illegal. Each grou p. was less positive. doing so even when they experience adversity. Now the W itnesses proceeded with even greater vigor in the work of the spiritual harvest . all of th is. If a location was discovered by the police. in tents. The situation in sparsely populated areas. It proved to be a success. near Gdansk. as a loving Father. than just the ability to reproduce some liter ature. These stencils were much more dur able. Then the brothers themselves proceeded to manufacture the necessary equipment. under the cover of darkness. Despite persecution. however. literature was delivered to the congregations on a fairly regular basis. To avoid arous ing suspicion. was obtained. But once the brothers proved that they had actually made anonymous payments for the power used. For example. Later a brother mastered the art of photochemical plate making -which he even learne d at the Polish Academy of Sciences. especially in large cities. the brothers arranged to bypass the electric meter. So the brot hers in southern Poland began organi zing auxiliary pioneer grou ps to be sent to territories where the need was greater. (Matt." as the printeries were called. This activity gained momentum as many pub lishers served as auxiliary pion eers at least on ce a year from the pioneer centers. But for the sake of conscience. T here were many problems. between 1956 and 1969. At first only very primitive manual mimeographing devices were available for reproducing Bible literature. th us getting more text on the same amount of hard-to-get paper. on th e other hand. and then the finished magazines had to be distributed. it mean t several years of imprisonment for the landlord and the workers . Progress in Supplying Spiritual Food Jehovah. also provides his people with spiritual food. There was a need to increase the quantity of what was printed and to improve the quality of the printing. with stealing electricity. often. Even today this method is sometimes used. Mimeographing required much paper . stayed in farm buildings belonging to the broth ers or. of course. later. others were added. An excellent witness was given. they made anonymous rem ittances to the power company. published in Poland in 1960. It had to be brought to where the work was done. the first book being From Paradise Lost to Paradise Regained.

An interested person began to be viewed as a publisher if he merely nodded when asked whether he had spoken to someone about the Kingdom hope as Jehovah's Witnesses do . when 84. Nonetheless.061 publishers reported. the slogan came into use: "Today interested. it was evident that the 1956 th aw was about to end . not even that many attend- Poland 235 Printing presses constructed and used by the Witnesses to print Bible literature when under ban. An unidentified "committee of twelve" circulated letters-using addresses taken from files of the security service-that viciously attacked prominent brothers. many new publishers failed to measure up to the Bible's requirements. Consequently. the authorities made attempts to destroy the unity of the Witnesses from within. but emphasis was placed on what the Witnesses believe and teach from God's Word . By the end of the 1950's. in March 1959. As a . There were outstanding increases. with Jehovah's support." Many of them were not even attending meetings. every Rotaprint confiscated meant a real loss. and a group of sisters who for many years risked their lives and freedom to print and deliver that literature ed the Memorial. Therefore. Enemies began publishing a counterfeit Watchtower containing information that slandered Jehovah's loyal servants . Sound legal arguments were presented. Thus. These complicated machines were not manufactured anywhere in Poland. but an unhealthy spirit of competition developed among some." This was quite an overstatement. the brothers took steps to coordinate the handling of their legal defense. But the sheep knew the voice of their Shepherd and could distinguish between truth and falsehood. Corrective measures were taken.559 of them! Coordinated Legal Action In view of the numerous court cases the Witnesses faced. It seemed appropriate to declare the good news on the greatest scale possible while it could still be done. finally leveling off at about 50. Could the Organization Be Weakened From Within? Because direct attack proved unsuccessful.000. tomorrow a publisher. But this time they were real publishers. 84. 3:5-7. Slowly the number of publish ers dropped . and because of State control it was very difficult to buy them. There were a few gifted and courageous attorneys who were willing to represent them .-John 10:27. Easily such a situation would weaken the spiritual strength of the organization. a large proportion of those we had-about 50 of them-were produced by our own brothers.234 1994 Yearbook Intelligence Service is so well organized that a secret printery of Jehovah's Witnesses can be located within no more than six months. It took almost 29 years-until January 1988-before a new peak of publishers was reached again. As a result.-1 Cor .

Thus another weapon against Jehovah's servants had had no lasting success. they seemed to have success. 124:7. But the brothers in general did not support it. (Heb. this caused confusion among the brothers.-Matt. which is exactly what the authorities wanted. Brothers assigned to check into the charges against this overseer were suddenly arrested. In 1961 they perhaps felt that they were succeeding. 1972. He was now using it to write a thesis in pursuit of his Doctor of Arts degree.' This prosecutor later added that he would personally be willing to shoot thousands of Witnesses. The trap was broken. They found a brother in a principal position of responsibility who was violating Christian standards of morality. By promising greater freedom of movement. however. But for what reason? The religious activity of Jehovah's Witnesses posed absolutely no threat to the authorities. But as soon as the brothers found out when and where this was to occur. government officials openly expressed their hatred for the Witnesses. 4: 13) In time. They searched for Poland 237 some "influential" persons who could be blackmailed.000 persons annually. Then other brothers began to receive letters supposedly from friends who either discredited respected brothers and tried to clear the erring one or vice versa. releasing all its prisoners. when Henryk Skibinski presented his venomous thesis at the University in Torun. they decided to use this as an opportunity to defend Jehovah's name and his people. 10:18. So the opposers tried another device. For example. In 1972. Despite having little time to prepare. Thus. remembers one month when there were 30 trials. who has looked after legal affairs for Jehovah's Witnesses. At times. and the immoral one who had allowed himself to become a pawn of the opposers was disfellowshipped. when a defense attorney recalled that a crowd had stormed a penitentiary in 1956. indisputable proof was presented to show what had actually taken place. Understandably. not including those on matters of Christian neutrality. they made it a matter of prayer. Entitled "The Contents and Form of Propaganda Used by the Sect of Jehovah's Witnesses in the Polish People's Republic.-Ps. every trial resulted in a witness to judges and public alike. the thesis had to be defended in a public discussion. He destroyed documents incriminating himself." it was designed to serve later as a manual for legal officials in their fight against the Witnesses . Jehovah's . a sister testified that the public prosecutor had told her that if Hitler were still alive. 'he would quickly straighten out the matter of Jehovah's Witnesses. they induced 15 spiritually weak brothers to apply for the registration of a denomination that would act independently of the international association of Jehovah's Witnesses. opposers thought they had found a new weapon." More "Weapons"-No Lasting Success The authorities did not stop trying to find some "weapon" that would achieve their aim of bringing the organization of Jehovah's servants under their control. Before the degree could be conferred. Romuald Stawski. An officer in the security service had for many years collected slanderous material against the Witnesses.236 1994 Yearbook consequence. Attendance at Witness trials grew until it reached some 30. This was clearly demonstrated at another trial in Poznan. Again. But Jehovah knew what was happening. But-so read the minutes of the garrison military court-all three Witnesses "immediately and voluntarily surrendered to the People's Militia. in Poznan during the trial of six traveling overseers. This was usually just a formality. including three Witnesses sentenced to long prison terms. on May 31. Two years later the registration application itself was rejected.

those in attendance were asked to express themselves. Jan W. Skibinski lost his temper. (He had. As time passed. who were also in the audience. the officials grew accustomed to these . the authorities were somewhat less enthusiastic about trying to justify their persecution of the Witnesses. who were left standing with flowers in " their hands but with no one to congratulate. Brothers Zygmunt Sawicki and [ozef Rajchel.Poland Here at the University in Toruri. Skibinski's thesis and the partiality in his argumentation. The professor who would confer the degree as well as the reviewers then spoke. He pointed out inconsistencies in Mr. But he did feel obliged to ment ion that the y were known to be conscient ious and honest citizens. much to the chagrin of Skibinski's relatives and friends. the way in which officials dealt with Jehovah's Witnesses began to change. Mr. At first the authorities prosecuted the organizers and those who attended. Forest Conventions In the late 1960's. blood transfusions. exactly 50 years after the Witnesses had had a famous discussion with Jesuits in Krakow. were spies of an unfriendly superpower. Skibinsk i had omitted. of science. called forest conventions. and evolution.) Furthermore. Broth er Jan Waldemar Rynkiewicz from Bydgoszcz seized the opportunity to speak at length. But was there really any harm in what the Witnes ses were doing? They were simply discussing God's Word. amon g other things. entirely omitt ed the fact th at the courts had abandoned the accusation of espionage and had vindicated many of the Witnesses. and the chairman was forced to cut him off. Also. The examining board accepted the documents that Brother Rynkiewicz submitted. besides holding regular congregation meetin gs in private homes . Witnesses from the Slqsk Cieszyriski area began to meet in larger groups in the forest during the summers. All in attendance listened with rapt attention. During his attempted refutation. From that time on. atheistic adversary. The Doctor of Arts degree was not conferred. Shortly thereafter arrangements were made to prepare a convention program centrally. Rynkiewicz and two others publicly refuted slanderous charges against the Witn esses Witn esses were in the audience. another group of Witness es had also fought a victorious battle-this time with an equally desperate. and were enemies. Thus. th oroughly refut ing the charge th at Jehovah's Witne sses were hostile to the State and were spies. were held throughout the country. for example. and these meetings. then courageously presented the Bible's view of Christian involvement in politics and worldly conflicts. Skibinski claimed that Jehovah's Witn esses were hostile to the State and its allies. Afterward . Brother Rynkiewicz 239 drew special attention to the contribution made by the Witnesse s to nonblood surgery--another point that Mr.

Theodore [aracz. This was the first official visit by members of the Governing Body. responsible brothers in Poland were now in a position to implement arrangements and make provisions for the local organization similar to those benefiting God's people in many other lands. Frederick Franz. This time they made a courtesy call at the Office for Religious Affairs. Members of the Governing Body Visit At the end of November 1977. Austria. about 2. At the same time. Even though the organization of Jehovah's Witnesses was still banned. Then. and Daniel Sydlik. in the summer of 1980. Now. In the large tent set up for the Polish sessions. A year later Milton Henschel and Theodore [aracz visited Poland . In the late 1970's. first in Lille.240 1994 Yearbook Poland 241 questions. During the ensuing years. Loving Austrian hosts had extended hospitality to guests not only from Poland but from Hungary. To close the convention. France. Jehovah. no one wanted to leave. everyone followed the program appreciatively. being held at definite places prepared beforehand. The Austrian brothers welcomed their guests hospitably. there were usually hundreds. oftentimes. and longtime Witnesses in various cities. only a few dozen brothers came. the various language groups all assembled in the nearby stadium. and later in Denmark. by the 1970's. were granted permission to visit Poland. the Governing Body was able to give more attention to the work in Poland and established closer ties with overseers throughout the country. They spoke to overseers. and tape recorders came into use. In the beginning. pioneers. some of the brothers were able to attend district conventions outside Poland. Unitedly. each group in its own language sang "We Thank You. a noteworthy change was observed as government representatives began showing a more tolerant attitude toward us and our activities." Even after sharing together in the closing prayer.000 Witnesses received official permission to attend the "Divine Love" District Convention in Vienna. and other lands as well. In some places these conventions took on a more normal character. loudspeakers. The congregations responded to the visit with increased Kingdom activity. eyes . Microphones. A "forest convention" in 1981 assemblies of Jehovah's people. With greater exposure to such welcome theocratic direction and influence. the program included a Bible drama and. Yugoslavia. amid prolonged applause. something unusual happened. from the international headquarters of Jehovah's Witnesses. telling them of theocratic progress in other lands and answering numerous Enjoying Austrian Hospitality By the end of the 1970's. They steadily grew in size. arrangements for baptism.

Altogether. These were true Christians rejoicing in the unity that had removed the painful barriers so typical of the old. fewer but larger district conventions were held. mostly in rented halls. Permission was granted! The news was received with enthusiasm. it became apparent that the Witnesses. and more than 80 spiritual feasts were held throughout the country. In 1983. But. 114. What about district conventions? The borders were closed. Intense work got under way to finalize the many details involved in order to hold four 3-day conventions. on December 13. Witnesses from countries of Western Europe were allowed to attend.000 Polish Witnesses held convention sessions in a stadium in Austria. What would this mean for us? During the first few weeks. could meet in private homes without difficulty.140 new servants of Jehovah get baptized! They listened with rapt attention and deep appreciation to the program. and Poznan. so no one would be able to travel to another country. Until the middle of February 1985. 1981. it was still uncertain whether permission would be granted. 1981. including talks delivered by four members of the Governing Body. Things were indeed looking up. that all pressure from official sources had ceased. Months went by without reply. These programs incorporated scenes from the conventions. Even though Witnesses at the congregation level were not being hindered as they . Wrodaw. in Chorzow.166 were present.751. Public meetings were forbidden. dying world! The "Kingdom Loyalty" Convention held in Austria the following year was attended by more than 5. Polish television later made two documentaries about the life and activity of Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland. alas. Despite travel restrictions. How they rejoiced to see 3. thus gaining valuable experience that would later prove beneficial when they would prepare large conventions inside Poland.242 1994 Yearbook filled with tears of joy. Poland was put under martial law! Armed police and military patrols took up their stations throughout the country. and 2. In attendance. Moreover. Would it be possible for Jehovah's Witnesses to hold international conventions of major proportions in Poland? During the summer of 1984. All passing cars were checked. There. circuit overseers were still able to visit the congregations." both programs were shown on nationwide television. Witnesses in the Krakow area were also granted the use of a small sports hall that year.000 persons attended. Literature. Strict enforcement of martial law ruled out any possibility of forest Poland 243 conventions. Warsaw. although still published out of public view. including hundreds of guests from abroad . on July 5. More than 94. For the first time. A Decade of Historic Conventions at Home The same year that those 5. the Polish guests were allowed to help organize the convention. was an audience of 5. in Skawina. What could be done? The brothers approached the owners of sports halls to ask whether these could be rented for convention purposes. Entitled "Good News About the Kingdom" and "Integrity Keepers. the brothers asked the authorities for permission to rent four large stadi ms for such conventions in 1985. local officials in Gdansk allowed the Witnesses to hold a convention in the Olivia Hall. known for their stand of Christian neutrality. approval was received! Time was limited. At last. Holding Firmly to Theocratic Order It should not be concluded. however.000 Polish Witnesses. But the summer of 1982 was fast approaching. continued to reach the brothers.388 were baptized. This time the Austrian brothers met in a tent and gave their guests the stadium facilities. two "Kingdom Loyalty" Conventions were held.

Remember. and the number grows steadily. not subject to approval or regulation by secular authorities. But these brothers were determined to do nothing without the approval of the Governing Body. and magazines from abroad. even though the brothers emphasized the socially educational value of their Bible-based literature. according to law. In 1989 this included the book Life-How Did It Get Here? By Evolution or by Creation?. For years. the ban had never officially been lifted. an appropriate. of high quality both in form and in content. However. The brothers firmly rejected the arrangement.scated whenever it could be found. But their persistence finally paid off. In mid-1988-almost a year before the Watch Tower Society became the legal representative of Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland-four-color editions of the semimonthly Watchtower and the monthly Awake! began to arrive regularly. Spiritual Food in Abundance Today." or printeries. this seemed like an impossible goal. At first. This huge amount of literature. Later. Since April 1. Presently. But the road leading to this situation has not been strewn with roses. has helped to spread the good news of . but once it was. brochures.244 1994 Yearbook preached from house to house. the Polish Watchtower has been published simultaneously with the English edition. traveling overseers were summoned to the government's provincial religious departments. these would. as well as when publishers call at their homes. Attempts were made to censor parts of the convention program. Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland have beautiful literature for personal study and for use in their public ministry. On the basis of this law. hundreds of thousands of copies are being received. people have become accustomed to seeing The Watchtower and Awake! in Polish offered to them by Jehovah's Witnesses on the streets and at railway stations. as is true of scores of other languages. brothers in responsible positions carried a heavy load. Their assignments as shepherds of the flock were theocratic. A martial law decree still in effect required all men between 20 and 45 years of age to do secular work. There the brothers were presented with prepared certifi. imagine the joy of having a quarter of a million copils! Thereafter. the organization of Jehovah's Witnesses still did not have legal recognition. 1989. subject in atheistic countries.000 copies of My Book of Bible Stories from the United States. but the certificates had to be renewed periodically. books and brochures were supplied in most cases by the Society's branch in Selrers/Taunus. their printing equipment had been confi. be exempt from censorship. A situation involving the traveling overseers arose in 1984. On the surface this looked like a legalization of their work. In 1984 permission was granted to import up to 60. Poland 245 Like other religious publications. Throughout the country. Then efforts were made by the authorities to gain at least semiofficial control of what was being produced by the brothers in their "bakeries. approval was received for them to get even larger numbers of the brochures "Look! I Am Making All Things New" and The Divine Name That Will Endure Forever.catescontaining their territory assignment. albeit controversial. Germany. the brothers suggested that they be permitted to import books. It took somewhat longer before the book You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth could be imported. Conventions had to be arranged by selected brothers who obtained permission for them as private individuals. usually with less difficulty. and any change in territory or assignment had to be reported.

in 1985. they began to reappear. In subsequent years the brothers tried repeatedly to get legal recognition so that they might better represent the interests of Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland. 1989. helping more and more people onto the road that leads to everlasting life. In 1986 a seminar was held for representatives from congregations that had already built a hall or were in the process of doing so. and Poznan during the summer of 1989. Zygfryd Adach. Registered Religious Association of Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland)! All branches of the media reported this news. But in the early 1980's. 4:11. secondary to having the recognition and approval of Jehovah God. Then. death has taken away two of these brothers -Harald Abt" and Edward Kwiatosz. Zarejestrowany Zwiqzek Wyznania Swiadkoo. but it is. of course. of course. By May 1993.246 1994 Yearbook God's Kingdom on an unprecedented scale. there were. in the years since the charter was approved. Chorzow. In 1987 another proposed charter was submitted to the Office for Religious Affairs. 8. They were replaced by Wieslaw Jasko and Jan Klaudiusz Skowron. Technical and legal matters were discussed in detail. the director of the Office for Religious Affairs approved the charter of the Straznica-Towarzystwo Biblijne i Traktatowe. a court-approved company was registered under the name Straznica-Wydawnictwo Wyznania Swiadkoo. as * For the life story of Brother and Sister Abt. and 130 more were under construction. . However. It had been carefully prepared Poland 247 under the direction of the Governing Body. -Rev. both of whom served Jehovah faithfully until death. The number of Bible studies conducted with honesthearted persons has multiplied to over 80. see The Watchtower of April 15.v Jehowy w Polsce (Watchtower-The Publishing House of the Religion of Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland) . the brothers had 644 Kingdom Halls that belonged to them. no Kingdom Halls. and Jehovah's Witnesses worldwide rejoiced. Among the members of the delegation that spoke with the officials were two brothers who had signed the first registration application in 1949. Imagine their joy when. whose sovereignty will soon be vindicated before all creation. It was an important step in the direction of legalizing our publishing activity. Legal Recognition-At Last! Back in 1949.. Antoni Tomaszewski. Jesus Christ has clearly opened wide a door of opportunity in this land. the petition for legal recognition submitted by Jehovah's Witnesses had been rejected by government authorities. 1980. Often there simply was no reply. including thousands from other Eastern European lands. to facilitate the importing of literature. -Compare Revelation 3:7. international "Godly Devotion" Conventions convened in Warsaw. They were unofficial and were set up in buildings owned by Witnesses. Getting legal recognition from the secular authorities was important here in Poland. on May 12. and Adam Wojtyniak. Two years of correspondence and discussion followed. Franciszek Mielczarek.000. On a Scale Grander Than Ever Before Shortly after legal registration had been accomplished. Another 257 were being rented..v Jehowy w Polsce (Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. Making up the Association's original board of directors were Harald Abt. Kingdom Halls Reappear During the severe years of ban. 40 years later. Stanislaw Kardyga. Delegates from almost every continent rejoiced to be present. Edward Kwiatosz.

more conventions were held. The rich program of spiritual delicacies they enjoyed was an abundant reward for the sacrifices they had made to be there. thereby solving the problem! Poland 249 In th at same year. Immediately. During the night. A house at 17 Prosta Street in Marki .r uuu u-n t Hi l l' Illi I un 111111 ing a branch office. Attendance totaling 166.00 0 Polish delegates were among the conventioners attending conventions in Budapest.000 and a baptism figure of 6. but to no avail. The next year. Tlu-n a search got under way to fllld a p . th e departments generally found in a branch office were located . This was by no means the end. onlookers were amazed. The program for foreign delegates in Chorz6w. a sudden burst of wind ripped the placard to pieces. the new facilities were officially dedicated. not under one roof. The Convention Committee protested several times . Soviet travel agents warned the Witnesses that they would be turned back at the border. Just a few days previously. Soviet officials had announced travel restrictions for its nationals traveling to Poland . Poznan. Once the Religious Association of Jehovah' s Witn esses was legalized.248 1994 Yearbook well as five members of the Governing Body. At times as many as 600 volunteers were working at the construction site. But trusting in Jehovah. The Polish capital's largest stadium was filled.093 were causes for great joy.000 Soviet Witnesses flooded across the border. i nclud! JIg a dl'. The Society's Regional Engineering Office in Europe drew up building plans. asking that it be removed. Hungary. in Lviv. an article entitled "In God's Way" commented: "The work is in full swing. on August 9-12. 1990. th e success of the conventi on had been thrown into jeopardy. Six days before the convention was to begin in Chorz6w. no one is standing around doing not hing . In the newspaper Gazeta Stoleczna (Metropolitan Paper). So within the surprisingly short time of one year and eight months. the date for intro ducing the travel restrictions was postponed until after th e convention. this arrangement could be changed. 1992. Seeing the efficiency of the brothers and the way in which they worked. 1991. Everyone wears a . Again. Just in time. On November 28. the brothers cont inued to make convention plans. the crew of a famous rock group schedu led for an upcoming concert at the stadium hung up a large advertising placard on the stadium tower. but in a variety of places for al ost 40 years. was chosen as a temporary office from which III d in: I the work. at Warsaw's Dziesieciolecia Stad ium anot her historic event took place. Delegates from the Soviet Union sat on one side and their Polish brothers and hosts on th e other. and construction soon began. about 12 miles southwest of Warsaw. T hen. Jehovah 's blessing was evident. They turned to Jehovah in heartfelt prayer. It depicted satanic images and symbo ls. near Warsaw. Ukraine. and in Prague. ('11 ed motel. In October 1989 appropriate property. How they rejoiced in these opportunities to share in spiritual fellowship with others of the global bro th erh ood! W hat could be done to provide a suitable cente r in Poland fro m which to provide oversight for the con gregations and their preaching of the good news? A Branch Office for Poland After the loss of the office in l 6di in 1950. was purchased in the small town of Nadar zyn. It was an unforgett able experience as each group listened to th e program in its own language. and Warsaw was simultaneously translated into many languages. more than 22. a building complex where the Bethel family could live and work was finished. more than 17. in what is now the C zech Republic . this time in more cities.

and often even a positive. It is unthinkable that the volunteers coming to work the next day should encounter delays.. After work some of them take a Bible and a few issues of The Watchtower and head out to preach God's Word from house to house. the carpenters work as long as necessary to finish the outside framework. in so many different ways. When concrete for the floors is to be poured on the following day. Large conventions contributed to this the most. In recent years the media have said and written much about the Witnesses. however. The Bethel Home builders do not forget their mission. This has led to a positive change in attitudes in medical circles toward Jehovah's Poland Branch Committee in 1992 I Witnesses and their stand on blood transfusions . as baptized preachers. at the beginning of 1991. Determined to Keep On Enduring Efforts of opposers. But the brothers have also become more efficient in providing worthwhile information to the media. The Witnesses' main goal is to take the good news to everyone desiring it. Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland are exempt from military service. Similarly.250 1994 Yearbook Poland 251 protective helmet during work. they have not forgotten those prisoners whom they met in years past and who showed a sincere . way. They have regular Bible discussions with many people in Nadarzyn and nearby. Regarding the hospital in Skwierzyna. Hospital Liaison Committees were formed." Some years ago. to blot out Jehovah's Witnesses have failed. both religious and secular. to endure to see this day. They are confident that the new branch office will facilitate theocratic activity in Poland . the newspaper Ziemia Gorzowska reported: "The medical staff got used to their principles. The Witnesses are today the third-largest religious group in Poland! A large proportion of the populace who are not Jehovah 's Witnesses have relatives or acquaintances who are. Their exemption is granted by the government on the basis of a certificate issued by the Society to those who qualify. Members of these committees have carried on beneficial discussions with medical personnel in many large Polish cities. Now." The brothers in Poland are grateful to Jehovah that it has been possible for them to complete this project. While no Witnesses are presently imprisoned for reasons of neutrality. They also wish to express their gratitude to the global brotherhood who by prayers and practical assistance helped them. ordained ministers of God . usually in an objective. hundreds of Jehovah's Witnesses were in prison because of their stand of Christian neutrality. . . blood is forced on nobody anymore.

Croa tia. Come to Israel and see Jewish and Arab Witnesses side by side joyfully preaching the good news of the Messianic Kingdom .460. And the avera~e num ber of Bible studi es was up 237. You People. we ask. 5:22.000 more hours than the preceding year. who puts his holy spirit in us. 2: 13) T herefore. All of th is required extr aordi nary "power beyond what is nor mal. assisting them to conform the ir lives to his will.587.000 l/ 75 .000 8 25 .-'''' I 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1993 interest in God's Word ." (Phil. 23) Come to racially trou bled South Africa and see multiracial construction groups of Jehovah' s Witnesses cooperate in building new Kingdom Halls and meet peacefully together.252 1994 Yearbook Publishers Hours (millions) 125 . to th e living God.341.." (2 Cor. his holy spirit. where nationalism and religious hatred have resulted in a 253 . Who but God could have impelled and strengthened us to accomplish all that was done during the 1993 service year? For example.Isa. refined by countless trials and persecution!-Jas.".. it is not with a spirit of proud boasting but with humble gratitude for Jehovah's loving care that they affi rm the truthfulness of th e divine promi se: "Any weapon whatever that will be form ed against you will have no success.. 54: 17.000 . (Gal.057. In the land s of the form er Yugoslavia-Bosnia and Herzegovina. Therefore.000.515. goes all the credit! We invite all to come and see how Jehovah's active force is working amon g his Witnesses.1. come and see Jehovah's Witnesses who were form erly warring Cat holics and Protestant s getting alon g now as Christian broth ers. 1/ .. What countless reasons the se tens of thousands of Witnesses have for being grateful to Jehovah! They have seen the truth passed down from gene ration to gener ation so that some Polish families today can pride themselves in kn owing that th e fifth genera tion is taking up th e banner of truth! The y have personally experienced t he loving-kindness of a close-knit interna tional C hr istian brotherh ood! They have been witn esses of how Jehovah stood by th em during very difficult times. is acting within you in ord er for you both to will and to act. the total numb er of hours spent in preaching was well over 1.000 4 o 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1993 ) 12 o . giving them the needed stre ngth to stay on the side of God 's heavenly Kingdom under Jesus Christ! Th ey have experienced a strengthen ing of their faith and a deepe ning of their trust in the Creator .. and Serbia. for the sake of his good pleasure. 1:2-4. In war-torn Northern Ireland...I" 1' - 16 50 . 66:5) Jehovah's activities are very evident not only in natur e but also in the work of his people. "Come. T he apostle Paul declared: "For God is the one th at.431. and See the Activities of God" A s Jehovah's Witnesses.. which is 32.. (Ps. 4:7) Only God could have supplied the streng th necessary...000 20 100 . Love and peace are fruits of Jehovah's active force.1- V . What a joy to see that in 1993 the number of publishers in Poland reached a peak of 113.. After you have read the foregoing worldwide report. we confidently extend the invi- tation to people of all the earth to come and see the activities of God . to a total of 4. They continue to visit th ese.551.

2 Thess. Jehovah God and Jesus Christ will cont nue to be active workers. Orient your life around the preaching and disciple-making activity. drawing thousands more sheeplike ones into the one flock under the one shepherd. New York. When completed. this fine new facility will house about a thousand Bethel volunteers. as did the psalmist: "You have made mortal man to ride over our head. the world will become even more insecure and restless than it is. 66:12. As we enter into 1994. Let us all resolve to apply more fully th e wise coun sel of the 1994 yeartext: "Trust in Jehovah with all your heart. and I keep working."-2 Chron. In 1993. How qui ckly the meek ones are taking their stand! Amazingly. 16) Our hearts rejoice to see how Jehovah's mighty hand worked out matters so that more people in th ese former Soviet lands have an opportunity to come to kn ow him . all you who fear God. The activities of Jehovah are visibly evident in the rapid expansion of new branch facilities thro ughout the eart h. thousand s of delegates from many different countries tr aveled to "Divine Teaching" District Conventions in many parts of th e eart h. which were ready for use. What did they see? They saw firsth and the activit ies of Jeh ovah in Moscow's Locomotive Stadium and in Kiev. listen . 3:24. The y were thrilled to meet brothers and sisters who had endured decades of Communist rule. Evidence of th is could be seen in th e special meetin gs of Branch Committee members that were held during 1993 in eight locations. Col. Jehovah has been active in strengthening his people. and I will relate what he has don e for my soul." Jesus Christ said.891 bapti zed at just the se two conventions in Moscow and Kiev! Truly. 10:16) How involved will you be in the activity of God and of his Son? We urge the thousands of youths and others in the congregations: Use your energy to bring glory to God. we exhor t: "Be courageous and do not let your hands drop down. th e Bethel family happily toured t he lower ten floors. Over 57 coun tries have been involved! Despite shaky economic conditions throughout the world . As t he great tribulation approaches. Not just at the world headquarters but throughout the earth. Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses . let us continue to concern ourselves with Jehovah's activities. the Word of God is moving speedily. see Jehovah's Witnesses united in peace and love. 4 :16) And to all who have endured in the work for many years. Jehovah's hand has not been short in providing his organization with th e monetary and human resources needed to advance the Kingdom work." (Prov . Organizationally. (1 Tim. 3:1. involving brothers from some 100 branches. including Watc htower Farms at Wallkill. which will result in everlastin g life for you and for those who listen to you . 59 :1. Jeh ovah has been with us in construction projects. Come. we have come through fire and through water . The responsible brothers attending were better equipped to provide uniform theocratic direction in their respective branches. no part of th at vicious con flict. because there exists a reward for your activity. (John 5: 17) Assuredly. These faithful ones can say to Jehovah. May Jehovah bless all of you. In Brooklyn. "My Father has kept working until now. prominently facing th e Manhattan skyline." (Ps. -Isa. 15:7. Members of the Governing Body and others shared in giving instruction. making it possible to obtain land and buildings for branch complexes and Assembly Halls and to rent properties for the Society's use in many places. and people are talking about his magnificent things! -Acts 2:11 . and you proceeded to bring us forth to relief. New York. stands the Society's new 3D-story residence building at 90 Sands Stre et . th ere were 8.terrible war. (John 6:44. 3:5) We can fully trust that Jehovah will act in our behalf as we pray and work in harmony with him in the doing of his will. Your brothers.come. During October . Ukraine.

Caracas.O. cruce con 17de diciembre. FRENCH GUIANA: 15 rue Chawari. RO-74121.REP. Brooklyn.Antananarivo 101. Edo state. curacao. 1105Quezon City]. SIERRA LEONE. Ebina City. SENEGAL:B. Box 112.. 353. TAHITI: B. P-2765 Estorilj. Suva. BENIN. F-92105 Boulogne-Billancourt Cedex. IRELAND: 29AJamestown Road.. O. Solnechnoye. Zona 11. Box 225. MYANMAR:P. NEW CALEDONIA: B. Sel. MAURITIUS: Box 54. Lopez. N. Harare. TAIWAN: 107 Yun Ho Street.O. Pune Dis. San Jose. Ontario L7G 4Y4. Cotonou.REP.SPAIN: Apartado postal 132. 634.Paramaribo. SURINAME: P. H-1425 Budapest. Apia. 1000 Monrovia 10. NL-7812AA Emmen. CH-3602 Thun [Ulmenweg 45. Box 961. BAHAMAS: Box N-1247. HAITI: Post Box 185. 4. AUSTRALIA: Box 280. SWEDEN:Box 5.ZIMBABWE:35 Fife Avenue.. FRANCE: B. Sestroretzky Rayon. LEEWARD ISLANDS: Box 119. Managua. Box 4708. C. Kyunggido. 417. Box 246. Kowloon Tong. Guaynabo. GUADELOUPE: Monmain. 189640St. London NW7 IRP. MARTINIQUE: Cours Campeche. BULGARIA: P. Box 10-0380. Box 8496. 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