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Design and construction of a tower crane



Jose de Jesus Rubio

Jaime Pacheco

Instituto Politécnico Nacional

Instituto Politécnico Nacional





Roberto Alcantara Ramirez

Irma Irasema Siller-Alcalá

Metropolitan Autonomous University

Metropolitan Autonomous University





Available from: Jose de Jesus Rubio
Retrieved on: 10 April 2016

Each of them are designed separately and combined to ensure the performance and stability of the system. Av.F. The second technique is based on the feedback of the position and angle of oscillation of the load [10]. the load lifted must be able to move. This limitation is related to the balance that generates the counterweight. Azcapotzalco México D. Figure 1 Displacement respect to the load The Masterbuilder . 682. 180. Reynosa Tamaulipas. San Pablo No. Col. Hence. That path will depend on the type of crane used. which is much minor to the total mass of the crane.P.. 1. Process Control Panel Metropolitan Autonomous University. which depended on the ability of an operator to an automatic control. Sta. Catarina. Delg.P. Construction and Control of a Novel Tower Crane José de Jesús Rubio.1 shows the weights that tower cranes can lift according to the length of displacement along the boom. 02550. cranes that are anchored or subject to a ballast [1] [2]. Fig.. No. National Polytechnic Institute Av. In the crane’s tower. and so the center of mass obligate the system to remain in balance.June 2009 39 . These techniques can be used for optimal control.0200. bridge cranes the operation is relatively easier over the tower crane. [4] and [5] apart from fuzzy logic controllers are used [6]. it aims to have the center of gravity of the system located at the base. ballast and load.. In most designs.F. For example combinations of classic control laws with modern control laws [3]. new methods of automation are being developed. where it is needed lifting.Tower Crane Innovation Design. regardless of the magnitude of the load. an action that is done by a trolley along the boom.. C. [8] and [9]. As mentioned in [2] at present. Col. control cranes are moving from manual operation. C. Azcapotzalco. especially when they are very big and move loads at high speeds. Irma Siller Department of Electronics. Delg. reaching the counterweight in the counter boom at a fixed distance with regard to the tower. MÉXICO José de Jesús Rubio Roberto Alcántara Roberto Alcántara. México D. as in certain types of cranes viz. In the construction industry. This principle of operation limits the weight that can be lifted by making it dependent on the distance you want to move in the boom. MÉXICO Jorge Jaimes O verall a crane is a mechanical system de signed to hoist and move loads through a hook suspended from a cable. Jorge Jaimes. often times they use. de las Granjas. Jaime Pacheco Section of Graduate Studies and Research (ESIME) Azcapotzalco. The third technique is by dividing the controller into two parts into control anti-sway and that of the other control of the position of the load [10].To control automated cranes several techniques exist: Irma Siller The first technique is based on the generation of trajectories [10] and [11] for transporting load from one point to another with minimal sway of the load. [7].

choosing this length so that the crane is not very high and has increased stability. 1. 2. such as motors. Figure 4 General Outline of the crane self-balancing 40 The Masterbuilder . initially technical specifications are required. which is replaced by a movable counterweight as shown in Fig. Construction and Control of a Novel Tower Crane Although much research is concentrated on the generation of trajectories. emulating a building. being a good start to apply control laws classical and modern. both the mechanical and the electrical and electronic components. since it will be "auto balancing''. The proposed crane in this paper reduces the ballast and eliminates the anchor. the experimental tower crane is designed as shown in Figure 5. 4. Mechanical Design of the crane To achieve the mechanical design of the tower crane. 3. with the application of classical control laws to achieve a self-balancing and proper functioning with devices. Experimental crane tower on a table . Noting the technical specifications. which in our case is going to be a table of 100 cm in height shown in Figure 5. etc. And given by the relationship F1 x D1 = F2 x D2. circuit cards. we use the second technique here. The general specification are: Crane: Type : Tower Material : Length of the boom : Length of counter boom : The tower height : Maximum height of load displacement : Maximum weight of the load : Speed lifting of the load : Angle maximum load balancing : Rotation angle of the tower : Aluminium and iron 160 cm 60 cm 45 cm 130 cm 1000 g 5 cm / sec 3° 360° Specifying the dimensions desired. sensors. Design of the crane A tower crane as shown in Fig. since cranes are being assembled by many anchoring systems or excessive ballast. actuators and sensors for the positioning of counterweight and the joints further.6.June 2009 Figure 5. it will also rely on a structure as the building. The concept of self-balancing involves eliminating anchoring system. consists basically [1] with: Figure 3 Relationship moments in balance Figure 2 Overview of a crane parts The operation of the proposed crane being based on the balance of moments as shown in Fig.Tower Crane Innovation Design. in e) indicates that the tower height is 45 cm.

(small gear) pinion and motor. Here are just a few pieces for the design of the crane. 5.10 and they are assembled by pressure on the internal supports of the mast. In the case of the experimental crane has decided to use aluminium bar. and the other half can be rotated. the gear has a slot where the mast top is assembled. Construction and Control of a Novel Tower Crane Figure 6. and if these traction elements are placed near the junction of the mast and the boom. Mast and slewing mechanism of the crane.7. 12. The mast consists of a group of parts. An important element to give rigidity to the mast is a screw 2. As shown in Fig. taking advantage of the length of aluminium bar. gear.Tower Crane Innovation Design. preventing torsion forces affecting the slewing support. this load is going to be at least 15 cm below the highest point of the boom. forming a lightweight structure and strong at the same time. which is placed in the middle and along the mast coupled with bearings that are shown in Fig. which by their dimensions occupy considerable space. they take away the space to the lifting elements and mass displacement m1. as well as the displacement of counterweight (mass m2). Mast and base Figure 7 Perspective half mast stand motor This crane does not have mechanical system of displacement. counter boom and mast are built with tubular bars and / or angular. Bearings for vertical support Figure 11. The reason there are two sections with almost the same length is because at half mast there are the mechanical elements of rotation as shown in Fig. because it avoids manufactuing of every component of the boom and counter boom. Gear and pinion in detail cm (½ in) in diameter and 40 cm long.June 2009 Figure 10. noting that in Fig 5. In f) states that the maximum height of the vertical displacement of the load (m1) should be 130 cm. Figure 8 Gear assembled at the upper mast Figure 9. it is the sum of the height of the table plus 30 cm in lifting crane. in the slewing gear and support of motor rotation. Internal Supports of the mast and internal screw . satisfying with the characteristics of weight and resistance to be desired. so that half is fixed to the base.9. the boom. 7. 5. In the commercial crane.54 42 The Masterbuilder . As shown in Fig. The second part of the mast is joined to form a single piece gear. as well as the basis. The parts are displayed in Fig. Boom and counter boom. the boom and the counter boom are in the same bar.

June 2009 . a) Bottom of the car. 16 is obtained the following equations: . 13.VT .(5) . KT = Total Kinetic energy of the system. Therefore Euler Lagrange equation for r1 is given by Figure 13. b) A car on rails .(3). L = Lagrangian of the system.Tower Crane Innovation Design. y2 = h2 = 0 . consists of a chassis or metal base and four wheels which are to move into two rails. The rails that belong to the boom are longer than those of the counter boom. 15. Displacement System of the mass m2 The hoisting mechanism and measuring of load weight (mass m1) Figure 12. the displacement system of mass m2 consists of the pieces displayed in Fig. The trolley shown in Fig. The Lagrangian is given by: L = KT . Boom and counter boom of the crane Trolleys for the movement of the load m1 and counterweight m2. Likewise. and VT = Total potential energy of the system.(4).14. Considering linear movements. The hoisting mechanism of mass m1 consists of the following elements. from Fig. Construction and Control of a Novel Tower Crane Figure 15.(1) Where. one of which is coupled to the motor of displacement and the other is coupled to the sensor (encoder) for measuring the distance travelled in one direction or another. when the distance of the counterweight is adjusted Model of the proposed tower crane In this section let us consider the load hoisting (mass m1) and the horizontal displacement of the counterweight (mass m2) to maintain balance. Figure 16 Balancing moments in the crane. x2 = r2 .(6) The model is obtained as: Figure 14 Displacement System of mass m1 44 The Masterbuilder . System of horizontal displacement of the masses m1 and m2 The displacement system of mass m1 is constituted by the pieces displayed in Fig.(2). The trolley will be moved through a steel cable and a pair of sheaves.

The path followed for the development of the crane self-balancing. Oct. 1999. a. United State Patents. r1 and r2. Journal of Dynamic Systems. h Robert H. "Anti-sway Control for Rotating Boom Cranes". If ιθ1 is a control law. Overton. "Generating Swing-Suppressed Maneuvers for Crane Systems With Rate Saturation". Parker. III. It is important to mention that parameters provide a better response to avoid overshoots in the movement response of the two masses m1 and m2. h Hanafy M. IEEE. Xiaoou Li. Pattent No. VOL. causing a control of just over two degrees of freedom. Considering these steps it can be factors that determine a good behaviour of the system to 46 The Masterbuilder . Escola Tècnica Superior d'Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona. "Diseño de una grúa automontable de 8. can be determined with great accuracy. y R. is first modelling and then its simulation. Hanspeter Schaub. Vol. A New Approach for Controlling Overhead Traveling Crane Using Rough Controller .. and Linkens D.563.2 0 Table 1 Parameters simulation PID control Analysis and simulation results with the control laws selected In order to tuning the controller. Agostini. and Control JUNE 2004. "Sliding Mode Control for a New Crane System". Gordon G. 2006. "Control con anti-oscilación para una Grúa en tres dimensiones en tiempo real". design and build. Dalian. Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering Mechanics. DSC Vol. Omar. "A Fuzzy-Logic Antiswing Controller for Three-Dimensional Overhead Cranes". h Mahfouf M. 2002. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY. h Michael J. NO. 7 consists of three quations. Jaimes P.23. Kee C. "Fuzzy Logic-Based AntiSway Control Design for Overhead Cranes. Poland. Construction and Control of a Novel Tower Crane Kpr1 Kdr1 Kir1 Kpr2 Kdr2 3000 500 100 1000 100 Kir2 m1 (Kg) m2 Kg) 95 1 4 r1 J1 0. there is no control over the angle θ1.000 N y 22 m de flecha". h Nally M. NO. These overshoots can generate considerable forces due to inertia of the masses. VOL. JULY 2003. Student Member. "Design of a Fuzzy Logic Controller for Swing-Damped Transport of an Overhead Crane Payload.09) para ser presentado en forma oral en la sesión Sliding mode control de la 13th IEEE International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 1 NUMBER 3 2006 ISSN 1305-6417. h Ho-Hoon Lee. 126. .. where each one corresponds to each degree of freedom of the crane. h Chunshien Li and Chun-Yi Lee. August 2007." Neural Computing and Applications. 5. h Mazin Z.A. Measurement. h Rigoberto Toxqui Toxqui." in Proceedings of the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division. 1994. References h Joaquín Costa Centena. then we have a third articulation that will compensate the oscilation of the load (m1). In the simulation of each control law and with different values of the parameters. Robinett. J. it is found that the dynamic model is correct and covers the most important features of a mechanical crane to ensure good control when it is built apart from ensuring that with a modern control law it may be controlled much better. 5.June 2009 h Ho-Hoon Lee and Sung-Kun C. J. "Fuzzy Motion Control of an AutoWarehousing Crane System". Tesis para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias en la especialidad de Control Automático. and resulting in free oscillation in the load. 48. 11. IEEE. 4. OCTOBER 2001. Kenneth Groom. This means that if ιθ1 = 0. "A New Motion-Planning Scheme for Overhead Cranes With High-Speed Hoisting". USA. 2000. B. and Rush D. Othman. Member. "Control of Gantry and Tower Cranes". h J. Tesis para obtener el título de Ingeniero Industrial. 5. Wen Yu. constants were chosen to obtain a over damped response and these parameters are shown in Table 1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. de Jesus Rubio. China. Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on Control and Automation. 9. causing an imbalance in the moments and therefore the inevitable collapse of the crane. 58.. Agosto del 2006. Alcántara R. which corresponds to the displacement of the trolley that moves the load along the mast.961.. June 21 . Vol. Tulane University. Szczecin.Tower Crane Innovation Design. h Rigoberto Toxqui . paper aceptado (# IS 2 . Tarbia. Therefore the dynamic model is very representative of the proposed tower crane on different forms of control. which was checked with the simulation.H. "PD Control of Overhead Crane with Velocity Estimation and Uncertainties Compensation". CINVESTAV. Conclusions The dynamic model used and described in Ec. and M.