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M&S Learning Centre 0122026649

Functions of elements






Animal cells
-Regulates osmotic pressure in cells.
-Helps in the transmission of nerve
-Involved in protein synthesis.
-Acts as a cofactor for some enzymes.

Plant cells
Not required.

-Required for the
synthesis of chlorophyll.
-Activates enzymes in the
-Required for the formation of strong
-Synthesis of cell
bones and teeth.
-Helps in the contraction of muscle
-Helps maintain the semicells.
permeability of plasma
-Promotes blood clotting
-Involved in the synthesis of
-Synthesis of chlorophyll.
haemoglobin which transports oxygen. -Acts as an electron
-Involved in the synthesis of respiratory carrier during
photosynthesis and
-Formation of strong bones and teeth.
-Includes the formation of
-Helps in the contraction of muscle
flowers and seeds.
-Promotes cell division.
-Synthesis of adenosine
-Synthesis of ATP and
triphosphate(ATP) an energy carrier.
nucleic acids.
-An essential component of nucleic
acids (DNA and RNA)
Required in muscle contractions and
-Synthesis of
transmission of nerve impulses.
-Activates certain
Synthesis of hydrochloric acid by the
Photolysis of water
gastric glands in the stomach which
during light reaction in
destroys pathogens and maintains pH
of the stomach.

3. Enzyme represents “Lock”. Medium for biochemical reactions 2. . 2. Providing moisture 9. The enzyme catalyses the conversion of the substrate to its product which then departs from the active site. The substrate molecules binds to the active site to form an enzyme-substrate complex which is very unstable. Substrate represents “Key”. A specific substrate molecule arrives at the active site of the enzyme molecule.M&S Learning Centre 0122026649 The importance of water 1. 5. Universal solvent Lock and key hypothesis 1. Maintaining body temperature 3. Providing support 5. The enzyme molecule is now free to bind to more molecules of the substrate. 4. Maintaining osmotic balance and turgidity 8. Transport medium 7. High surface tension and cohesion 4. Lubrication 6. 6.

Removes the skin of fish Ripening of cheese Hydrolyses lactose to glucose and galactose in the making of ice cream Solidifies milk proteins Converts sugars into ethanol Protease Lipase Lactase Rennin Zymase Amylase Cellulase (h) Seaweed products Cellulase 2. Food processing industry (a) Meat products (b) Starch products (c) Fish products (d) Dairy products (e) Alcoholic drinks (beer/wine making industry) (f) Bread and other bakery products(baking industry) (g) Cereal grain products Enzymes used Uses Protease Amylase and amyloglucoxidase Glucose isomerase Tenderises meat Change starch to sugar in the making of syrup.M&S Learning Centre 0122026649 The uses of enzymes in daily life and industry Type of industry/application 1. Since fructose is much sweeter than glucose. it is widely used in slimming products as only small amounts are needed. Leather products Trypsin 3. Biological washing powder or detergents -Pancreatic trypsin -Microbial trypsin Protease and amylase Converts starch flour into sugar in the making of bread Breaks down cellulose and removes seed coats from cereal grains Extracts agar from seaweed Removal of hair from animal hides Removes starch that is used as stiffeners from fabrics -Treats inflammation -Dissolves blood clots Dissolve protein and starch stains in clothes . Medical/ pharmaceutical products 5. Production of high fructose syrup: Glucose is converted into fructose. Textile products Amylase 4.

M&S Learning Centre 0122026649 Factors affecting the activity of enzymes (a)Temperature 1. The optimum pH is the pH at which the rate of enzymatic reaction is at its fastest. As the temperature increases. 5. The substrates can no longer fit into the active sites of the enzyme. The enzyme molecules are said to be saturated. The reaction is at maximum rate. At this point. An increase in substrate concentration causes more chances of collision between the substrate molecules and enzyme molecules for a catalytic reaction to take place. (c) Substrate concentration 1. there are few exceptions. 2. the substrate molecules move faster. At low temperatures. there are more substrate molecules than enzyme molecules. 4. 4. . At very high temperatures. most enzymes function optimally at a pH that ranges from 6 to 8. such as pepsin which can only function optimally in an acidic condition (pH 2) in the stomach. Therefore. The rate of reaction between the substrate and enzyme increases. More products are formed per unit time. (b) pH 1. 9. the rate of reaction increases in direct proportion to the substrate concentration. This alters the three-dimensional shape of the enzyme molecules and eventually destroys the active sites. 3. many active sites are available. At a certain substrate concentration. At low substrate concentrations. The substrate is unable to bind and the reaction cannot take place. Beyond the optimum temperature. the rate of enzymatic reaction in a cell is doubled until the optimum temperature is reached. 3. 2. 5. 7. 2. 3. while trypsin can only function optimally in an alkaline condition (pH8. 6.5) in the duodenum. However. all active sits are filled and engaged in catalysis. A change in pH value can alter the charges on the active sites of an enzyme and the surface of the substrate. 8. Collisions between the substrate and enzyme molecules occur more frequently. the rate of reaction will not increase further and become constant. an enzyme-catalysed reaction takes place slowly. This reduces the ability of both molecules to bind with each other. few substrate molecules are present. At high substrate concentrations. 5. 4. any increase in temperature causes the rate of reaction to decrease sharply until it stops completely at about 60°C. For every 10°C rise in temperature. In a cell. The enzyme is said to be denatured. the chemical bonds holding the enzyme molecules in their precise shape begin to break. Most enzymes in humans and animals have an optimum temperature of about 37°C.

the concentration of substrate becomes a limiting factor. 3. the enzyme concentration becomes a limiting factor. When enzyme concentration is doubled. . (d) Enzyme concentration 1.M&S Learning Centre 0122026649 6. The rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction increases when the enzyme concentration increased. 4. an increase in the substrate concentration will not alter the rate of reaction.the rate of reaction or the number of substrate molecules that are converted to products per unit time will be doubled as long as the substrates are present in excess concentration. This is because more active sites are available for enzyme action. 8. Beyond the maximum rate of reaction. 2. The rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the enzyme present until a maximum rate is achieved. as long as no other factors are limiting the rate of reaction and the substrate molecules available are in excess. The rate of reaction becomes constant. When all active sits are engaged in the catalysis of the substrate. 7. At this point. The excess substrate molecules will have to compete with one another for the active sites.