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CHALLENGE

Organised by the United Kingdom

Mathematics Trust

supported by

Institute and Faculty of Actuaries

SOLUTIONS

Keep these solutions secure until after

the test on

THURSDAY 5 NOVEMBER 2015

1.

D

14. E

2.

A

15. C

3.

B

16. A

4.

B

17. C

5.

A

18. D

6.

E

19. A

7.

B

20. E

8.

D

21. C

9.

B

22. B

10. D

23. D

11. C

24. C

12. A

25. C

13. E

2

This solutions pamphlet outlines a solution for each problem on this year's paper. 3 . Much of the potential benefit of grappling with challenging mathematical problems depends on teachers making time for some kind of review. but the solutions presented here are not the only possible solutions. Please share these solutions with your students. We have tried to give the most straightforward approach. during which students may begin to see what they should have done. and how many problems they could have solved. Occasionally we have added a 'Note' at the end of a solution. or follow-up.

We hope that you and they agree that the first 15 problems could. © UKMT 2015 4 . The UKMT is a registered charity. in principle. please let us know. have been solved by most candidates. if not.

x = 5 and x = −5. Therefore the sum of the solutions is 5 + (−5) = 0. to 20152 − (20152 − 1) = 1. 5 . D The expression 20152 − 2016 × 2014 can be written as 20152 − (2015 + 1)(2015 − 1) which simplifies. 2. A Rearranging 6x = 150 x 150 2 gives x = . using the difference of two squares. This has two solutions. 6 so x2 = 25.1.

£40 1 litre cost which is 80 pence.25. The percentage increase is then actual increase original price 45 80 × 100 = 450 8 × 100 which is = 56. 1 litre cost 40 pence. So the approximate increase is 56%.3. 50 £50 = 125 More recently. B When 50 litres of petrol cost £40. 6 .

7 . A The mean of 17. 23 and 2n is given to 17 + 23 + 2n be n. The fraction of the larger circle which is outside the smaller circle is then 4 πr 2 − πr 2 3 πr 2 3 . = = 4 πr 2 4 πr 2 4 5.4. so = n which gives 3 40 + 2n = 3n. As n is then 40. B Let the radius of the smaller circle be r and so the radius of the larger circle is 2r. The area of the smaller circle is then ?r2 and the area of the larger circle is ? × (2r)2 which is 4?r2. the sum of the digits of n is 4.

8 . The number 10 may not be placed on either side of 5. This means that any two adjacent circles in the diagram must be filled with one odd number and one even number. Below 6 and 8 must be 7 and 9 respectively leaving 10 to be placed in the shaded circle at the bottom. E The prime numbers which are the sums of pairs of numbers in touching circles are all odd as they are greater than 2.6. So either side of the 5 must be 6 and 8. since 10 + 5 = 15 = 3 × 5.

B Evaluating each option gives () ( ) 1 1 4 2 2 = × = A 2 3 3 3 4 B 1 = 2 3 4 1 12 = = 6 2 2 12 () ( ) 1 1 2 1 6 3 C = = 4 4 24 1 1 3 D = = 2 8 8 3 3 4 9 .7.

and any two of U. S and T. The net must also include one of P and Q (but not both as they will fold into the same position). D Let the squares in the diagram be labelled as shown. 1 2 3 3 2 3 E . This therefore gives 2 × 3 = 6 different ways. V and W. = = 4 4 8 So B has the largest answer. Each of the nets formed from six squares must contain all of R. P R Q S T U V W 10 . 8.

B Possible configurations of four different straight lines drawn in a plane are shown here to give 1.9. 4 and 5 points of intersection respectively. two of the straight lines would need to lie in the same position and so would not be 'different'. In order to have exactly 2 points of intersection. 3. 11 .

their totals must each be 105. As n is a positive integer. D The total of the numbers from 1 to 20 is 1 × 20 × (20 + 1) = 210. n = 14. Therefore n2 + n − 210 = 0 which factorises to give (n + 15) (n − 14) = 0. 12 . If Milly and Billy 2 have totals which are equal. is n(n + 1) so 2 1 n (n + 1) = 105 which gives 2 n2 + n = 210.10. Here is one way. Milly's total. C There are several different ways to count systematically the number of towers that Rahid can build. 11. of the 1 numbers from 1 to n.

13 .All blocks Exactly two blocks the All blocks of the same same size different size sizes 10 6 4 4 6 4 10 6 10 4 10 6 4 10 10 6 6 4 4 6 10 6 4 10 10 6 6 4 4 10 Total height 30 18 12 24 26 16 22 14 18 20 So there are nine different heights of tower (as the height of 18cm can be made from 6 + 6 + 6 or 10 + 4 + 4).

2 At S we can consider the sum of the three angles. Two tangents to a circle which meet at a point are of equal length. A Each of the three sides of triangle PQR is a tangent to the circle. Similarly RT = RS. 2 14 . This means that ∠QUS = ∠QSU = 1 (180 − α) and also 2 1 ∠RTS = ∠RST = (180 − β). so 1 1 (180 − α) + γ + (180 − β) = 180. So QU and QS are of equal length. 2 2 Simplifying gives 1 1 90 − α + γ + 90 − β = 180 2 2 1 and so γ = (α + β).12.

13. this is a T preceded by an L. 15 . In the table. E Knave of Knave of Hearts Diamonds Mon T T Tue T L Wed T L Thu T L Fri L T Sat L T Sun L T Mon T T When a knave says "Yesterday I told lies" it could be that today he is telling the truth and he did indeed tell lies yesterday.

In the table. in which case he was in fact telling the truth yesterday. The only day when one or the other of these options applies to each knave is Friday.It could also be that today he is lying. 16 . this is an L preceded by a T.

The area of triangle ABD is given as 88. Let the point where the perpendicular from A meets BD be labelled C. 17 . The remainder of the base CD is then 22 − 6 = 16.14. So y = 8 5. Considering triangle ABC and using Pythagoras' Theorem gives BC = 6. Considering triangle ACD and using Pythagoras' Theorem again gives y2 = 82 + 162 = 82(12 + 22) = 82 × 5. E A 10 B 8 y C D Let the vertices of the triangle be labelled A. As BD is 22. AC must be 8. B and D as shown.

The volume of water at the start is then ? × 102 × h cm3.15. So ? × 102 × h = ? × 102 × 16 − ? × 52 × 8. The volume of water completely within the vase is constant. which is 16 cm. some of the water moves into it. C Let the original water level in the larger vase be h cm. giving 100?h = 1600? − 200? and therefore h = 14. We are given that the final depth of water in the smaller vase is 8 cm. 18 . So the total volume of water is then ? × 102 × 16 cm3 less the gap in the top half of the smaller vase. but when the smaller vase is pushed down. In the end the depth of the water in the larger vase is the same as the height of the smaller vase itself.

A Let the six Fnargs in their final positions be denoted by F1F2F3F4F5F6. the colours of the Fnargs must alternate all along the line and so we need only consider the number of heads. There is only one choice for each of F5 and F6 as 19 . There is only one choice for F3 as F3 cannot have the same number of heads as F2 or F1 (F3 and F1 are the same colour and so have different numbers of heads). just as F3 was completely determined by F2 and F1.16. There is only one choice for F4 as it is completely determined by F3 and F2. There are 3 – 1 = 2 choices for F2 as the number of heads for F2 ≠ the number of heads for F1. There are six choices for F1. Once this Fnarg is chosen.

B. as we must take the positive root. We are given that ABCD is a square. By Pythagoras' Theorem (r + 1)2 + (r + 1)2 = 22. 17. Square rooting both sides gives r + 1 = 2 .they are the last of each colour of Fnargs. 20 . When two circles touch externally. and so r= 2 − 1. C and D in order. C Let the radius of each of the smaller circles be r and let the centres of the circles be A. the distance between their centres equals the sum of their radii. so 2(r + 1)2 = 22 = 4 and therefore (r + 1)2 = 2. The total number of ways of lining up the Fnargs is 6 × 2 × 1 × 1 × 1 × 1 which is 12. Hence AB and BC have length r + 1 and AC has length 1 + 1 = 2.

10! is 2×5×3×3×2×2×2×7×2×3×5×2 × 2 × 3 × 2 which is 28 × 34 × 52 × 7. D Expressed as a product of its prime factors. 21 .18. This can be written as (24 × 32 × 5)2 × 7 so the largest integer k such that k2 is a factor of 10! is 24 × 32 × 5 which is 720.

A Let the length of the side of the smallest square be x cm. 8 x = 50 − x 2x + 8 so 8(2x + 8) = x(50 – x). x+x+8 As P. The 8 gradient of PQ is then x 50 − x and the gradient of PR is . Q and R lie on a straight line.19. giving x = 2 or 32. So the three squares have sides of lengths x cm. Expanding gives 16x + 64 = 50x − x2 and therefore x2 – 34x + 64 = 0. (x + 8) cm and 50 cm respectively. 22 .

the vertex A travels along a semicircle whose centre is O. E A O Let the corner of the square about which it is rotated be O and the opposite vertex of the square be A. 23 . The square has side-length 1. so OA = 2 . As the circle is rotated through 180° about O. The area coloured black by the ink is then formed from two half squares and a semicircle. The total area of the two half squares and the semicircle is 1 1 2 × ( × 1 × 1) + × ? ×( 2 )2 2 2 which is 1 + ?.20.

C All of the triangles in the diagram are similar as they contain the same angles. XS + SQ + QZ = 4.21. 24 . So AM = XS = 2x. so that AM = 2x. 4x . So 2x + x + 4x 3 =4 and therefore x = 12 13 . as BT = x. Now considering triangle 4x TBM. First consider triangle APM. Let AP = x. The 3 quadrilateral AMSX is a parallelogram as AM is parallel to XS and MS is parallel to AX. The sides of each triangle are therefore in the ratio 2 : 3 : 4. BM = . Similarly QZ = BM = 3 Considering the base of triangle XYZ.

Hence f(2015) = 0.22. x2 + 1 The numerator is 2 x2 − x 2 + 1 + 1 = −1 + 1 = 0. B f (x) = x + 1 x2 + 1 + x− ( x+ = )( x2 + 1 x − x− x2 + 1 ) x2 + 1 + 1 . ( ) So f(x) = 0. 25 .

The total is therefore 1111 × 6 (a + b + c + d) which factorises to 2 × 3 × 11 × 101(a + b + c + d). b. Adding all 24 numbers together gives 1000(6a + 6b + 6c + 6d) + 100(6a + 6b + 6c + 6d) + 10(6a + 6b + 6c + 6d) + 6a + 6b + 6c + 6d. the largest prime factor of the sum is 101.23. As a + b + c + d < 101. each of the four letters appears in each position six times. D Let a four-digit positive integer be expressed as 1000a + 100b + 10c + d where a. c and d. 26 . c and d are all different. In the 24 possible permutations of a. b.

5. So the longest row is of 20 cards. 27 . 3. 21. 2. 12. 24. 15. 18. 8. 4. 10. 22. 14. 16. 25. These cards cannot be placed anywhere in the row of N cards. 19 and 23.24. The five numbers are 1 (which has no prime factors) and the primes 13. C There are five cards in Peter's set that are printed with an integer that has no prime factors in common with any other number from 1 to 25. 17. One possible row is: 11. 7. 20. 9. 6.

extended solutions available on the UKMT website. C Repeatedly using the rule that f(xy) = f(x) + f(y) allows us to write f(500) as f(2 × 2 × 5 × 5 × 5) = f(2) + f(2) + f(5) + f(5) +f(5) = 2f(2) + 3f(5). We are given values for f(40) and f(10) and from them we need to calculate the values of f(2) and f(5). these solutions are necessarily brief. Similarly f(10) = f(2) + f(5) so 14 = 3 + f(5) giving f(5) = 11. Now f(40) can be written as f(2) + f(2) + f(10) so 20 = 2f(2) + 14 and therefore f(2) = 3.org. So f(500) = 2f(2) + 3f(5) = 2 × 3 + 3 × 11 = 39. For reasons of space.25. There are more in-depth. which include some exercises for further investigation: http://www.uk/ 28 .ukmt.

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