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**1.2 Average Speed VS Instantaneous Speed
**

Average speed is a calculated value equal to the total distance travelled divided by

the total time taken while instantaneous speed is the actual speed of a vehicle at a

particular point in time.

1.3 Scalar VS Vector

Scalar only has a magnitude while vector have both magnitude and direction. (mass

time speed) Vectors can be represented through vector diagrams. (force velocity

acceleration). Average velocity is determined by the change in displacement over

the change in time.

1.4 Distance VS Displacement

Distance is the total length of the path travelled by an object while displacement

indicates the shortest distance of a straight line and direction that a object travels.

**2.3 Newton's First Law of Motion
**

An object at rest or moving with constant velocity will remain at rest or moving with

constant velocity while no net force acts on it. Positive force acts in the direction of

the moving object while negative force acts against the direction of the object's

motion. It is also known as 'Inertia.' Tendency of an object to resist change in

velocity.

**Air Resistance and friction act against the objects motion, driving force cause
**

forward momentum and gravity gives the car it's weight and reaction force stops

the car 'sinking into the Earth.'

2.7 Average Acceleration

Change in velocity (v) / change in time (t) = (v-u)/t

**2.9 Mass and Weight
**

Mass is the amount of matter in an object. It is a scalar quantity measured in kg.

Weight is a measure of the gravitational force acting on an object. W=mg, is

measured in Newton’s and is a vector quantity acting downwards.

2.10 Forces Acting on Car in Different Scenarios

14 Centripetal Force F=mv2 / r .Horizontal Surface Weight Force (downwards) Friction Force (opposite direction of car) Reaction Force (acting upwards) Horizontal Surface (pressure on accelerator) Friction Force Forward Force Weight Force Horizontal Surface (pressure on brakes) Friction Force on brake pads Vehicle on Icy Path No friction force Weight and Normal Force are balanced Vehicle Climbing a Hill Driving Force is greater than frciton Weight Force Descending a Hill Weight Force Mgsin0 > Driving Force Vehicle Following Curve on Horizontal Road Forward Force Retarding Forces (air resistance) Turning force (friction between tyres and road perpendicular to direction of travel) 2.11 Newton's Second Law of Motion The acceleration of an object is proportionalto the unbalanced force acting on it and inversely proportional to mass (F=ma). 2.

4 Assess reasons for introduction of low speed zones in built up areas and addition of airbags and crumple zones to vehicles a) Low speed zones cause a car to reduce the momentum the car contains. 3.3. This would reduce the force and impact of which the individual hits the surface due to the miniature holes which allows to escape. This reduces that distance and time it would take for a car to stop if needed and would create safer conditions for pedestrians and other vehicles. Crumple zones reduce this force through increasing the stopping distance of the car. 4. Some types of force require contact (friction). However some forces do not require contact (gravity).1 Momentum Momentum equal to mass multiplied by velocity. 4. to reduce the force (impact) would have to reduce the acceleration gradually rather than at an instant. c) Crumple zones when a vehicle experiences a collision.2 Impulse Impulse equals change in momentum which is Force multiplied by time. b) Airbags in a collision would help increase the impulse which an individual would increase the time and distance for an individual to come to a stop. 5. The magnitude of the weight of an object is directly proportional to its mass. Force and Newton’s Laws of Motion A force is a push and pull. stop them or change their speed or direction. The force on an object due to the pull of gravity is called weight (W). .5 Law of Conservation of Energy Sates that energy cannot be created or destroyed only transferred from one form to another. That means that impulse would be less as well. Kinetic energy equals to half x mass x v2 while work equals Force x displacement. Force is a vector quantity and is measured in newton’s (N). Forces can start things moving. Crumple zone to just this where they slowly crumple meaning the car slowly comes to a halt.1 Relationship between work and kinetic energy Work done by gravitational force will equal the kinetic energy the falling object gains (and also equal the gravitational potential energy the object loses).

Weight.Gravitational Field Strength is defined as the force of gravity on a unit of mass.of car and acts through the centre of the mass Normal Reaction Force. W=Mg Net Force is the sum of vector of the forces acting on an object.1. This can be stopped through the use of seatbelts.every object continues in its state of rest or uniform motion unless made to change by a non. Forces In and Out of Balance Newton’s First Law of Motion. Its magnitude is usually greater at the front wheels than the rear wheels. Inertia is not a force while inertia of an object depends only on its mass. The normal reaction is a force which acts perpendicular to a surface as a result of an object applying a force to the surface. Describing Movement – Textbook (Chap 9) 9. Newton’s First Law and Inertia Inertia of an object is its tendency to resist changes to its motion.zero net force. The acceleration can take the form of a change in speed.Distance and Displacement .pushes up on all four wheels. direction or both. This is expressed in acceleration in the direction of the net force.

A and B. in this case B. Then you add the negative to the positive vector.rate at which an object changes its velocity (vector quantity). Vector Addition Using the triangle method Two vectors. 1.Acceleration Acceleration. ∆v = change in velocity (m/s). Both distance and speed are scalars. Since the slope represents velocity. Time Graph This graph of displacement versus time being linear has a constant slope. are to be added. then velocity is constant. you add the two velocity.Speed and Velocity Speed is a measure of the rate at which an object moves over a distance. Move one vector. Distance.3.measure of the change in position of an object (vector quantity) When adding vectors the sum of the two initial vectors is represented through the resultant vector. t = time (s) Displacement/Distance Vs.measure of the total length of the path taken during the change in position of an object (scalar quantity) Displacement. When subtracting vectors. from the tail of the first vector to the head of the second one 9. drawn to scale. The slope of a displacement versus time graph is velocity.2. So the object must be moving in a straight line with constant velocity. average acceleration is the change of velocity/ time. v = final velocity (m/s). Therefore. If travelling in same direction. This is calculated by distance travelled/time taken (scalar quantity) Velocity is a measure of the time rate of displacement or the time rate of change in position. however if travelling in opposing directions you must subtract the velocities Instantaneous speed of an object at any particular point while instantaneous velocity is the velocity at one particular point (has a direction) 9. so that its tail touches the head of the other . a = ∆v/∆t Or a = (v – u) / t a = acceleration (m/s2). Both displacement and velocity are vectors. flip the second vector to produce a negative vector. Relative velocity is the difference between the velocity of the object relative to the ground and the velocity of the observer relative to the ground. u = initial velocity (m/s). The slope of a distance versus time graph is speed.

known as the resultant vector. In the absence of a net force. Inertia is short for Newton’s first law. A net external force is needed to change the velocity of an object because a change in velocity is an acceleration and a force is required to produce an acceleration. Vector Subtraction 1. A. Someone’s mass stays the same if there on earth or the moon. Inertia of a body can be measured by its mass. 2. The length of the new arrow formed is the magnitude of the resultant vector and the direction of the arrow is the direction of the resultant vector. Inertia was formulated by Galileo Galilei.vector. can be found by drawing an arrow from the tail of one vector to the head of the other. 2. but points in the opposite direction. the size of the resultant vector may be determined by simply measuring the length of the arrow using a ruler. the velocity of an object will remain constant in magnitude and direction. tail to tip for as many vectors as required. Newton’s Second Law of Motion F net = ma . Assuming that the vectors are drawn to scale. 4. The angle of the resultant vector can be determined using a protractor. Trigonometry may need to be used to determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant vector. INERTIA: Newton's first law of motion describes inertia. each additional vector (from the third vector onwards) can be added to the previous two. The sum of the two vectors. 3. The internal mass of an object determines its acceleration in the presence of an applied force. When adding three or more vectors. Add this new vector to the first vector using the vector addition methods Newton’s Laws of Motion It states that a body will continue to move at a constant velocity or remain stationary unless it is being acted upon by a net (resultant) force. Inertia is the properties that will make all matter oppose any force that could potentially cause a change in its motion. MASS: Mass is an intrinsic property of that body that never changes. one at a time. so that it keeps its original magnitude. Change the direction of the vector that is to be subtracted.

• Together. Normal Force A normal force is the reaction force of a weight force. the force and the resulting reaction force are called an action– reaction pair. whether the object is moving in the + or – direction Friction and Air Resistance Friction acts between objects rubbing or sliding together. whether the object is speeding up or slowing down 2. • Equal and opposite means ‘equal in magnitude but opposite in direction’. Acceleration Acceleration is a vector quantity that is defined as the rate at which an object changes its velocity. Importantly. a fundamental measure of the amount of matter in the object. An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity. there’s and equal and opposite reaction. • The action and the reaction are not exerted on the same object. It is a result of Newton’s third law of motion. opposing force’. • For Newton’s third law. Newton’s Third Law of Motion For every action. Friction is always parallel to the rubbing surfaces and always acts in the direction opposite to the (actual or . Weight is the force of gravity on the object and may be defined as the mass times the acceleration of gravity. the normal force always acts perpendicularly from a surface and is always generated by the component of the weight force that is perpendicular to the plane surface. while mass and acceleration are inversely proportional. Mass and Weight Mass is a numerical measure of its inertia. The direction of the acceleration vector depends on two things: 1. action means ‘force’. reaction means ‘a resulting. w = mg.Force and acceleration are directly proportional.

The friction that exists between two surfaces that is not moving relative to each other. Drag forces act opposite to the oncoming flow velocity. is the forces that are in opposition to the relative motion of an object through the air. The frictional forces opposing the motion of the vehicle become the dominant force and the vehicle slows down. depends directly on velocity. the friction increases until it equals the new thrust produced by the engine . Drag.potential) sliding direction. Static friction. helping to maintain maximum frictional force between the tyres and the road . also called drag. the thrust produced by the engine drops dramatically. static and kinetic friction.The friction that exists between two surfaces that is moving relative to each other.then the velocity becomes constant again Pressing on the brakes ultimately increases the friction between the tyres and the road in the direction opposing the car’s motion Usually when this is done by the driver. Air resistance. The forward thrust produced by the engine is exactly balanced by frictional forces opposing the motion If the driver’s foot is removed from the accelerator. Forces Involved in Velocity Change of a Vehicle A vehicle travelling at a constant velocity has zero net force on it . the foot is off the accelerator and so the engine produces almost no force The net force is in the opposite direction to the motion of the vehicle The vehicle slows down Friction between the tyres and the road is greater when the tyres are not skidding ABS on cars senses when the tyres begin to skid and release the brake pressure. unlike other resistive forces. When the accelerator is pressed down. Kinetic friction. There are two types of friction. the forward acting thrust this action produces exceeds (for a time) the opposing frictional forces There is a net forward force and the car accelerates in that direction As it gets faster.

Therefore the sum of all the energies in the system is a constant. sound and potential energy. • The more massive the car the larger the force needed to round the curve. Work and Energy Work is always done when a force acts on a body and causes motion. Collisions Mechanical interaction between two or more objects that results in an exchange of energy. Work done = force acting × distance moved in direction of force (W (J) = F(N) × s (m)) Work can . If the car is travelling at a constant speed. it becomes almost impossible to speed up. Section 3. The different ways in which energy is exchanged or transferred allow collisions to be classified as elastic or inelastic. • The faster the car’s speed the larger the force needed to round the curve.Moving vehicles have kinetic energy and energy transformations are an important aspect in understanding motion Energy can be defined as the capacity for doing work. • The tighter the curve the larger the centripetal force needed to successfully drive around it. The kinetic energy of the system is lost and is converted into other forms of energy. the centripetal force required to make the car round the curve of a given radius depends on the mass and the velocity of the car. It may exist in a variety of forms and may be transformed from one type of energy to another. slow down or change direction while traversing the ice Following a Curve in the Road The force required to cause an object to move in a circle is called a centripetal force. An inelastic collision does not conserve the total kinetic energy of a system. There are some frictional forces such as air resistance opposing the motion of the car in this circumstance Because there is almost no friction between the tyres and the road. An elastic collision conserves total kinetic energy. such as heat. Law of Conservation of Energy The law of conservation of energy states that energy may neither be created nor destroyed.

Potential energy can be calculated by (P. ρi = ρf Section 5. Potential energy which is possessed by a body because of its relative to a fixed position reference point. The kinetic energy of a moving object is equal to the amount of work done to bring the object to rest. m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2 By direct application of Newton’s laws we discover that during a collision in a closed system. when work is done against a force. positive work has been done. When work is done by a force.be done by a force or against a force. momentum is conserved. they both experience equal and opposite forces which will cause a change in the velocity of the masses.Change of momentum relates to the forces acting on the vehicle or the driver Momentum = mass x velocity OR p = mv Newton’s Laws and Conservation of Momentum If objects collide. Section 4 . K. Energy The energy stored in an object is the measure of its capacity to do work.E = 1⁄2 mv2 Most inelastic collisions. and again is a ability of the object to do work. Also.Safety devices are utilised to reduce the effects of changing momentum During a collision. Energy can exists in many forms. the vehicle is often brought to rest very rapidly. will result in conversion of kinetic energy to sound. This change in velocity of the masses will cause an acceleration on each. The large inertia of the means the vehicle will be difficult to stop. heat and damage to the vehicle. often the Earth’s surface. the more kinetic energy is converted and more damage will be done as a result. Law of conservation of momentum. potential and kinetic. mechanical. height. when the body moves in the same direction as the acting force. the inertia of the passengers . that is.E = mgh) Kinetic energy is energy possessed because an object is in motion. that is. However. The more inelastic a collision. negative work has been done. when the body moves in the opposite direction to that of the force. in this case traffic accident.

as the car is often brought to rest (zero velocity) from a high velocity. Kinetic Energy Safety features in modern cars crumple zones. the net force experienced by the vehicle will be reduced according to the impulse equation. During a collision. This reduces the acceleration and force on the person. Low Speed Zones Even a small difference in vehicle speed can make a large difference to the probability of serious injury. If instead of hitting the windshield. allowing the vehicle to change its motion over a longer period of time and over a longer distance. Modern cars also have safety features that absorb kinetic energy in collisions. If a car hits a pedestrian at 50 km/h the car driver is twice as likely to kill the pedestrian than if the car hits a pedestrian at 40 km/h. By lengthening the time of the change of momentum. As energy cannot be created or destroyed. These typically include air bags and crumple zones. are designed to absorb kinetic energy in a crash. For every extra kilometre per hour of speed: • the stopping distance increases. • the impact of a crash is more severe on the vehicle. • the likelihood of serious injury or death increases Air Bags Air bags are used in automobiles because they are able to minimize the effect of the force on an object involved in a collision. so reducing injury. driver. With safety. when a car brakes its kinetic energy changes into heat energy. then the time duration of the impact is increased. passengers and pedestrians. • the time to react and avoid a crash decreases.causes them to continue to move forward although the vehicle may have stopped. The passenger compartment is the only area built rigid so that it will not crush the occupants inside. The brakes heat up and then transfer the energy to the surroundings. this could potentially cause serious injuries to passengers of the vehicle. the change in momentum is often large. Air bags accomplish this by extending the time required to stop the momentum of the driver and passenger. the driver and passenger hit an air bag. . Crumple zones deform the vehicle which increases the amount of time the person takes to come to a stop. Crumple Zones the crumple zones are designed to compress and absorb the impact of a collision.

dashboard or windscreen. This could be an impact with a solid object inside the vehicle. until something stops them.Seatbelts In a crash. a person who is not restrained by a seatbelt will continue to travel forward at the speed the vehicle was travelling prior to the crash. This reduces the injury that the passenger could obtain if not wearing a seatbelt. such as the steering wheel. .

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