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1935 CONSTITUTION

The Filipino people, imploring the aid of Divine
Providence, in order to establish a government that
shall embody their ideals, conserve and develop
the patrimony of the nation, promote the general
welfare, and secure to themselves and their
posterity the blessings of independence under a
régime of justice, liberty, and democracy, do
ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

1973 CONSTITUTION
PREAMBLE
We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the
aid of Divine Providence, in order to establish a
Government that shall embody our ideals, promote
the general welfare, conserve and develop the
patrimony of our Nation, and secure to ourselves
and our posterity the blessings of democracy under
a regime of justice, peace, liberty, and equality, do
ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

Article I.—THE NATIONAL TERRITORY

THE NATIONAL TERRITORY
ARTICLE I
THE NATIONAL TERRITORY

Section 1. The Philippines comprises all the
territory ceded to the United States by the treaty of
Paris concluded between the United States and
Spain on the tenth day of December, eighteen
hundred and ninety-eight, the limits of which are
set forth in Article III of said treaty, together with
all the islands embraced in the treaty concluded at
Washington, between the United States and Spain
on the seventh day of November, nineteen
hundred, and in the treaty concluded between the
United States and Great Britain on the second day
of January, nineteen hundred and thirty, and all
territory over which the present Government of the
Philippine Islands exercises jurisdiction.

SECTION 1. The national territory comprises the
Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and
waters embraced therein, and all the other
territories belonging to the Philippines by historic
right or legal title, including the territorial sea, the
air space, the subsoil, the sea-bed, the insular
shelves, and the other submarine areas over which
the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction. The
waters around, between, and connecting the
islands of the archipelago, irrespective of their
breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal
waters of the Philippines.

Section 1. The Philippines is a republican state.
Sovereignty resides in the people and all
government authority emanates from them.

DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES
ARTICLE II
DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE
POLICIES
SECTION 1. The Philippines is a republican state.
Sovereignty resides in the people and all
governmental authority emanates from them.

Sec. 2. The defense of the State is a prime duty of
government, and in the fulfillment of this duty all
citizens may be required by law to render personal
military or civil service.

SEC. 2. The defense of the State is a prime duty of
the Government and the people, and in the
fulfillment of this duty all citizens may be required
by law to render personal military or civil service.

ARTICLE II.—DECLARATION OF
PRINCIPLES

1987 CONSTITUTION
We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the
aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and
humane society and establish a Government that
shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote
the common good, conserve and develop our
patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our
posterity the blessings of independence and
democracy under the rule of law and a regime of
truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace,
do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.
ARTICLE I
National Territory
The national territory comprises the Philippine
archipelago, with all the islands and waters
embraced therein, and all other territories over
which the Philippines has sovereignty or
jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial,
and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the
seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other
submarine areas. The waters around, between, and
connecting the islands of the archipelago,
regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form
part of the internal waters of the Philippines.

ARTICLE II
Declaration of Principles and State Policies
Principles
SECTION 1. The Philippines is a democratic and
republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people
and all government authority emanates from them.
SECTION 2. The Philippines renounces war as an
instrument of national policy, adopts the generally
accepted principles of international law as part of
the law of the land and adheres to the policy of
peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and
amity with all nations.

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and equitably diffuse property ownership and profits. employment. supreme over the military. and adheres to the policy of peace. welfare. SECTION 8. enjoyment. territorial integrity. ensure equal work opportunities regardless of sex. SEC. 8. under conditions provided by law. The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in the nation-building and shall promote their physical. The natural right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency should receive the aid and support of the Government. national interest. The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services. use. SEC. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy. The Government may call upon the people to defend the State and. SEC. The State shall strengthen the family as a basic social institution. freedom. and the right to self-determination. The State shall establish. The State shall afford protection to labor. and amity with all nations. liberty. promote full employment and equality in employment. SEC. in the fulfillment thereof. The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. SECTION 5. 5. intellectual. The Philippines. justice. SEC. and social security to guarantee the enjoyment by the people of a decent standard of living. SECTION 4. The maintenance of peace and order. 3. adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land. welfare. In its relations with other states the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty. SEC.Sec. The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable. State Policies SECTION 7. race. and security of all the people. and social well-being. SEC. all citizens may be required. SEC. and property. 3. Civilian authority is at all times supreme over the military. promote full 2 . The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy. and adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as a part of the law of the Nation. Civilian authority is. consistent with the national interest. The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory. SECTION 6. to render personal military or civil service. SECTION 3. health. SEC. The natural right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the aid and support of the Government. housing. cooperation. the protection of life. adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory. ownership. Towards this end. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. equality. or creed. and the promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of democracy. 6. and ensure adequate social services in the field of education. at all times. and regulate the SECTION 9. The State shall promote social justice to ensure the dignity. and disposition of private property. 4. 5. the State shall regulate the acquisition. 9. The promotion of social justice to insure the well-being and economic security of all the people should be the concern of the State. maintain. 7. 4.

SECTION 15. and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men. The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. 3 . The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical. SECTION 13. security of tenure.relations between workers and employers. The State shall guarantee and promote the autonomy of local government units. intellectual. collective bargaining. spiritual. to ensure their fullest development as self-reliant communities. SECTION 11. arts. SECTION 12. and just and humane conditions of work. moral. The State shall give priority to education. The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them. and an improved quality of life for all. 10. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism. employment. The State shall assure the rights of workers to selforganization. SECTION 10. The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building. and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs. SECTION 14. especially the [barangays ]. SECTION 16. science and technology. SEC. SECTION 17. The State may provide for compulsory arbitration. The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the support of the Government. a rising standard of living. The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. and social well-being. The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development. culture. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception.

—BILL OF RIGHTS BILL OF RIGHTS ***NOTE: UNDER 1937 THE ARTICLE III: ARTICLE III 4 . SECTION 22. The State shall develop a selfreliant and independent national economy effectively controlled by Filipinos. accelerate social progress. The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nationbuilding. The State shall encourage nongovernmental. and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law. or sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the nation. SECTION 25.and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism. SECTION 20. encourages private enterprise. The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform. SECTION 28. SECTION 18. The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. SECTION 21. The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments. SECTION 23. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare. The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive and effective measures against graft and corruption. SECTION 24. the State adopts and implements a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest. and promote total human liberation and development. The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service. SECTION 27. The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national unity and development. and provides incentives to needed investments. community-based. Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law. SECTION 26. The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector. SECTION 19. ARTICLE III.

to be determined by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce. (2) Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. (1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court. SECTION 2. SECTION 3. and particularly describing the place to be searched. liberty. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. (1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court. or when public safety and order require otherwise. (3) The right of the people to be secure in their persons. (1) No person shall be deprived of life. nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. or property without due process of law. liberty. The right of the people to be secure in their persons. after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce. The right of the people to be secure in their persons. papers. SEC. and the persons or things to be seized. or property without due process of law. and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. or property without due process of law. (4) The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired. 5 . SEC. 2. SECTION 1. or such other responsible officer as may be authorized by law. SEC. 5. and the persons or things to be seized. and particularly describing the place to be searched. and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated. papers. (5) SEC. or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. of expression. 3. No person shall be deprived of life. nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. houses. or when public safety or order requires otherwise as prescribed by law. liberty. or of the press. and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall not be violated. The liberty of abode and of travel shall The privacy of communication and SECTION 4. and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable. (2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding. (2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding. houses. papers. and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce.CITIZENSHIP Bill of Rights ARTICLE IV BILL OF RIGHTS SECTION 1. No person shall be deprived of life. 4. and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined by the judge. nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech. SECTION 1. houses.

be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development. without the consent of the National Assembly. and no person holding any office of profit or trust shall. or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. transactions. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion. SEC. or decisions. not. and the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship. or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for redress of grievances SEC. or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for redress of grievances. 8. as may be provided by law. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. or of the press. and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts. shall be afforded the citizen. (11) No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. and to documents. or when necessary in the interest of national security. or public health. (9) No law granting a little of nobility shall be enacted. transactions. public safety. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. Access to official records. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. SECTION 7. The right to form associations or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. without discrimination or preference. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. 9. SECTION 8. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. (10) No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech. shall forever be allowed. associations. SECTION 9. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion. 7. without discrimination or preference. and papers pertaining to official acts. SEC. (7) No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion. office. SEC. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. SECTION 5. or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. (8) No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech. SEC.correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court or when public safety and order require otherwise. No law granting a title of royalty or nobility shall be enacted. public safety. accept any present. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship. or decisions. SECTION 10. or title of any kind whatever from any foreign state. or public health. SEC. 11. without discrimination or preference. shall forever be allowed. 6. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. SECTION 6. 6 . shall forever be allowed. or of the press. (6) The right to form associations or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. shall be afforded the citizen subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security. 10. The right of the people. emolument. Access to official records. or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship. to form unions. including those employed in the public and private sectors. subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.

and public trial. SEC. intimidation. SECTION 14. SECTION 13. violence. or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. or rebellion. (4) The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as compensation to and rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices. the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved. (1) No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. to meet the 7 . impartial. he must be provided with one. 13. (3) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence against him. or any other means which vitiate the free will shall be used against him. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duty convicted. (2) In all criminal prosecutions. before conviction. The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. solitary. Free access to the courts and quasijudicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty. except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong. incommunicado. 14. force. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel. and their families. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel. be bailable by sufficient sureties. Secret detention places. (2) No torture. threat. SECTION 11.(12) No person shall be imprisoned for debt or nonpayment of a poll tax. in any of which events the same may be suspended wherever during such period the necessity for such suspension shall exist. All persons. SEC. insurrection. to have a speedy. SEC. (13) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. shall. or other similar forms of detention are prohibited. SECTION 12. Excessive bail shall not be required. and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel. 12. when the public safety requires it. to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him. (1) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. (14) The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion.

quasi-judicial. the Congress hereafter provides for it. trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused provided that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is unjustifiable. for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion or rebellion when the public safety requires it. SECTION 19. SEC. to meet the witnesses face to face and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses in his behalf. (17) In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall be presumed to be innocent until the contrary is proved. and public trial. 16. nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted. SEC. However. to have a speedy and public trial. psychological. (1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed. insurrection. or administrative bodies. (19) Excessive fines shall not be imposed. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial. SEC. shall. (2) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. except those charged with capital offenses when evidence of guilt is strong. or administrative bodies. SEC. rebellion. after arraignment. SECTION 16. (2) The employment of physical. SECTION 17. 17. (1) No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and aspirations. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused provided that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is unjustified. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua. and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him. 15. However. after arraignment. when the public safety requires it. or imminent danger thereof. SECTION 18. be bailable by sufficient sureties. to meet the witnesses face to face. (18) Bo person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. 19. Neither shall death penalty be imposed. and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel. before conviction. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him. unless. witnesses face to face. (16) All persons shall before conviction be bailable by sufficient sureties. 18. degrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. Excessive bail shall not be required. and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. to have a speedy. nor cruel. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion. and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel. the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved. In all criminal prosecutions. except those charged with capital offenses when evidence of guilt is strong. Excessive bail shall not be required. SEC. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial. quasi-judicial. or degrading punishment against any prisoner or 8 .(15) No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. SECTION 15. All persons. impartial.

SEC. If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance. 22. If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. If an cat is punished by a law and an ordinance. Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to remain silent and to counsel. SEC. conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act. 9 . or any other means which vitiates the free will shall be used against him. conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act. threat. and to be informed of such right. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. No force. (21) Free access to the courts shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty. intimidation. detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with by law. nor cruel or unusual punishment inflicted. violence. conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act. 21.(20) No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. Excessive fines shall not be imposed. SEC. SEC. 20. 23. SECTION 22. Any confession obtained in violation of this section shall be inadmissible in evidence. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. SECTION 20. SECTION 21. Free access to the courts shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty.