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Solar radiation that hits the photovoltaic modules has a variable character depending on the position, the direction of the solar field, the season, and the hour of the day. During the trajectory of a day, a shadow may be decanted on the cell, which may be contemplated, as in the case of a building near the solar field, or unforeseeable as those created by clouds. The breakthrough of PV systems as distributed power generation systems has increased drastically in the last few years. Because of this Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is becoming more and more substantial as the amount of energy generated by PV systems is increasing. A MPPT technique must be used to track the maximum power point since the MPP depends on solar irradiation and cell temperature. In general, when the impedances of the load and source are matched, the maximum power is transferred to the load from the source only. The generated energy from PV systems must be maximized, as the efficiency of solar panels is low. For that reason to get the maximum power, a PV system is repeatedly equipped with an MPP tracker. Several MPP pursuit techniques have been proposed and implemented in recent years.

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2016

American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER)

e-ISSN: 2320-0847 p-ISSN : 2320-0936

Volume-5, Issue-8, pp-128-132

www.ajer.org

Research Paper

Open Access

Partially Shaded Condition

Belqasem Aljafari

College of Engineering/ Northern Illinois University, USA

ABSTRACT: Solar radiation that hits the photovoltaic modules has a variable character depending on the

position, the direction of the solar field, the season, and the hour of the day. During the trajectory of a day, a

shadow may be decanted on the cell, which may be contemplated, as in the case of a building near the solar

field, or unforeseeable as those created by clouds. The breakthrough of PV systems as distributed power

generation systems has increased drastically in the last few years. Because of this Maximum Power Point

Tracking (MPPT) is becoming more and more substantial as the amount of energy generated by PV systems is

increasing. A MPPT technique must be used to track the maximum power point since the MPP depends on solar

irradiation and cell temperature. In general, when the impedances of the load and source are matched, the

maximum power is transferred to the load from the source only. The generated energy from PV systems must be

maximized, as the efficiency of solar panels is low. For that reason to get the maximum power, a PV system is

repeatedly equipped with an MPP tracker. Several MPP pursuit techniques have been proposed and

implemented in recent years.

Keywords: Neural network, Open Circuit Voltage, Short Circuit Current, Fuzzy Logic Control, Perturb and

Observe and Incremental Conductance

I.

INTRODUCTION

The use of the recently developed power control mechanisms, called Maximum Power Point Tracking

(MPPT) algorithms, has led to increasing the efficiency of operation of the solar modules. Therefore, MPPT is

efficient in the field of exploitation of renewable sources of energy [MPPT technics]. Maximum power point

tracking is a DC-to-DC converter that optimizes the match between the solar array (PV modules) and the battery

bank or utility grid. It converts a higher voltage DC output from solar PV arrays or modules down to the lower

voltage needed to charge batteries and vice versa. Maximum Power Point Tracking is an electronic arrangement

that routinely finds the voltage (VMPP) or current (IMPP) at which PV modules should operate to achieve

maximum power output (PMPP) under partial shading condition. It runs the PV modules in a way that allows the

modules to generate all the power they are capable of producing [3]. MPPT is an electronic tracking system,

whether digital or analog. There are many approaches to find and track the maximum power point for PV cells.

For instance, neural network, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fuzzy logic control, perturb and observe,

and incremental conductance are the most popular methods to track the maximum power point tracking. As a

matter of fact, many systems have combined methods, for example, using the open circuit voltage (OV) to find

the starting point for the iterative methods such as Perturbation and Observation or Incremental. The levels of

irradiance play an important part in changing from one scheme to another. For example, at low levels of

irradiance, methods like open circuit voltage and short circuit current could be more suitable as they can be

more noise immune. When the cells are connected in a series, the iterative methods can be a preferable solution.

When a portion of the string is partial shade, search algorithms are needed [5].In general, the accurate method is

better than the fast because fast methods tend to bounce around the maximum power point due to noise present

in the power conversion system. Of course, an accurate and fast method would be preferred, but the cost of

implementation needs to be considered.

II.

NEURAL NETWORK

Neural networks are another technique for implementing MPPT, which is also well adapted for

microcontrollers. Neural networks usually have three layers, which are input, hidden, and output layers. The

input variable can be PV array parameters such as VOC and ISC. Additionally, it can be atmospheric data like

irradiance and temperature. The output is commonly one or several reference signals like a duty cycle signal.

www.ajer.org

Page 128

III.

2016

The Open Circuit Voltage (OV) method for MPPT control is based on measured terminal voltage and

PV arrays. Generally, the OV technique uses 76% of the open circuit voltage OV as the optimum operating

voltage VOP. By measuring the open circuit voltage in real-time, the maximum power point of the PV array can

be estimated with the predefined PV I-V curves. It is important to introduce a static switch into the PV array for

the OV method. The switch has to be connected in series to open the circuit. When I PV = 0, the PV system

supplies no power. The features of this approach are a relatively fast response and no oscillations in a steady

state [1].

IV.

The short circuit current method employs a value of I SC to estimate IMP. This method uses a short load

pulse to generate a short circuit condition. Indeed, it is important to observe that during the short circuit pulse,

VPV equal zero. Consequently, no power is supplied by the PV system and no energy is generated. Therefore,

the power conversion circuit must be powered from some other source. To create the short circuit condition, it is

necessary to introduce a static switch in parallel with the PV array. In fact, the optimum operating current I OP for

maximum output power is proportional to the short circuit current I SC under various conditions of irradiance

level G as follows:

IOP (G) = k. ISC (G)

Where k is a proportional constant. One advantage of this technique is the tolerance for input capacitance

compared to the VOC method [2].

V.

A fuzzy logic control (FLC) is used to control the maximum power point tracking for a photovoltaic

(PV) system. The FLC technique harnesses the fuzzy logic control to specify the size of incremental current in

the current command of MPPT. Hence, the convergence time of the maximum power point (MPP) of the FLC

algorithm is better than the Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm. That is why the FLC algorithm is used to

enhance the performance of the P&O algorithm. Moreover, the FLC can handle nonlinearity and work with

imprecise inputs [4].

VI.

Perturb and observe (P&O) is one of the most straightforward and popular techniques of MPPT. In this

technique, only one sensor is used, which is the voltage sensor, to sense the PV array voltage. Therefore, the

cost of implementation is reduced and, hence, is easy to implement. The main aim of this method is to boost the

system to work in a direction. The P&O algorithms operate by perturbing the array terminal voltage or current.

After that, the P&O algorithms compare the PV output power with the previous perturbation cycle. This

equation below describes the change of power, which elucidates the strategy of the P&O technique.

= 1

() = The new point of the power, (1) = The old point of the power

By comparing the new power point with old power point we can get the new maximum power point.If

the resulting change in power is positive, then the system is going in the direction of MPP and will keep the

direction of the incremental current as the same direction. If the change in power is negative, the system will

change the direction of incremental current to the opposite direction, and it is going away from the direction of

MPP. This method works well when the radiation and temperature conditions change slowly. However, the

P&O method fails to track MPP when the atmospheric condition is rapidly changed. A common problem in

P&O algorithms is that the array terminal voltage is perturbed every MPPT cycle. Therefore, to avoid this

problem we can use an incremental conduction method [6]-[9].

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Page 129

2016

VII.

INCREMENTAL CONDUCTANCE

The incremental conductance(IC) method employs two sensors, which are voltage and current of the

PV array. At MPP, the slope of the PV curve is zero. Indeed, the purpose of the incremental conductance

method offers a good performance and takes account of the rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The

incremental conductance method is based on the fact that the slope of the PV array power is zero at the MPP,

positive on the left of the MPP, and negative on the right, as given by

dP/dV = 0 , at MPP

dP/dV> 0 , left of MPP

dP/dV< 0 , right of MPP

I/ V = I/V, at MPP

I/ V > I/V, left of MPP

I/ V < I/V, right of MPP

Where V and I represent the PV array output current and voltage, respectively. The left-hand side of

equations represents incremental conductance of PV module, and the right-hand side represents the

instantaneous conductance cycle. Comparing the incremental conductance (I/V) to the instantaneous

conductance (I/V), as shown in the flowchart in Figure 4.4 used to track the MPP, the operation of the PV array

is maintained once the MPP has been reached unless a change in I is noted [7]-[8].

www.ajer.org

Page 130

2016

Table 1: Characteristics of Different MPPT Techniques

Convergence

Implementation

Periodic

speed

Complexity

tuning

Neural Network

Fast

High

Yes

Open Circuit Voltage

Medium

Low

Yes

Short Circuit Current

Medium

Medium

Yes

Fuzzy Logic Control

Fast

High

Yes

Perturb and Observe

Varies

Low

No

Incremental Conductance Varies

Medium

No

MPPT technique

Sensed parameters

Varies

Voltage

Current

Varies

Voltage

Voltage & Current

VIII.

CONCLUSION

There are many ways to find and track the maximum power point for PV cells and groups of cells such

as neural network, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fuzzy logic control, perturb and observe, and

incremental conductance. Numerous systems combine methods, such as using open circuit voltage to find the

starting point for the iterative methods like Perturb and Observe or Incremental Conductance. In some cases, the

level of irradiance plays a major role in choosing the appropriate method. For example, at low levels of

irradiance, methods like Open Circuit Voltage and Short Circuit Current may be more suitable. However, for

simplicity and effectiveness, P&O was selected for further analysis.

REFERENCES

[1].

[2].

[3].

[4].

Shiau, Jaw-Kuen, Min-Yi Lee, Yu-Chen Wei, and Bo-Chih Chen. "Circuit Simulation for Solar Power Maximum Power Point

Tracking with Different Buck-Boost Converter Topologies." Energies 7, no. 8 (2014): 5027-5046.

Singh, Priyanka O. "Modeling of photovoltaic arrays under shading patterns with reconfigurable switching and bypass diodes."

(2011).

Sriram, Nisha, and Mohammad Shahidehpour. "Renewable biomass energy." In Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2005.

IEEE, pp. 612-617. IEEE, 2005.

Suman, Gaurav, BVS Pavan Kumar, M. Senthil Kumar, B. ChitraBabu, and K. R. Subhashini. "Modeling, analysis and design of

synchronous buck converter using state space averaging technique for pv energy system." InElectronic System Design (ISED), 2012

International Symposium on, pp. 281-285. IEEE, 2012.

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[5].

[6].

[7].

[8].

[9].

2016

Teo, Kenneth Tze Kin, Pei Yi Lim, BihLii Chua, Hui Hwang Goh, and Min Keng Tan. "Maximum Power Point Tracking of

Partially Shaded Photovoltaic Arrays Using Particle Swarm Optimization." In Artificial Intelligence with Applications in

Engineering and Technology (ICAIET), 2014 4th International Conference on, pp. 247-252. IEEE, 2014.

Takun, Pongsakor, SomyotKaitwanidvilai, and ChaiyanJettanasen. "Maximum power point tracking using fuzzy logic control for

photovoltaic systems." In Proceedings of International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists.Hongkong. 2011.

Tan, Yun Tiam. "Impact on the power system with a large penetration of photovoltaic generation." PhD diss., UNIVERSITY OF

MANCHESTER, 2004.

Verma, Minakshi, and YashwantKashyap. "A Review on Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques."

Wang, Yanzhi, Xue Lin, Younghyun Kim, Naehyuck Chang, and MassoudPedram. "Enhancing efficiency and robustness of a

photovoltaic power system under partial shading." In Quality Electronic Design (ISQED), 2012 13th International Symposium on,

pp. 592-600. IEEE, 2012.

www.ajer.org

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