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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols.

166-169 (2012) pp 2345-2352
Online available since 2012/May/14 at
© (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

Comparison of Base Shear Force Method in the Seismic Design Codes of
China, America and Europe
JIANG Zhinan1,a, ZHAO Zhonghai2,b

Department of Architectural Engineering, East University of Heilongjiang, Harbin 150086, China


Heilongjiang Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation, Harbin 150081, China

Keywords: Seismic design code, Design response spectrum, Base shear force, Comparison

Abstract. Seismic design response spectrum and earthquake action in Chinese new seismic code
(GB50011-2010), ASCE/SEI7-05 and Eurcode8 were gathered in this paper. Using base shear force
method of each code, the authors computed the horizontal seismic forces of a three-story reinforced
concrete frame building under the same conditions. The results show that the three static methods
roughly approach, while the different parameters lead to discrepancies in calculated values.
New code for seismic design of building, GB50011-2010, was published and has began to implement
in China. Many clauses have been revised in the new code. The seismic design spectra and earthquake
actions have certain differences in many countries. This paper shall make a comparison on this field in
GB50011-2010, ASCE/SEI7-05 and Eurocode8.
Seismic Design Response Spectrum
Seismic response spectrum is a curve in which the maximum elastic response of single-mass system
changes with its natural vibration period in the given seismic acceleration time. For a
multi-mass system, this relationship is only an approximate. However, this greatly simplifies the
seismic analysis of structures. The horizontal seismic action can be converted to the equivalent lateral
force. Accordingly, the action effect analysis of structures under earthquake will be converted to that
under the equivalent lateral force. Thus, as long as the lateral force can be calculated, the analysis of
seismic effect can be solved by static method[1].
Design Response Spectrum in GB50011-2010[2]. Design response spectrum shall be determined
from Fig.1.


Seismic Influence Coefficient Curve

Table 1 Maximum of Horizontal Seismic Influence Coefficient
Earthquake Affection Intensity 6 Intensity 7 Intensity 8 Intensity 9
Frequently Earthquake
0.08(0.12) 0.16(0.24)
Rarely Earthquake
0.50(0.72) 0.90(1.20)

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2) When the damping ratio ξ of building structures is not equal to 0.35 0. the damping adjusting and forming parameters on the seismic influence coefficient curve shall comply with the following requirements: a) The power index of the curvilinear decrease section γ shall be determined according to Eq. the damping adjusting coefficient of the seismic influence coefficient curve shall select 1. The design response spectrum curve shall be developed as indicated in Fig.65 0.90 The damping adjustment and shape coefficient of the response spectrum should comply with the following requirements: 1) The damping ratio ξ of building structures shall select 0. η1 = 0.25 0.65 2nd Group 0.9 + 0. Sa =   S D1 .05 − ξ 0.6ξ (1) ~ (3) Design Response Spectrum in ASCE/SEI7-05[3].2.3 + 6ξ .(2) and it shall equal 0 when less than 0.40 0.02 + 0.2346 Progress in Structures The maximum of horizontal seismic influence coefficient αmax is given in Table 1. T < T0 T0     T0 ≤ T ≤ TS  S DS .05s for rarely earthquake of intensity 8 and 9.(3) and it shall equal 0.35 0.6  . η2 = 1 + 4 + 32ξ 0.05 − ξ 0. TS < T ≤ TL T  S ⋅T T > TL  D1 2 L .45 0. Table 2 Characteristic Period Value (s) Site Class Design Seismic Group Ⅰ0 Ⅰ1 Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ 1st Group 0.55.05 except otherwise provided.  T (4) .4 + 0.08 + 1.45 0.30 0. The characteristic period Tg shall be taken as Table 2 according to site class and design seismic group. γ = 0.05 according to relevant provisions.75 rd 3 Group 0.30 0.55 when smaller than 0.20 0.25 0.(4):   T   S DS  0.55 0.(1).05 − ξ .0. that shall be increased 0. c) The damping adjustment factor η2 shall be determined according to Eq.2 Design Response Spectrum in ASCE/SEI7-05 This curve is determined by the expression as Eq. b)The adjusting factor of slope for the linear decrease section η1 shall be determined from Eq. Fig.

166-169 2347 where SDS .7 1. S1 = the mapped MCE spectral response acceleration at short periods and at 1-s period.3 0.1 0. If the earthquakes that contribute most to the seismic hazard defined for the site for the purpose of probabilistic hazard assessment have a surface-wave magnitude. Ms. B.5 E 2.2 1. Response Spectrum in Eurcode8(EN1998-1:2004)[4].0 D 2.0 1.5 1.8 0. According to the ground type and magnitude.8 2. Fv = the site coefficients shown in Table 3 and Table 4 .8 0.1 1.1 1.5 1.5.5 3.4 2.0 1.2 Second Acceleration Parameter at 1 Second Site Site Period Period Class Class Ss≤ Ss= Ss= Ss= Ss≥ S1≤ S1= S1= S1= S1≥ 0.8 B 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols.25 0.8 0. SS .0 C 1.8 A 0.8 0.8 0.7 1. SD1 = the design spectral response acceleration parameter at short periods and at 1-s period. D and E the recommended values of the parameters S.6 1.6 1.2SD1/SDS.4 F See Note 1 F See Note 1 1 Note: Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analyses shall be performed.9 E 3.8 0.3 Shape of the Elastic Response Spectrum Every stage of this curve is defined by Eq.4 1.6 1. TC and TD are given in Table 5 for Type 1 and in Table 6 for Type 2. 2 2 2 2 SDS= SMS= FaSS. TL = long-period transition period (s) shown in figures from this code.2 2. .3 D 1. Fv Mapped MCE Spectral Response Mapped MCE Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at 0.2 0. Ts = SD1/SDS. 3 3 3 3 Fa. C.5 0.0 1. respectively. Fa Table 4 Site Coefficient .8 1.2 1.0 C 1. T0 = 0.0 1. not greater than 5.0 1.4 2.75 1. SD1= SM1= FvS1. the horizontal elastic response spectrum is recommended to use Type 1 and Type 2.0 1. Horizontal elastic response spectrum is shown in Fig.0 1.8 0.0 B 1. For the five ground types A.0 1. Table 3 Site Coefficient . T = the fundamental period of the structure (s). TB.9 0.0 1.25 0.4 0.0 1. Fig.5 A 0.8 0. it is recommended that Type 2 is adopted.3.(5).2 0.

25 1.0 B 1.55 .2 B 1.0 0.5 2   S d ( T ) = ag ⋅ S ⋅  +  −   3 TB  q 3   2. the value of η may be determined by the expression: η = 10 / ( 5 + ξ ) ≥ 0.15 0.5  TC   = ag ⋅ S ⋅ q  T  TC ≤ T ≤ TD : S d (T )  ≥ β ⋅ a g  0 ≤ T ≤ TB : TD ≤ T :  2. β = the lower bound factor for the horizontal design spectrum.2 D 1. S = the soil factor.25 1.4 2.05 0.35 0.0 Table 6 Values of the Parameters Describing the Recommended Type 2 Elastic Response Spectra Ground S TB(s) TC(s) TD(s) type A 1. TD = the value defining the beginning of the constant displacement response range of the spectrum.2 E 1.0 C 1.8 0.0 E 1.8 2.5 2. TB. ag = the design ground acceleration on type A ground.2 0. Sd(T).2 C 1. the recommended value is 0.5 Se (T ) =  T  ag ⋅ S ⋅η ⋅ 2.25 1. shall be defined by Eq.2.10 0.5 − 1)   TB    ag ⋅ S ⋅η ⋅ 2.30 1. TC = the lower and upper limit of the period of the constant spectral acceleration branch.6 2.5 2. q = the behaviour factor.20 0.5  TCTD   = ag ⋅ S ⋅ q  T 2  S d (T )  ≥ β ⋅ a g  (6) (7) (8) (9) where Sd(T) = the design spectrum.25 1. . expressed as a percentage.05 0.0 0. η = the damping correction factor.2 Design spectrum.15 0.05 0. Table 5 Values of the Parameters Describing the Recommended Type 1 Elastic Response Spectra Ground S TB(s) TC(s) TD(s) type A 1.5 TB ≤ T ≤ TC : S d ( T ) = ag ⋅ S ⋅ q  2.2348 Progress in Structures   T  ag ⋅ S ⋅ 1 + ⋅ (η ⋅ 2.0 D 1.4 0.6 0.5  C  T    T T  ag ⋅ S ⋅η ⋅ 2.35 0.(6)~ Eq. where ξ is the viscous damping ratio of the structure.15 0.10 0.5 0.20 0.5  C 2D   T   0 ≤ T ≤ TB TB ≤ T ≤ TC (5) TC ≤ T ≤ TD TD ≤ T ≤ 4 s where Se(T) = the elastic response spectrum. T = the vibration period of a linear single-degree-of-freedom system.(9):  2 T  2.15 0.

The structures suitable for equivalent lateral force procedure include: a) regular or irregular buildings in seismic design class B and C. ∆Fn = additional horizontal seismic action applied at top of the building.5s. E and F. Hi. Hj = calculated height of mass i-th and j-th from the base of the building respectively. . or the structures which could regard as a single-mass system. 2 n ) . V. ∆Fn = δ n FEk (10)~(12) j j =1 Where FEk = characteristic value of the total horizontal seismic action of the structure. whose deformation is mainly produced by shear and whose mass and stiffness fairly distributes uniformly along the height. Gi. δn = additional seismic action factors at the top of the building. the representative value of the total gravity load shall be used. or regular buildings whose natural period is smaller than 3.(15): n V = CsW ; Fx = CvxV ; Vx = ∑ Fi (13)~(15) i= x where Cs = the seismic response coefficient which shall be determined in accordance with Eq. b) all the light frame buildings. the 85% of the representative value of the total gravity load may be used. or only horizontal or only vertical irregular buildings in seismic design class D. α1 = horizontal seismic influence coefficient corresponding to the fundamental period of the structure. Base Shear Force Method in GB50011-2010[2]. When the structure is modeled as a single-mass system. When the base shear force method is used.(13)~ Eq.Gj = representative values of gravity load concentrated at the masses of i-th and j-th respectively. It is called equivalent lateral force procedure in ASCE/SEI7-05. (16). Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure in ASCE/SEI7-05[3]. Fx = The lateral seismic force (kN) induced at any level. For the structures whose height is less than 40m. base shear force method can be used. the characteristic value of horizontal seismic action of the structure shall be determined by Eq. Fi = Gi H i FEk (1 − δ n ) n ∑G H j ( i = 1. and when the structure is modeled as a multi-mass system.Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. in a given direction shall be determined in accordance with Eq. The static method discussed in this paper is mainly base shear force method or the methods similar to it. Only need to consider for multi-story reinforced concrete buildings.(10)~ Eq. The seismic base shear. the common methods used now are generally shown as following[5]:  Base shear force method Static method  Push − over analysis Methods of caculating  Modal separateresponse spectrum procedure  seismic action Dynamic method Elastic time − history analytical method   Elastoplastic time − history analytical method   This paper shall pay attention to the static method. while lateral force method of analysis in Eurcode8. W = the effective seismic weight. Fi = characteristic value of horizontal seismic action applied on mass i. Geq = equivalent total gravity load of a structure.(12): FEk = α1Geq . 166-169 2349 Base Shear Force Method Regarding the calculation of seismic action. only one degree of freedom may be considered for each story.

I = the occupancy importance factor. wi. R = the response modification factor. mj in the fundamental mode shape. wx = the portion of the total effective seismic weight of the structure (W) located or assigned to Level i or x. S Cs = DS .05. (17). of the building is 0. mi. When the fundamental mode shape is approximated by horizontal displacements increasing linearly along the height. above the foundation or above the top of a rigid basement. ξ. sj = are the displacements of masses mi.The seismic base shear force.85 if T1 < 2TC and the building has more than two stories. Vx = the seismic design story shear in any story. hi. or λ=1. The damping ratio. Example Calculating This section shall calculate an example for comparing the horizontal seismic action in GB50011-2010.4. T1 = the fundamental period of vibration of the building for lateral motion in the direction considered.(18): Fb = Sd (T1 ) ⋅ mλ ; Fi = Fb ⋅ si ⋅ mi ∑ s j ⋅ mj (18) ~ (19) where Sd(T1)= the ordinate of the design spectrum at period T1.(19). zj = are the heights of the masses mi .2350 Progress in Structures Cvx = vertical distribution factor which shall be determined in accordance with Eq. the value of which is equal to: λ=0. A three-story reinforced concrete frame building is shown in Fig. m = the total mass of the building. Lateral Force Method of Analysis in Eurcode8[4]. mj = are the storey masses computed. Try to calculate the horizontal forces of the building under design intensity 7 with site-class Ⅰand 2nd design seismic group. This type of analysis may be applied to buildings whose response is not significantly affected by contributions from modes of vibration higher than the fundamental mode in each principal direction. Fi = Fb ⋅ zi ⋅ mi ∑ z j ⋅ mj (20) where zi. si. shall be determined using Eq. mj above the level of application of the seismic action .(20). R/I Cvx = wx hxk (16)~(17) n ∑wh k i i i =1 where SDS = the design spectral response acceleration parameter in the short period range. . the horizontal forces Fi should be taken as being given by Eq. Fi = the portion of the seismic base shear (kN) induced at Level i. Fb.0 otherwise; Fi = the horizontal force acting on storey i. ASCE/SEI7-05 and Eurcode8 under the same condition. λ = the correction factor. hx = the height (m) from the base to Level i or x. using Eq. for each horizontal direction in which the building is analyzed. k = an exponent related to the structure period .

the computing method is the same as Chinese and American codes. a) b) c) a) According to Chinese Code b) According to American Code c) According to European Code Fig. 0. ASCE/SEI7-05 followed by and Eurcode8 minimum. only when the fundamental mode shape is approximated by horizontal displacements increasing linearly along the height. 4) GB50011-2010 introduces a reduction factor. the value from GB50011-2010 is the largest. Chinese and American codes assign the base shear with each floor load multiplied by the distance from the floor to bottom. and it shall use each floor load multiplied by the displacements of each floor in the fundamental mode shape to calculate. in multi-mass system which reflects the difference of shear forces between multi-mass system and single-mass system. while GB50011-2010 has no the parameter to treat differently. American and European codes make no reduction in this respect. .4 Sketch for a 3-story Reinforced Concrete Frame Building The horizontal seismic forces acting on each story and story shears computed from the seismic design codes of China. GB50011-2010 uses top additional horizontal seismic action to adjust it. R. 5) With regard to the distribution of the horizontal seismic force acting on each story. America and Europe are shown in Fig. the distribution of horizontal seismic actions along the height is not strictly inverted triangle. in Eurcode8 reflect the ductility of the structures. 3) The response modification factor. while American and European codes have no condition. The error on the top may reach up to 25% in long period. 2) For shear structure.5 The Horizontal Seismic Forces Acting on Each Story and Story Shears Using Different Codes Conclusions By comparing. we can reach the following conclusions: 1) As to computed results. in ASCE/SEI7-05 and the behavior factor. 166-169 2351 Fig.Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. q.85. In Eurcode8.5.

seismic actions and rules for buildings. Fangmin Yi: Understanding and Application for Seismic Design Code of Building. Institute of structure engineering China Acadamy of Building Research(2005). American Society of Civil Engineers(2006). [5] Feng Li: Comparative study on seismic analysis and design details of concrete structure in Chinese and American code.2352 Progress in Structures References [1] Xiaowang Gao. China Building Industry Press.(In Chinese) [2] Code for Seismic Design of Building (GB50011-2010). European Committee for Standardization (2004). Jingyu Su. Sili Gong. [4] Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance—Part 1: General rules. China Building Industry Press. (In Chinese) . (In Chinese) [3] Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASEC7-05). Beijing (2002). Beijing(2010).

net/AMM.Progress in Structures 10.scientific.4028/www.166-169 Comparison of Base Shear Force Method in the Seismic Design Codes of China.scientific.4028/ America and Europe 10.166-169.2345 .