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# Modern Digital Communication-2016

Mid-Semester Exam Solutions

Q1)
a) For a 802.11 a wireless LAN, find the data rate for an OFDM system using 16-ary QAM and
1/2 rate convolutional coding.
Solution:
Code rate = 1/2
Number of data sub-carriers in IEEE WLAN 802.11a standard = 48
Modulation type: 16-ary QAM
OFDM symbol time = 4 µs
Number of coded bits per symbol = log216 = 4
Hence the transmission rate can be given as:
1/2
4 ????? ???? 48 ???????????
? = 48 ×
×
×
= 24 ????.
1 ????? ??? 1 ??????????
4 × 10−6
b) Show that the IEEE WLAN using OFDM has a frame duration is 4 sec
Solution:
Total number of samples for OFDM symbol time = 64 subcarriers + 16 (length of cyclic prefix)= 80.
The bandwidth of the channel = 20 MHz
Frame duration = 80/(20 x 106) = 4 µs.
c) Find the probability that PAPR exceeds a threshold 
Solution:
Let the PAPR be λ,
It is known that, PAPR is Chi-squared distributed,
1

λ

? λ = ?−
?

?,

=> ? λ <  =

 1 −λ
? ?
0?

?λ = 1 − e−

?

,

=> ? λ ≥  = 1 − [? λ <  ]? = 1 − (1 − e−

? )N ,

where N is the total number of samples.

d) Relate X(n) with x(n) , where X(n) and x(n) represent frequency-domain and time-domain
samples of an OFDM signal, n = 0,1….(N-1).
Solution:
x(n) = IFFT of X(n).
i.e. ? ? =

1
?

?−1
? 2????
.
?=0 ?(?)?

1. Similarly. Fig. (c) Define Rice parameter K. Solution: | r(t)| is a Rayleigh variate. When the signal bandwidth (Bs) is less than the coherence bandwidth (Bc) of the channel. Draw the baseband equivalent model of a Rician channel with Doppler. Write the conditions for a wireless channel to be frequency flat as well as time flat. then the channel is known as Time flat channel.Q2) a) A received complex signal is given by r(t) = x(t) + j y(t). Coherence Bandwidth: Range of frequencies over which the channel has constant gain and has a linear phase response. Put 2 = 2 in the above expression. where x(t) and y(t) are zero-mean Gaussian variates each with variance 2 = 2. if the symbol period (Ts) is less than the coherence time of the channel. (b) Define coherence bandwidth of a wireless channel. Low pass Equivalent of the Rician Channel Model with Doppler . then the channel is known as Frequency flat channel. Write down the expression of the pdf of the envelope | r(t)|.

b) Which fading distribution describes well the following channel effects: (i) Shadowing effect (ii) Short-term and the long-term fading together. τ3 = 2τ etc. Solution: . Q3) a) Provide an analytical expression of the low-pass envelope of the multi-path signals at the receiver input in a wireless channel suffering channel attenuation. Solution: ? ? = ?.(d) Consider a 7-path uniformly distributed power delay profile P and assume that p(τ1) = p(τ2) = p(τ3) =…p(τ7) = P and τ1 = 0. Find the maximum data rate the channel can transmit without any significant ISI. delay and Doppler effects. E( τ2 ) = 8 sec2 and E(τ) = 2 sec. τ2 = τ. Find E(τ). Solution: (i) Log-normal distribution (ii) Suzuki distribution c) For a wireless channel.

x(t) is signal amplitude and E[.11 WLAN. use the constraint: ?? ≤1= ? ? ? 1 1 − ?? ?? Q4) a) Define PAPR and the crest factor for an OFDM signal. of an OFDM signal is defined as: In the above two equations. Solution: Interleaver Figure 2: The OFDM transmitter in IEEE 802. b) Draw the transmitter configuration of the OFDM system in IEEE 802. o and B.11 WLAN .d) The capacity for an OFDM system is given by: ? ? = ?. C. ???2 ? ?? Define j . It is given by: Crest factor. How do you get the value of o ? Solution: j : SNR of the jth sub-channel o : Cut-off value of the SNR B: Bandwidth of the channel To get the value of o. Solution: PAPR is defined as the ratio of the peak power to the average power of a signal.] denotes the expectation operator.

constellation tilting and scattering  Out of band radiations  Mandates large input back-off thereby reducing the power efficiency  Needs higher dynamic range. i. . high cost as well as power burden for both DAC/ADC.c) Find the value of PAPR for a signal x(t) = A sin (2t/T). additional complexity.  In-band distortion.e. Solution: ???? = => => 1 ? ??? A sin(2t/T) 2 ? A sin(2t/T) 2 ?2 ? 2 ? 0 sin(2t/T) 2 ?? ?2 ?2 2 => 2 d) What are the major disadvantages of a high PAPR OFDM system? Solution:  Large PAPR in OFDM reduces efficiency and increases the cost of RF amplifier.