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Proceedings of International Conference on Electrical Infonnation and Communication Technology (EICT 20 I 5

)

Opportunistic System Approach for Capacity
Enhancement and Congestion Mitigation in Advanced
Wireless Networks
Kazi N awshad Azam and Mostafa Zaman Chowdhury

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering
E-mail: nawshadJruet@yahoo.com.mzceee@yahoo.com

Abstract-Today's technology in communicating among wireless
systems are more complicated and sophisticated with more
opportunities, services and facilities to its users. As wireless
network technology advances so as the challenges associated with
it increases to solve some basic problems such as congestion,
interference, call admission and service quality control etc. In the
macro integrated femtocellular or heterogeneous wireless
network the system capacity enhancement in a low congestion
environment is a key issue to focus on and to do so a novel
approach is proposed in this paper. We propose an opportunistic
system approach where intelligent resource reallocation (IRR)
scheme is used to create opportunity to its user to be connected in
the high capacity advanced wireless network system with reduced
congestion. Performance analysis of our proposed scheme shows
how capacity and congestion of wireless network are correlated
to provide a reliable wireless system.

Keywords- Opportunistic system, congestion, system capacity,
interference, intelligent resource reallocation.

I.

INTR ODUCTION

Complex wireless technology is today's demand for high
traffic in communication channel [1], [2]. There are different
ways of resource allocation to provide better reliable network
coverage to serve user's demand. In existing technology
capacity of a particular communication channel is predefined
that is fixed. For this predefined channel capacity user per
channel is also fixed. This channel condition makes the system
performance poor. System performance poor means low signal
strength, high signal-to- noise plus interference ratio (SNIR),
high congestion, low throughput, low quality of service for
user [3]. These problems origins from different part of the
system design considerations such as power control scheme,
frequency allocation scheme, and interference mitigation
technique etc [4]. All these problems can be reduced in a
considerable limit by applying proper intelligent techniques.
Cognitive or opportunistic radio system is a way where
cognitive user can use dedicated channel in different way but
not in the presence of dedicated user in that channel [5].
When interference is low, SNIR is high and hence
increased system capacity [6]. Again when number of user is
high in a system then interference may increase which in turn
create possibility of reducing system capacity. Also when
power control and frequency planning are not adequate in the

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system then it causes high interference effect [7]. Improper
frequency allocations also make wastage of valuable resource.
So, user suffers from congestion problem in busy areas. This
congestion problem causes higher rate of call drops. To reduce
call drop problem call admission control is required.
In this paper we focus on reducing congestion problem and
also making system capacity dynamic of wireless network by
applying intelligent resource reallocation ORR) scheme where
system capacity can be increased in some extent to support
extra users according to existing user's resource utilization
natures. New frequency allocation is proposed to make
dynamic system capacity for both macrocell and femtocell
wireless networks which is shown in Fig. l. They are: (a)
available frequency; dedicated frequency use and opportunistic
frequency use (left portion of Fig. 1), and (b) reserved
frequency; macrocell frequency share and femtocell frequency
share (right portion of Fig. 1). To make user equipment (UE)
compatible with proposed opportunistic system as shown in
Fig. 2(a), existing UE should have extra mode sensing and
switching mechanisms installed inside it. So, user equipments
(UEs) for both macrocell and femtocell are proposed to be
reconfigurable capability such as to use the above mentioned
proposed frequency allocation schemes as: full mode resource
utilization and reserve mode resource utilization states,
respectively as shown in Fig. 2(b) [8]. Some other measurable
parameters such as user's mobility/speed threshold, signal
strength threshold, and decision threshold are also considered
for our analysis. Here, the author's contribution is in the
proposed IRR scheme, where system supports extra
opportunistic user in a dedicated channel which is not fully
occupied by its dedicated users at the same time seamlessly.
Rest of this paper is organized as follows: section II provides
our proposed opportunistic system approach; system modeling
is given in section III, section IV presents the numerical results,
and finally conclusions are drawn in the last section.
II.

A.

PR OPOSED QpPOTUNISTIC SYSTEM ApPROACH

Opportunity Creation in Proposed IRR Scheme

Proper resource utilization should be guaranteed in order to
confirm reliable wireless communication with low cost by
providing different intelligent ways which is tenned as
opportunity creation. Here, we provide IRR scheme which is

�� A such as hypotheses H 01.. ro··· ro ro ro �������� § � �5 5 5 5 :5 :5 :5 :5 5 5 13 .. UGc4 and UGcJ. .. The white area with dashed circle of different femto access points (FAPs) of later scenario indicates resource scarcity. The hypothesis H 01.. and UGcJ user groups get new hypothesis notation from system as hypothesis Hl l.kNd (fully utilized channel by = UGdj) and hypothesis Hoo. For this reason with existing fixed resource allocation scheme capacity of wireless network is fixed as shown in Fig. . We can also see that each channel is reallocated at different time slots and different hypothesis are allocated for each utilization time slot for UGdj A D System's resource blocks for available mode = B. 2(a) or actual required resource utilization as shown in Fig..J and I < J in different time slot number. Allocated (a) resource status and (b) resource actual utilization status in a channel for existing advanced heterogeneous wireless network. To avoid these problems we proposed IRR scheme among heterogeneous system for users by considering different preliminaries and measurement of different system parameters as shown in Fig.. 3. ./.. along with high rate of call drop. . 2. These lower limits is less than 50% of maximum capacity of serving channel k where we can easily create opportunity for new cognitive or opportunistic user groups (UGcj) where j 1.. Now resource utilization occurs by different users according to their type of activities and in this case activities are not same for all users which mean different activities for each user. Resource block number. 3 we can see that. and UGdJ and UGclo UGc4.an opportunity creative scheme by which overall system capacity of advanced heterogeneous wireless network can be increased along with reduced congestion problem. 4.. From hypothesis HOOkHc ' system can allow new opportunistic user to be served and hence capacity is increased. .§ 5::: . Nts uniformly without prior knowledge about user's actual resource demand as shown in Fig. .§ 5 Time slot number. HOO. With proposed IRR scheme the former scenario shows less congestion for the same number of users causing high user satisfaction in existing system. 2. § � . Call drop rate increases with high rate of user's resource utilization in a fixed or limited capacity wireless system and also which causes high congestion problem.. it is obvious that with proposed IRR scheme the dynamic system capacity serves more users than existing system having fixed capacity. 3. t§ .k II 0 J.and/or inter-system handover problem.K . From Fig. .§ � 5 " � .. Then UGdl. and higher call drop problems. Fig.k H Ol k H II.� � � � ro ro ro ro ro ro . The natures of activities of different users are different located at the same geographic region that is under the same (only femtocell or macrocell network) or different network (heterogeneous network) which is serving them. � 4 � • � . a channel k is allocated to j dedicated user group (UGdj) where j 1.kH nll'. Roo Figure I. . . increasing interference level. Figure 6 shows that how the capacity of a particular channel in advanced macro integrated femtocellular or heterogeneous wireless network changes from fixed capacity to variable capacity according to user's activity such as actual resource demand and utilization. low signal quality and congestion problem for the existing system. Allocated resource status in a channel for poposed IRR scheme in existing advanced heterogeneous wireless network. Nh. For instance. . Resource is reallocated by the system in such a way that each connected users (FAPs with dotted white colored coverage area as shown in Fig.. H IO. Nts such as UGcl. increased intra. . . . . . 5.. Initial dedicated resource allocation in resource available mode (al II 01 k 1l10. 2.kH lJ. ..k H()'). Congestion problem occurs when available system resource is smaller than demanded by users.. This process is done for each hypothesis except H1LkN• Therefore. 6 depicts an intelligent way of resource reallocation technique to make a system with limited capacity into a dynamic capacity. let us consider a wireless system where macrocell and femtocell coexists to form advanced wireless network as shown in Fig. respectively.. With resource scarcity the new users can not be connected to the system and hence causes call drops. UGd4.J and I < J at different time slots number. . 7) can be served properly and unutilized resources are harvested to reallocate 342 .k � � � � � � 5 5 5 5 5 5 § D <1. A . by comparing between two types of capacity such as without IRR that is fixed system capacity and with IRR that is dynamic system capacity.1. With this fixed capacity of existing system users experiences more congestion problem as shown in Fig. . 2(b). c:J c::J Tr e slot number. .k is indicating that among these three dedicated users group each user's resource utilization state is up to lower threshold limit ('Ytowk ). . Available femlocell Available macrocell � § § § § '" J. ..1 a Capacity Enhancement and Congestion Reduction The capacity of a wireless system should be adequate to support extra users without overloading channel. .k is given to first time slot (UGd1).k Hll.kHc (empty channel available for UGcj).k .-. Nts Resource utilization of channel numbe Unused resouce of channel number k (h) Figure 2. fourth time slot (UGd4) and last time slot (UGdJ) user group over channel k and k = 1.

kA'c " � " " � UG. As in the network.. Scenario of IRR scheme with dynamic capacity and reduced congestion in existing advanced heterogeneous wireless network. Scenario of capacity problem in existing advanced heterogeneous wireless network. In proposed IRR scheme.6 \j��i IWi�.l'�'J.!O ro .� . :uq� :G�..i. Therefore.4 lO(). proposed IRR scheme outperforms over existing scheme in mllllmlzlllg congestion in the advanced heterogeneous wireless network. :::� § ��-:-:-: :llGJ1 :8G. But there is a predefined minimum resource allotment is required to allow a new user in a network which put limits to minimization of congestion. Figure 4. Scenario of resource utilization with IRR scheme capacity and congestion in existing advanced heterogeneous wireless network.� " � " � UG" UG.:!i' �l1_i"n :Ffl.$ ro .�::Vd :!. as reverse process (rate of existing user leaving the network) reduces this problem.2 llO(). causes less congestion as shown in Fig..� .. Allocated resource rescheduled status in a channel for poposed IRR scheme in existing advanced heterogeneous wireless network.� .\u :r-t1i_�''. Figure 5...kA'c llO(). B': 1"kir . 7). Scenario of congestion in existing advanced heterogeneous wireless network.s ro . tT. SYSTEM MODELING In this section we provide a model of our system with k number of channels.. rate of association of new users increases in a particular area causes congestion problem so. Figure 7.-.= ro . them to new users (FAPs with light blue colored coverage area as shown in Fig.� � :5 � :5 " � " " �.kA'c � .. 7 problem by opportunity creation by the system itself in an intelligent way.· Time slot number.� .sJ ro ..!o ro . when capacity increases for a certain user groups (causing congestion for existing system). III.:2 ro . Figure 3. f·�-r:c�·J H _ \J. Nts Oedicated resource utilization by dedicated user of channel number k D o Opportunistic resouce available for cognitive user of channel number k Figure 6.i ltG. Advanced wireless network system having macro integrated femtocellular that is heterogeneous network is modeled here and details are given in the following: 343 ..:J uri. .$) ro .r G.2 f{.i.

k High Partial Opportunity (HPO) = "'C D k ZU_j. . These hypotheses are: HOO k .... .Z" j. . (HaLk ) ) /'�k (HlOR fa'useruj....K . """ . K CL. rvk rate of variable cost. = _i. .. . Some Basic Observations of System • Is it healthy (without any abnormality) system or not? • [s it fully occupied or not? • Is there any unused resource exists or not? • [s there any user that demanding more or less overhead than system can provide or not (near/far-location effect)? .. . = (n Full Empty n) = C.j z1I K 1 K Co LJ.. 2. ... k ' Z11 -j k _ ..k is channel opportunistic utilizable spaces for _ user u j .. . respectively gives user channel utilization states over channel k and k 1. and duration of activity etc. 2. = H01 k . and /::"k is decision threshold over = = user u 1. 2..K . Mw-ej=l.K . • System gives access to new user to avoid congestion by taking proper measurements of user's mobility..J k=l (4) k=l where 1... . 2. XI-ZU-1 Ie ) 4k L.. 1. required resource demand. Channel resource utilization threshold is ) 10k (Hoo. where 0 (channel utilization absent) and 1 (channel utilization present).k is total user's satisfaction of satisfied user. is channel utilization threshold for user Actual utilized channel capacity is H11 k (n Full Occupied n) No Opportunity (NO) . 2. . • If system fmds any user doing non real time activity then system gives this user lowest priority of reliability that is tries to interrupt.k Full Opportunity (FO) (n Partial Occupied n) (n Partial Emptyn) .k (3) k=l Less Partial Opportunity (LPO) where ck = wk log2 (1 + SNIRk) is actual capacity with channel = bandwidth wk and signal-to-noise plus interference ratio SNIRk of channel k and k Some Decision Preliminaries • System monitors environment continuously to identify load flow. = 1. . and sk is _ user's level of satisfaction (0 for no satisfaction and 1 for satisfied) per channel for total user u j .J "'C" U{l. 2. ..J rjk and = (2) /" ""' (�Lk ) 344 _ j .k) is probability of providing proper hypothesis to a channel with subscript notation m (where m 0 or 1 ) where Rk is revenue earning of operator.2...J of channel k and k = = = = u _ j 1.. • [f system manages to create opportunity for new users then reallocation of resources occurs. D.A. _ = = User's satisfaction in resource utilization is where s1I j. _ Necessary Mathematical Relations = = Decision probability of providing proper hypothesis to a channel during channel resource reallocation is Total revenue gain of operator is (1) (6) where Pr(Hmn.K . 2. Hypothesis for Opportunistic System Approach where We consider four binary hypotheses to provide coordination among different allocated channels and its user's. . . . j 1. .J of channel k and k 1.\.l -"'c.L. and n (where n channel k and k 0 or 1 ).K . . Opportunistic utilizable channel capacity is = B.K . . = H10 k .I of channel k and k = contribution of 1.LlnnJ. 2.. .K .... 2. • [f system finds any user doing real time activity then system gives this user highest priority of reliability that is not to interrupt. 2. .j rate = of fixed cost for 1. .I of channel k and k 1. resource utilization type. ([-Z11-1 A ) 11\-.. . 2. .. . .. j 1. iJ".

95 Zu _ .00 0. . 3 where number of serving channel is k with k 1.. Hypothesis selection criteria. = IV.k n 11 _If jap Jape - jill . Different threshold values are also given in the table. 2(b) for channel k and k 1.. 2(b) for channel k and k 1. utilization..25 0 5 1 100 1 20 0 1000 0 400 10 Number of channel.K . 2.75 0. 2.. proper hypotheses selection for each channel is required and is given as follows. 345 . 2. • Is there any user that is only connected without doing any significant activity for a long/predefmed/any specified time or not? • Is there any user that needs to use the system urgently with low/high mobility or not? • Is there any user that is leaving the system urgently with low/high mobility or not? • Is congestion exists or not? b) Step 2: Check network environment to get information about user. Ik a. k 1 10 11 Decision threshold. 4 No opportunity" . 2(a) selects for 1. 6. 7.K . Users satisfaction performance comparison Figure 8 shows that. network. . • Is the quality of signal adequate or not? • e) Is the rate of user movement inwards or outwards of the system high/low creates congestion or not? Step avalable hypothesis 5: At initial stage that is when full opportunity is for (rOk) HOOk as all users shown then m system Fig. Hoo.k as shown in Fig. NUMERICAL RESULT Let us..k as shown in Fig. • Is congestion exists due to non availability of resources or not? c) Step 3: Acoording to step 2 select proper frequency selection schem and power control scheme. the capacity of the system changes from static to dynamic to a certain extent according to different criteria. No.51 0.50 0.k ll.. Table and Algorithm Data table for analysis: The conditional values used in the analyses are given in the following table.k 2 High partial opportunity" . 2. then user would suffer less congestion problem which ensures higher user's satisfaction. Thus. . = 1) Sl. system initialization and basic system parameters reading process is done.00 0... = i) Step 9: While system doing this each time. . 1 (left portion) which is proposed in IRR scheme for the system. II 6 Number of existing FAP. B. the capacity of a particular channel in advanced macro integrated femtocellular or heterogeneous wireless network provides better user's satisfaction. 2(b) for channel k and k 1.Jllle Lower limit Upper limit 0. u H HOJ. = A. (For IRR scheme) h) Step 8: Now user's activity increses in each channel and in a particular channel resource allocation is fully utilized up to maximum limit (f m"xk) of that channel by the user's of that particular channel then system selects hypothesis H11. 1 upper threshold limit ) of that channel by the user's of that particular channel then system selects hypothesis H10.. . .k as shown in Fig. = lower threshold limit ) of that channel by the user's of that particular channel then system selects hypothesis H01.k HlO. a) Step I: After system power is on.K ..26 0. 5 Number of femto user per FAP. system conditions changes and step 5 to step 8 is repeated according to users activity as shown in Fig. . For existing system the capacity is static so number of user for a specific channel number k is fixed though that channel is not fully utilized by all the users all the time. Mean while if that extra user can be served with reserved resource as shown in Fig. • Is congestion exists due to uncontrolled traffic flow in a busy area/hot spot or not? d) Step 4: System continuously monitors the network and user's activity to control traffic.K . system search for unused resources and reallocate it again to enhance overall wireless system capacity as shown in Fig. 8 Number of existing macro user . 7 Number of extra FAP. For this reason at busy time extra user causes congestion problem.2) Algorithm for hypothesis selection: To select and reshedule the resources. 3 Less partial opportunity" . '" k 0 1 12 Channel utilization threshold. . and available resouce allocation. II 9 Number of extra macro user . g) Step 7: Again user's activity increses in each channel and in a particular channel resource allocation is utilized upto CONDITIONAL VALUES USED IN ANALYSES Criteria Details Description Full opportunity". consider a system as shown in Fig.76 1.00 0. . . TABLE!. and management. 0. 2.K . • Is call drop rate is high/low due to congestion or not? channel k and k • Is there any unused resource which is already allocated or not? j) Step 6: When user's activity increses in each channel and in a particular channel resource allocation is utilized upto Finally.

Nts [Nos] Figure 9. The user satisfaction level outperformed in proposed IRR scheme utilized system than existing typical system with increased number of users as shown in performance curve. N. I. 2002. K. J. Performance of existing fixed capacity system in resource utilization and revenue earning of operator is poor than proposed IRR scheme performance as shown in evaluation line and bar graphs. Self:Organizing Networks (SON). Electronics & Vision (ICIEV). Pahlavan and P. Y. pp.k. . and Y. M. Prentice Hall PTR . channel capacity requirement would be higher than today's system. and user friendly service. New Jersey. when resource utilization for a specific channel number k is higher then number of user for that channel k is high and hence higher the revenue gain for system operator.= 1== Total number of user connected in channel k. Azam and M. In near future traffic will increase exponentially more than today so. M. [Nos] Figure 8.500. "Network Evolution and QoS Provisioning for Integrated F emtoce11lMacrocell Networks. dense traffic in communication channel causes significant congestion. Concepts and R equirements. "Deployment Options for Femtocells and Their Impact on Existing Macrocellular Networks.." Wireless Personal Communications. We can see from Fig. A. 2009. proposed IRR scheme is promising one. Cognitive R adio Communications and Networks Principles and Practice.l N g � '5 I '" (UGc 60 40 20 CONCLUSIONS Advanced wireless network is a demanding issue for reliable and high speed communication with low power consumption. Hou. Haas. Performance evaluation for resource utilization versus time slot number of resource utilization for channel number k for both static and dynamic capacity system. When there is less actual resource utilization in existing system then higher the opportunistic resource utilization exists in IRR scheme which in turn provides revenue gain opportunity to system operator. 83104. 10 Time slot number of resource utilization for channel number k. lang.J. J. Chowdhury. 2008.." Nov. 9 that for a specific channel number k when user's resource utilization is high. Krishnamurthy. 1-16. Thus. "Intelligent Interference Management Based on On-Demand Service Connectivity for Femtocellular Networks" in Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Informatics. proposed IRR scheme is a strong candidate to face the challenges associated. 2010. Sept. 13. Y. vol. New York: Elsevier. Performance evaluation for user satisfaction versus total number of user connected in both static and dynamic capacity system. Aug. To reduce these capacity and congestion problems together." Bell Labs Technical Journal. M. [8] 346 K. Principles of Wireless Networks.C. N ts [Nos] Figure 10. 3. pp. Z. Here. May 2013. = = 1= 1D . u-. Haas. Femtoforum. Hobby and H. vol. Resource utilization and revenue earning of operator performance comparison Figure 9 depicts efficient resource utilization for the system with less congestion with proposed IRR scheme than typical fixed resource allocation scheme. pp. Chowdhury. _______ Actual utilized resource by dedicated user group (UGd) 0 rtunistic available resource for co nitive user rou _______ 80 � . "Telecommunication Management. Nekovee. For this reason user satisfaction level need to be consider as an evaluation parameter in both systems that is with existing fixed capacity and with proposed IRR scheme dynamic capacity." Jun. D. and Z. Z. "OFDMA Interference Study: Evaluation Methodology Document. Figure 10 shows a revenue gain of operator when efficient resource utilization occurs for the system with less congestion with proposed IRR scheme than typical fixed resource allocation scheme. 2. o t5 20 'hi � � . To do so with limited resources best utilization of resource is required. vol. Chowdhury. 4. 145-160. Along with capacity problem. 2011. v. 60. no. REFER ENCES [I] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] 10 [7] Time slot number of resource utilization for channel number k. Z." International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN). "Cost-EiIective Frequency Planning for Capacity Enhancement of Femtocellular Networks.. M. 3GPP TS 32. Claussen. M. Performance evaluation for revenue earning of operator versus time slot number of resource utilization for channel number k for both static and dynamic capacity system. no. 1. no. respectively. and Z. 2011. 2010. Feb. When there is less actual resource utilization in existing system then higher the opportunistic resource utilization exists in IRR scheme. then low possibility of opportunity to reallocate the resource to extra users of that particular channel. Wyglinski. Jang.