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THE1987CONSTITUTION

OFTHE
REPUBLICOFTHEPHILIPPINES
PREAMBLE
We,thesovereignFilipinopeople,
imploringtheaidofAlmightyGod,in
ordertobuildajustandhumanesociety,
andestablishaGovernmentthatshall
embodyouridealsandaspirations,promote
thecommongood,conserveanddevelop
ourpatrimony,andsecuretoourselvesand
ourposterity,theblessingsofindependence
anddemocracyundertheruleoflawanda
regimeoftruth,justice,freedom,love,
equality,andpeace,doordainand
promulgatethisConstitution.

Section4.Theprimedutyofthe
Governmentistoserveandprotectthe
people.TheGovernmentmaycalluponthe
peopletodefendtheStateand,inthe
fulfillmentthereof,allcitizensmaybe
required,underconditionsprovidedbylaw,
torenderpersonal,militaryorcivilservice.
Section5.Themaintenanceofpeaceand
order,theprotectionoflife,liberty,and
property,andpromotionofthegeneral
welfareareessentialfortheenjoymentby
allthepeopleoftheblessingsof
democracy.
Section6.TheseparationofChurchand
Stateshallbeinviolable.

patriotismandnationalism,andencourage
theirinvolvementinpublicandcivic
affairs.
Section14.TheStaterecognizestheroleof
womeninnationbuilding,andshallensure
thefundamentalequalitybeforethelawof
womenandmen.
Section15.TheStateshallprotectand
promotetherighttohealthofthepeople
andinstillhealthconsciousnessamong
them.
Section16.TheStateshallprotectand
advancetherightofthepeopletoa
balancedandhealthfulecologyinaccord
withtherhythmandharmonyofnature.

STATEPOLICIES
ARTICLEI
NATIONALTERRITORY
Thenationalterritorycomprisesthe
Philippinearchipelago,withalltheislands
andwatersembracedtherein,andallother
territoriesoverwhichthePhilippineshas
sovereigntyorjurisdiction,consistingofits
terrestrial,fluvialandaerialdomains,
includingitsterritorialsea,theseabed,the
subsoil,theinsularshelves,andother
submarineareas.Thewatersaround,
between,andconnectingtheislandsofthe
archipelago,regardlessoftheirbreadthand
dimensions,formpartoftheinternalwaters
ofthePhilippines.
ARTICLEII
DECLARATIONOFPRINCIPLES
ANDSTATEPOLICIES
PRINCIPLES
Section1.ThePhilippinesisademocratic
andrepublicanState.Sovereigntyresidesin
thepeopleandallgovernmentauthority
emanatesfromthem.
Section2.ThePhilippinesrenounceswar
asaninstrumentofnationalpolicy,adopts
thegenerallyacceptedprinciplesof
internationallawaspartofthelawofthe
landandadherestothepolicyofpeace,
equality,justice,freedom,cooperation,and
amitywithallnations.
Section3.Civilianauthorityis,atalltimes,
supremeoverthemilitary.TheArmed
ForcesofthePhilippinesistheprotectorof
thepeopleandtheState.Itsgoalisto
securethesovereigntyoftheStateandthe
integrityofthenationalterritory.

Section7.TheStateshallpursuean
independentforeignpolicy.Initsrelations
withotherstates,theparamount
considerationshallbenationalsovereignty,
territorialintegrity,nationalinterest,and
therighttoselfdetermination.
Section8.ThePhilippines,consistentwith
thenationalinterest,adoptsandpursuesa
policyoffreedomfromnuclearweaponsin
itsterritory.
Section9.TheStateshallpromoteajust
anddynamicsocialorderthatwillensure
theprosperityandindependenceofthe
nationandfreethepeoplefrompoverty
throughpoliciesthatprovideadequate
socialservices,promotefullemployment,a
risingstandardofliving,andanimproved
qualityoflifeforall.
Section10.TheStateshallpromotesocial
justiceinallphasesofnational
development.
Section11.TheStatevaluesthedignityof
everyhumanpersonandguaranteesfull
respectforhumanrights.
Section12.TheStaterecognizesthe
sanctityoffamilylifeandshallprotectand
strengthenthefamilyasabasic
autonomoussocialinstitution.Itshall
equallyprotectthelifeofthemotherand
thelifeoftheunbornfromconception.The
naturalandprimaryrightanddutyof
parentsintherearingoftheyouthforcivic
efficiencyandthedevelopmentofmoral
charactershallreceivethesupportofthe
Government.
Section13.TheStaterecognizesthevital
roleoftheyouthinnationbuildingand
shallpromoteandprotecttheirphysical,
moral,spiritual,intellectual,andsocial
wellbeing.Itshallinculcateintheyouth

Section17.TheStateshallgivepriorityto
education,scienceandtechnology,arts,
culture,andsportstofosterpatriotismand
nationalism,acceleratesocialprogress,and
promotetotalhumanliberationand
development.
Section18.TheStateaffirmslaborasa
primarysocialeconomicforce.Itshall
protecttherightsofworkersandpromote
theirwelfare.
Section19.TheStateshalldevelopaself
reliantandindependentnationaleconomy
effectivelycontrolledbyFilipinos.
Section20.TheStaterecognizesthe
indispensableroleoftheprivatesector,
encouragesprivateenterprise,andprovides
incentivestoneededinvestments.
Section21.TheStateshallpromote
comprehensiveruraldevelopmentand
agrarianreform.
Section22.TheStaterecognizesand
promotestherightsofindigenouscultural
communitieswithintheframeworkof
nationalunityanddevelopment.
Section23.TheStateshallencouragenon
governmental,communitybased,or
sectoralorganizationsthatpromotethe
welfareofthenation.
Section24.TheStaterecognizesthevital
roleofcommunicationandinformationin
nationbuilding.
Section25.TheStateshallensurethe
autonomyoflocalgovernments.

Section26.TheStateshallguaranteeequal
accesstoopportunitiesforpublicservice
andprohibitpoliticaldynastiesasmaybe
definedbylaw.
Section27.TheStateshallmaintain
honestyandintegrityinthepublicservice
andtakepositiveandeffectivemeasures
againstgraftandcorruption.
Section28.Subjecttoreasonable
conditionsprescribedbylaw,theState
adoptsandimplementsapolicyoffull
publicdisclosureofallitstransactions
involvingpublicinterest.
ARTICLEIIIBILLOFRIGHTS
Section1.Nopersonshallbedeprivedof
life,liberty,orpropertywithoutdue
processoflaw,norshallanypersonbe
deniedtheequalprotectionofthelaws.
Section2.Therightofthepeopletobe
secureintheirpersons,houses,papers,and
effectsagainstunreasonablesearchesand
seizuresofwhatevernatureandforany
purposeshallbeinviolable,andnosearch
warrantorwarrantofarrestshallissue
exceptuponprobablecausetobe
determinedpersonallybythejudgeafter
examinationunderoathoraffirmationof
thecomplainantandthewitnesseshemay
produce,andparticularlydescribingthe
placetobesearchedandthepersonsor
thingstobeseized.
Section3.(1)Theprivacyof
communicationandcorrespondenceshall
beinviolableexceptuponlawfulorderof
thecourt,orwhenpublicsafetyororder
requiresotherwise,asprescribedbylaw.
(2)Anyevidenceobtainedinviolationof
thisortheprecedingsectionshallbe
inadmissibleforanypurposeinany
proceeding.
Section4.Nolawshallbepassedabridging
thefreedomofspeech,ofexpression,orof
thepress,ortherightofthepeople
peaceablytoassembleandpetitionthe
governmentforredressofgrievances.
Section5.Nolawshallbemaderespecting
anestablishmentofreligion,orprohibiting
thefreeexercisethereof.Thefreeexercise
andenjoymentofreligiousprofessionand
worship,withoutdiscriminationor
preference,shallforeverbeallowed.No
religioustestshallberequiredforthe
exerciseofcivilorpoliticalrights.
Section6.Thelibertyofabodeandof
changingthesamewithinthelimits
prescribedbylawshallnotbeimpaired

exceptuponlawfulorderofthecourt.
Neithershalltherighttotravelbeimpaired
exceptintheinterestofnationalsecurity,
publicsafety,orpublichealth,asmaybe
providedbylaw.
Section7.Therightofthepeopleto
informationonmattersofpublicconcern
shallberecognized.Accesstoofficial
records,andtodocumentsandpapers
pertainingtoofficialacts,transactions,or
decisions,aswellastogovernment
researchdatausedasbasisforpolicy
development,shallbeaffordedthecitizen,
subjecttosuchlimitationsasmaybe
providedbylaw.
Section8.Therightofthepeople,
includingthoseemployedinthepublicand
privatesectors,toformunions,
associations,orsocietiesforpurposesnot
contrarytolawshallnotbeabridged.
Section9.Privatepropertyshallnotbe
takenforpublicusewithoutjust
compensation.Section10.Nolaw
impairingtheobligationofcontractsshall
bepassed.
Section11.Freeaccesstothecourtsand
quasijudicialbodiesandadequatelegal
assistanceshallnotbedeniedtoanyperson
byreasonofpoverty.
Section12.(1)Anypersonunder
investigationforthecommissionofan
offenseshallhavetherighttobeinformed
ofhisrighttoremainsilentandtohave
competentandindependentcounsel
preferablyofhisownchoice.Iftheperson
cannotaffordtheservicesofcounsel,he
mustbeprovidedwithone.Theserights
cannotbewaivedexceptinwritingandin
thepresenceofcounsel.
(2)Notorture,force,violence,threat,
intimidation,oranyothermeanswhich
vitiatethefreewillshallbeusedagainst
him.Secretdetentionplaces,solitary,
incommunicado,orothersimilarformsof
detentionareprohibited.
(3)Anyconfessionoradmissionobtained
inviolationofthisorSection17hereof
shallbeinadmissibleinevidenceagainst
him.
(4)Thelawshallprovideforpenaland
civilsanctionsforviolationsofthissection
aswellascompensationtothe
rehabilitationofvictimsoftortureor
similarpractices,andtheirfamilies.
Section13.Allpersons,exceptthose
chargedwithoffensespunishableby
reclusionperpetuawhenevidenceofguilt

isstrong,shall,beforeconviction,be
bailablebysufficientsureties,orbe
releasedonrecognizanceasmaybe
providedbylaw.Therighttobailshallnot
beimpairedevenwhentheprivilegeofthe
writofhabeascorpusissuspended.
Excessivebailshallnotberequired.
Section14.(1)Nopersonshallbeheldto
answerforacriminaloffensewithoutdue
processoflaw.
(2)Inallcriminalprosecutions,theaccused
shallbepresumedinnocentuntilthe
contraryisproved,andshallenjoytheright
tobeheardbyhimselfandcounsel,tobe
informedofthenatureandcauseofthe
accusationagainsthim,tohaveaspeedy,
impartial,andpublictrial,tomeetthe
witnessesfacetoface,andtohave
compulsoryprocesstosecurethe
attendanceofwitnessesandtheproduction
ofevidenceinhisbehalf.However,after
arraignment,trialmayproceed
notwithstandingtheabsenceoftheaccused:
Provided,thathehasbeendulynotified
andhisfailuretoappearisunjustifiable.
Section15.Theprivilegeofthewritof
habeascorpusshallnotbesuspended
exceptincasesofinvasionorrebellion,
whenthepublicsafetyrequiresit.
Section16.Allpersonsshallhavetheright
toaspeedydispositionoftheircasesbefore
alljudicial,quasijudicial,oradministrative
bodies.
Section17.Nopersonshallbecompelled
tobeawitnessagainsthimself.
Section18.(1)Nopersonshallbedetained
solelybyreasonofhispoliticalbeliefsand
aspirations.
(2)Noinvoluntaryservitudeinanyform
shallexistexceptasapunishmentfora
crimewhereofthepartyshallhavebeen
dulyconvicted.
Section19.(1)Excessivefinesshallnotbe
imposed,norcruel,degradingorinhuman
punishmentinflicted.Neithershalldeath
penaltybeimposed,unless,forcompelling
reasonsinvolvingheinouscrimes,the
Congresshereafterprovidesforit.Any
deathpenaltyalreadyimposedshallbe
reducedtoreclusionperpetua.
(2)Theemploymentofphysical,
psychological,ordegradingpunishment
againstanyprisonerordetaineeortheuse
ofsubstandardorinadequatepenal
facilitiesundersubhumanconditionsshall
bedealtwithbylaw.

Section20.Nopersonshallbeimprisoned
fordebtornonpaymentofapolltax.
Section21.Nopersonshallbetwiceputin
jeopardyofpunishmentforthesame
offense.Ifanactispunishedbyalawand
anordinance,convictionoracquittalunder
eithershallconstituteabartoanother
prosecutionforthesameact.
Section22.Noexpostfactolaworbillof
attaindershallbeenacted.ARTICLEIV
CITIZENSHIP
Section1.Thefollowingarecitizensofthe
Philippines:
[1]Thosewhoarecitizensofthe
Philippinesatthetimeoftheadoptionof
thisConstitution;
[2]Thosewhosefathersormothersare
citizensofthePhilippines;
[3]ThosebornbeforeJanuary17,1973,of
Filipinomothers,whoelectPhilippine
citizenshipuponreachingtheageof
majority;and
[4]Thosewhoarenaturalizedin
accordancewithlaw.
Section2.Naturalborncitizensarethose
whoarecitizensofthePhilippinesfrom
birthwithouthavingtoperformanyactto
acquireorperfecttheirPhilippine
citizenship.ThosewhoelectPhilippine
citizenshipinaccordancewithparagraph
(3),Section1hereofshallbedeemed
naturalborncitizens.
Section3.Philippinecitizenshipmaybe
lostorreacquiredinthemannerprovided
bylaw.
Section4.CitizensofthePhilippineswho
marryaliensshallretaintheircitizenship,
unlessbytheiractoromission,theyare
deemed,underthelaw,tohaverenounced
it.
Section5.Dualallegianceofcitizensis
inimicaltothenationalinterestandshallbe
dealtwithbylaw.
ARTICLEVSUFFRAGE
Section1.Suffragemaybeexercisedbyall
citizensofthePhilippinesnototherwise
disqualifiedbylaw,whoareatleast
eighteenyearsofage,andwhoshallhave
residedinthePhilippinesforatleastone
year,andintheplacewhereintheypropose
tovote,foratleastsixmonthsimmediately

precedingtheelection.Noliteracy,
property,orothersubstantiverequirement
shallbeimposedontheexerciseof
suffrage.
Section2.TheCongressshallprovidea
systemforsecuringthesecrecyand
sanctityoftheballotaswellasasystemfor
absenteevotingbyqualifiedFilipinos
abroad.
TheCongressshallalsodesignaprocedure
forthedisabledandtheilliteratestovote
withouttheassistanceofotherpersons.
Untilthen,theyshallbeallowedtovote
underexistinglawsandsuchrulesasthe
CommissiononElectionsmaypromulgate
toprotectthesecrecyoftheballot.
ARTICLEVI
THELEGISLATIVEDEPARTMENT
Section1.Thelegislativepowershallbe
vestedintheCongressofthePhilippines
whichshallconsistofaSenateandaHouse
ofRepresentatives,excepttotheextent
reservedtothepeoplebytheprovisionon
initiativeandreferendum.
Section2.TheSenateshallbecomposedof
twentyfourSenatorswhoshallbeelected
atlargebythequalifiedvotersofthe
Philippines,asmaybeprovidedbylaw.
Section3.NopersonshallbeaSenator
unlessheisanaturalborncitizenofthe
Philippinesand,onthedayoftheelection,
isatleastthirtyfiveyearsofage,ableto
readandwrite,aregisteredvoter,anda
residentofthePhilippinesfornotlessthan
twoyearsimmediatelyprecedingthedayof
theelection.
Section4.Thetermofofficeofthe
Senatorsshallbesixyearsandshall
commence,unlessotherwiseprovidedby
law,atnoononthethirtiethdayofJune
nextfollowingtheirelection.NoSenator
shallserveformorethantwoconsecutive
terms.Voluntaryrenunciationoftheoffice
foranylengthoftimeshallnotbe
consideredasaninterruptioninthe
continuityofhisserviceforthefulltermof
whichhewaselected.
Section5.(1)TheHouseof
Representativesshallbecomposedofnot
morethantwohundredandfiftymembers,
unlessotherwisefixedbylaw,whoshallbe
electedfromlegislativedistricts
apportionedamongtheprovinces,cities,
andtheMetropolitanManilaareain
accordancewiththenumberoftheir
respectiveinhabitants,andonthebasisofa
uniformandprogressiveratio,andthose
who,asprovidedbylaw,shallbeelected
throughapartylistsystemofregistered

national,regional,andsectoralpartiesor
organizations.
(2)Thepartylistrepresentativesshall
constitutetwentypercentumofthetotal
numberofrepresentativesincludingthose
underthepartylist.Forthreeconsecutive
termsaftertheratificationofthis
Constitution,onehalfoftheseatsallocated
topartylistrepresentativesshallbefilled,
asprovidedbylaw,byselectionorelection
fromthelabor,peasant,urbanpoor,
indigenousculturalcommunities,women,
youth,andsuchothersectorsasmaybe
providedbylaw,exceptthereligious
sector.
(3)Eachlegislativedistrictshallcomprise,
asfaraspracticable,contiguous,compact,
andadjacentterritory.Eachcitywitha
populationofatleasttwohundredfifty
thousand,oreachprovince,shallhaveat
leastonerepresentative.
(4)Withinthreeyearsfollowingthereturn
ofeverycensus,theCongressshallmakea
reapportionmentoflegislativedistricts
basedonthestandardsprovidedinthis
section.
Section6.NopersonshallbeaMemberof
theHouseofRepresentativesunlessheisa
naturalborncitizenofthePhilippinesand,
onthedayoftheelection,isatleast
twentyfiveyearsofage,abletoreadand
write,and,exceptthepartylist
representatives,aregisteredvoterinthe
districtinwhichheshallbeelected,anda
residentthereofforaperiodofnotlessthan
oneyearimmediatelyprecedingthedayof
theelection.
Section7.TheMembersoftheHouseof
Representativesshallbeelectedforaterm
ofthreeyearswhichshallbegin,unless
otherwiseprovidedbylaw,atnoononthe
thirtiethdayofJunenextfollowingtheir
election.NoMemberoftheHouseof
Representativesshallserveformorethan
threeconsecutiveterms.Voluntary
renunciationoftheofficeforanylengthof
timeshallnotbeconsideredasan
interruptioninthecontinuityofhisservice
forthefulltermforwhichhewaselected.
Section8.Unlessotherwiseprovidedby
law,theregularelectionoftheSenators
andtheMembersoftheHouseof
Representativesshallbeheldonthesecond
MondayofMay.
Section9.IncaseofvacancyintheSenate
orintheHouseofRepresentatives,a
specialelectionmaybecalledtofillsuch
vacancyinthemannerprescribedbylaw,
buttheSenatororMemberoftheHouseof

Representativesthuselectedshallserve
onlyfortheunexpiredterm.
Section10.ThesalariesofSenatorsand
MembersoftheHouseofRepresentatives
shallbedeterminedbylaw.Noincreasein
saidcompensationshalltakeeffectuntil
aftertheexpirationofthefulltermofall
theMembersoftheSenateandtheHouse
ofRepresentativesapprovingsuchincrease.
Section11.ASenatororMemberofthe
HouseofRepresentativesshall,inall
offensespunishablebynotmorethansix
yearsimprisonment,beprivilegedfrom
arrestwhiletheCongressisinsession.No
Membershallbequestionednorbeheld
liableinanyotherplaceforanyspeechor
debateintheCongressorinanycommittee
thereof.
Section12.AllMembersoftheSenateand
theHouseofRepresentativesshall,upon
assumptionofoffice,makeafulldisclosure
oftheirfinancialandbusinessinterests.
TheyshallnotifytheHouseconcernedofa
potentialconflictofinterestthatmayarise
fromthefilingofaproposedlegislationof
whichtheyareauthors.
Section13.NoSenatororMemberofthe
HouseofRepresentativesmayholdany
otherofficeoremploymentinthe
Government,oranysubdivision,agency,or
instrumentalitythereof,including
governmentownedorcontrolled
corporationsortheirsubsidiaries,during
histermwithoutforfeitinghisseat.Neither
shallhebeappointedtoanyofficewhich
mayhavebeencreatedortheemoluments
thereofincreasedduringthetermforwhich
hewaselected.
Section14.NoSenatororMemberofthe
HouseofRepresentativesmaypersonally
appearascounselbeforeanycourtof
justiceorbeforetheElectoralTribunals,or
quasijudicialandotheradministrative
bodies.Neithershallhe,directlyor
indirectly,beinterestedfinanciallyinany
contractwith,orinanyfranchiseorspecial
privilegegrantedbytheGovernment,or
anysubdivision,agency,orinstrumentality
thereof,includinganygovernmentowned
orcontrolledcorporation,oritssubsidiary,
duringhistermofoffice.Heshallnot
interveneinanymatterbeforeanyofficeof
theGovernmentforhispecuniarybenefit
orwherehemaybecalledupontoacton
accountofhisoffice.
Section15.TheCongressshallconvene
onceeveryyearonthefourthMondayof
Julyforitsregularsession,unlessa
differentdateisfixedbylaw,andshall
continuetobeinsessionfor

suchnumberofdaysasitmaydetermine
untilthirtydaysbeforetheopeningofits
nextregularsession,exclusiveof
Saturdays,Sundays,andlegalholidays.
ThePresidentmaycallaspecialsessionat
anytime.
Section16.(1).TheSenateshallelectits
PresidentandtheHouseof
Representatives,itsSpeaker,byamajority
voteofallitsrespectiveMembers.Each
Houseshallchoosesuchotherofficersasit
maydeemnecessary.
(2)AmajorityofeachHouseshall
constituteaquorumtodobusiness,buta
smallernumbermayadjournfromdayto
dayandmaycompeltheattendanceof
absentMembersinsuchmanner,andunder
suchpenalties,assuchHousemayprovide.
(3)EachHousemaydeterminetherulesof
itsproceedings,punishitsMembersfor
disorderlybehavior,and,withthe
concurrenceoftwothirdsofallits
Members,suspendorexpelaMember.A
penaltyofsuspension,whenimposed,shall
notexceedsixtydays.
(4)EachHouseshallkeepaJournalofits
proceedings,andfromtimetotimepublish
thesame,exceptingsuchpartsasmay,in
itsjudgment,affectnationalsecurity;and
theyeasandnaysonanyquestionshall,at
therequestofonefifthoftheMembers
present,beenteredintheJournal.Each
HouseshallalsokeepaRecordofits
proceedings.
(5)NeitherHouseduringthesessionsof
theCongressshall,withouttheconsentof
theother,adjournformorethanthreedays,
nortoanyotherplacethanthatinwhich
thetwoHousesshallbesitting.
Section17.TheSenateandtheHouseof
Representativesshalleachhavean
ElectoralTribunalwhichshallbethesole
judgeofallcontestsrelatingtotheelection,
returns,andqualificationsoftheir
respectiveMembers.EachElectoral
Tribunalshallbecomposedofnine
Members,threeofwhomshallbeJustices
oftheSupremeCourttobedesignatedby
theChiefJustice,andtheremainingsix
shallbeMembersoftheSenateorthe
HouseofRepresentatives,asthecasemay
be,whoshallbechosenonthebasisof
proportionalrepresentationfromthe
politicalpartiesandthepartiesor
organizationsregisteredunderthepartylist
systemrepresentedtherein.Thesenior
JusticeintheElectoralTribunalshallbeits
Chairman.
Section18.ThereshallbeaCommission
onAppointmentsconsistingofthe

PresidentoftheSenate,asexofficio
Chairman,twelveSenators,andtwelve
MembersoftheHouseofRepresentatives,
electedbyeachHouseonthebasisof
proportionalrepresentationfromthe
politicalpartiesandpartiesororganizations
registeredunderthepartylistsystem
representedtherein.Thechairmanofthe
Commissionshallnotvote,exceptincase
ofatie.TheCommissionshallactonall
appointmentssubmittedtoitwithinthirty
sessiondaysoftheCongressfromtheir
submission.TheCommissionshallruleby
amajorityvoteofalltheMembers.
Section19.TheElectoralTribunalsandthe
CommissiononAppointmentsshallbe
constitutedwithinthirtydaysafterthe
SenateandtheHouseofRepresentatives
shallhavebeenorganizedwiththeelection
ofthePresidentandtheSpeaker.The
CommissiononAppointmentsshallmeet
onlywhiletheCongressisinsession,atthe
callofitsChairmanoramajorityofallits
Members,todischargesuchpowersand
functionsasarehereinconferreduponit.
Section20.Therecordsandbooksof
accountsoftheCongressshallbepreserved
andbeopentothepublicinaccordance
withlaw,andsuchbooksshallbeaudited
bytheCommissiononAuditwhichshall
publishannuallyanitemizedlistof
amountspaidtoandexpensesincurredfor
eachMember.
Section21.TheSenateortheHouseof
Representativesoranyofitsrespective
committeesmayconductinquiriesinaidof
legislationinaccordancewithitsduly
publishedrulesofprocedure.Therightsof
personsappearingin,oraffectedby,such
inquiriesshallberespected.
Section22.Theheadsofdepartmentsmay,
upontheirowninitiative,withtheconsent
ofthePresident,orupontherequestof
eitherHouse,astherulesofeachHouse
shallprovide,appearbeforeandbeheard
bysuchHouseonanymatterpertainingto
theirdepartments.Writtenquestionsshall
besubmittedtothePresidentoftheSenate
ortheSpeakeroftheHouseof
Representativesatleastthreedaysbefore
theirscheduledappearance.Interpellations
shallnotbelimitedtowrittenquestions,
butmaycovermattersrelatedthereto.
WhenthesecurityoftheStateorthepublic
interestsorequiresandthePresidentso
statesinwriting,theappearanceshallbe
conductedinexecutivesession.
Section23.(1)TheCongress,byavoteof
twothirdsofbothHousesinjointsession
assembled,votingseparately,shallhavethe
solepowertodeclaretheexistenceofa
stateofwar.

(2)Intimesofwarorothernational
emergency,theCongressmay,bylaw,
authorizethePresident,foralimitedperiod
andsubjecttosuchrestrictionsasitmay
prescribe,toexercisepowersnecessaryand
propertocarryoutadeclarednational
policy.Unlesssoonerwithdrawnby
resolutionoftheCongress,suchpowers
shallceaseuponthenextadjournment
thereof.
Section24.Allappropriation,revenueor
tariffbills,billsauthorizingincreaseofthe
publicdebt,billsoflocalapplication,and
privatebills,shalloriginateexclusivelyin
theHouseofRepresentatives,butthe
Senatemayproposeorconcurwith
amendments.
Section25.(1)TheCongressmaynot
increasetheappropriationsrecommended
bythePresidentfortheoperationofthe
Governmentasspecifiedinthebudget.The
form,content,andmannerofpreparationof
thebudgetshallbeprescribedbylaw.
(2)Noprovisionorenactmentshallbe
embracedinthegeneralappropriationsbill
unlessitrelatesspecificallytosome
particularappropriationtherein.Anysuch
provisionorenactmentshallbelimitedin
itsoperationtotheappropriationtowhich
itrelates.
(3)Theprocedureinapproving
appropriationsfortheCongressshall
strictlyfollowtheprocedureforapproving
appropriationsforotherdepartmentsand
agencies.
(4)Aspecialappropriationsbillshall
specifythepurposeforwhichitisintended,
andshallbesupportedbyfundsactually
availableascertifiedbytheNational
Treasurer,ortoberaisedbya
correspondingrevenueproposaltherein.
(5)Nolawshallbepassedauthorizingany
transferofappropriations;however,the
President,thePresidentoftheSenate,the
SpeakeroftheHouseofRepresentatives,
theChiefJusticeoftheSupremeCourt,and
theheadsofConstitutionalCommissions
may,bylaw,beauthorizedtoaugmentany
iteminthegeneralappropriationslawfor
theirrespectiveofficesfromsavingsin
otheritemsoftheirrespective
appropriations.
(6)Discretionaryfundsappropriatedfor
particularofficialsshallbedisbursedonly
forpublicpurposestobesupportedby
appropriatevouchersandsubjecttosuch
guidelinesasmaybeprescribedbylaw.
(7)If,bytheendofanyfiscalyear,the
Congressshallhavefailedtopassthe

generalappropriationsbillfortheensuing
fiscalyear,thegeneralappropriationslaw
fortheprecedingfiscalyearshallbe
deemedreenactedandshallremainin
forceandeffectuntilthegeneral
appropriationsbillispassedbythe
Congress.
Section26.(1)Everybillpassedbythe
Congressshallembraceonlyonesubject
whichshallbeexpressedinthetitle
thereof.
(2)NobillpassedbyeitherHouseshall
becomealawunlessithaspassedthree
readingsonseparatedays,andprinted
copiesthereofinitsfinalformhavebeen
distributedtoitsMembersthreedays
beforeitspassage,exceptwhenthe
Presidentcertifiestothenecessityofits
immediateenactmenttomeetapublic
calamityoremergency.Uponthelast
readingofabill,noamendmentthereto
shallbeallowed,andthevotethereonshall
betakenimmediatelythereafter,andthe
yeasandnaysenteredintheJournal.
Section27.(1)Everybillpassedbythe
Congressshall,beforeitbecomesalaw,be
presentedtothePresident.Ifheapproves
thesameheshallsignit;otherwise,heshall
vetoitandreturnthesamewithhis
objectionstotheHousewhereitoriginated,
whichshallentertheobjectionsatlargein
itsJournalandproceedtoreconsiderit.If,
aftersuchreconsideration,twothirdsofall
theMembersofsuchHouseshallagreeto
passthebill,itshallbesent,togetherwith
theobjections,totheotherHousebywhich
itshalllikewisebereconsidered,andif
approvedbytwothirdsofalltheMembers
ofthatHouse,itshallbecomealaw.Inall
suchcases,thevotesofeachHouseshallbe
determinedbyyeasornays,andthenames
oftheMembersvotingfororagainstshall
beenteredinitsJournal.ThePresident
shallcommunicatehisvetoofanybillto
theHousewhereitoriginatedwithinthirty
daysafterthedateofreceiptthereof,
otherwise,itshallbecomealawasifhe
hadsignedit.
(2)ThePresidentshallhavethepowerto
vetoanyparticularitemoritemsinan
appropriation,revenue,ortariffbill,butthe
vetoshallnotaffecttheitemoritemsto
whichhedoesnotobject.
Section28.(1)Theruleoftaxationshallbe
uniformandequitable.TheCongressshall
evolveaprogressivesystemoftaxation.
(2)TheCongressmay,bylaw,authorize
thePresidenttofixwithinspecifiedlimits,
andsubjecttosuchlimitationsand
restrictionsasitmayimpose,tariffrates,
importandexportquotas,tonnageand
wharfagedues,andotherdutiesorimposts

withintheframeworkofthenational
developmentprogramoftheGovernment.
(3)Charitableinstitutions,churchesand
personagesorconventsappurtenantthereto,
mosques,nonprofitcemeteries,andall
lands,buildings,andimprovements,
actually,directly,andexclusivelyusedfor
religious,charitable,oreducational
purposesshallbeexemptfromtaxation.
(4)Nolawgrantinganytaxexemption
shallbepassedwithouttheconcurrenceof
amajorityofalltheMembersofthe
Congress.
Section29.(1)Nomoneyshallbepaidout
oftheTreasuryexceptinpursuanceofan
appropriationmadebylaw.
(2)Nopublicmoneyorpropertyshallbe
appropriated,applied,paid,oremployed,
directlyorindirectly,fortheuse,benefit,or
supportofanysect,church,denomination,
sectarianinstitution,orsystemofreligion,
orofanypriest,preacher,minister,other
religiousteacher,ordignitaryassuch,
exceptwhensuchpriest,preacher,minister,
ordignitaryisassignedtothearmedforces,
ortoanypenalinstitution,orgovernment
orphanageorleprosarium.
(3)Allmoneycollectedonanytaxlevied
foraspecialpurposeshallbetreatedasa
specialfundandpaidoutforsuchpurpose
only.Ifthepurposeforwhichaspecial
fundwascreatedhasbeenfulfilledor
abandoned,thebalance,ifany,shallbe
transferredtothegeneralfundsofthe
Government.
Section30.Nolawshallbepassed
increasingtheappellatejurisdictionofthe
SupremeCourtasprovidedinthis
Constitutionwithoutitsadviceand
concurrence.
Section31.Nolawgrantingatitleof
royaltyornobilityshallbeenacted.
Section32.TheCongressshall,asearlyas
possible,provideforasystemofinitiative
andreferendum,andtheexceptions
therefrom,wherebythepeoplecandirectly
proposeandenactlawsorapproveorreject
anyactorlaworpartthereofpassedbythe
Congressorlocallegislativebodyafterthe
registrationofapetitionthereforsignedby
atleasttenpercentumofthetotalnumber
ofregisteredvoters,ofwhichevery
legislativedistrictmustberepresentedby
atleastthreepercentumoftheregistered
votersthereof.
ARTICLEVIIEXECUTIVE
DEPARTMENT

Section1.Theexecutivepowershallbe
vestedinthePresidentofthePhilippines.
Section2.Nopersonmaybeelected
Presidentunlessheisanaturalborncitizen
ofthePhilippines,aregisteredvoter,able
toreadandwrite,atleastfortyyearsofage
onthedayoftheelection,andaresidentof
thePhilippinesforatleasttenyears
immediatelyprecedingsuchelection.
Section3.ThereshallbeaVicePresident
whoshallhavethesamequalificationsand
termofofficeandbeelectedwith,andin
thesamemanner,asthePresident.Hemay
beremovedfromofficeinthesamemanner
asthePresident.
TheVicePresidentmaybeappointedasa
MemberoftheCabinet.Suchappointment
requiresnoconfirmation.
Section4.ThePresidentandtheVice
Presidentshallbeelectedbydirectvoteof
thepeopleforatermofsixyearswhich
shallbeginatnoononthethirtiethdayof
Junenextfollowingthedayoftheelection
andshallendatnoonofthesamedate,six
yearsthereafter.ThePresidentshallnotbe
eligibleforanyreelection.Nopersonwho
hassucceededasPresidentandhasserved
assuchformorethanfouryearsshallbe
qualifiedforelectiontothesameofficeat
anytime.
NoVicePresidentshallserveformore
thantwosuccessiveterms.Voluntary
renunciationoftheofficeforanylengthof
timeshallnotbeconsideredasan
interruptioninthecontinuityoftheservice
forthefulltermforwhichhewaselected.
Unlessotherwiseprovidedbylaw,the
regularelectionforPresidentandVice
Presidentshallbeheldonthesecond
MondayofMay.
ThereturnsofeveryelectionforPresident
andVicePresident,dulycertifiedbythe
boardofcanvassersofeachprovinceor
city,shallbetransmittedtotheCongress,
directedtothePresidentoftheSenate.
Uponreceiptofthecertificatesofcanvass,
thePresidentoftheSenateshall,notlater
thanthirtydaysafterthedayofthe
election,openallthecertificatesinthe
presenceoftheSenateandtheHouseof
Representativesinjointpublicsession,and
theCongress,upondeterminationofthe
authenticityanddueexecutionthereofin
themannerprovidedbylaw,canvassthe
votes.
Thepersonhavingthehighestnumberof
votesshallbeproclaimedelected,butin
casetwoormoreshallhaveanequaland
highestnumberofvotes,oneofthemshall

forthwithbechosenbythevoteofa
majorityofalltheMembersofbothHouses
oftheCongress,votingseparately.

Representatives,shallactasPresidentuntil
aPresidentoraVicePresidentshallhave
beenchosenandqualified.

TheCongressshallpromulgateitsrulesfor
thecanvassingofthecertificates.

TheCongressshall,bylaw,provideforthe
mannerinwhichonewhoistoactas
PresidentshallbeselecteduntilaPresident
oraVicePresidentshallhavequalified,in
caseofdeath,permanentdisability,or
inabilityoftheofficialsmentionedinthe
nextprecedingparagraph.

TheSupremeCourt,sittingenbanc,shall
bethesolejudgeofallcontestsrelatingto
theelection,returns,andqualificationsof
thePresidentorVicePresident,andmay
promulgateitsrulesforthepurpose.
Section5.Beforetheyenteronthe
executionoftheiroffice,thePresident,the
VicePresident,ortheActingPresident
shalltakethefollowingoathoraffirmation:
"Idosolemnlyswear[oraffirm]thatIwill
faithfullyandconscientiouslyfulfillmy
dutiesasPresident[orVicePresidentor
ActingPresident]ofthePhilippines,
preserveanddefenditsConstitution,
executeitslaws,dojusticetoeveryman,
andconsecratemyselftotheserviceofthe
Nation.SohelpmeGod."[Incaseof
affirmation,lastsentencewillbeomitted].
Section6.ThePresidentshallhavean
officialresidence.Thesalariesofthe
PresidentandVicePresidentshallbe
determinedbylawandshallnotbe
decreasedduringtheirtenure.Noincrease
insaidcompensationshalltakeeffectuntil
aftertheexpirationofthetermofthe
incumbentduringwhichsuchincreasewas
approved.Theyshallnotreceiveduring
theirtenureanyotheremolumentfromthe
Governmentoranyothersource.
Section7.ThePresidentelectandtheVice
Presidentelectshallassumeofficeatthe
beginningoftheirterms.
IfthePresidentelectfailstoqualify,the
VicePresidentelectshallactasPresident
untilthePresidentelectshallhave
qualified.
IfaPresidentshallnothavebeenchosen,
theVicePresidentelectshallactas
PresidentuntilaPresidentshallhavebeen
chosenandqualified.
Ifatthebeginningofthetermofthe
President,thePresidentelectshallhave
diedorshallhavebecomepermanently
disabled,theVicePresidentelectshall
becomePresident.
WherenoPresidentandVicePresident
shallhavebeenchosenorshallhave
qualified,orwherebothshallhavediedor
becomepermanentlydisabled,the
PresidentoftheSenateor,incaseofhis
inability,theSpeakeroftheHouseof

Section8.Incaseofdeath,permanent
disability,removalfromoffice,or
resignationofthePresident,theVice
PresidentshallbecomethePresidentto
servetheunexpiredterm.Incaseofdeath,
permanentdisability,removalfromoffice,
orresignationofboththePresidentand
VicePresident,thePresidentoftheSenate
or,incaseofhisinability,theSpeakerof
theHouseofRepresentatives,shallthenact
asPresidentuntilthePresidentorVice
Presidentshallhavebeenelectedand
qualified.
TheCongressshall,bylaw,providewho
shallserveasPresidentincaseofdeath,
permanentdisability,orresignationofthe
ActingPresident.Heshallserveuntilthe
PresidentortheVicePresidentshallhave
beenelectedandqualified,andbesubject
tothesamerestrictionsofpowersand
disqualificationsastheActingPresident.
Section9.Wheneverthereisavacancyin
theOfficeoftheVicePresidentduringthe
termforwhichhewaselected,the
PresidentshallnominateaVicePresident
fromamongtheMembersoftheSenateand
theHouseofRepresentativeswhoshall
assumeofficeupon
confirmationbyamajorityvoteofallthe
MembersofbothHousesoftheCongress,
votingseparately.
Section10.TheCongressshall,atten
o'clockinthemorningofthethirddayafter
thevacancyintheofficesofthePresident
andVicePresidentoccurs,convenein
accordancewithitsruleswithoutneedofa
callandwithinsevendays,enactalaw
callingforaspecialelectiontoelecta
PresidentandaVicePresidenttobeheld
notearlierthanfortyfivedaysnorlater
thansixtydaysfromthetimeofsuchcall.
Thebillcallingsuchspecialelectionshall
bedeemedcertifiedunderparagraph2,
Section26,ArticleV1ofthisConstitution
andshallbecomelawuponitsapprovalon
thirdreadingbytheCongress.
Appropriationsforthespecialelectionshall
bechargedagainstanycurrent
appropriationsandshallbeexemptfrom
therequirementsofparagraph4,Section
25,ArticleV1ofthisConstitution.The
conveningoftheCongresscannotbe

suspendednorthespecialelection
postponed.Nospecialelectionshallbe
calledifthevacancyoccurswithineighteen
monthsbeforethedateofthenext
presidentialelection.
Section11.WheneverthePresident
transmitstothePresidentoftheSenateand
theSpeakeroftheHouseof
Representativeshiswrittendeclarationthat
heisunabletodischargethepowersand
dutiesofhisoffice,anduntilhetransmits
tothemawrittendeclarationtothe
contrary,suchpowersanddutiesshallbe
dischargedbytheVicePresidentasActing
President.
WheneveramajorityofalltheMembersof
theCabinettransmittothePresidentofthe
SenateandtotheSpeakeroftheHouseof
Representativestheirwrittendeclaration
thatthePresidentisunabletodischargethe
powersanddutiesofhisoffice,theVice
Presidentshallimmediatelyassumethe
powersanddutiesoftheofficeasActing
President.
Thereafter,whenthePresidenttransmitsto
thePresidentoftheSenateandtothe
SpeakeroftheHouseofRepresentatives
hiswrittendeclarationthatnoinability
exists,heshallreassumethepowersand
dutiesofhisoffice.Meanwhile,shoulda
majorityofalltheMembersoftheCabinet
transmitwithinfivedaystothePresidentof
theSenateandtotheSpeakeroftheHouse
ofRepresentatives,theirwrittendeclaration
thatthePresidentisunabletodischargethe
powersanddutiesofhisoffice,the
Congressshalldecidetheissue.Forthat
purpose,theCongressshallconvene,ifitis
notinsession,withinfortyeighthours,in
accordancewithitsrulesandwithoutneed
ofcall.
IftheCongress,withintendaysafter
receiptofthelastwrittendeclaration,or,if
notinsession,withintwelvedaysafteritis
requiredtoassemble,determinesbyatwo
thirdsvoteofbothHouses,voting
separately,thatthePresidentisunableto
dischargethepowersanddutiesofhis
office,theVicePresidentshallactas
President;otherwise,thePresidentshall
continueexercisingthepowersandduties
ofhisoffice.
Section12.Incaseofseriousillnessofthe
President,thepublicshallbeinformedof
thestateofhishealth.Themembersofthe
Cabinetinchargeofnationalsecurityand
foreignrelationsandtheChiefofStaffof
theArmedForcesofthePhilippines,shall
notbedeniedaccesstothePresidentduring
suchillness.
Section13.ThePresident,VicePresident,
theMembersoftheCabinet,andtheir

deputiesorassistantsshallnot,unless
otherwiseprovidedinthisConstitution,
holdanyotherofficeoremploymentduring
theirtenure.Theyshallnot,duringsaid
tenure,directlyorindirectly,practiceany
otherprofession,participateinany
business,orbefinanciallyinterestedinany
contractwith,orinanyfranchise,orspecial
privilegegrantedbytheGovernmentorany
subdivision,agency,orinstrumentality
thereof,includinggovernmentownedor
controlledcorporationsortheir
subsidiaries.Theyshallstrictlyavoid
conflictofinterestintheconductoftheir
office.
Thespouseandrelativesbyconsanguinity
oraffinitywithinthefourthcivildegreeof
thePresidentshallnot,duringhistenure,be
appointedasMembersoftheConstitutional
Commissions,ortheOfficeofthe
Ombudsman,orasSecretaries,
Undersecretaries,chairmenorheadsof
bureausoroffices,includinggovernment
ownedorcontrolledcorporationsandtheir
subsidiaries.
Section14.Appointmentsextendedbyan
ActingPresidentshallremaineffective,
unlessrevokedbytheelectedPresident,
withinninetydaysfromhisassumptionor
reassumptionofoffice.
Section15.Twomonthsimmediately
beforethenextpresidentialelectionsand
uptotheendofhisterm,aPresidentor
ActingPresidentshallnotmake
appointments,excepttemporary
appointmentstoexecutivepositionswhen
continuedvacanciesthereinwillprejudice
publicserviceorendangerpublicsafety.
Section16.ThePresidentshallnominate
and,withtheconsentoftheCommission
onAppointments,appointtheheadsofthe
executivedepartments,ambassadors,other
publicministersandconsuls,orofficersof
thearmedforcesfromtherankofcolonel
ornavalcaptain,andotherofficerswhose
appointmentsarevestedinhiminthis
Constitution.Heshallalsoappointallother
officersoftheGovernmentwhose
appointmentsarenototherwiseprovided
forbylaw,andthosewhomhemaybe
authorizedbylawtoappoint.TheCongress
may,bylaw,vesttheappointmentofother
officerslowerinrankinthePresident
alone,inthecourts,orintheheadsof
departments,agencies,commissions,or
boards.
ThePresidentshallhavethepowertomake
appointmentsduringtherecessofthe
Congress,whethervoluntaryor
compulsory,butsuchappointmentsshallbe
effectiveonlyuntildisapprovedbythe
CommissiononAppointmentsoruntilthe
nextadjournmentoftheCongress.

Section17.ThePresidentshallhave
controlofalltheexecutivedepartments,
bureaus,andoffices.Heshallensurethat
thelawsbefaithfullyexecuted.
Section18.ThePresidentshallbethe
CommanderinChiefofallarmedforcesof
thePhilippinesandwheneveritbecomes
necessary,hemaycalloutsucharmed
forcestopreventorsuppresslawless
violence,invasionorrebellion.Incaseof
invasionorrebellion,whenthepublic
safetyrequiresit,hemay,foraperiodnot
exceedingsixtydays,suspendtheprivilege
ofthewritofhabeascorpusorplacethe
Philippinesoranypartthereofunder
martiallaw.Withinfortyeighthoursfrom
theproclamationofmartiallaworthe
suspensionoftheprivilegeofthewritof
habeascorpus,thePresidentshallsubmita
reportinpersonorinwritingtothe
Congress.TheCongress,votingjointly,by
avoteofatleastamajorityofallits
Membersinregularorspecialsession,may
revokesuchproclamationorsuspension,
whichrevocationshallnotbesetasideby
thePresident.Upontheinitiativeofthe
President,theCongressmay,inthesame
manner,extendsuchproclamationor
suspensionforaperiodtobedeterminedby
theCongress,iftheinvasionorrebellion
shallpersistandpublicsafetyrequiresit.
TheCongress,ifnotinsession,shall,
withintwentyfourhoursfollowingsuch
proclamationorsuspension,convenein
accordancewithitsruleswithoutneedofa
call.
TheSupremeCourtmayreview,inan
appropriateproceedingfiledbyanycitizen,
thesufficiencyofthefactualbasisofthe
proclamationofmartiallaworthe
suspensionoftheprivilegeofthewritof
habeascorpusortheextensionthereof,and
mustpromulgateitsdecisionthereonwithin
thirtydaysfromitsfiling.
Astateofmartiallawdoesnotsuspendthe
operationoftheConstitution,norsupplant
thefunctioningofthecivilcourtsor
legislativeassemblies,norauthorizethe
confermentof
jurisdictiononmilitarycourtsandagencies
overcivilianswherecivilcourtsareableto
function,norautomaticallysuspendthe
privilegeofthewritofhabeascorpus.
Thesuspensionoftheprivilegeofthewrit
ofhabeascorpusshallapplyonlyto
personsjudiciallychargedforrebellionor
offensesinherentin,ordirectlyconnected
with,invasion.
Duringthesuspensionoftheprivilegeof
thewritofhabeascorpus,anypersonthus

arrestedordetainedshallbejudicially
chargedwithinthreedays,otherwisehe
shallbereleased.
Section19.Exceptincasesof
impeachment,orasotherwiseprovidedin
thisConstitution,thePresidentmaygrant
reprieves,commutations,andpardons,and
remitfinesandforfeitures,afterconviction
byfinaljudgment.
Heshallalsohavethepowertogrant
amnestywiththeconcurrenceofamajority
ofalltheMembersoftheCongress.
Section20.ThePresidentmaycontractor
guaranteeforeignloansonbehalfofthe
RepublicofthePhilippineswiththeprior
concurrenceoftheMonetaryBoard,and
subjecttosuchlimitationsasmaybe
providedbylaw.TheMonetaryBoard
shall,withinthirtydaysfromtheendof
everyquarterofthecalendaryear,submit
totheCongressacompletereportofits
decisiononapplicationsforloanstobe
contractedorguaranteedbythe
Governmentorgovernmentownedand
controlledcorporationswhichwouldhave
theeffectofincreasingtheforeigndebt,
andcontainingothermattersasmaybe
providedbylaw.
Section21.Notreatyorinternational
agreementshallbevalidandeffective
unlessconcurredinbyatleasttwothirdsof
alltheMembersoftheSenate.
Section22.ThePresidentshallsubmitto
theCongress,withinthirtydaysfromthe
openingofeveryregularsessionasthe
basisofthegeneralappropriationsbill,a
budgetofexpendituresandsourcesof
financing,includingreceiptsfromexisting
andproposedrevenuemeasures.
Section23.ThePresidentshalladdressthe
Congressattheopeningofitsregular
session.Hemayalsoappearbeforeitatany
othertime.
ARTICLEVIII
JUDICIALDEPARTMENT
Section1.Thejudicialpowershallbe
vestedinoneSupremeCourtandinsuch
lowercourtsasmaybeestablishedbylaw.
Judicialpowerincludesthedutyofthe
courtsofjusticetosettleactual
controversiesinvolvingrightswhichare
legallydemandableandenforceable,andto
determinewhetherornottherehasbeena
graveabuseofdiscretionamountingtolack
orexcessofjurisdictiononthepartofany

branchorinstrumentalityofthe
Government.
Section2.TheCongressshallhavethe
powertodefine,prescribe,andapportion
thejurisdictionofthevariouscourtsbut
maynotdeprivetheSupremeCourtofits
jurisdictionovercasesenumeratedin
Section5hereof.
Nolawshallbepassedreorganizingthe
Judiciarywhenitunderminesthesecurity
oftenureofitsMembers.
Section3.TheJudiciaryshallenjoyfiscal
autonomy.AppropriationsfortheJudiciary
maynotbereducedbythelegislature
belowtheamountappropriatedforthe
previousyearand,afterapproval,shallbe
automaticallyandregularlyreleased.
Section4.(1)TheSupremeCourtshallbe
composedofaChiefJusticeandfourteen
AssociateJustices.Itmaysitenbancorin
itsdiscretion,indivisionofthree,five,or
sevenMembers.Anyvacancyshallbe
filledwithinninetydaysfromthe
occurrencethereof.
(2)Allcasesinvolvingtheconstitutionality
ofatreaty,internationalorexecutive
agreement,orlaw,whichshallbeheardby
theSupremeCourtenbanc,andallother
caseswhichundertheRulesofCourtare
requiredtobeheardenbanc,including
thoseinvolvingtheconstitutionality,
application,oroperationofpresidential
decrees,proclamations,orders,instructions,
ordinances,andotherregulations,shallbe
decidedwiththeconcurrenceofamajority
oftheMemberswhoactuallytookpartin
thedeliberationsontheissuesinthecase
andvotedthereon.
(3)Casesormattersheardbyadivision
shallbedecidedorresolvedwiththe
concurrenceofamajorityoftheMembers
whoactuallytookpartinthedeliberations
ontheissuesinthecaseandvotedthereon,
andinnocasewithouttheconcurrenceof
atleastthreeofsuchMembers.Whenthe
requirednumberisnotobtained,thecase
shallbedecidedenbanc:Provided,thatno
doctrineorprincipleoflawlaiddownby
thecourtinadecisionrenderedenbancor
indivisionmaybemodifiedorreversed
exceptbythecourtsittingenbanc.
Section5.TheSupremeCourtshallhave
thefollowingpowers:
1)Exerciseoriginaljurisdictionovercases
affectingambassadors,otherpublic
ministersandconsuls,andoverpetitions
forcertiorari,prohibition,mandamus,quo
warranto,andhabeascorpus.

(2)Review,revise,reverse,modify,or
affirmonappealorcertiorari,asthelawor
theRulesofCourtmayprovide,final
judgmentsandordersoflowercourtsin:
(a)Allcasesinwhichtheconstitutionality
orvalidityofanytreaty,internationalor
executiveagreement,law,presidential
decree,proclamation,order,instruction,
ordinance,orregulationisinquestion.
(b)Allcasesinvolvingthelegalityofany
tax,impost,assessment,ortoll,orany
penaltyimposedinrelationthereto.
(c)Allcasesinwhichthejurisdictionof
anylowercourtisinissue.
(d)Allcriminalcasesinwhichthepenalty
imposedisreclusionperpetuaorhigher.
(e)Allcasesinwhichonlyanerroror
questionoflawisinvolved.
(3)Assigntemporarilyjudgesoflower
courtstootherstationsaspublicinterest
mayrequire.Suchtemporaryassignment
shallnotexceedsixmonthswithoutthe
consentofthejudgeconcerned.
(4)Orderachangeofvenueorplaceof
trialtoavoidamiscarriageofjustice.
(5)Promulgaterulesconcerningthe
protectionandenforcementof
constitutionalrights,pleading,practice,and
procedureinallcourts,theadmissiontothe
practiceoflaw,theintegratedbar,andlegal
assistancetotheunderprivileged.Such
rulesshallprovideasimplifiedand
inexpensiveprocedureforthespeedy
dispositionofcases,shallbeuniformforall
courtsofthesamegrade,andshallnot
diminish,increase,ormodifysubstantive
rights.Rulesofprocedureofspecialcourts
andquasijudicialbodiesshallremain
effectiveunlessdisapprovedbythe
SupremeCourt.
(6)Appointallofficialsandemployeesof
theJudiciaryinaccordancewiththeCivil
ServiceLaw.
Section6.TheSupremeCourtshallhave
administrativesupervisionoverallcourts
andthepersonnelthereof.
Section7.(1)Nopersonshallbeappointed
MemberoftheSupremeCourtoranylower
collegiatecourtunlessheisanaturalborn
citizenofthePhilippines.AMemberofthe
SupremeCourtmustbeatleastfortyyears
ofage,andmusthavebeenforfifteenyears
ormore,ajudgeofalowercourtor
engagedinthepracticeoflawinthe
Philippines.
(2)TheCongressshallprescribethe
qualificationsofjudgesoflowercourts,but

nopersonmaybeappointedjudgethereof
unlessheisacitizenofthePhilippinesand
amemberofthePhilippineBar.
(3)AMemberoftheJudiciarymustbea
personofprovencompetence,integrity,
probity,andindependence.
Section8.(1)AJudicialandBarCouncilis
herebycreatedunderthesupervisionofthe
SupremeCourtcomposedoftheChief
JusticeasexofficioChairman,the
SecretaryofJustice,andarepresentativeof
theCongressasexofficioMembers,a
representativeoftheIntegratedBar,a
professoroflaw,aretiredMemberofthe
SupremeCourt,andarepresentativeofthe
privatesector.
(2)TheregularmembersoftheCouncil
shallbeappointedbythePresidentfora
termoffouryearswiththeconsentofthe
CommissiononAppointments.Ofthe
Membersfirstappointed,therepresentative
oftheIntegratedBarshallserveforfour
years,theprofessoroflawforthreeyears,
theretiredJusticefortwoyears,andthe
representativeoftheprivatesectorforone
year.
(3)TheClerkoftheSupremeCourtshall
betheSecretaryexofficiooftheCouncil
andshallkeeparecordofitsproceedings.
(4)TheregularMembersoftheCouncil
shallreceivesuchemolumentsasmaybe
determinedbytheSupremeCourt.The
SupremeCourtshallprovideinitsannual
budgettheappropriationsfortheCouncil.
(5)TheCouncilshallhavetheprincipal
functionofrecommendingappointeesto
theJudiciary.Itmayexercisesuchother
functionsanddutiesastheSupremeCourt
mayassigntoit.
Section9.TheMembersoftheSupreme
Courtandjudgesofthelowercourtsshall
beappointedbythePresidentfromalistof
atleastthreenomineespreparedbythe
JudicialandBarCouncilforeveryvacancy.
Suchappointmentsneednoconfirmation.
Forthelowercourts,thePresidentshall
issuetheappointmentswithinninetydays
fromthesubmissionofthelist.
Section10.ThesalaryoftheChiefJustice
andoftheAssociateJusticesofthe
SupremeCourt,andofjudgesoflower
courts,shallbefixedbylaw.Duringtheir
continuanceinoffice,theirsalaryshallnot
bedecreased.
Section11.TheMembersoftheSupreme
Courtandjudgesoflowercourtsshallhold

officeduringgoodbehavioruntilthey
reachtheageofseventyyearsorbecome
incapacitatedtodischargethedutiesof
theiroffice.TheSupremeCourtenbanc
shallhavethepowertodisciplinejudgesof
lowercourts,orordertheirdismissalbya
voteofamajorityoftheMemberswho
actuallytookpartinthedeliberationson
theissuesinthecaseandvotedthereon.
Section12.TheMembersoftheSupreme
Courtandofothercourtsestablishedby
lawshallnotbedesignatedtoanyagency
performingquasijudicialoradministrative
functions.
Section13.Theconclusionsofthe
SupremeCourtinanycasesubmittedtoit
fordecisionenbancorindivisionshallbe
reachedinconsultationbeforethecaseis
assignedtoaMemberforthewritingofthe
opinionoftheCourt.Acertificationtothis
effectsignedbytheChief
Justiceshallbeissuedandacopythereof
attachedtotherecordofthecaseand
servedupontheparties.AnyMemberswho
tooknopart,ordissented,orabstained
fromadecisionorresolution,muststatethe
reasontherefor.Thesamerequirements
shallbeobservedbyalllowercollegiate
courts.
Section14.Nodecisionshallberendered
byanycourtwithoutexpressingtherein
clearlyanddistinctlythefactsandthelaw
onwhichitisbased.
Nopetitionforreviewormotionfor
reconsiderationofadecisionofthecourt
shallberefusedduecourseordenied
withoutstatingthelegalbasistherefor.
Section15.(1)Allcasesormattersfiled
aftertheeffectivityofthisConstitution
mustbedecidedorresolvedwithintwenty
fourmonthsfromdateofsubmissionfor
theSupremeCourt,and,unlessreducedby
theSupremeCourt,twelvemonthsforall
lowercollegiatecourts,andthreemonths
forallotherlowercourts.
(2)Acaseormattershallbedeemed
submittedfordecisionorresolutionupon
thefilingofthelastpleading,brief,or
memorandumrequiredbytheRulesof
Courtorbythecourtitself.
(3)Upontheexpirationofthe
correspondingperiod,acertificationtothis
effectsignedbytheChiefJusticeorthe
presidingjudgeshallforthwithbeissued
andacopythereofattachedtotherecordof
thecaseormatter,andserveduponthe
parties.Thecertificationshallstatewhya
decisionorresolutionhasnotbeen
renderedorissuedwithinsaidperiod.

(4)Despitetheexpirationoftheapplicable
mandatoryperiod,thecourt,without
prejudicetosuchresponsibilityasmay
havebeenincurredinconsequencethereof,
shalldecideorresolvethecaseormatter
submittedtheretofordetermination,
withoutfurtherdelay.
Section16.TheSupremeCourtshall,
withinthirtydaysfromtheopeningofeach
regularsessionoftheCongress,submitto
thePresidentandtheCongressanannual
reportontheoperationsandactivitiesof
theJudiciary.
ARTICLEIX
A.COMMONPROVISIONS
Section1.TheConstitutional
Commissions,whichshallbeindependent,
aretheCivil
ServiceCommission,theCommissionon
Elections,andtheCommissiononAudit.
Section2.NomemberofaConstitutional
Commissionshall,duringhistenure,hold
anyotherofficeoremployment.Neither
shallheengageinthepracticeofany
professionorintheactivemanagementor
controlofanybusinesswhich,inanyway,
maybeaffectedbythefunctionsofhis
office,norshallhebefinancially
interested,directlyorindirectly,inany
contractwith,orinanyfranchiseor
privilegegrantedbytheGovernment,any
ofitssubdivisions,agencies,or
instrumentalities,includinggovernment
ownedorcontrolledcorporationsortheir
subsidiaries.
Section.3.ThesalaryoftheChairmanand
theCommissionersshallbefixedbylaw
andshallnotbedecreasedduringtheir
tenure.
Section4.TheConstitutionalCommissions
shallappointtheirofficialsandemployees
inaccordancewithlaw.
Section5.TheCommissionshallenjoy
fiscalautonomy.Theirapprovedannual
appropriationsshallbeautomaticallyand
regularlyreleased.
Section6.EachCommissionenbancmay
promulgateitsownrulesconcerning
pleadingsandpracticebeforeitorbefore
anyofitsoffices.Suchrules,however,
shallnotdiminish,increase,ormodify
substantiverights.
Section7.EachCommissionshalldecide
byamajorityvoteofallitsMembers,any
caseormatterbroughtbeforeitwithinsixty
daysfromthedateofitssubmissionfor

decisionorresolution.Acaseormatteris
deemedsubmittedfordecisionor
resolutionuponthefilingofthelast
pleading,brief,ormemorandumrequired
bytherulesoftheCommissionorbythe
Commissionitself.Unlessotherwise
providedbythisConstitutionorbylaw,
anydecision,order,orrulingofeach
Commissionmaybebroughttothe
SupremeCourtoncertioraribythe
aggrievedpartywithinthirtydaysfrom
receiptofacopythereof.
Section8.EachCommissionshallperform
suchotherfunctionsasmaybeprovidedby
law.
ARTICLEIX
A.COMMONPROVISIONS
Section1.TheConstitutional
Commissions,whichshallbeindependent,
aretheCivil
ServiceCommission,theCommissionon
Elections,andtheCommissiononAudit.
Section2.NomemberofaConstitutional
Commissionshall,duringhistenure,hold
anyotherofficeoremployment.Neither
shallheengageinthepracticeofany
professionorintheactivemanagementor
controlofanybusinesswhich,inanyway,
maybeaffectedbythefunctionsofhis
office,norshallhebefinancially
interested,directlyorindirectly,inany
contractwith,orinanyfranchiseor
privilegegrantedbytheGovernment,any
ofitssubdivisions,agencies,or
instrumentalities,includinggovernment
ownedorcontrolledcorporationsortheir
subsidiaries.
Section.3.ThesalaryoftheChairmanand
theCommissionersshallbefixedbylaw
andshallnotbedecreasedduringtheir
tenure.
Section4.TheConstitutionalCommissions
shallappointtheirofficialsandemployees
inaccordancewithlaw.
Section5.TheCommissionshallenjoy
fiscalautonomy.Theirapprovedannual
appropriationsshallbeautomaticallyand
regularlyreleased.
Section6.EachCommissionenbancmay
promulgateitsownrulesconcerning
pleadingsandpracticebeforeitorbefore
anyofitsoffices.Suchrules,however,
shallnotdiminish,increase,ormodify
substantiverights.
Section7.EachCommissionshalldecide
byamajorityvoteofallitsMembers,any

caseormatterbroughtbeforeitwithinsixty
daysfromthedateofitssubmissionfor
decisionorresolution.Acaseormatteris
deemedsubmittedfordecisionor
resolutionuponthefilingofthelast
pleading,brief,ormemorandumrequired
bytherulesoftheCommissionorbythe
Commissionitself.Unlessotherwise
providedbythisConstitutionorbylaw,
anydecision,order,orrulingofeach
Commissionmaybebroughttothe
SupremeCourtoncertioraribythe
aggrievedpartywithinthirtydaysfrom
receiptofacopythereof.
Section8.EachCommissionshallperform
suchotherfunctionsasmaybeprovidedby
law.
ARTICLEIX
B.THECIVILSERVICECOMMISSION
Section1.(1)Thecivilserviceshallbe
administeredbytheCivilService
CommissioncomposedofaChairmanand
twoCommissionerswhoshallbenatural
borncitizensofthePhilippinesand,atthe
timeoftheirappointment,atleastthirty
fiveyearsofage,withprovencapacityfor
publicadministration,andmustnothave
beencandidatesforanyelectivepositionin
theelectionsimmediatelyprecedingtheir
appointment.
(2)TheChairmanandtheCommissioners
shallbeappointedbythePresidentwiththe
consentoftheCommissionon
Appointmentsforatermofsevenyears
withoutreappointment.Ofthosefirst
appointed,theChairmanshallholdoffice
forsevenyears,aCommissionerforfive
years,andanotherCommissionerforthree
years,withoutreappointment.Appointment
toanyvacancyshallbeonlyforthe
unexpiredtermofthepredecessor.Inno
caseshallanyMemberbeappointedor
designatedinatemporaryoracting
capacity.
Section2.(1)Thecivilserviceembraces
allbranches,subdivisions,
instrumentalities,andagenciesofthe
Government,includinggovernmentowned
orcontrolledcorporationswithoriginal
charters.
(2)Appointmentsinthecivilserviceshall
bemadeonlyaccordingtomeritandfitness
tobedetermined,asfaraspracticable,and,
excepttopositionswhicharepolicy
determining,primarilyconfidential,or
highlytechnical,bycompetitive
examination.

(3)Noofficeroremployeeofthecivil
serviceshallberemovedorsuspended
exceptforcauseprovidedbylaw.
(4)Noofficeroremployeeinthecivil
serviceshallengage,directlyorindirectly,
inanyelectioneeringorpartisanpolitical
campaign.
(5)Therighttoselforganizationshallnot
bedeniedtogovernmentemployees.
(6)Temporaryemployeesofthe
Governmentshallbegivensuchprotection
asmaybeprovidedbylaw.
Section3.TheCivilServiceCommission,
asthecentralpersonnelagencyofthe
Government,shallestablishacareer
serviceandadoptmeasurestopromote
morale,efficiency,integrity,
responsiveness,progressiveness,and
courtesyinthecivilservice.Itshall
strengthenthemeritandrewardssystem,
integrateallhumanresourcesdevelopment
programsforalllevelsandranks,and
institutionalizeamanagementclimate
conducivetopublicaccountability.Itshall
submittothePresidentandtheCongressan
annualreportonitspersonnelprograms.
Section4.Allpublicofficersand
employeesshalltakeanoathoraffirmation
toupholdanddefendthisConstitution.
Section5.TheCongressshallprovidefor
thestandardizationofcompensationof
governmentofficialsandemployees,
includingthoseingovernmentownedor
controlledcorporationswithoriginal
charters,takingintoaccountthenatureof
theresponsibilitiespertainingto,andthe
qualificationsrequiredfor,theirpositions.
Section6.Nocandidatewhohaslostinany
electionshall,withinoneyearaftersuch
election,beappointedtoanyofficeinthe
GovernmentoranyGovernmentownedor
controlledcorporationsorinanyoftheir
subsidiaries.
Section7.Noelectiveofficialshallbe
eligibleforappointmentordesignationin
anycapacitytoanypublicofficeor
positionduringhistenure.
Unlessotherwiseallowedbylaworbythe
primaryfunctionsofhisposition,no
appointiveofficialshallholdanyother
officeoremploymentintheGovernmentor
anysubdivision,agencyorinstrumentality
thereof,includingGovernmentownedor
controlledcorporationsortheir
subsidiaries.

Section8.Noelectiveorappointivepublic
officeroremployeeshallreceive
additional,double,orindirect
compensation,unlessspecifically
authorizedbylaw,noracceptwithoutthe
consentoftheCongress,anypresent,
emolument,office,ortitleofanykindfrom
anyforeigngovernment.
Pensionsorgratuitiesshallnotbe
consideredasadditional,double,orindirect
compensation.
ARTICLEIX
C.THECOMMISSIONONELECTIONS
Section1.(1)ThereshallbeaCommission
onElectionscomposedofaChairmanand
sixCommissionerswhoshallbenatural
borncitizensofthePhilippinesand,atthe
timeoftheirappointment,atleastthirty
fiveyearsofage,holdersofacollege
degree,andmustnothavebeencandidates
foranyelectivepositionsinthe
immediatelyprecedingelections.However,
amajoritythereof,includingtheChairman,
shallbemembersofthePhilippineBarwho
havebeenengagedinthepracticeoflaw
foratleasttenyears.
(2)TheChairmanandtheCommissioners
shallbeappointedbythePresidentwiththe
consentoftheCommissionon
Appointmentsforatermofsevenyears
withoutreappointment.Ofthosefirst
appointed,threeMembersshallholdoffice
forsevenyears,twoMembersforfive
years,andthelastMembersforthreeyears,
withoutreappointment.Appointmenttoany
vacancyshallbeonlyfortheunexpired
termofthepredecessor.Innocaseshall
anyMemberbeappointedordesignatedin
atemporaryoractingcapacity.
Sec.2.TheCommissiononElectionsshall
exercisethefollowingpowersand
functions:
(1)Enforceandadministeralllawsand
regulationsrelativetotheconductofan
election,plebiscite,initiative,referendum,
andrecall.
(2)Exerciseexclusiveoriginaljurisdiction
overallcontestsrelatingtotheelections,
returns,andqualificationsofallelective
regional,provincial,andcityofficials,and
appellatejurisdictionoverallcontests
involvingelectivemunicipalofficials
decidedbytrialcourtsofgeneral
jurisdiction,orinvolvingelectivebarangay
officialsdecidedbytrialcourtsoflimited
jurisdiction.

Decisions,finalorders,orrulingsofthe
Commissiononelectioncontestsinvolving
electivemunicipalandbarangayoffices
shallbefinal,executory,andnot
appealable.
(3)Decide,exceptthoseinvolvingtheright
tovote,allquestionsaffectingelections,
includingdeterminationofthenumberand
locationofpollingplaces,appointmentof
electionofficialsandinspectors,and
registrationofvoters.
(4)Deputize,withtheconcurrenceofthe
President,lawenforcementagenciesand
instrumentalitiesoftheGovernment,
includingtheArmedForcesofthe
Philippines,fortheexclusivepurposeof
ensuringfree,orderly,honest,peaceful,and
credibleelections.
(5)Register,aftersufficientpublication,
politicalparties,organizations,orcoalitions
which,inadditiontootherrequirements,
mustpresenttheirplatformorprogramof
government;andaccreditcitizens'armsof
theCommissiononElections.Religious
denominationsandsectsshallnotbe
registered.Thosewhichseektoachieve
theirgoalsthroughviolenceorunlawful
means,orrefusetoupholdandadhereto
thisConstitution,orwhicharesupportedby
anyforeigngovernmentshalllikewisebe
refusedregistration.
Financialcontributionsfromforeign
governmentsandtheiragenciestopolitical
parties,organizations,coalitions,or
candidatesrelatedtoelections,constitute
interferenceinnationalaffairs,and,when
accepted,shallbeanadditionalgroundfor
thecancellationoftheirregistrationwith
theCommission,inadditiontoother
penaltiesthatmaybeprescribedbylaw.
(6)File,uponaverifiedcomplaint,oronits
owninitiative,petitionsincourtfor
inclusionorexclusionofvoters;investigate
and,whereappropriate,prosecutecasesof
violationsofelectionlaws,includingacts
oromissionsconstitutingelectionfrauds,
offenses,andmalpractices.
(7)RecommendtotheCongresseffective
measurestominimizeelectionspending,
includinglimitationofplaceswhere
propagandamaterialsshallbeposted,and
topreventandpenalizeallformsof
electionfrauds,offenses,malpractices,and
nuisancecandidacies.
(8)RecommendtothePresidentthe
removalofanyofficeroremployeeithas
deputized,ortheimpositionofanyother
disciplinaryaction,forviolationor
disregardof,ordisobedienceto,its
directive,order,ordecision.

(9)SubmittothePresidentandthe
Congress,acomprehensivereportonthe
conductofeachelection,plebiscite,
initiative,referendum,orrecall.
Section3.TheCommissiononElections
maysitenbancorintwodivisions,and
shallpromulgateitsrulesofprocedurein
ordertoexpeditedispositionofelection
cases,includingpreproclamation
controversies.Allsuchelectioncasesshall
beheardanddecidedindivision,provided
thatmotionsforreconsiderationof
decisionsshallbedecidedbythe
Commissionenbanc.
Section4.TheCommissionmay,during
theelectionperiod,superviseorregulate
theenjoymentorutilizationofall
franchisesorpermitsfortheoperationof
transportationandotherpublicutilities,
mediaofcommunicationorinformation,all
grants,specialprivileges,orconcessions
grantedbytheGovernmentorany
subdivision,agency,orinstrumentality
thereof,includinganygovernmentowned
orcontrolledcorporationoritssubsidiary.
Suchsupervisionorregulationshallaimto
ensureequalopportunity,andequalrates
therefor,forpublicinformationcampaigns
andforumsamongcandidatesin
connectionwiththeobjectiveofholding
free,orderly,honest,peaceful,andcredible
elections.
Section5.Nopardon,amnesty,parole,or
suspensionofsentenceforviolationof
electionlaws,rules,andregulationsshall
begrantedbythePresidentwithoutthe
favorablerecommendationofthe
Commission.
Section6.Afreeandopenpartysystem
shallbeallowedtoevolveaccordingtothe
freechoiceofthepeople,subjecttothe
provisionsofthisArticle.
Section7.Novotescastinfavorofa
politicalparty,organization,orcoalition
shallbevalid,exceptforthoseregistered
underthepartylistsystemasprovidedin
thisConstitution.
Section8.Politicalparties,ororganizations
orcoalitionsregisteredunderthepartylist
system,shallnotberepresentedinthe
voters'registrationboards,boardsof
electioninspectors,boardsofcanvassers,or
othersimilarbodies.However,theyshall
beentitledtoappointpollwatchersin
accordancewithlaw.
Section9.Unlessotherwisefixedbythe
Commissioninspecialcases,theelection
periodshallcommenceninetydaysbefore
thedayofelectionandshallendthirtydays
thereafter.

Section10.Bonafidecandidatesforany
publicofficeshallbefreefromanyformof
harassmentanddiscrimination.
Section11.Fundscertifiedbythe
Commissionasnecessarytodefraythe
expensesforholdingregularandspecial
elections,plebiscites,initiatives,referenda,
andrecalls,shallbeprovidedintheregular
orspecialappropriationsand,once
approved,shallbereleasedautomatically
uponcertificationbytheChairmanofthe
Commission.
ARTICLEIX
D.THECOMMISSIONONAUDIT
Section1.(1)ThereshallbeaCommission
onAuditcomposedofaChairmanandtwo
Commissioners,whoshallbenaturalborn
citizensofthePhilippinesand,atthetime
oftheirappointment,atleastthirtyfive
yearsofage,CertifiedPublicAccountants
withnotlessthantenyearsofauditing
experience,ormembersofthePhilippine
Barwhohavebeenengagedinthepractice
oflawforatleasttenyears,andmustnot
havebeencandidatesforanyelective
positionintheelectionsimmediately
precedingtheirappointment.Atnotime
shallallMembersoftheCommission
belongtothesameprofession.
(2)TheChairmanandtheCommissioners
shallbeappointedbythePresidentwiththe
consentoftheCommissionon
Appointmentsforatermofsevenyears
withoutreappointment.Ofthosefirst
appointed,theChairmanshallholdoffice
forsevenyears,oneCommissionerforfive
years,andtheotherCommissionerforthree
years,withoutreappointment.Appointment
toanyvacancyshallbeonlyforthe
unexpiredportionofthetermofthe
predecessor.InnocaseshallanyMember
beappointedordesignatedinatemporary
oractingcapacity.
Section2.(1)TheCommissiononAudit
shallhavethepower,authority,anddutyto
examine,audit,andsettleallaccounts
pertainingtotherevenueandreceiptsof,
andexpendituresorusesoffundsand
property,ownedorheldintrustby,or
pertainingto,theGovernment,oranyofits
subdivisions,agencies,orinstrumentalities,
includinggovernmentownedorcontrolled
corporationswithoriginalcharters,andon
apostauditbasis:(a)constitutional
bodies,commissionsandofficesthathave
beengrantedfiscalautonomyunderthis
Constitution;(b)autonomousstatecolleges
anduniversities;(c)othergovernment
ownedorcontrolledcorporationsandtheir
subsidiaries;and(d)suchnon
governmentalentitiesreceivingsubsidyor
equity,directlyorindirectly,fromor

throughtheGovernment,whichare
requiredbylaworthegrantinginstitution
tosubmittosuchauditasaconditionof
subsidyorequity.However,wherethe
internalcontrolsystemoftheaudited
agenciesisinadequate,theCommission
mayadoptsuchmeasures,including
temporaryorspecialpreaudit,asare
necessaryandappropriatetocorrectthe
deficiencies.Itshallkeepthegeneral
accountsoftheGovernmentand,forsuch
periodasmaybeprovidedbylaw,preserve
thevouchersandothersupportingpapers
pertainingthereto.
(2)TheCommissionshallhaveexclusive
authority,subjecttothelimitationsinthis
Article,todefinethescopeofitsauditand
examination,establishthetechniquesand
methodsrequiredtherefor,andpromulgate
accountingandauditingrulesand
regulations,includingthoseforthe
preventionanddisallowanceofirregular,
unnecessary,excessive,extravagant,or
unconscionableexpendituresorusesof
governmentfundsandproperties.
Section3.Nolawshallbepassed
exemptinganyentityoftheGovernmentor
itssubsidiariesinanyguisewhatever,or
anyinvestmentofpublicfunds,fromthe
jurisdictionoftheCommissiononAudit.
Section4.TheCommissionshallsubmitto
thePresidentandtheCongress,withinthe
timefixedbylaw,anannualreport
coveringthefinancialconditionand
operationoftheGovernment,its
subdivisions,agencies,and
instrumentalities,includinggovernment
ownedorcontrolledcorporations,andnon
governmentalentitiessubjecttoitsaudit,
andrecommendmeasuresnecessaryto
improvetheireffectivenessandefficiency.
Itshallsubmitsuchotherreportsasmaybe
requiredbylaw.
ARTICLEXLOCALGOVERNMENT
GENERALPROVISIONS
Section1.Theterritorialandpolitical
subdivisionsoftheRepublicofthe
Philippinesaretheprovinces,cities,
municipalities,andbarangays.Thereshall
beautonomousregionsinMuslim
MindanaoandtheCordillerasashereinafter
provided.
Section2.Theterritorialandpolitical
subdivisionsshallenjoylocalautonomy.
Section3.TheCongressshallenactalocal
governmentcodewhichshallprovidefora
moreresponsiveandaccountablelocal
governmentstructureinstitutedthrougha
systemofdecentralizationwitheffective

mechanismsofrecall,initiative,and
referendum,allocateamongthedifferent
localgovernmentunitstheirpowers,
responsibilities,andresources,andprovide
forthequalifications,election,appointment
andremoval,term,salaries,powersand
functionsanddutiesoflocalofficials,and
allothermattersrelatingtotheorganization
andoperationofthelocalunits.
Section4.ThePresidentofthePhilippines
shallexercisegeneralsupervisionover
localgovernments.Provinceswithrespect
tocomponentcitiesandmunicipalities,and
citiesandmunicipalitieswithrespectto
componentbarangays,shallensurethatthe
actsoftheircomponentunitsarewithinthe
scopeoftheirprescribedpowersand
functions.
Section5.Eachlocalgovernmentunitshall
havethepowertocreateitsownsourcesof
revenuesandtolevytaxes,feesand
chargessubjecttosuchguidelinesand
limitationsastheCongressmayprovide,
consistentwiththebasicpolicyoflocal
autonomy.Suchtaxes,fees,andcharges
shallaccrueexclusivelytothelocal
governments.
Section6.Localgovernmentunitsshall
haveajustshare,asdeterminedbylaw,in
thenationaltaxeswhichshallbe
automaticallyreleasedtothem.
Section7.Localgovernmentsshallbe
entitledtoanequitableshareinthe
proceedsoftheutilizationanddevelopment
ofthenationalwealthwithintheir
respectiveareas,inthemannerprovidedby
law,includingsharingthesamewiththe
inhabitantsbywayofdirectbenefits.
Section8.Thetermofofficeofelective
localofficials,exceptbarangayofficials,
whichshallbedeterminedbylaw,shallbe
threeyearsandnosuchofficialshallserve
formorethanthreeconsecutiveterms.
Voluntaryrenunciationoftheofficeforany
lengthoftimeshallnotbeconsideredasan
interruptioninthecontinuityofhisservice
forthefulltermforwhichhewaselected.
Section9.Legislativebodiesoflocal
governmentsshallhavesectoral
representationasmaybeprescribedbylaw.
Section10.Noprovince,city,municipality,
orbarangaymaybecreated,divided,
merged,abolished,oritsboundary
substantiallyaltered,exceptinaccordance
withthecriteriaestablishedinthelocal
governmentcodeandsubjecttoapproval
byamajorityofthevotescastina
plebisciteinthepoliticalunitsdirectly
affected.

Section11.TheCongressmay,bylaw,
createspecialmetropolitanpolitical
subdivisions,subjecttoaplebisciteasset
forthinSection10hereof.Thecomponent
citiesandmunicipalitiesshallretaintheir
basicautonomyandshallbeentitledto
theirownlocalexecutiveandlegislative
assemblies.Thejurisdictionofthe
metropolitanauthoritythatwilltherebybe
createdshallbelimitedtobasicservices
requiringcoordination.
Section12.Citiesthatarehighlyurbanized,
asdeterminedbylaw,andcomponentcities
whosechartersprohibittheirvotersfrom
votingforprovincialelectiveofficials,shall
beindependentoftheprovince.Thevoters
ofcomponentcitieswithinaprovince,
whosecharterscontainnosuchprohibition,
shallnotbedeprivedoftheirrighttovote
forelectiveprovincialofficials.
Section13.Localgovernmentunitsmay
groupthemselves,consolidateor
coordinatetheirefforts,services,and
resourcesforpurposescommonly
beneficialtotheminaccordancewithlaw.
Section14.ThePresidentshallprovidefor
regionaldevelopmentcouncilsorother
similarbodiescomposedoflocal
governmentofficials,regionalheadsof
departmentsandothergovernmentoffices,
andrepresentativesfromnongovernmental
organizationswithintheregionsfor
purposesofadministrativedecentralization
tostrengthentheautonomyoftheunits
thereinandtoacceleratetheeconomicand
socialgrowthanddevelopmentoftheunits
intheregion.
ARTICLEXLOCALGOVERNMENT
GENERALPROVISIONS
Section1.Theterritorialandpolitical
subdivisionsoftheRepublicofthe
Philippinesaretheprovinces,cities,
municipalities,andbarangays.Thereshall
beautonomousregionsinMuslim
MindanaoandtheCordillerasashereinafter
provided.
Section2.Theterritorialandpolitical
subdivisionsshallenjoylocalautonomy.
Section3.TheCongressshallenactalocal
governmentcodewhichshallprovidefora
moreresponsiveandaccountablelocal
governmentstructureinstitutedthrougha
systemofdecentralizationwitheffective
mechanismsofrecall,initiative,and
referendum,allocateamongthedifferent
localgovernmentunitstheirpowers,
responsibilities,andresources,andprovide
forthequalifications,election,appointment
andremoval,term,salaries,powersand

functionsanddutiesoflocalofficials,and
allothermattersrelatingtotheorganization
andoperationofthelocalunits.
Section4.ThePresidentofthePhilippines
shallexercisegeneralsupervisionover
localgovernments.Provinceswithrespect
tocomponentcitiesandmunicipalities,and
citiesandmunicipalitieswithrespectto
componentbarangays,shallensurethatthe
actsoftheircomponentunitsarewithinthe
scopeoftheirprescribedpowersand
functions.
Section5.Eachlocalgovernmentunitshall
havethepowertocreateitsownsourcesof
revenuesandtolevytaxes,feesand
chargessubjecttosuchguidelinesand
limitationsasthe
Congressmayprovide,consistentwiththe
basicpolicyoflocalautonomy.Suchtaxes,
fees,andchargesshallaccrueexclusively
tothelocalgovernments.
Section6.Localgovernmentunitsshall
haveajustshare,asdeterminedbylaw,in
thenationaltaxeswhichshallbe
automaticallyreleasedtothem.
Section7.Localgovernmentsshallbe
entitledtoanequitableshareinthe
proceedsoftheutilizationanddevelopment
ofthenationalwealthwithintheir
respectiveareas,inthemannerprovidedby
law,includingsharingthesamewiththe
inhabitantsbywayofdirectbenefits.
Section8.Thetermofofficeofelective
localofficials,exceptbarangayofficials,
whichshallbedeterminedbylaw,shallbe
threeyearsandnosuchofficialshallserve
formorethanthreeconsecutiveterms.
Voluntaryrenunciationoftheofficeforany
lengthoftimeshallnotbeconsideredasan
interruptioninthecontinuityofhisservice
forthefulltermforwhichhewaselected.
Section9.Legislativebodiesoflocal
governmentsshallhavesectoral
representationasmaybeprescribedbylaw.
Section10.Noprovince,city,municipality,
orbarangaymaybecreated,divided,
merged,abolished,oritsboundary
substantiallyaltered,exceptinaccordance
withthecriteriaestablishedinthelocal
governmentcodeandsubjecttoapproval
byamajorityofthevotescastina
plebisciteinthepoliticalunitsdirectly
affected.
Section11.TheCongressmay,bylaw,
createspecialmetropolitanpolitical
subdivisions,subjecttoaplebisciteasset
forthinSection10hereof.Thecomponent

citiesandmunicipalitiesshallretaintheir
basicautonomyandshallbeentitledto
theirownlocalexecutiveandlegislative
assemblies.Thejurisdictionofthe
metropolitanauthoritythatwilltherebybe
createdshallbelimitedtobasicservices
requiringcoordination.
Section12.Citiesthatarehighlyurbanized,
asdeterminedbylaw,andcomponentcities
whosechartersprohibittheirvotersfrom
votingforprovincialelectiveofficials,shall
beindependentoftheprovince.Thevoters
ofcomponentcitieswithinaprovince,
whosecharterscontainnosuchprohibition,
shallnotbedeprivedoftheirrighttovote
forelectiveprovincialofficials.
Section13.Localgovernmentunitsmay
groupthemselves,consolidateor
coordinatetheirefforts,services,and
resourcesforpurposescommonly
beneficialtotheminaccordancewithlaw.
Section14.ThePresidentshallprovidefor
regionaldevelopmentcouncilsorother
similarbodiescomposedoflocal
governmentofficials,regionalheadsof
departmentsandothergovernmentoffices,
andrepresentativesfromnongovernmental
organizationswithintheregionsfor
purposesofadministrativedecentralization
tostrengthentheautonomyoftheunits
thereinandtoacceleratetheeconomicand
socialgrowthanddevelopmentoftheunits
intheregion.
ARTICLEX
LOCALGOVERNMENT
AUTONOMOUSREGIONS
Section15.Thereshallbecreated
autonomousregionsinMuslimMindanao
andintheCordillerasconsistingof
provinces,cities,municipalities,and
geographicalareassharingcommonand
distinctivehistoricalandculturalheritage,
economicandsocialstructures,and
otherrelevantcharacteristicswithinthe
frameworkofthisConstitutionandthe
nationalsovereigntyaswellasterritorial
integrityoftheRepublicofthePhilippines.
Section16.ThePresidentshallexercise
generalsupervisionoverautonomous
regionstoensurethatlawsarefaithfully
executed.
Section17.Allpowers,functions,and
responsibilitiesnotgrantedbythis
Constitutionorbylawtotheautonomous

regionsshallbevestedintheNational
Government.
Section18.TheCongressshallenactan
organicactforeachautonomousregion
withtheassistanceandparticipationofthe
regionalconsultativecommission
composedofrepresentativesappointedby
thePresidentfromalistofnomineesfrom
multisectoralbodies.Theorganicactshall
definethebasicstructureofgovernmentfor
theregionconsistingoftheexecutive
departmentandlegislativeassembly,both
ofwhichshallbeelectiveand
representativeoftheconstituentpolitical
units.Theorganicactsshalllikewise
provideforspecialcourtswithpersonal,
family,andpropertylawjurisdiction
consistentwiththeprovisionsofthis
Constitutionandnationallaws.
Thecreationoftheautonomousregion
shallbeeffectivewhenapprovedby
majorityofthevotescastbytheconstituent
unitsinaplebiscitecalledforthepurpose,
providedthatonlyprovinces,cities,and
geographicareasvotingfavorablyinsuch
plebisciteshallbeincludedinthe
autonomousregion.
Section19.ThefirstCongresselected
underthisConstitutionshall,within
eighteenmonthsfromthetimeof
organizationofbothHouses,passthe
organicactsfortheautonomousregionsin
MuslimMindanaoandtheCordilleras.
Section20.Withinitsterritorialjurisdiction
andsubjecttotheprovisionsofthis
Constitutionandnationallaws,theorganic
actofautonomousregionsshallprovidefor
legislativepowersover:
(1)Administrativeorganization;
(2)Creationofsourcesofrevenues;
(3)Ancestraldomainandnaturalresources;
(4)Personal,family,andpropertyrelations;
(5)Regionalurbanandruralplanning
development;
(6)Economic,social,andtourism
development;
(7)Educationalpolicies;
(8)Preservationanddevelopmentofthe
culturalheritage;and
(9)Suchothermattersasmaybe
authorizedbylawforthepromotionofthe
generalwelfareofthepeopleoftheregion.
Section21.Thepreservationofpeaceand
orderwithintheregionsshallbethe
responsibilityofthelocalpoliceagencies
whichshallbeorganized,maintained,
supervised,andutilizedinaccordancewith
applicablelaws.Thedefenseandsecurity
oftheregionsshallbetheresponsibilityof
theNationalGovernment.
ARTICLEXIACCOUNTABILITYOF
PUBLICOFFICERS

Section1.Publicofficeisapublictrust.
Publicofficersandemployeesmust,atall
times,beaccountabletothepeople,serve
themwithutmostresponsibility,integrity,
loyalty,andefficiency;actwithpatriotism
andjustice,andleadmodestlives.
Section2.ThePresident,theVice
President,theMembersoftheSupreme
Court,theMembersoftheConstitutional
Commissions,andtheOmbudsmanmaybe
removedfromofficeonimpeachmentfor,
andconvictionof,culpableviolationofthe
Constitution,treason,
bribery,graftandcorruption,otherhigh
crimes,orbetrayalofpublictrust.Allother
publicofficersandemployeesmaybe
removedfromofficeasprovidedbylaw,
butnotbyimpeachment.
Section3.(1)TheHouseof
Representativesshallhavetheexclusive
powertoinitiateallcasesofimpeachment.
(2)Averifiedcomplaintforimpeachment
maybefiledbyanyMemberoftheHouse
ofRepresentativesorbyanycitizenupona
resolutionorendorsementbyanyMember
thereof,whichshallbeincludedinthe
OrderofBusinesswithintensessiondays,
andreferredtotheproperCommittee
withinthreesessiondaysthereafter.The
Committee,afterhearing,andbyamajority
voteofallitsMembers,shallsubmitits
reporttotheHousewithinsixtysession
daysfromsuchreferral,togetherwiththe
correspondingresolution.Theresolution
shallbecalendaredforconsiderationbythe
Housewithintensessiondaysfromreceipt
thereof.
(3)Avoteofatleastonethirdofallthe
MembersoftheHouseshallbenecessary
eithertoaffirmafavorableresolutionwith
theArticlesofImpeachmentofthe
Committee,oroverrideitscontrary
resolution.ThevoteofeachMembershall
berecorded.
(4)Incasetheverifiedcomplaintor
resolutionofimpeachmentisfiledbyat
leastonethirdofalltheMembersofthe
House,thesameshallconstitutethe
ArticlesofImpeachment,andtrialbythe
Senateshallforthwithproceed.
(5)Noimpeachmentproceedingsshallbe
initiatedagainstthesameofficialmorethan
oncewithinaperiodofoneyear.
(6)TheSenateshallhavethesolepowerto
tryanddecideallcasesofimpeachment.
Whensittingforthatpurpose,theSenators
shallbeonoathoraffirmation.Whenthe
PresidentofthePhilippinesisontrial,the
ChiefJusticeoftheSupremeCourtshall

preside,butshallnotvote.Nopersonshall
beconvictedwithouttheconcurrenceof
twothirdsofalltheMembersofthe
Senate.
(7)Judgmentincasesofimpeachmentshall
notextendfurtherthanremovalfromoffice
anddisqualificationtoholdanyoffice
undertheRepublicofthePhilippines,but
thepartyconvictedshallneverthelessbe
liableandsubjecttoprosecution,trial,and
punishment,accordingtolaw.
(8)TheCongressshallpromulgateitsrules
onimpeachmenttoeffectivelycarryoutthe
purposeofthissection.
Section4.Thepresentantigraftcourt
knownastheSandiganbayanshallcontinue
tofunctionandexerciseitsjurisdictionas
noworhereaftermaybeprovidedbylaw.
Section5.Thereisherebycreatedthe
independentOfficeoftheOmbudsman,
composedoftheOmbudsmantobeknown
asTanodbayan,oneoverallDeputyandat
leastoneDeputyeachforLuzon,Visayas,
andMindanao.AseparateDeputyforthe
militaryestablishmentmaylikewisebe
appointed.
Section6.Theofficialsandemployeesof
theOfficeoftheOmbudsman,otherthan
theDeputies,shallbeappointedbythe
Ombudsman,accordingtotheCivilService
Law.
Section7.TheexistingTanodbayanshall
hereafterbeknownastheOfficeofthe
SpecialProsecutor.Itshallcontinueto
functionandexerciseitspowersasnowor
hereaftermaybeprovidedbylaw,except
thoseconferredontheOfficeofthe
Ombudsmancreatedunderthis
Constitution.
Section8.TheOmbudsmanandhis
Deputiesshallbenaturalborncitizensof
thePhilippines,andatthetimeoftheir
appointment,atleastfortyyearsold,of
recognizedprobityandindependence,and
membersofthePhilippineBar,andmust
nothavebeencandidatesforanyelective
officeintheimmediatelypreceding
election.TheOmbudsmanmusthave,for
tenyearsormore,beenajudgeorengaged
inthepracticeoflawinthePhilippines.
Duringtheirtenure,theyshallbesubjectto
thesamedisqualificationsandprohibitions
asprovidedforinSection2ofArticle1X
AofthisConstitution.
Section9.TheOmbudsmanandhis
Deputiesshallbeappointedbythe
Presidentfromalistofatleastsix

nomineespreparedbytheJudicialandBar
Council,andfromalistofthreenominees
foreveryvacancythereafter.Such
appointmentsshallrequirenoconfirmation.
Allvacanciesshallbefilledwithinthree
monthsaftertheyoccur.
Section10.TheOmbudsmanandhis
DeputiesshallhavetherankofChairman
andMembers,respectively,ofthe
ConstitutionalCommissions,andtheyshall
receivethesamesalarywhichshallnotbe
decreasedduringtheirtermofoffice.
Section11.TheOmbudsmanandhis
Deputiesshallserveforatermofseven
yearswithoutreappointment.Theyshall
notbequalifiedtorunforanyofficeinthe
electionimmediatelysucceedingtheir
cessationfromoffice.
Section12.TheOmbudsmanandhis
Deputies,asprotectorsofthepeople,shall
actpromptlyoncomplaintsfiledinany
formormanneragainstpublicofficialsor
employeesoftheGovernment,orany
subdivision,agencyorinstrumentality
thereof,includinggovernmentownedor
controlledcorporations,andshall,in
appropriatecases,notifythecomplainants
oftheactiontakenandtheresultthereof.
Section13.TheOfficeoftheOmbudsman
shallhavethefollowingpowers,functions,
andduties:
(1)Investigateonitsown,oroncomplaint
byanyperson,anyactoromissionofany
publicofficial,employee,officeoragency,
whensuchactoromissionappearstobe
illegal,unjust,improper,orinefficient.
(2)Direct,uponcomplaintoratitsown
instance,anypublicofficialoremployeeof
theGovernment,oranysubdivision,
agencyorinstrumentalitythereof,aswell
asofanygovernmentownedorcontrolled
corporationwithoriginalcharter,to
performandexpediteanyactorduty
requiredbylaw,ortostop,prevent,and
correctanyabuseorimproprietyinthe
performanceofduties.
(3)Directtheofficerconcernedtotake
appropriateactionagainstapublicofficial
oremployeeatfault,andrecommendhis
removal,suspension,demotion,fine,
censure,orprosecution,andensure
compliancetherewith.
(4)Directtheofficerconcerned,inany
appropriatecase,andsubjecttosuch
limitationsasmaybeprovidedbylaw,to
furnishitwithcopiesofdocumentsrelating
tocontractsortransactionsenteredintoby
hisofficeinvolvingthedisbursementoruse
ofpublicfundsorproperties,andreport

anyirregularitytotheCommissionon
Auditforappropriateaction.
(5)Requestanygovernmentagencyfor
assistanceandinformationnecessaryinthe
dischargeofitsresponsibilities,andto
examine,ifnecessary,pertinentrecordsand
documents.
(6)Publicizematterscoveredbyits
investigationwhencircumstancesso
warrantandwithdueprudence.
(7)Determinethecausesofinefficiency,
redtape,mismanagement,fraud,and
corruptionintheGovernmentandmake
recommendationsfortheireliminationand
theobservanceofhighstandardsofethics
andefficiency.
(8)Promulgateitsrulesofprocedureand
exercisesuchotherpowersorperformsuch
functionsordutiesasmaybeprovidedby
law.
Section14.TheOfficeoftheOmbudsman
shallenjoyfiscalautonomy.Itsapproved
annualappropriationsshallbe
automaticallyandregularlyreleased.
Section15.TherightoftheStatetorecover
propertiesunlawfullyacquiredbypublic
officialsoremployees,fromthemorfrom
theirnomineesortransferees,shallnotbe
barredbyprescription,laches,orestoppel.
Section16.Noloan,guaranty,orother
formoffinancialaccommodationforany
businesspurposemaybegranted,directly
orindirectly,byanygovernmentownedor
controlledbankorfinancialinstitutionto
thePresident,theVicePresident,the
MembersoftheCabinet,theCongress,the
SupremeCourt,andtheConstitutional
Commissions,theOmbudsman,ortoany
firmorentityinwhichtheyhave
controllinginterest,duringtheirtenure.
Section17.Apublicofficeroremployee
shall,uponassumptionofofficeandas
oftenthereafterasmayberequiredbylaw,
submitadeclarationunderoathofhis
assets,liabilities,andnetworth.Inthecase
ofthePresident,theVicePresident,the
MembersoftheCabinet,theCongress,the
SupremeCourt,theConstitutional
Commissionsandotherconstitutional
offices,andofficersofthearmedforces
withgeneralorflagrank,thedeclaration
shallbedisclosedtothepublicinthe
mannerprovidedbylaw.
Section18.Publicofficersandemployees
owetheStateandthisConstitution
allegianceatalltimesandanypublic
officeroremployeewhoseekstochange

hiscitizenshiporacquirethestatusofan
immigrantofanothercountryduringhis
tenureshallbedealtwithbylaw.
ARTICLEXII
NATIONALECONOMYAND
PATRIMONY
Section1.Thegoalsofthenational
economyareamoreequitabledistribution
ofopportunities,income,andwealth;a
sustainedincreaseintheamountofgoods
andservicesproducedbythenationforthe
benefitofthepeople;andanexpanding
productivityasthekeytoraisingthe
qualityoflifeforall,especiallytheunder
privileged.
TheStateshallpromoteindustrialization
andfullemploymentbasedonsound
agriculturaldevelopmentandagrarian
reform,throughindustriesthatmakefull
andefficientuseofhumanandnatural
resources,andwhicharecompetitivein
bothdomesticandforeignmarkets.
However,theStateshallprotectFilipino
enterprisesagainstunfairforeign
competitionandtradepractices.
Inthepursuitofthesegoals,allsectorsof
theeconomyandallregionsofthecountry
shallbegivenoptimumopportunityto
develop.Privateenterprises,including
corporations,cooperatives,andsimilar
collectiveorganizations,shallbe
encouragedtobroadenthebaseoftheir
ownership.
Section2.Alllandsofthepublicdomain,
waters,minerals,coal,petroleum,andother
mineraloils,allforcesofpotentialenergy,
fisheries,forestsortimber,wildlife,flora
andfauna,andothernaturalresourcesare
ownedbytheState.Withtheexceptionof
agriculturallands,allothernatural
resourcesshallnotbealienated.The
exploration,development,andutilizationof
naturalresourcesshallbeunderthefull
controlandsupervisionoftheState.The
Statemaydirectlyundertakesuch
activities,oritmayenterintoco
production,joint
venture,orproductionsharingagreements
withFilipinocitizens,orcorporationsor
associationsatleastsixtypercentumof
whosecapitalisownedbysuchcitizens.
Suchagreementsmaybeforaperiodnot
exceedingtwentyfiveyears,renewablefor
notmorethantwentyfiveyears,andunder
suchtermsandconditionsasmaybe
providedbylaw.Incasesofwaterrights
forirrigation,watersupplyfisheries,or
industrialusesotherthanthedevelopment
ofwaterpower,beneficialusemaybethe
measureandlimitofthegrant.

TheStateshallprotectthenation'smarine
wealthinitsarchipelagicwaters,territorial
sea,andexclusiveeconomiczone,and
reserveitsuseandenjoymentexclusively
toFilipinocitizens.
TheCongressmay,bylaw,allowsmall
scaleutilizationofnaturalresourcesby
Filipinocitizens,aswellascooperativefish
farming,withprioritytosubsistence
fishermenandfishworkersinrivers,
lakes,bays,andlagoons.
ThePresidentmayenterintoagreements
withforeignownedcorporationsinvolving
eithertechnicalorfinancialassistancefor
largescaleexploration,development,and
utilizationofminerals,petroleum,and
othermineraloilsaccordingtothegeneral
termsandconditionsprovidedbylaw,
basedonrealcontributionstotheeconomic
growthandgeneralwelfareofthecountry.
Insuchagreements,theStateshallpromote
thedevelopmentanduseoflocalscientific
andtechnicalresources.
ThePresidentshallnotifytheCongressof
everycontractenteredintoinaccordance
withthisprovision,withinthirtydaysfrom
itsexecution.
Section3.Landsofthepublicdomainare
classifiedintoagricultural,forestortimber,
minerallandsandnationalparks.
Agriculturallandsofthepublicdomain
maybefurtherclassifiedbylawaccording
totheusestowhichtheymaybedevoted.
Alienablelandsofthepublicdomainshall
belimitedtoagriculturallands.Private
corporationsorassociationsmaynothold
suchalienablelandsofthepublicdomain
exceptbylease,foraperiodnotexceeding
twentyfiveyears,renewablefornotmore
thantwentyfiveyears,andnottoexceed
onethousandhectaresinarea.Citizensof
thePhilippinesmayleasenotmorethan
fivehundredhectares,oracquirenotmore
thantwelvehectaresthereof,bypurchase,
homestead,orgrant.
Takingintoaccounttherequirementsof
conservation,ecology,anddevelopment,
andsubjecttotherequirementsofagrarian
reform,theCongressshalldetermine,by
law,thesizeoflandsofthepublicdomain
whichmaybeacquired,developed,held,or
leasedandtheconditionstherefor.
Section4.TheCongressshall,assoonas
possible,determine,bylaw,thespecific
limitsofforestlandsandnationalparks,
markingclearlytheirboundariesonthe
ground.Thereafter,suchforestlandsand
nationalparksshallbeconservedandmay
notbeincreasednordiminished,exceptby
law.TheCongressshallprovideforsuch
periodasitmaydetermine,measuresto

prohibitlogginginendangeredforestsand
watershedareas.
Section5.TheState,subjecttothe
provisionsofthisConstitutionandnational
developmentpoliciesandprograms,shall
protecttherightsofindigenouscultural
communitiestotheirancestrallandsto
ensuretheireconomic,social,andcultural
wellbeing.
TheCongressmayprovideforthe
applicabilityofcustomarylawsgoverning
propertyrightsorrelationsindetermining
theownershipandextentofancestral
domain.
Section6.Theuseofpropertybearsa
socialfunction,andalleconomicagents
shallcontributetothecommongood.
Individualsandprivategroups,including
corporations,cooperatives,andsimilar
collectiveorganizations,shallhavethe
righttoown,establish,and
operateeconomicenterprises,subjecttothe
dutyoftheStatetopromotedistributive
justiceandtointervenewhenthecommon
goodsodemands.
Section7.Saveincasesofhereditary
succession,noprivatelandsshallbe
transferredorconveyedexceptto
individuals,corporations,orassociations
qualifiedtoacquireorholdlandsofthe
publicdomain.
Section8.Notwithstandingtheprovisions
ofSection7ofthisArticle,anaturalborn
citizenofthePhilippineswhohaslosthis
Philippinecitizenshipmaybeatransferee
ofprivatelands,subjecttolimitations
providedbylaw.
Section9.TheCongressmayestablishan
independenteconomicandplanningagency
headedbythePresident,whichshall,after
consultationswiththeappropriatepublic
agencies,variousprivatesectors,andlocal
governmentunits,recommendtoCongress,
andimplementcontinuingintegratedand
coordinatedprogramsandpoliciesfor
nationaldevelopment.
UntiltheCongressprovidesotherwise,the
NationalEconomicandDevelopment
Authorityshallfunctionastheindependent
planningagencyofthegovernment.
Section10.TheCongressshall,upon
recommendationoftheeconomicand
planningagency,whenthenationalinterest
dictates,reservetocitizensofthe
Philippinesortocorporationsor
associationsatleastsixtypercentumof
whosecapitalisownedbysuchcitizens,or

suchhigherpercentageasCongressmay
prescribe,certainareasofinvestments.The
Congressshallenactmeasuresthatwill
encouragetheformationandoperationof
enterpriseswhosecapitaliswhollyowned
byFilipinos.
Inthegrantofrights,privileges,and
concessionscoveringthenationaleconomy
andpatrimony,theStateshallgive
preferencetoqualifiedFilipinos.
TheStateshallregulateandexercise
authorityoverforeigninvestmentswithin
itsnationaljurisdictionandinaccordance
withitsnationalgoalsandpriorities.
Section11.Nofranchise,certificate,orany
otherformofauthorizationforthe
operationofapublicutilityshallbegranted
excepttocitizensofthePhilippinesorto
corporationsorassociationsorganized
underthelawsofthePhilippines,atleast
sixtypercentumofwhosecapitalisowned
bysuchcitizens;norshallsuchfranchise,
certificate,orauthorizationbeexclusivein
characterorforalongerperiodthanfifty
years.Neithershallanysuchfranchiseor
rightbegrantedexceptunderthecondition
thatitshallbesubjecttoamendment,
alteration,orrepealbytheCongresswhen
thecommongoodsorequires.TheState
shallencourageequityparticipationin
publicutilitiesbythegeneralpublic.The
participationofforeigninvestorsinthe
governingbodyofanypublicutility
enterpriseshallbelimitedtotheir
proportionateshareinitscapital,andallthe
executiveandmanagingofficersofsuch
corporationorassociationmustbecitizens
ofthePhilippines.
Section12.TheStateshallpromotethe
preferentialuseofFilipinolabor,domestic
materialsandlocallyproducedgoods,and
adoptmeasuresthathelpmakethem
competitive.
Section13.TheStateshallpursueatrade
policythatservesthegeneralwelfareand
utilizesallformsandarrangementsof
exchangeonthebasisofequalityand
reciprocity.
Section14.Thesustaineddevelopmentofa
reservoirofnationaltalentsconsistingof
Filipinoscientists,entrepreneurs,
professionals,managers,highlevel
technicalmanpowerandskilledworkers
andcraftsmeninallfieldsshallbe
promotedbytheState.TheStateshall
encourageappropriatetechnologyand
regulateitstransferforthenationalbenefit.
Thepracticeofallprofessionsinthe
PhilippinesshallbelimitedtoFilipino
citizens,saveincasesprescribedbylaw.

Section15.TheCongressshallcreatean
agencytopromotetheviabilityandgrowth
ofcooperativesasinstrumentsforsocial
justiceandeconomicdevelopment.
Section16.TheCongressshallnot,except
bygenerallaw,providefortheformation,
organization,orregulationofprivate
corporations.Governmentownedor
controlledcorporationsmaybecreatedor
establishedbyspecialchartersinthe
interestofthecommongoodandsubjectto
thetestofeconomicviability.
Section17.Intimesofnationalemergency,
whenthepublicinterestsorequires,the
Statemay,duringtheemergencyandunder
reasonabletermsprescribedbyit,
temporarilytakeoverordirectthe
operationofanyprivatelyownedpublic
utilityorbusinessaffectedwithpublic
interest.
Section18.TheStatemay,intheinterestof
nationalwelfareordefense,establishand
operatevitalindustriesand,uponpayment
ofjustcompensation,transfertopublic
ownershiputilitiesandotherprivate
enterprisestobeoperatedbythe
Government.

Section22.Actswhichcircumventor
negateanyoftheprovisionsofthisArticle
shallbeconsideredinimicaltothenational
interestandsubjecttocriminalandcivil
sanctions,asmaybeprovidedbylaw.
ARTICLEXIII
SOCIALJUSTICEANDHUMAN
RIGHTS
Section1.TheCongressshallgivehighest
prioritytotheenactmentofmeasuresthat
protectandenhancetherightofallthe
peopletohumandignity,reducesocial,
economic,andpoliticalinequalities,and
removeculturalinequitiesbyequitably
diffusingwealthandpoliticalpowerforthe
commongood.
Tothisend,theStateshallregulatethe
acquisition,ownership,use,anddisposition
ofpropertyanditsincrements.
Section2.Thepromotionofsocialjustice
shallincludethecommitmenttocreate
economicopportunitiesbasedonfreedom
ofinitiativeandselfreliance.

Section3.TheStateshallaffordfull
protectiontolabor,localandoverseas,
organizedandunorganized,andpromote
fullemploymentandequalityof
employmentopportunitiesforall.

Section20.TheCongressshallestablishan
independentcentralmonetaryauthority,the
membersofwhosegoverningboardmust
benaturalbornFilipinocitizens,ofknown
probity,integrity,andpatriotism,the
majorityofwhomshallcomefromthe
privatesector.Theyshallalsobesubjectto
suchotherqualificationsanddisabilitiesas
maybeprescribedbylaw.Theauthority
shallprovidepolicydirectionintheareas
ofmoney,banking,andcredit.Itshallhave
supervisionovertheoperationsofbanks
andexercisesuchregulatorypowersas
maybeprovidedbylawovertheoperations
offinancecompaniesandotherinstitutions
performingsimilarfunctions.

Itshallguaranteetherightsofallworkers
toselforganization,collectivebargaining
andnegotiations,andpeacefulconcerted
activities,includingtherighttostrikein
accordancewithlaw.Theyshallbeentitled
tosecurityoftenure,humaneconditionsof
work,andalivingwage.Theyshallalso
participateinpolicyanddecisionmaking
processesaffectingtheirrightsandbenefits
asmaybeprovidedbylaw.

Section21.Foreignloansmayonlybe
incurredinaccordancewithlawandthe
regulationofthemonetaryauthority.
Informationonforeignloansobtainedor
guaranteedbytheGovernmentshallbe
madeavailabletothepublic.

Section5.TheStateshallrecognizethe
rightoffarmers,farmworkers,and
landowners,aswellascooperatives,and
otherindependentfarmers'organizationsto
participateintheplanning,organization,
andmanagementoftheprogram,andshall
providesupporttoagriculturethrough
appropriatetechnologyandresearch,and
adequatefinancial,production,marketing,
andothersupportservices.

ARTICLEXIIILABOR

Section19.TheStateshallregulateor
prohibitmonopolieswhenthepublic
interestsorequires.Nocombinationsin
restraintoftradeorunfaircompetitionshall
beallowed.

UntiltheCongressotherwiseprovides,the
CentralBankofthePhilippinesoperating
underexistinglaws,shallfunctionasthe
centralmonetaryauthority.

Section4.TheStateshall,bylaw,
undertakeanagrarianreformprogram
foundedontherightoffarmersandregular
farmworkerswhoarelandless,toown
directlyorcollectivelythelandstheytillor,
inthecaseofotherfarmworkers,toreceive
ajustshareofthefruitsthereof.Tothis
end,theStateshallencourageand
undertakethejustdistributionofall
agriculturallands,subjecttosuchpriorities
andreasonableretentionlimitsasthe
Congressmayprescribe,takinginto
accountecological,developmental,or
equityconsiderations,andsubjecttothe
paymentofjustcompensation.In
determiningretentionlimits,theStateshall
respecttherightofsmalllandowners.The
Stateshallfurtherprovideincentivesfor
voluntarylandsharing.

TheStateshallpromotetheprincipleof
sharedresponsibilitybetweenworkersand
employersandthepreferentialuseof
voluntarymodesinsettlingdisputes,
includingconciliation,andshallenforce
theirmutualcompliancetherewithtofoster
industrialpeace.
TheStateshallregulatetherelations
betweenworkersandemployers,
recognizingtherightoflabortoitsjust
shareinthefruitsofproductionandthe
rightofenterprisestoreasonablereturnsto
investments,andtoexpansionandgrowth.
ARTICLEXIII
AGRARIANANDNATURAL
RESOURCESREFORM

Section6.TheStateshallapplythe
principlesofagrarianreformor
stewardship,wheneverapplicablein
accordancewithlaw,inthedispositionor
utilizationofothernaturalresources,
includinglandsofthepublicdomainunder
leaseorconcessionsuitabletoagriculture,
subjecttopriorrights,homesteadrightsof
smallsettlers,andtherightsofindigenous
communitiestotheirancestrallands.
TheStatemayresettlelandlessfarmersand
farmworkersinitsownagriculturalestates
whichshallbedistributedtotheminthe
mannerprovidedbylaw.
Section7.TheStateshallprotecttherights
ofsubsistencefishermen,especiallyof
localcommunities,tothepreferentialuse
ofthecommunalmarineandfishing
resources,bothinlandandoffshore.Itshall
providesupporttosuchfishermenthrough
appropriatetechnologyandresearch,
adequatefinancial,production,and
marketingassistance,andotherservices.
TheStateshallalsoprotect,develop,and
conservesuchresources.Theprotection
shallextendtooffshorefishinggroundsof
subsistencefishermenagainstforeign
intrusion.
Fishworkersshallreceiveajustsharefrom
theirlaborintheutilizationofmarineand
fishingresources.
Section8.TheStateshallprovide
incentivestolandownerstoinvestthe

proceedsoftheagrarianreformprogramto
promoteindustrialization,employment
creation,andprivatizationofpublicsector
enterprises.Financialinstrumentsusedas
paymentfortheirlandsshallbehonoredas
equityinenterprisesoftheirchoice.
ARTICLEXIII
URBANLANDREFORMAND
HOUSING
Section9.TheStateshall,bylaw,andfor
thecommongood,undertake,in
cooperationwiththeprivatesector,a
continuingprogramofurbanlandreform
andhousingwhichwillmakeavailableat
affordablecost,decenthousingandbasic
servicestounderprivilegedandhomeless
citizensinurbancentersandresettlement
areas.Itshallalsopromoteadequate
employmentopportunitiestosuchcitizens.
Intheimplementationofsuchprogramthe
Stateshallrespecttherightsofsmall
propertyowners.
Section10.Urbanorruralpoordwellers
shallnotbeevictednortheirdwelling
demolished,exceptinaccordancewithlaw
andinajustandhumanemanner.
Noresettlementofurbanorruraldwellers
shallbeundertakenwithoutadequate
consultationwiththemandthe
communitieswheretheyaretobe
relocated.
ARTICLEXIIIHEALTH
Section11.TheStateshalladoptan
integratedandcomprehensiveapproachto
healthdevelopmentwhichshallendeavor
tomakeessentialgoods,healthandother
socialservicesavailabletoallthepeopleat
affordablecost.Thereshallbepriorityfor
theneedsoftheunderprivileged,sick,
elderly,disabled,women,andchildren.The
Stateshallendeavortoprovidefree
medicalcaretopaupers.
Section12.TheStateshallestablishand
maintainaneffectivefoodanddrug
regulatorysystemandundertake
appropriatehealth,manpower
development,andresearch,responsiveto
thecountry'shealthneedsandproblems.
Section13.TheStateshallestablisha
specialagencyfordisabledpersonfortheir
rehabilitation,selfdevelopment,andself
reliance,andtheirintegrationintothe
mainstreamofsociety.

Section14.TheStateshallprotectworking
womenbyprovidingsafeandhealthful
workingconditions,takingintoaccount
theirmaternalfunctions,andsuchfacilities
andopportunitiesthatwillenhancetheir
welfareandenablethemtorealizetheirfull
potentialintheserviceofthenation.
ARTICLEXIII
ROLEANDRIGHTSOFPEOPLE'S
ORGANIZATIONS
Section15.TheStateshallrespecttherole
ofindependentpeople'sorganizationsto
enablethepeopletopursueandprotect,
withinthedemocraticframework,their
legitimateandcollectiveinterestsand
aspirationsthroughpeacefulandlawful
means.
People'sorganizationsarebonafide
associationsofcitizenswithdemonstrated
capacitytopromotethepublicinterestand
withidentifiableleadership,membership,
andstructure.
Section16.Therightofthepeopleand
theirorganizationstoeffectiveand
reasonableparticipationatalllevelsof
social,political,andeconomicdecision
makingshallnotbeabridged.TheState
shall,bylaw,facilitatetheestablishmentof
adequateconsultationmechanisms.
ARTICLEXIIIHUMANRIGHTS
Section17.(1)Thereisherebycreatedan
independentofficecalledtheCommission
onHumanRights.
(2)TheCommissionshallbecomposedof
aChairmanandfourMemberswhomust
benaturalborncitizensofthePhilippines
andamajorityofwhomshallbemembers
oftheBar.Thetermofofficeandother
qualificationsanddisabilitiesofthe
MembersoftheCommissionshallbe
providedbylaw.
(3)UntilthisCommissionisconstituted,
theexistingPresidentialCommitteeon
HumanRightsshallcontinuetoexerciseits
presentfunctionsandpowers.
(4)Theapprovedannualappropriationsof
theCommissionshallbeautomaticallyand
regularlyreleased.
Section18.TheCommissiononHuman
Rightsshallhavethefollowingpowersand
functions:

ARTICLEXIIIWOMEN
(1)Investigate,onitsownoroncomplaint
byanyparty,allformsofhumanrights

violationsinvolvingcivilandpolitical
rights;
(2)Adoptitsoperationalguidelinesand
rulesofprocedure,andciteforcontempt
forviolationsthereofinaccordancewith
theRulesofCourt;
(3)Provideappropriatelegalmeasuresfor
theprotectionofhumanrightsofall
personswithinthePhilippines,aswellas
Filipinosresidingabroad,andprovidefor
preventivemeasuresandlegalaidservices
totheunderprivilegedwhosehumanrights
havebeenviolatedorneedprotection;
(4)Exercisevisitorialpowersoverjails,
prisons,ordetentionfacilities;
(5)Establishacontinuingprogramof
research,education,andinformationto
enhancerespectfortheprimacyofhuman
rights;
(6)RecommendtoCongresseffective
measurestopromotehumanrightsandto
provideforcompensationtovictimsof
violationsofhumanrights,ortheir
families;
(7)MonitorthePhilippineGovernment's
compliancewithinternationaltreaty
obligationsonhumanrights;
(8)Grantimmunityfromprosecutionto
anypersonwhosetestimonyorwhose
possessionofdocumentsorotherevidence
isnecessaryorconvenienttodeterminethe
truthinanyinvestigationconductedbyitor
underitsauthority;
(9)Requesttheassistanceofany
department,bureau,office,oragencyinthe
performanceofitsfunctions;
(10)Appointitsofficersandemployeesin
accordancewithlaw;and
(11)Performsuchotherdutiesand
functionsasmaybeprovidedbylaw.
Section19.TheCongressmayprovidefor
othercasesofviolationsofhumanrights
thatshouldfallwithintheauthorityofthe
Commission,takingintoaccountits
recommendations.
ARTICLEXIV
EDUCATION,SCIENCEAND
TECHNOLOGY,ARTS,CULTURE
ANDSPORTS

EDUCATION
Section1.TheStateshallprotectand
promotetherightofallcitizenstoquality
educationatalllevels,andshalltake
appropriatestepstomakesucheducation
accessibletoall.
Section2.TheStateshall:
(1)Establish,maintain,andsupporta
complete,adequate,andintegratedsystem
ofeducationrelevanttotheneedsofthe
peopleandsociety;
(2)Establishandmaintain,asystemoffree
publiceducationintheelementaryandhigh
schoollevels.Withoutlimitingthenatural
rightsofparentstoreartheirchildren,
elementaryeducationiscompulsoryforall
childrenofschoolage;
(3)Establishandmaintainasystemof
scholarshipgrants,studentloanprograms,
subsidies,andotherincentiveswhichshall
beavailabletodeservingstudentsinboth
publicandprivateschools,especiallytothe
underprivileged;
(4)Encouragenonformal,informal,and
indigenouslearningsystems,aswellas
selflearning,independent,andoutof
schoolstudyprogramsparticularlythose
thatrespondtocommunityneeds;and
(5)Provideadultcitizens,thedisabled,and
outofschoolyouthwithtrainingincivics,
vocationalefficiency,andotherskills.
Section3.(1)Alleducationalinstitutions
shallincludethestudyoftheConstitution
aspartofthecurricula.
(2)Theyshallinculcatepatriotismand
nationalism,fosterloveofhumanity,
respectforhumanrights,appreciationof
theroleofnationalheroesinthehistorical
developmentofthecountry,teachthe
rightsanddutiesofcitizenship,strengthen
ethicalandspiritualvalues,developmoral
characterandpersonaldiscipline,
encouragecriticalandcreativethinking,
broadenscientificandtechnological
knowledge,andpromotevocational
efficiency.
(3)Attheoptionexpressedinwritingby
theparentsorguardians,religionshallbe
allowedtobetaughttotheirchildrenor
wardsinpublicelementaryandhigh
schoolswithintheregularclasshoursby
instructorsdesignatedorapprovedbythe
religiousauthoritiesofthereligionto
whichthechildrenorwardsbelong,
withoutadditionalcosttotheGovernment.

Section4.(1)TheStaterecognizesthe
complementaryrolesofpublicandprivate
institutionsintheeducationalsystemand
shallexercisereasonablesupervisionand
regulationofalleducationalinstitutions.
(2)Educationalinstitutions,otherthan
thoseestablishedbyreligiousgroupsand
missionboards,shallbeownedsolelyby
citizensofthePhilippinesorcorporations
orassociationsat
leastsixtypercentumofthecapitalof
whichisownedbysuchcitizens.The
Congressmay,however,requireincreased
Filipinoequityparticipationinall
educationalinstitutions.
Thecontrolandadministrationof
educationalinstitutionsshallbevestedin
citizensofthePhilippines.
Noeducationalinstitutionshallbe
establishedexclusivelyforaliensandno
groupofaliensshallcomprisemorethan
onethirdoftheenrollmentinanyschool.
Theprovisionsofthissubsectionshallnot
applytoschoolsestablishedforforeign
diplomaticpersonnelandtheirdependents
and,unlessotherwiseprovidedbylaw,for
otherforeigntemporaryresidents.
(3)Allrevenuesandassetsofnonstock,
nonprofiteducationalinstitutionsused
actually,directly,andexclusivelyfor
educationalpurposesshallbeexemptfrom
taxesandduties.Uponthedissolutionor
cessationofthecorporateexistenceofsuch
institutions,theirassetsshallbedisposedof
inthemannerprovidedbylaw.
Proprietaryeducationalinstitutions,
includingthosecooperativelyowned,may
likewisebeentitledtosuchexemptions,
subjecttothelimitationsprovidedbylaw,
includingrestrictionsondividendsand
provisionsforreinvestment.
(4)Subjecttoconditionsprescribedbylaw,
allgrants,endowments,donations,or
contributionsusedactually,directly,and
exclusivelyforeducationalpurposesshall
beexemptfromtax.
Section5.(1)theStateshalltakeinto
accountregionalandsectoralneedsand
conditionsandshallencouragelocal
planninginthedevelopmentofeducational
policiesandprograms.

fair,reasonable,andequitableadmission
andacademicrequirements.
(4)TheStateshallenhancetherightof
teacherstoprofessionaladvancement.Non
teachingacademicandnonacademic
personnelshallenjoytheprotectionofthe
State.
(5)TheStateshallassignthehighest
budgetaryprioritytoeducationandensure
thatteachingwillattractandretainits
rightfulshareofthebestavailabletalents
throughadequateremunerationandother
meansofjobsatisfactionandfulfillment.
ARTICLEXIV
EDUCATION,SCIENCEAND
TECHNOLOGY,ARTS,CULTURE
ANDSPORTS
ARTSANDCULTURE
Section14.TheStateshallfosterthe
preservation,enrichment,anddynamic
evolutionofaFilipinonationalculture
basedontheprincipleofunityindiversity
inaclimateoffreeartisticandintellectual
expression.
Section15.Artsandlettersshallenjoythe
patronageoftheState.TheStateshall
conserve,promote,andpopularizethe
nation'shistoricalandculturalheritageand
resources,aswellasartisticcreations.
Section16.Allthecountry'sartisticand
historicwealthconstitutesthecultural
treasureofthenationandshallbeunderthe
protectionoftheStatewhichmayregulate
itsdisposition.
Section17.TheStateshallrecognize,
respect,andprotecttherightsofindigenous
culturalcommunitiestopreserveand
developtheircultures,traditions,and
institutions.Itshallconsidertheserightsin
theformulationofnationalplansand
policies.
Section18.(1)TheStateshallensureequal
accesstoculturalopportunitiesthroughthe
educationalsystem,publicorprivate
culturalentities,scholarships,grantsand
otherincentives,andcommunitycultural
centers,andotherpublicvenues.

(2)Academicfreedomshallbeenjoyedin
allinstitutionsofhigherlearning.

(2)TheStateshallencourageandsupport
researchesandstudiesontheartsand
culture.

(3)Everycitizenhasarighttoselecta
professionorcourseofstudy,subjectto

ARTICLEXIV

EDUCATION,SCIENCEAND
TECHNOLOGY,ARTS,CULTURE
ANDSPORTS
LANGUAGE
Section6.Thenationallanguageofthe
PhilippinesisFilipino.Asitevolves,it
shallbefurtherdevelopedandenrichedon
thebasisofexistingPhilippineandother
languages.
Subjecttoprovisionsoflawandasthe
Congressmaydeemappropriate,the
Governmentshalltakestepstoinitiateand
sustaintheuseofFilipinoasamediumof
officialcommunicationandaslanguageof
instructionintheeducationalsystem.
Section7.Forpurposesofcommunication
andinstruction,theofficiallanguagesof
thePhilippinesareFilipinoand,until
otherwiseprovidedbylaw,English.
Theregionallanguagesaretheauxiliary
officiallanguagesintheregionsandshall
serveasauxiliarymediaofinstruction
therein.
SpanishandArabicshallbepromotedona
voluntaryandoptionalbasis.
Section8.ThisConstitutionshallbe
promulgatedinFilipinoandEnglishand
shallbetranslatedintomajorregional
languages,Arabic,andSpanish.
Section9.TheCongressshallestablisha
nationallanguagecommissioncomposedof
representativesofvariousregionsand
disciplineswhichshallundertake,
coordinate,andpromoteresearchesforthe
development,propagation,andpreservation
ofFilipinoandotherlanguages.
ARTICLEXIV
EDUCATION,SCIENCEAND
TECHNOLOGY,ARTS,CULTURE
ANDSPORTS
SCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY
Section10.Scienceandtechnologyare
essentialfornationaldevelopmentand
progress.TheStateshallgivepriorityto
researchanddevelopment,invention,
innovation,andtheirutilization;andto
scienceandtechnologyeducation,training,
andservices.Itshallsupportindigenous,
appropriate,andselfreliantscientificand
technologicalcapabilities,andtheir
applicationtothecountry'sproductive
systemsandnationallife.

Section11.TheCongressmayprovidefor
incentives,includingtaxdeductions,to
encourageprivateparticipationinprograms
ofbasicandappliedscientificresearch.
Scholarships,grantsinaid,orotherforms
ofincentivesshallbeprovidedtodeserving
sciencestudents,researchers,scientists,
inventors,technologists,andspecially
giftedcitizens.
Section12.TheStateshallregulatethe
transferandpromotetheadaptationof
technologyfromallsourcesforthenational
benefit.Itshallencouragethewidest
participationofprivategroups,local
governments,andcommunitybased
organizationsinthegenerationand
utilizationofscienceandtechnology.
Section13.TheStateshallprotectand
securetheexclusiverightsofscientists,
inventors,artists,andothergiftedcitizens
totheirintellectualpropertyandcreations,
particularlywhenbeneficialtothepeople,
forsuchperiodasmaybeprovidedbylaw.
ARTICLEXIV

convictionsandthedemandsofresponsible
parenthood;
(2)Therightofchildrentoassistance,
includingpropercareandnutrition,and
specialprotectionfromallformsofneglect,
abuse,cruelty,exploitationandother
conditionsprejudicialtotheirdevelopment;
(3)Therightofthefamilytoafamily
livingwageandincome;and
(4)Therightoffamiliesorfamily
associationstoparticipateintheplanning
andimplementationofpoliciesand
programsthataffectthem.
Section4.Thefamilyhasthedutytocare
foritselderlymembersbuttheStatemay
alsodosothroughjustprogramsofsocial
security.
ARTICLEXVTHEFAMILY
Section1.TheStaterecognizestheFilipino
familyasthefoundationofthenation.
Accordingly,itshallstrengthenits
solidarityandactivelypromoteitstotal
development.

EDUCATION,SCIENCEAND
TECHNOLOGY,ARTS,CULTURE
ANDSPORTS

Section2.Marriage,asaninviolablesocial
institution,isthefoundationofthefamily
andshallbeprotectedbytheState.

SPORTS

Section3.TheStateshalldefend:

Section19.(1)TheStateshallpromote
physicaleducationandencouragesports
programs,leaguecompetitions,and
amateursports,includingtrainingfor
internationalcompetitions,tofosterself
discipline,teamwork,andexcellencefor
thedevelopmentofahealthyandalert
citizenry.

(1)Therightofspousestofoundafamily
inaccordancewiththeirreligious
convictionsandthedemandsofresponsible
parenthood;
(2)Therightofchildrentoassistance,
includingpropercareandnutrition,and
specialprotectionfromallformsofneglect,
abuse,cruelty,exploitationandother
conditionsprejudicialtotheirdevelopment;

(2)Alleducationalinstitutionsshall
undertakeregularsportsactivities
throughoutthecountryincooperationwith
athleticclubsandothersectors.
ARTICLEXVTHEFAMILY
Section1.TheStaterecognizestheFilipino
familyasthefoundationofthenation.
Accordingly,itshallstrengthenits
solidarityandactivelypromoteitstotal
development.
Section2.Marriage,asaninviolablesocial
institution,isthefoundationofthefamily
andshallbeprotectedbytheState.
Section3.TheStateshalldefend:
(1)Therightofspousestofoundafamily
inaccordancewiththeirreligious

(3)Therightofthefamilytoafamily
livingwageandincome;and
(4)Therightoffamiliesorfamily
associationstoparticipateintheplanning
andimplementationofpoliciesand
programsthataffectthem.
Section4.Thefamilyhasthedutytocare
foritselderlymembersbuttheStatemay
alsodosothroughjustprogramsofsocial
security.
ARTICLEXVIIAMENDMENTSOR
REVISIONS
Section1.Anyamendmentto,orrevision
of,thisConstitutionmaybeproposedby:
(1)TheCongress,uponavoteofthree
fourthsofallitsMembers;or
(2)Aconstitutionalconvention.

Section2.AmendmentstothisConstitution
maylikewisebedirectlyproposedbythe
peoplethroughinitiativeuponapetitionof
atleasttwelvepercentumofthetotal
numberofregisteredvoters,ofwhichevery
legislativedistrictmustberepresentedby
atleastthreepercentumoftheregistered
voterstherein.Noamendmentunderthis
sectionshallbeauthorizedwithinfive
yearsfollowingtheratificationofthis
Constitutionnoroftenerthanonceevery
fiveyearsthereafter.
TheCongressshallprovideforthe
implementationoftheexerciseofthisright.
Section3.TheCongressmay,byavoteof
twothirdsofallitsMembers,calla
constitutionalconvention,orbyamajority
voteofallitsMembers,submittothe
electoratethequestionofcallingsucha
convention.
Section4.Anyamendmentto,orrevision
of,thisConstitutionunderSection1hereof
shallbevalidwhenratifiedbyamajorityof
thevotescastinaplebiscitewhichshallbe
heldnotearlierthansixtydaysnorlater
thanninetydaysaftertheapprovalofsuch
amendmentorrevision.
AnyamendmentunderSection2hereof
shallbevalidwhenratifiedbyamajorityof
thevotescastinaplebiscitewhichshallbe
heldnotearlierthansixtydaysnorlater
thanninetydaysafterthecertificationby
theCommissiononElectionsofthe
sufficiencyofthepetition.
ARTICLEXVIIITRANSITORY
PROVISIONS
Section1.ThefirstelectionsofMembers
oftheCongressunderthisConstitution
shallbeheldonthesecondMondayof
May,1987.
Thefirstlocalelectionsshallbeheldona
datetobedeterminedbythePresident,
whichmaybesimultaneouswiththe
electionoftheMembersoftheCongress.It
shallincludetheelectionofallMembersof
thecityormunicipalcouncilsinthe
MetropolitanManilaarea.
Section2.TheSenators,Membersofthe
HouseofRepresentatives,andthelocal
officialsfirstelectedunderthis
ConstitutionshallserveuntilnoonofJune
30,1992.
OftheSenatorselectedintheelectionsin
1992,thefirsttwelveobtainingthehighest
numberofvotesshallserveforsixyears
andtheremainingtwelveforthreeyears.

Section3.Allexistinglaws,decrees,
executiveorders,proclamations,lettersof
instructions,andotherexecutiveissuances
notinconsistentwiththisConstitutionshall
remainoperativeuntilamended,repealed,
orrevoked.
Section4.Allexistingtreatiesor
internationalagreementswhichhavenot
beenratifiedshallnotberenewedor
extendedwithouttheconcurrenceofat
leasttwothirdsofalltheMembersofthe
Senate.
Section5.Thesixyeartermofthe
incumbentPresidentandVicePresident
electedintheFebruary7,1986electionis,
forpurposesofsynchronizationof
elections,herebyextendedtonoonofJune
30,1992.
ThefirstregularelectionsforthePresident
andVicePresidentunderthisConstitution
shallbeheldonthesecondMondayof
May,1992.
Section6.TheincumbentPresidentshall
continuetoexerciselegislativepowersuntil
thefirstCongressisconvened.
Section7.Untilalawispassed,the
Presidentmayfillbyappointmentfroma
listofnomineesbytherespectivesectors,
theseatsreservedforsectoral
representationinparagraph(2),Section5
ofArticleV1ofthisConstitution.
Section8.Untilotherwiseprovidedbythe
Congress,thePresidentmayconstitutethe
MetropolitanManilaAuthoritytobe
composedoftheheadsofalllocal
governmentunitscomprisingthe
MetropolitanManilaarea.
Section9.Asubprovinceshallcontinueto
existandoperateuntilitisconvertedintoa
regularprovinceoruntilitscomponent
municipalitiesarerevertedtothemother
province.
Section10.Allcourtsexistingatthetime
oftheratificationofthisConstitutionshall
continuetoexercisetheirjurisdiction,until
otherwiseprovidedbylaw.Theprovisions
oftheexistingRulesofCourt,judiciary
acts,andprocedurallawsnotinconsistent
withthisConstitutionshallremain
operativeunlessamendedorrepealedby
theSupremeCourtortheCongress.
Section11.TheincumbentMembersofthe
Judiciaryshallcontinueinofficeuntilthey
reachtheageofseventyyearsorbecome
incapacitatedtodischargethedutiesof
theirofficeorareremovedforcause.

Section12.TheSupremeCourtshall,
withinoneyearaftertheratificationofthis
Constitution,adoptasystematicplanto
expeditethedecisionorresolutionofcases
ormatterspendingintheSupremeCourtor
thelowercourtspriortotheeffectivityof
thisConstitution.Asimilarplanshallbe
adoptedforallspecialcourtsandquasi
judicialbodies.
Section13.Thelegaleffectofthelapse,
beforetheratificationofthisConstitution,
oftheapplicableperiodforthedecisionor
resolutionofthecasesormatterssubmitted
foradjudicationbythecourts,shallbe
determinedbytheSupremeCourtassoon
aspracticable.
Section14.Theprovisionsofparagraphs
(3)and(4),Section15ofArticleVIIIof
thisConstitutionshallapplytocasesor
mattersfiledbeforetheratificationofthis
Constitution,whentheapplicableperiod
lapsesaftersuchratification.
Section15.TheincumbentMembersofthe
CivilServiceCommission,theCommission
onElections,andtheCommissiononAudit
shallcontinueinofficeforoneyearafter
the
ratificationofthisConstitution,unlessthey
aresoonerremovedforcauseorbecome
incapacitatedtodischargethedutiesof
theirofficeorappointedtoanewterm
thereunder.InnocaseshallanyMember
servelongerthansevenyearsincluding
servicebeforetheratificationofthis
Constitution.
Section16.Careercivilserviceemployees
separatedfromtheservicenotforcausebut
asaresultofthereorganizationpursuantto
ProclamationNo.3datedMarch25,1986
andthereorganizationfollowingthe
ratificationofthisConstitutionshallbe
entitledtoappropriateseparationpayand
toretirementandotherbenefitsaccruingto
themunderthelawsofgeneralapplication
inforceatthetimeoftheirseparation.In
lieuthereof,attheoptionoftheemployees,
theymaybeconsideredforemploymentin
theGovernmentorinanyofits
subdivisions,instrumentalities,oragencies,
includinggovernmentownedorcontrolled
corporationsandtheirsubsidiaries.This
provisionalsoappliestocareerofficers
whoseresignation,tenderedinlinewiththe
existingpolicy,hadbeenaccepted.
Section17.UntiltheCongressprovides
otherwise,thePresidentshallreceivean
annualsalaryofthreehundredthousand
pesos;theVicePresident,thePresidentof
theSenate,theSpeakeroftheHouseof
Representatives,andtheChiefJusticeof
theSupremeCourt,twohundredforty
thousandpesoseach;theSenators,the

MembersoftheHouseofRepresentatives,
theAssociateJusticesoftheSupreme
Court,andtheChairmenofthe
ConstitutionalCommissions,twohundred
fourthousandpesoseach;andtheMembers
oftheConstitutionalCommissions,one
hundredeightythousandpesoseach.
Section18.Attheearliestpossibletime,
theGovernmentshallincreasethesalary
scalesoftheotherofficialsandemployees
oftheNationalGovernment.
Section19.Allproperties,records,
equipment,buildings,facilities,andother
assetsofanyofficeorbodyabolishedor
reorganizedunderProclamationNo.3
datedMarch25,1986orthisConstitution
shallbetransferredtotheofficeorbodyto
whichitspowers,functions,and
responsibilitiessubstantiallypertain.
Section20.ThefirstCongressshallgive
prioritytothedeterminationoftheperiod
forthefullimplementationoffreepublic
secondaryeducation.
Section21.TheCongressshallprovide
efficaciousproceduresandadequate
remediesforthereversiontotheStateofall
landsofthepublicdomainandrealrights
connectedtherewithwhichwereacquired
inviolationoftheConstitutionorthe
publiclandlaws,orthroughcorrupt
practices.Notransferordispositionofsuch
landsorrealrightsshallbealloweduntil
afterthelapseofoneyearfromthe
ratificationofthisConstitution.
Section22.Attheearliestpossibletime,
theGovernmentshallexpropriateidleor
abandonedagriculturallandsasmaybe
definedbylaw,fordistributiontothe
beneficiariesoftheagrarianreform
program.
Section23.Advertisingentitiesaffectedby
paragraph(2),Section11ofArticleXV1of
thisConstitutionshallhavefiveyearsfrom
itsratificationtocomplyonagraduated
andproportionatebasiswiththeminimum
Filipinoownershiprequirementtherein.
Section24.Privatearmiesandotherarmed
groupsnotrecognizedbydulyconstituted
authorityshallbedismantled.All
paramilitaryforcesincludingCivilian
HomeDefenseForcesnotconsistentwith
thecitizenarmedforceestablishedinthis
Constitution,shallbedissolvedor,where
appropriate,convertedintotheregular
force.
Section25.Aftertheexpirationin1991of
theAgreementbetweentheRepublicofthe
PhilippinesandtheUnitedStatesof
Americaconcerningmilitarybases,foreign

militarybases,troops,orfacilitiesshallnot
beallowedinthePhilippinesexceptunder
atreatydulyconcurredinbytheSenate
and,whentheCongresssorequires,ratified
byamajorityofthe

VicePresident
NapoleonG.Rama
FloorLeader

votescastbythepeopleinanational
referendumheldforthatpurpose,and
recognizedasatreatybytheother
contractingState.
Section26.Theauthoritytoissue
sequestrationorfreezeordersunder
ProclamationNo.3datedMarch25,1986
inrelationtotherecoveryofillgotten
wealthshallremainoperativefornotmore
thaneighteenmonthsaftertheratification
ofthisConstitution.However,inthe
nationalinterest,ascertifiedbythe
President,theCongressmayextendsuch
period.
Asequestrationorfreezeordershallbe
issuedonlyuponshowingofaprimafacie
case.Theorderandthelistofthe
sequesteredorfrozenpropertiesshall
forthwithberegisteredwiththeproper
court.Forordersissuedbeforethe
ratificationofthisConstitution,the
correspondingjudicialactionorproceeding
shallbefiledwithinsixmonthsfromits
ratification.Forthoseissuedaftersuch
ratification,thejudicialactionor
proceedingshallbecommencedwithinsix
monthsfromtheissuancethereof.
Thesequestrationorfreezeorderisdeemed
automaticallyliftedifnojudicialactionor
proceedingiscommencedasherein
provided.
Section27.ThisConstitutionshalltake
effectimmediatelyuponitsratificationbya
majorityofthevotescastinaplebiscite
heldforthepurposeandshallsupersedeall
previousConstitutions.
TheforegoingproposedConstitutionofthe
RepublicofthePhilippineswasapproved
bytheConstitutionalCommissionof1986
onthetwelfthdayofOctober,Nineteen
hundredandeightysix,andaccordingly
signedonthefifteenthdayofOctober,
Nineteenhundredandeightysixatthe
PlenaryHall,NationalGovernmentCenter,
QuezonCity,bytheCommissionerswhose
signaturesarehereunderaffixed.

AhmadDomocaoAlonto
AssistantFloorLeader
YusufR.AbubakarAdolfoS.Azcuna
JoseF.S.Bengzon,Jr.JoaquinG.Bernas
CrispinoM.deCastroRobertoR.
ConcepcionVicenteB.Foz
JoseLuisMartinC.Gascon
JoseD.Calderon
AssistantFloorLeader
FelicitasS.AquinoTeodoroC.Bacani
PoncianoL.BennagenFlorangelRosario
BraidJoseC.Colayco
HilarioG.Davide,Jr.EdmundoG.Garcia
SerafinV.C.Guingona
AlbertoM.K.JamirEulogioR.Lerum
ChristianS.MonsodMa.TeresaF.Nieva
BlasF.Ople
FlorenzD.RegaladoCiriloA.Rigos
RicardoJ.RomuloReneV.Sarmiento
LorenzoM.SumulongChristineO.Tan
EfrainB.TrenasWilfridoV.Villacorta
Attestedby:
FleridaRuthP.Romero
SecretaryGeneral
JoseB.Laurel,Jr.RegaladoE.Maambong
TeoduloC.NatividadJoseN.Nolledo
MindaLuzM.QuesadaRusticoF.delos
Reyes,Jr.

Adopted:

FranciscoA.RodrigoDecorosoR.Rosales

CeciliaMunozPalma

JoseE.SuarezJaimeS.L.Tadeo

President

GregorioJ.TingsonLugumL.Uka

AmbrosioB.Padilla

BernardoM.Villegas

THE1987CONSTITUTION
OFTHE
REPUBLICOFTHEPHILIPPINES
ORDINANCE
APPORTIONINGTHESEATSOF
THEHOUSEOFREPRESENTATIVES
OFTHECONGRESSOFTHE
PHILIPPINESTOTHEDIFFERENT
LEGISLATIVEDISTRICTSIN
PROVINCESANDCITIESANDTHE
METROPOLITANMANILAAREA
Section1.Forpurposesoftheelectionof
MembersoftheHouseofRepresentatives
oftheFirstCongressofthePhilippines
undertheConstitutionproposedbythe
1986ConstitutionalCommissionand
subsequentelections,anduntilotherwise
providedbylaw,theMembersthereofshall
beelectedfromlegislativedistricts
apportionedamongtheprovinces,cities,
andtheMetropolitanManilaAreaas
follows:
MetropolitanManilaArea
MANILA,six(6)FirstDistrict:
BarangaysNos.1146,NCityBoundary
betweenManilaandCaloocan;EFrom
EsterodeSunogApoggoingSouthto
EsterodeVitasuptothebridgespanning
JuanLunaStreet,eastwardtoTayuman
StreetuptotheRailroadTracksalong
DagupanStreet,thencesouthwardtoClaro
M.RectoAvenue;SEFrompointClaro
M.RectoAvenueextendingwestwardto
ManilaBay;WManilaBaynorthwardto
CityboundarybetweenManilaand
Caloocan.SecondDistrict:BarangaysNos.
147267,NCityboundarybetween
ManilaandCaloocan;EFromendof
RizalAvenueExtensionextending
southwardtoRailroadTracksatAntipolo
Street;fromcornerAntipoloStreetand
RizalAvenueonsouthernsideofRailroad
TracksextendingwestwardtoEsterode
SanLazaro,southwardalongEsterodeSan
LazarouptocornerofC.M.RectoAvenue
westwardtobridgespanningClaroM.
RectoatEsterodelaReina;WEsterode
laReinatoEsterodeVitastoEsteroSunog
ApogtoCityboundarybetweenManila
andCaloocan;ThirdDistrict:Barangays
Nos.268394,NCityboundarybetween
ManilaandCaloocan;EA.Bonifacio
StreetextendingsouthwardtoDimasalang,
toAndalucia,ClaroM.RectoAvenue
eastwardtoEsterodeSanMiguelendingat
PasigRiver;SMouthofEsterodeSan
MiguelatPasigRiver,westwardtoDelPan
Bridge,thencetoDelPanStreet;WDel
PanStreetnorthwarduptoClaroM.Recto
ExtensiontoEsterodeSanLazaro,
northwardtoAntipoloStreet,eastwardto
RizalAvenueExtension,northwardto

boundarybetweenManilaandCaloocan;
FourthDistrict:BarangaysNos.395586
SWEsterodeSanMigueluptoMendiola
Bridge,thencetoC.M.RectoAvenueto
QuezonBoulevard;WQuezon
Boulevard,Andalucia,Dimasalangupto
boundarybetweenManilaandQuezon
City;NECityboundarybetweenManila
andQuezonCityuptoRamonMagsaysay
Boulevard;SERamonMagsaysay
BoulevarduptoV.MapaStreet;SRamon
MagsaysayBoulevarduptopointEsterode
SanMiguelwhereRamonMagsaysay
BoulevardspansEsterodeSanMiguel;
FifthDistrict:BarangaysNos.649828N
MouthofPasigRiverinlandtopointPaz
M.GuanzonStreetextendingtoEsterode
Pandacan;NEEsterodePandacanupto
PedroGilStreettoTejeronStreetupto
boundaryofManilaandMakati;SECity
boundarybetweenManilaandMakatiupto
EsterodeTripadeGallina;SCity
boundarybetweenPasayandManiladown
toRoxasBoulevarduptoedgeof
reclaimedareaswestwardtoManilaBay;
WManilaBayuptomouthofPasig
River,SixthDistrict:BarangaysNos.587
648;and829905NStartingfrompoint
whichismouthofEsterodeSanMiguel
goingeastwardtoMendiolaBridge,
followinglinealongEsterodeSanMiguel
uptopointwhereRamonMagsaysay
BoulevardeastwardtoCityboundary
betweenManilaandQuezonCityl;NE
Cityboundaryuptopointcityboundaryof
Manila,SanJuanandQuezonCity;E
ManilaSanJuanMandaluyongMakati
boundariesuptoTejeronStreet;SE
TejeronStreettoPedroGilStreetupto
bridgespanningEsterodePandacan;SW&
WEsterodePandacangoingnorthwardto
PazM.GuanzonStreet,thennorthwardon
PazM.GuazonStreetuptoPasigRiverto
mouthofEsterodeSanMiguelonPasig
River.

Balumbato,andSangandaan:ThirdDistrict
:BarangaysE.Rodriguez,Silangan,
Quirino3A,DuyanDuyan,Quirino3B,
Amihan,Socorro,SanRoque,Manga,
ZobelDioquino,Tagumpay,Aguinaldo,
Escopa1,Escopa2,Escopa3,Escopa4,
WestKamias,EastKamias,Quirino2A,
Quririno2B,Quirino2C,UgongNorte,
Bagumbayan,Libis,VillaMariaClara,
Masagana,Milagrosa,Marilag,
Bagumbayan,LoyolaHeights,Pansol,and
MatandangBalara;FourthDistrict:
BarangaysBagongLipunan,Kaunlaran,
SanMartin,ImmaculateConcepcion,South
Triangle,SacredHeart,LagingHanda,
Paligsahan,Obrero,Roxas,Kamuning,
Kanluran,KamuningSilangan,Tatalon,
DonManuel,DonaJosefa,SanIsidro,
DonaAurora,SantoNino,Santol,Dona
Imelda,KristongHari,Kalusugan,
DamayangLagi,Mariana,Valencia,
Horseshoe,Pinagkaisahan,SanVicente,
U.P.Campus,KrusNaLigas,Central,Old
CapitalSite,U.P.Village,Teacher'sEast,
Teacher'sWest,Sikatuna,Malaya,Pinahan,
andBotocan.

QUEZONCITY,four(4)FirstDistrict:
BarangaysDelMonte,Paltok,Bungad,San
Antonio,Katipunan,VeteransVillage,
Talayan,Damayan,Mariblo,Paraiso,Sta.
Cruz,

RegionIRegionIIRegionIIIRegionIV
RegionVRegionVIRegionVIIRegion
VIIIRegionIXRegionXRegionXI

NayongKanluran,Philam,WestTriangle,
N.S.Amoranto,PaangBundok,SanIsidro
Labrador,Sta.Teresita,Salvacion,
Maharlika,St.Peter,Lourdes,Sto.
Domingo,Sienna,SanJose,Manresa,Pag
ibigsaNayon,Balingasa,Masambong,
Damar,BahayToro,St.Cristo,Ramon
Magsaysay,Project6,Vasra,Alicia,and
BagongPagasa;SecondDistrict:
BarangaysFairview,NewEra,HolySpirit,
BatasanHills,Commonwealth,Payatas,
BagongSilangan,Sauyo,Talipapa,
Bagbag,SanBartolome,Sta.Lucia,Gulod,
NovalichesProper,SanAgustin,
NagkaisangNayon,Sta.Monica,
Kaligayahan,PasongPutik,Apolonio
Samson,UnangSigaw,TandangSora,
PasongTamo,Culiat,Baesa,Capri,

CALOOCANCITY,two(2)FirstDistrict
:70Barangays;AllofCaloocanNorth
EDSA;SecondDistrict:118Barangays;
AllofCaloocanSouthEDSA.
PASAYCITY,one(1)
MALABONandNAVOTAS,one(1)
SANJUANandMANDALUYONG,one
(1)MARIKINA,one(1)
MAKATI,one(1)
PASIG,one(1)PARANAQUE,one(1)
LASPINASandMUNTINGLUPA,one
(1)PATEROSandTAGUIG,one(1)
VALENZUELA,
one(1)

RegionXII
THE1987CONSTITUTION
OFTHE
REPUBLICOFTHEPHILIPPINES
MEMBERS
OFTHECONSTITUTIONAL
COMMISSION[CONCOM]
WHICHDRAFTEDTHE
1987CONSTITUTIONOFTHE
PHILIPPINES
CeciliaMunozPalma
President

AmbrosioB.Padilla
VicePresident
NapoleonG.Rama

YusufR.AbubakarFelicitasS.Aquino
AdolfoS.AzcunaTeodoroC.Bacani
JoseF.S.Bengzon,Jr.PoncianoL.
BennagenJoaquinG.BernasFlorangel
RosarioBraidCrispinoM.deCastro
JoseC.ColaycoRobertoR.Concepcion
HilarioG.Davide,Jr.

FloorLeader
VicenteB.FozEdmundoG.Garcia
AhmadDomocaoAlonto
AssistantFloorLeader
JoseD.Calderon
AssistantFloorLeader

JoseLuisMartinC.GasconSerafinV.C.
GuingonaAlbertoM.K.JamirJoseB.
Laurel,Jr.EulogioR.LerumRegalado
E.MaambongChristianS.Monsod
TeoduloC.Natividad

MindaLuzM.QuesadaFlorenzD.
RegaladoRusticoF.delosReyes,Jr.
CiriloA.RigosFranciscoA.Rodrigo
RicardoJ.RomuloDecorosoR.Rosales
ReneV.SarmientoJoseE.Suarez
LorenzoM.SumulongJaimeS.L.Tadeo
ChristineO.TanGregorioJ.Tingson
EfrainB.TrenasLugumL.Uka
WilfridoV.VillacortaBernardoM.
Villegas
Attestedby:
FleridaRuthP.Romero
SecretaryGeneral

Ma.TeresaF.NievaJoseN.Nolledo
BlasF.Ople