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Resistance calculations of Sailing Yatchs

Resistance calculations of Sailing Yatchs

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First Assignment

Yueming Sang

Ratnakar Gadi

September 26, 2016

Contents

1 Introduction

2 Resistance calculations

2.1 Kuening and Sonneberg approach . . .

2.1.1 Frictional Resistance . . . . . .

2.2 Residuary Resistance . . . . . . . . . .

2.3 Viscous Resistance of Appendages . .

2.4 Residuary Resistance of Keel . . . . .

2.5 Total Upright Resistance . . . . . . . .

2.6 Kuening 2008 Resistance method . . .

2.7 Comparison of Residuary Resistance of

2.8 Optimal LCB location . . . . . . . . .

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both methods

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Introduction

Understand the differences between two different approaches of resistance

estimation of sailing yacht.

find the various resistance components

finding optimal LCB location

devising an own regression formula to find the resistance

learning implementation of the Win Design program

The first section of the assignment is dedicated to the first three goals.This is followed by section 2,where we develop an own regression formula.The calculations

using Win Design are provided in section 3.

Resistance calculations

We present the resistance estimates of Sysser 25(bare hull with keel and rudder)

using two different expressions.The first being the Kuening and Sonneberg polynomial expressions(1998/1999) and the second being the Kuening polynomial

expressions(2008).We then bring the main differences between the approximations.

2.1

of the hull(Rf ),residuary resistance of the hull(Rr ),viscous keel resistance(Rvk ),viscous

resistance rudder(Rvr ) and residuary resistance of keel(Rrk ).Mathematically,

Rt = Rf + Rr + Rvk + Rvr + Rrk

(1)

2.1.1

Frictional Resistance

The frictional resistance of the hull is calculated using the froudes extrapolation

method.The frictional resistance extrapolation co-efficient is based on the generally accepted formulation of the international towing tank conference(ITTC)

of 1957 and reformulated in 1975.The form factor which takes the three dimensional effects of the two dimensional resistance is not included.An interesting

point that could be mentioned here is that the reynolds number used for calculating the frictional resistance co-efficient uses the 0.7Lwl instead of Lwl .This is

to take care the change in wetted length when trimmed(This is an approximation).

1

(2)

Rf = SV 2 Cf (1 + k)

2

where the meaning of the terms are tabulated below:

Variable

Rf

S

V

Cf

k

Meaning

Frictional Resistance

density of water

wetted surface area(Static)

Velocity

frictional resistance co-efficient

form factor

Cf =

0.075

(log Rn 2)2

(3)

where

Variable

Rn

Cf

Meaning

Reynolds number

frictional resistance co-efficient

Rn =

0.7Lwl V

(4)

where

Variable

Rn

Lwl

Meaning

Reynolds number

length of waterline(static)

kinematic viscousity of water

The following formulas were used and the resistance was calculated.We provide

the plot of frictional resistance with froude number below:

The form factor k was not included because of the absence of generally accepted

formulation of the form factor as a function of hull parameters.

2.2

Residuary Resistance

The expression for residuary resistance used has been based on the previous

experiences.The expression has yeilded sufficient accuracy and robustness.

Rr

LCBf pp

c2/3

Bwl c1/3

= a0 + (a1

+ a2 Cp + a3

+ a4

)

cg

Lwl

Aw

Lwl Lwl

c2/3

LCBf pp

LCBf pp 2

c1/3

+ (a5

+ a6

+ a7 (

) + a8 Cp 2 )

Sc

LCFf pp

LCFf pp

Lwl

where:

(5)

Variable

Rr

c

g

Lwl

Bwl

LCBf pp

LCFf pp

fpp

Cp

Aw

Sc

Meaning

Residuary Resistance

volume of displacement

density of water

acceleration due to gravity

length at waterline

Breadth at waterline

longitudinal position of centre of buoyancy from fpp

longitudinal position of centre of floatation from fpp

forward perpendicular

prismatic co-efficient

waterplane area at zero speed

wetted surface area at zero speed

have been incorporated in the expression:

Residuary resistance is a function of displacement.This has been taken

care of with the displacement-length ratio.

The seperation between LCB and LCF is a measure of hull distortion(trim)

To find the optimum values of LCB and Cp ,higher order terms regarding

these terms are introduced.

Beam to length ratio(slenderness ratio) is introduced as a contributing

factor.

The co-efficients a0 to a8 are tabulated with the froude numbers below:

The residuary resistance is calculated using the values tabulated along with

the model parameters(presented in Appendix-1).The graph is plotted with the

froude number below.

2.3

The viscous resistance of the appendages is considered to be the frictional resistance and other viscous effects.

Rv = Rf (1 + k)

(6)

The frictional resistance Rf is calculated using the ITTC extrapolation procedure as explained in the section about frictional resistance.The only difference

being the characteristic length used in computing the reynolds number.It was

mentioned in the section about frictional resistance that the characteristic length

used was 0.7Lwl ,but here the average chord length of the appendage is used.

The viscous and form drag is taken into account with the form factor,which is

sole function of thickness-chord ratio(as in aeronuatical sciences):

t

t

(1 + k) = (1 + 2 + 60( )4 )

c

c

The resistance are calculated using the above formulation and the graphs are

plotted below:

2.4

The hulls with keels have been tested and the results from the test were used to

fit an expression.The following expression yields a satisfactory fit and depends

on the relation between keel and hull volume,taper ratio of the keel,beam to draft

ratio of hull(as we know,all the properties depend exponentially on depth,this

volume to free surface(Zcb ).

Rrk

T

(Tc + Zcbk )2

c

= A0 + A1

+ A2

+ A4

kg

Bwl

K

k

(7)

where,

Variable

Rrk

k

T

Bwl

Tc

Zcbk

c

Meaning

residuary resistance of keel

volume of displacement of keel

draft of hull with keel

beam at waterline

draft

vertical position of centre of buoyancy of keel

volume of displacement of hull

The residuary resistance of the keel is calculated and the graph is plotted below:

2.5

We use equation(1) to find the total resistance and we provide a plot of total

resistance with the froude number below:

a percentage and drawn against froude number below:

The contribution of the frictional resistance to the total resistance decreases with the increasing froude number,whereas the residuary resistance contribution increases with the froude number.This is expected as

we know that the residuary resistance increases proportional to V 4 .

10

number of 0.4,but once it crosses the 0.4Fn (hump in the resistance curve),the

contribution becomes more gradual with increasing froude number.

2.6

As we know that the total upright resistance is a summation of five components(see equation 1),the only component prediction that differs from the explained method is the residuary resistance of the hull.So,here we will give the

fromulation for residuary resistance using the new method. The formula is

mentioned below:

LCBf pp

c2/3

Bwl

Rr

= a0 + (a1

+ a2 Cp + a3

+ a4

cg

Lwl

Aw

Lwl

LCBf pp

Bwl

c1/3

+ a5

+ a6

+ a7 Cm )

LCFf pp

Tc

Lwl

(8)

where:

Variable

Rr

c

g

LCBf pp

LCB

fpp

Lwl

Cp

Aw

Bwl

LCFf pp

LCF

Tc

Cm

Meaning

Residuary resistance of bare hull

Volume of displacement

density of water

acceleration due to gravity

distance of LCB from fpp

Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy

forward perpendicular

length of waterline

prismatic co-efficient

wetted surface area

beam at waterline

distance of LCF from fpp

longitudinal center of flotation

draft

midship section co-efficient

We provide a graph of residuary resistance computed using the above formulation with the froude number below:

11

2.7

The plots of residuary resistance calculated using both the methods in shown

first.Then,we enumerate the differences in the expressions between both the

methods.

12

We will know enumerate the changes in the new formulation compared with the

kuening and sonneberg 2008:

The midship co-efficient(Cm ) is introduced.This influences the resistance

in the low and high speed regions

The prismatic co-efficient(Cp ) and LCB have no higher order terms in the

expression.In the Kuening and sonnenberg method,they were higher order

terms for Cp and LCB.This was done to find optimum location of LCB

and Cp ,but these terms affected the robustness and stability of the results

in the cases where the parameter range was outside the DSHYS.

The breadth-draft ratio has taken its place instead of wetted area-displacement

ratio

2.8

of LCB and LCF(measure of hull distortion).Thus,it makes sense to minimize

the residuary resistance with respect to LCB at various froude number.We make

use of the Kuening and Sonnenberg(1998) expression to find the optimal location of LCB.We differentiate the expression with respect to LCB and set it to

zero.We provide the solution of the equation as the optimal location of LCB

with various froude numbers as a plot below:

13

explained in a crude form in the figure below:

Before the expression for the regression fit is given,we want to explain the parameters we choose.

LCB

LCF :The

14

B

L :This

the angle of entrance of water(lower the ratio,smoother the water angle of

entrance,lower the resistance).

B

T :This

may not be much influence in large displacement ships,but in sailing yacht,this is important.This has something to do with the exponential

decline in water pressure.

and hence the wave making ability of ship.

We also consider the second order terms for

B

L

and

LCB

LCF .

The midship section co-efficient affects the residuary resistance at low and

high speeds.This parameter is included.

c1/3

Lwl :This parameter is called

loading, B

T in the expression.

Now,using all these parameters,we tried to fit.When,we perform the fit using

MATLAB,it provides whether a parameter effects the distribution or not.The

B 2

terms LCB

LCF and ( L ) are seen not to affect the distribution.So,we now provide

the expression used:

Rr

c1/3 c2/3

B c2/3

LCB 2

B c1/3

= a0 +a1

+a2

+a3 Cm +a4 (

) +a5

cg

Lwl Aw

L Aw

LCF

T Aw

(9)

The values of the co-efficients are tabulated below:

Using this co-efficients,we predict the resistance.The predicted values are quite

good.When we have look at the curves,they look exactly same,but the difference

is so small,that the naked eye will not capture it.

15

By using WinDesign VPP to analyze the Sysser 25, the performance of the ship

at different TWS (8, 10 and 14 knots) can be predicted and is given detailedly

in the automatically output VPP report. Here, to sum up, firstly the Polar

Diagram is shown below.

Operating points at downwind and upwind for the best performance are also

shown in the diagram. Below are the figures containing detailed results, which

suggests that the optimal TWA at different TWS are all around 42 to 45 degrees

when operating upwind, while there are obvious differences (from 137.3 to 170.8

degrees) when operating downwind.

After introducing added resistance through waves of Delft Method, there are

some over-boundary parts in the 14-knots curve at Polar Diagram (shown in

Figure 8), which suggests that the formula fails to tell the truth when TWA

is larger than 90 degrees. As a result, only the upwind performances will be

taken into further consideration. The results at two different wave conditions

are shown in Figure 9 and 10.

Compared with Figure 2, which gives the optimal performances for upwind

operating in calm water, there are some particular points should be drown attention to. Firstly, at the same TWS, TWA and heel angle together with leeway

angle, AWA and flat all increase after introducing wave resistance, while ship

speed, Vmg and AWS decreases. Secondly, at high TWS (14 knots for example),

16

Figure 3:

Figure 4:

17

Figure 5:

Figure 6:

the effect of wave resistance to ship performances is not that evident (except

the optimal TWA and AWA) compared with lower TWS. In other words, at 14

knots, the change of VS, Vmg, heel angle, flat, AWS and leeway angle almost

can nearly be neglected after wave resistance has been taken into account. Last

but not least, although the optimal performance numbers of calm water differ

from those after wave resistance is introduced, the difference of the numbers

from one wave condition to another is really small, which can be seen from Fig

9 and 10: under the same TWS, other optimal numbers only slightly change at

different wave conditions.

With the conclusions drawn above, to maintain optimal performance upwind in

the seaway, there are some techniques worth trying: If the hydrodynamic environment is relatively stable (the wave condition almost remains the same) and

the TWA changes, a proper way to maintain optimal performance is changing

the ship speed gradually by following the predictions while changing the angle

of attack slowly. If the aerodynamic environment is stable (the TWS does not

change significantly) but the wave condition changes, the best way to maintain

optimal performance is to change the attack angle gradually, which will further

change the TWA, meanwhile change the ship speed very slowly until reaching

the new optimal situation. Finally, if both environmental conditions are unstable, judging by the level of their fluctuations, the one which changes more

significantly needs to be treated in advance.

Figure 7:

18

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