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# Hydromechanics of special ship Types

First Assignment
Yueming Sang
September 26, 2016

Contents
1 Introduction

2 Resistance calculations
2.1 Kuening and Sonneberg approach . . .
2.1.1 Frictional Resistance . . . . . .
2.2 Residuary Resistance . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Viscous Resistance of Appendages . .
2.4 Residuary Resistance of Keel . . . . .
2.5 Total Upright Resistance . . . . . . . .
2.6 Kuening 2008 Resistance method . . .
2.7 Comparison of Residuary Resistance of
2.8 Optimal LCB location . . . . . . . . .

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both methods
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Introduction

## The main goals of the assignment are:

Understand the differences between two different approaches of resistance
estimation of sailing yacht.
find the various resistance components
finding optimal LCB location
devising an own regression formula to find the resistance
learning implementation of the Win Design program
The first section of the assignment is dedicated to the first three goals.This is followed by section 2,where we develop an own regression formula.The calculations
using Win Design are provided in section 3.

Resistance calculations

We present the resistance estimates of Sysser 25(bare hull with keel and rudder)
using two different expressions.The first being the Kuening and Sonneberg polynomial expressions(1998/1999) and the second being the Kuening polynomial
expressions(2008).We then bring the main differences between the approximations.

2.1

## The total upright reistance of the hull(Rt ) is a summation of Frictional resistance

of the hull(Rf ),residuary resistance of the hull(Rr ),viscous keel resistance(Rvk ),viscous
resistance rudder(Rvr ) and residuary resistance of keel(Rrk ).Mathematically,
Rt = Rf + Rr + Rvk + Rvr + Rrk

(1)

## Now,we will discuss the components independently.

2.1.1

Frictional Resistance

The frictional resistance of the hull is calculated using the froudes extrapolation
method.The frictional resistance extrapolation co-efficient is based on the generally accepted formulation of the international towing tank conference(ITTC)
of 1957 and reformulated in 1975.The form factor which takes the three dimensional effects of the two dimensional resistance is not included.An interesting
point that could be mentioned here is that the reynolds number used for calculating the frictional resistance co-efficient uses the 0.7Lwl instead of Lwl .This is
to take care the change in wetted length when trimmed(This is an approximation).
1
(2)
Rf = SV 2 Cf (1 + k)
2
where the meaning of the terms are tabulated below:

Variable
Rf

S
V
Cf
k

Meaning
Frictional Resistance
density of water
wetted surface area(Static)
Velocity
frictional resistance co-efficient
form factor

## The Cf is given by:

Cf =

0.075
(log Rn 2)2

(3)

where
Variable
Rn
Cf

Meaning
Reynolds number
frictional resistance co-efficient

## The reynolds number is given by:

Rn =

0.7Lwl V

(4)

where
Variable
Rn
Lwl

Meaning
Reynolds number
length of waterline(static)
kinematic viscousity of water

The following formulas were used and the resistance was calculated.We provide
the plot of frictional resistance with froude number below:

The form factor k was not included because of the absence of generally accepted
formulation of the form factor as a function of hull parameters.

2.2

Residuary Resistance

The expression for residuary resistance used has been based on the previous
experiences.The expression has yeilded sufficient accuracy and robustness.
Rr
LCBf pp
c2/3
Bwl c1/3
= a0 + (a1
+ a2 Cp + a3
+ a4
)
cg
Lwl
Aw
Lwl Lwl
c2/3
LCBf pp
LCBf pp 2
c1/3
+ (a5
+ a6
+ a7 (
) + a8 Cp 2 )
Sc
LCFf pp
LCFf pp
Lwl
where:

(5)

Variable
Rr
c

g
Lwl
Bwl
LCBf pp
LCFf pp
fpp
Cp
Aw
Sc

Meaning
Residuary Resistance
volume of displacement
density of water
acceleration due to gravity
length at waterline
longitudinal position of centre of buoyancy from fpp
longitudinal position of centre of floatation from fpp
forward perpendicular
prismatic co-efficient
waterplane area at zero speed
wetted surface area at zero speed

## It is interesting to understand how the presented shape of parametric terms

have been incorporated in the expression:
Residuary resistance is a function of displacement.This has been taken
care of with the displacement-length ratio.
The seperation between LCB and LCF is a measure of hull distortion(trim)
To find the optimum values of LCB and Cp ,higher order terms regarding
these terms are introduced.
Beam to length ratio(slenderness ratio) is introduced as a contributing
factor.
The co-efficients a0 to a8 are tabulated with the froude numbers below:

The residuary resistance is calculated using the values tabulated along with
the model parameters(presented in Appendix-1).The graph is plotted with the
froude number below.

2.3

## Viscous Resistance of Appendages

The viscous resistance of the appendages is considered to be the frictional resistance and other viscous effects.
Rv = Rf (1 + k)

(6)

The frictional resistance Rf is calculated using the ITTC extrapolation procedure as explained in the section about frictional resistance.The only difference
being the characteristic length used in computing the reynolds number.It was
mentioned in the section about frictional resistance that the characteristic length
used was 0.7Lwl ,but here the average chord length of the appendage is used.
The viscous and form drag is taken into account with the form factor,which is
sole function of thickness-chord ratio(as in aeronuatical sciences):
t
t
(1 + k) = (1 + 2 + 60( )4 )
c
c
The resistance are calculated using the above formulation and the graphs are
plotted below:

2.4

## Residuary Resistance of Keel

The hulls with keels have been tested and the results from the test were used to
fit an expression.The following expression yields a satisfactory fit and depends
on the relation between keel and hull volume,taper ratio of the keel,beam to draft
ratio of hull(as we know,all the properties depend exponentially on depth,this

## factor takes effect of that),vertical distance of centre of buoyancy of the keel

volume to free surface(Zcb ).
Rrk
T
(Tc + Zcbk )2
c
= A0 + A1
+ A2
+ A4
kg
Bwl
K
k

(7)

where,
Variable
Rrk
k
T
Bwl
Tc
Zcbk
c

Meaning
residuary resistance of keel
volume of displacement of keel
draft of hull with keel
beam at waterline
draft
vertical position of centre of buoyancy of keel
volume of displacement of hull

The residuary resistance of the keel is calculated and the graph is plotted below:

2.5

## Total Upright Resistance

We use equation(1) to find the total resistance and we provide a plot of total
resistance with the froude number below:

## The contributions of various resistances to the total resistance is calculated as

a percentage and drawn against froude number below:

## Some interesting observations that can be made are stated below:

The contribution of the frictional resistance to the total resistance decreases with the increasing froude number,whereas the residuary resistance contribution increases with the froude number.This is expected as
we know that the residuary resistance increases proportional to V 4 .
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## The contribution of residuary resistance increases sharply before froude

number of 0.4,but once it crosses the 0.4Fn (hump in the resistance curve),the
contribution becomes more gradual with increasing froude number.

2.6

## Kuening 2008 Resistance method

As we know that the total upright resistance is a summation of five components(see equation 1),the only component prediction that differs from the explained method is the residuary resistance of the hull.So,here we will give the
fromulation for residuary resistance using the new method. The formula is
mentioned below:
LCBf pp
c2/3
Bwl
Rr
= a0 + (a1
+ a2 Cp + a3
+ a4
cg
Lwl
Aw
Lwl
LCBf pp
Bwl
c1/3
+ a5
+ a6
+ a7 Cm )
LCFf pp
Tc
Lwl

(8)

where:
Variable
Rr
c

g
LCBf pp
LCB
fpp
Lwl
Cp
Aw
Bwl
LCFf pp
LCF
Tc
Cm

Meaning
Residuary resistance of bare hull
Volume of displacement
density of water
acceleration due to gravity
distance of LCB from fpp
Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy
forward perpendicular
length of waterline
prismatic co-efficient
wetted surface area
beam at waterline
distance of LCF from fpp
longitudinal center of flotation
draft
midship section co-efficient

We provide a graph of residuary resistance computed using the above formulation with the froude number below:

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2.7

## Comparison of Residuary Resistance of both methods

The plots of residuary resistance calculated using both the methods in shown
first.Then,we enumerate the differences in the expressions between both the
methods.

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We will know enumerate the changes in the new formulation compared with the
kuening and sonneberg 2008:
The midship co-efficient(Cm ) is introduced.This influences the resistance
in the low and high speed regions
The prismatic co-efficient(Cp ) and LCB have no higher order terms in the
expression.In the Kuening and sonnenberg method,they were higher order
terms for Cp and LCB.This was done to find optimum location of LCB
and Cp ,but these terms affected the robustness and stability of the results
in the cases where the parameter range was outside the DSHYS.
ratio

2.8

## If we check all the expressions,the residuary resistance depends on the seperation

of LCB and LCF(measure of hull distortion).Thus,it makes sense to minimize
the residuary resistance with respect to LCB at various froude number.We make
use of the Kuening and Sonnenberg(1998) expression to find the optimal location of LCB.We differentiate the expression with respect to LCB and set it to
zero.We provide the solution of the equation as the optimal location of LCB
with various froude numbers as a plot below:

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## We would like to explain what exactly happens at froude number of 0.35.It is

explained in a crude form in the figure below:

## Resistance estimation from own regression fit

Before the expression for the regression fit is given,we want to explain the parameters we choose.

LCB
LCF :The

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B
L :This

## plays an important role.We know that this parameter determines

the angle of entrance of water(lower the ratio,smoother the water angle of
entrance,lower the resistance).

B
T :This

may not be much influence in large displacement ships,but in sailing yacht,this is important.This has something to do with the exponential
decline in water pressure.

and hence the wave making ability of ship.
We also consider the second order terms for

B
L

and

LCB
LCF .

The midship section co-efficient affects the residuary resistance at low and
high speeds.This parameter is included.

c1/3
Lwl :This parameter is called
T in the expression.

## the slenderness ratio and is multiplied with

Now,using all these parameters,we tried to fit.When,we perform the fit using
MATLAB,it provides whether a parameter effects the distribution or not.The
B 2
terms LCB
LCF and ( L ) are seen not to affect the distribution.So,we now provide
the expression used:
Rr
c1/3 c2/3
B c2/3
LCB 2
B c1/3
= a0 +a1
+a2
+a3 Cm +a4 (
) +a5
cg
Lwl Aw
L Aw
LCF
T Aw
(9)
The values of the co-efficients are tabulated below:

Using this co-efficients,we predict the resistance.The predicted values are quite
good.When we have look at the curves,they look exactly same,but the difference
is so small,that the naked eye will not capture it.

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## WinDesign VPP Results

By using WinDesign VPP to analyze the Sysser 25, the performance of the ship
at different TWS (8, 10 and 14 knots) can be predicted and is given detailedly
in the automatically output VPP report. Here, to sum up, firstly the Polar
Diagram is shown below.
Operating points at downwind and upwind for the best performance are also
shown in the diagram. Below are the figures containing detailed results, which
suggests that the optimal TWA at different TWS are all around 42 to 45 degrees
when operating upwind, while there are obvious differences (from 137.3 to 170.8
degrees) when operating downwind.

## Added Resistance estimation through Win Design

After introducing added resistance through waves of Delft Method, there are
some over-boundary parts in the 14-knots curve at Polar Diagram (shown in
Figure 8), which suggests that the formula fails to tell the truth when TWA
is larger than 90 degrees. As a result, only the upwind performances will be
taken into further consideration. The results at two different wave conditions
are shown in Figure 9 and 10.
Compared with Figure 2, which gives the optimal performances for upwind
operating in calm water, there are some particular points should be drown attention to. Firstly, at the same TWS, TWA and heel angle together with leeway
angle, AWA and flat all increase after introducing wave resistance, while ship
speed, Vmg and AWS decreases. Secondly, at high TWS (14 knots for example),
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## Figure 2: Optm Performances for Upwind in calm water

Figure 3:

Figure 4:
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Figure 5:

Figure 6:
the effect of wave resistance to ship performances is not that evident (except
the optimal TWA and AWA) compared with lower TWS. In other words, at 14
knots, the change of VS, Vmg, heel angle, flat, AWS and leeway angle almost
can nearly be neglected after wave resistance has been taken into account. Last
but not least, although the optimal performance numbers of calm water differ
from those after wave resistance is introduced, the difference of the numbers
from one wave condition to another is really small, which can be seen from Fig
9 and 10: under the same TWS, other optimal numbers only slightly change at
different wave conditions.
With the conclusions drawn above, to maintain optimal performance upwind in
the seaway, there are some techniques worth trying: If the hydrodynamic environment is relatively stable (the wave condition almost remains the same) and
the TWA changes, a proper way to maintain optimal performance is changing
the ship speed gradually by following the predictions while changing the angle
of attack slowly. If the aerodynamic environment is stable (the TWS does not
change significantly) but the wave condition changes, the best way to maintain
optimal performance is to change the attack angle gradually, which will further
change the TWA, meanwhile change the ship speed very slowly until reaching
the new optimal situation. Finally, if both environmental conditions are unstable, judging by the level of their fluctuations, the one which changes more
significantly needs to be treated in advance.

Figure 7:
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