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General Biology

Cell theory
1.
2.
3.

All animals and plants are composed of


cells and cell products
Smallest unit having the properties of
life
Continuity of life arises directly from he
growth and division of single cells.

Anton van Leeuwenhoek and Robert Hooke


(1839) Theodore Schwann and Matthias
Schleiden
- all living things are made of cells
After 50 yrs. Rudolf Virchow
- all cells come from cells
Cells basic structural and functional unit of
living organisms.
Why are cells so small?
- The smaller the size, the larger the surface
are

Water only sub that can pass in and out


(kahit walang I.D)
-

General Type
1.
2.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Nutrition
Biosynthesis
Digestion
Absorption
Biosynthesis
Cellular Respiration
Secretion
Response
Reproduction

Characteristics of All Cells


-

A surrounding membrane
3 chemicals
- carbohydrates surface of the cell
- protein embedded
- phospholipids hydrophobic
contains fatty acid, hydrophilic
contains glycerol (Alcohol)

Modern Model Fluid Mosaic Model


* Fluid flows and behaves like
*Mosaic combination of diff. chemical
components

Prokaryotic without true nucleus


Eukaryotic with true nucleus
EU true karyo- nuceus
*true nucleus (pag may membrane sa
labas)

Prokaryotes
-

Human RBC concave para mas kumapit ang


oxygen
Processes of Cells
- need energy that occurs from chemical
reactions occurring in a cell

Protoplasm cell contents in thick fluid


Organelles structures for cell function
Control center with DNA (carries
genetic info)

before nucleus; lacks a true


membrane-bound nucleus
Independent, single-cell organism
(bacteria)
Cytoplasm is not compartmentalized
- no internal organelles like a nucleus
Include the two kingdoms of bacteria
-Bacteri are the simplest cellular
organisms
- Bacteria have diverse array of shapes
They can adhere in chains and mosses,
although the cells remain separate
First cell type on earth
Cell type of Bacteria and Archaea
No membrane bound
Nucleiod region of DNA concentration
Organelles not bound by membrane

Eukaryotes
-

true nucleus; has a membraneenclosed nucleus that houses the DNA


in a complex structures called
chromosomes.
Contain organelles
Have special network of minute
filaments and tubules )cytoskeleton)
which gives shape for the cells and
allows movement
Include all protests, fungi, plants, and
animals
Much larger than prokaryotic cells
- complex internal
compartmentalization
- membrane bound organelles
specialized structure where particular
cell processes occur
- Largest organelle nucleus

Eukaryotic
Contains a nucleus
and other membrane
bound organelles
Rod shaped
chromosomes
Found in all kingdoms
except monera

Prokaryotic
Deos not contain a
nucleus or other
membrane-bound
organelles
One circular
chromosome
Found only in the
kingdom monera

Cell according to size


1.
2.

Microscopic
Macroscopic

According to shape
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Oval wbc of men


Spherical rbc of men
Cuboidal kidney tubules
Columnar stomach and intestine
Stellate nerve cell
Spindle shape muscle cell

According to Function
1.
2.

Somatic or pediative
Reproductive of sex cells

Means of Obtaining Energy


1.

2.

Autotrophs self feeders; use lightenergy on chemical energy to


manufacture their own biomolecules,
(some bacteria, plants)
Heterotrophs-other feeders

Cell organization
1.
2.

Unicellular cell and organism are one


(bacteria and protist)
Multicellular cells are integrated for
proper functioning and general starts
life as a single cell that divides and
grows

Cell Structures and organelles


1.
-

Cell membrane (Plasma membrane)


Encloses, protects and separates a cell
from other cells and from surrounding
fluids
Holds the cell together and give shape
Selectively permeable; double layer of
lipids and proteins
Outermost boundary of cells

Filters materials coming in and out of


the cell
2. Cell wall
Surrounds the plasma membrane of
most plant cells
Found in plants, fungi and many protist
Protects and support plant cells, gives
definite shape
Contains pectin (jelly-like substance)
released during cooking and forms a
gel as it cools
3. Protoplasm
Jelly-like living substance of the cell
that is translucent, grayish, and slimy
(colloidal suspension-often moves or
streams within the cell.)
It may be foam-like or contain small
fibers or threads comprises water,
minerals, salts and many kinds of
organic compounds
4. Nucleus
= control center of the cell; plays the
central role in cellular reproduction nd
in conjunction with the environment in
determining what sort of differentiate a
cell undergo and why form it will
exhibit of maturity
Directs the metabolic activity of the
living cell
Components
a. Nuclear membrane double layer
of lipids and proteins; separate the
nuclear material for the cytoplasm
b. Nucleolus atleast one is present
or not, nuclei; takes part in protein
synthesis
c. Chromatin fine strands spread
through the nucleoplasm
d. Chromosomes contracted and
distinct chromatin when a cell is
dividing
5. Organelles
Highly organized structures contained
in the cytoplasm
Cellular machinery
Two general kinds
- Derived from membranes
Bacteria-like organelles
*kakaibang DNA plastids and
mitochondria ability to duplicate
a) Endoplasmic Reticulum
Systems of double membranes that live
parallel to one another, appearing to
form channel
Separates different area of the cell;
also provide surface

Cell structures are attached, providing


a chmical reaction
*Transports substances within cells
*produces membranes

Two types:
-

Rough marami ribosome ~ protein


synthesis
Smooth lack ribosome ~ liver natin
b) Ribosomes
Small units non membrane bound
structures
Site for protein synthesis
Attached to ER
Contain enzymes that carry out the
synthesis of proteins
Contain large amounts of RNA mode
c) Mitochondria
Small, rod-shaped organelle, rounded
cylinders or globules enclosed by
membrane
Have their own DNA
Bound by double membrane
* ATP (cellular respiration)
Break down fuel molecules (cellular
respiration)
* Glucose Lysosome
* Fatty acids
Release energy
*ATP
c.1 Outer membrane separates the
mitochondrion from the cytoplasm
c.2 inner membrane increase the
surface area of the inner for a chemical
reactions
- helps to control the amount of H2o,
cut, and other inorganic ions
d) Golgi complex (Bodies or Apparatus)
Consist of a system of membraneenclosed vesicles arranged parallel to
each other
Stacks of flattened sacs
Packaging and shipping station of cell
Modifies proteins
Wrap enzymes into separate organelles
e) Centrosome
Contains one to two centrioles which
are small dark bodies located abouve
the nucleus in many eukaryotic animal
cells
Spindle during cell division
Made up of a sets of microtubules with
3 microtubules in each set
f) Lysosome
Found in cytoplasm of most animal

Smaller than mitochoindria and have a


simple membrane
Bounded by a single membrane
Contain enzymes that breakdown
proteins (digestive enzymes)
Aid in cell renewal
Breakdown olad cell parts
Digest invaders
g) Peroxisomes
Micobodies; participate in the oxidation
of certain nutrients
Converts hydrogen peroxide to H2o
and O2
Bounded by single membrane
Contain digestive enzyme
Detoxifies alcohol
Breaks down fatty acid
Produces hydrogen peroxide
h) Plastids
Largest cytoplasmic organelles found in
the cells of most plants but not in
fungal or animal cells
Derived from photosynthetic bacteria
Stores photosynthetic pigments
a) Chromoplasts colored plastids;
contain pigments
b) Leucoplasts colorless plastids;
storage of starch, oils, and proteins
Photosynthesis takes place into
chloroplasts, - makes cellular food
glucose
i) Vacuoles
Membrane-enclosed cavities filled with
either fluid or granular material
Membrane bound storage sacs
More common in plants than animals
Food contain food particles
Contractile expel excess water and
wastes from the cell
Storage of materials
*Plasmolysis shrinking of vacuoles
j) Cytoskeleton
Interconnected system of fibers,
threads, and extends between the
nucleus and plasma membrane of
eukaryotic cells, gives the cells their
internal organization
Overall shape, and capacity to move
>Reinforces plasma membrane
1. Microfilaments part of cytoplasm
- responsible for contraction of cell
2. Microtubules important in the
maintenance of the shape of the
cell, cell division and the
movement of inclusions, and
organelles within the cell
- Cell locomotion

- main components of flagella and


centrioles
3. Intermediate filaments for cell to
cell junction

Mechanical support

Anchor organelles

Help move substances


k) Cilia
Short and numerous movable hairlike
structures projecting from free surfaces
Move substances outsie human
Fare absorption
l) Flagella
A few appendases and are relatively in
proportion to the size of the cell
m) Microvilli
minute fingerlike projections of the
cell membrane
- sites of osmosis where fluids may
pass in and out of the cell
n) Pinocytic Vesicles
in-pocketings of the cell membrane
filled with water
When water is needed by the cell, the
plasma membrane engulfs a droplets
of water in a process of pinocytosis
o) Pilus (pili)
Surface projections of bacteria that are
protein filaments which help many
bacteria and various surfaces, either to
one another
Plasmodesma (plasmodesmata)
of multicelled plants, a junction
between linked walls of adjacent
cells through which nutrients and
other substances flow

Cytoplasm
Viscous fluid containing organelles
Components of cytoplasm
Interconnected filaments fibers
Fluid cytosol
Site of cells metabolic activities
Centrioles animals
Pairs of microtubular structures
Move the chromosomes during cell
division
Splitting done by mitotic spindle
produced by centrioles that pull the
chromosomes
- have cells and muscles (wala tayong
centriole)
- di nagdidivide upon maturity
DNA
Hereditary material
Chromosomes
- contains DNA and proteins
-terms for cell division
Chromatin when not yet divided
- contains DNA and protein present
during resting activity storage of the
cell
Nucleolus
Most cells have 2 or more
Direct synthesis of RNA
Forms ribosomes

Nucleus
Mitochondria
Plastids

DOUBLE MEMBRANE