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History of KKK

July 7, 1892

Katipunan as revolutionary secret society

Katipunan was only open for male Filipinos;

Katipunan had colorful beginnings.

Ang Kalayaan (The Liberty)

Bonifacio contacted Rizal

Katipunan's existence was revealed


Cry of Pugad Lawin and Andres Bonifacio Execution

Flags of KKK

The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary

indigenous Tagalog word, meaning: "society" or

society founded by Filipino anti-Spanish people

"gather together".[3] Its official revolutionary

in Manila in 1892, which was aimed primarily to

name is Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang

gain

through

Katipunan ngg mgg Anak ngg Bayan[1] (English:

revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino

Supreme and Venerable Society of the Children

patriots

Plata,

of the Nation, Spanish: Suprema y venerable

Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night of July 7,

asociacin de los hijos del pueblo). Katipunan is

when Filipino writer Jos Rizal was sentenced to

also known by its acronym, K.K.K.. Being a

banished to Dapitan. Initially, Katipunan was a

secret organization, its members are subjected

secret organization until its discovery in 1896

to utmost secrecy and are expected to abide

that led to the outbreak of Philippine Revolution.

with the rules established by the society.[3]

The

Aspirant

independence

Andrs

word

from

Bonifacio,

"katipunan"

Spain

Teodoro

(literally

means

association) came from the root word "tipon", an

applicants

were

given

standard

initiation rites to become members of the

society. At first, Katipunan was only open for


male Filipinos; not later then, women were

The members agreed to recruit more people

accepted in the society. The Katipunan has its

using the triangle system of enlistment. Each

own publication, Ang Kalayaan (The Liberty) that

original

had its first and last print on March 1896.

members who were not related to each other.

Revolutionary ideals and works flourished within

Each new member would do the same thing, and

the

were

so on down the line. Members were also asked

expanded by its some prominent members. In

to contribute one Real (about 25 centavos) each

planning the revolution, Bonifacio contacted

month in order to raise funds for the association.

society,

Rizal

for

and

its

Philippine

full-pledged

literature

support

for

member

would

recruit

tow

new

the

Katipunan in exchange of promising Rizal's

The KKK members agreed on the following

liberty from detainment by rescuing him. On

objectives:

May 1896, a delegation was sent to the Emperor


of Japan to solicit funds and military arms.

The political goal was to completely separate

Katipunan's

the Philippines from Spain after declaring the

existence

was

revealed

to

the

Spanish authorities after a member named

countrys independence.

Teodoro Patio confessed Katipunan's illegal

The moral goal was to teach the Filipinos good

activities to his sister the mother portress of

manners, cleanliness, hygiene, fine morals, and

Mandaluyong Orphanage. Seven days after the

how to guard themselves against religious

wrong turn of history, on August 26, 1896,

fanaticism..

Bonifacio and his men tore their cedlas during

The civic goal was to encourage Filipinos to

the infamous Cry of Balintawak that started

help

Philippine Revolution

oppressed.

The Katipunan is born

The

Andres Bonifacio was also a member of La Liga

council) was the highest governing body of the

Filipina, although he soon lost hope in gaining

Katipunan. It was headed by a supremo, or

reforms though peaceful means. This feeling

president. Each province had a Sangguaniang

was especially heightened when Jose Rizal was

Bayan (Provincial Council) and each town had a

exiled to Dapitan. Bonifacio became convinced

Sangguniang Balangay (Popular Council).

themselves

and

Kataastaasang

to

defend

Sanggunian

the

poor

(supreme

that the only way the Philippines could gain


independence was through a revolution.

The Leaders of the Katipunan:

Bonifacio

Deodato Arellano -Supremo

then

founded

the

Katastaasang

Kagalanggalangang Katipuanan ng mga Anak ng

Ladislao Diwa -Fiscal

Bayan (KKK) on July 7, 1892 in a house on

Teodora Plata -Secretary

Azcarraga street (now Claro M. Recto), in Tondo

Valentine Diaz -treasurer

Manila.

Andres Bonifacio -controller

The Katipunan had colorful beginnings. As a

Jose Rizal and the Katipunan

symbol of the members loyalty, they performed


the solemn rite of sanduguan (blood compact),

Jose RizalJose Rizal never became involved in

wherein each one signed his name with his own

the organization and activities of the Katipunan;

blood..

but the Katipuneros still looked up to him as a

leader. In fact, Rizals name was used as a

Patio was a worker in the printing press of

password among the societys highest-ranking

Diario de Manila. Honoria was then living with

members, who were called bayani.

nuns in a Mandaluyong orphanage.

Andres Bonifacio had already known Rizal during

The information upset Honoria so much that she

his La Liga Filipina days, although Rizal did not

told the orphanages Mother Superior, Sor Teresa

know

Nevertheless,

de Jesus, what her brother had revealed. Sor

Bonifacio so respected Rizals intelligence and

Teresa suggested they seek the advice of Father

talent that in June 1896, he sent Dr. Pio

Mariano Gil, the parish priest of Tondo.

Bonifacio

personally

Valenzuela to Dapitan to seek Rizals advice on


the planned revolution.

After

hearing

Patios

revelations,

Father

Mariano Gil-accompanied by several Guardias


Rizal told Valenzuela that the timing was not

Civiles immediately searched the premises of

right for a revolution. The people were not yet

Diario de Manila and found evidence of the

ready and they did not have enough weapons.

Katipunans existence. The governor general

He suggested that the Katipunan obtain the

was quickly informed. The printing press was

support of wealthy and influential Filipinos first,

padlocked and hundreds of suspected KKK

in order to gain financial assistance. He also

members were arrested. -Continue to Cry of

recommended Antonio Luna as commander of

Pugad Lawin & Andres Bonifacio's Execution.

its

armed

forces,

since

Luna

had

much

knowledge and expertise in military tactics.

The Cry of Pugadlawin

Valenzuela returned to Manila on June 26 and

Andres BonifacioNews about the discovery of the

relayed

who

Katipunan spread to Manila and nearby suburbs,

admitted that it would indeed be fatal for the

and Andres Bonifacio immediately called for a

Filipinos

general meeting. Various wings of the Katipunan

Rizals

to

fight

advice

to

without

Bonifacio,

enough

weapons.

However, there was no stopping the Revolution.

gathered

at

the house of Juan

Ramos

in

Bonifacio ordered his men to prepare for battle.

Pugadlawin on August 23, 1896. Ramos was the

He directed them to store enough food and

son of Melchora Aquino, also known as Tandang

other supplies. Battle plans were made with the

Sora and was later acknowledged as the

help of Emilio Jacinto. It was suggested that the

Mother of the Katipunan."

revolutionary headquarters be located near the


seas or mountains to provide for an easy retreat,

Bonifacio asked his men whether they were

if necessary.

willing to fight to the bitter end. Everyone


shouted their approval, except for Teodoro Plata,

The Katipunan is Discovered

who though that it was too soon for a revolution.


Heartened by his mens response, Bonifacio

Rumors about a secret revolutionary society had

then asked them to tear their cedulas (residence

long been in circulation, although no solid

certificates) to pieces, as a sign of their defiance

evidence could be found to support them. The

and determination to rise against the Spaniards.

big break as far as the Spanish authorities was

The men immediately tore up their cedulas,

concerned, came on August 19, 1896 when a

shouting, Mabuhay ang Pilipinas (long live the

KKK member, Teodoro Patio told his sister

Philippines) -known as the Cry of Pugadlawin.

Honoria about the existence of the Katipunan.

The Katipunan in Cavite

faction. An assembly was held in Imus, Cavite on


December 31, 1897 to settle the leadership

Cavite

soon

became

the

center

of

the

issue but was not successful. Then on March 22,

Revolution, and the Katipuneros there divided

another assembly was held at Tejeros (known as

themselves into the Magdalo and Magdiwang

the Tejeros Convention) to elect officers of the

factions. Baldomero Aguinaldo, brother of Emilio

revolutionary government. Aguinaldo won as

Aguinaldo, headed the Magdalo group, which

president while Bonifacio was relegated as the

was stationed in Kawit. General Mariano Alvarez

Director of the Interior. Bonifacio rejected the

led the Magdiwang group, which was stationed

elections and declared it void. Bonifacio later

in Noveleta.

formed the Naic Military Agreement, essentially


creating a government contending Aguinaldo's.

General Emilio AguinaldoThe two groups fought

Soon after, Bonifacio was captured, stood trial,

in separate battles. Emilio Aguinaldo overran

and was sentenced to death by a War Council of

Kawit

Aguinaldo's

on

August

31,

1896,

while

Alvarez

government.

Aguinaldo

initially

attacked Noveleta. In Bacoor, Aguinaldo tried to

commuted the sentence to deportation but later

intercept Spanish reinforcements coming from

reversed the commutation upon pressure from

Manila; but he was repulsed and forced to

Pio Del Pilar and other officers. On orders from

retreat to nearby Imus. Here, on the morning of

General Mariano Noriel, Andres Bonifacio was

September 5, he defeated the Spanish troops

executed at the foothills of Mt. Buntis by Major

under the command of General Aguirre. A

Lazaro Makapagal on May 10, 1897.

hundred Spaniards were killed and 60 weapons


were confiscated. Aguinaldo was hailed as a

The Revolution Continues

hero. The adoring Caviteos referred to him as


General Miong and no longer Kapitan Miong.

Bonifacios death did not deter the Filipinos from


fighting

for

their

freedom.

The

Spanish

General Aguinaldos numerous victories in the

government, for its part, doubled its efforts in

battlefield

acknowledged

trying to control Cavite, which was considered

revolutionary leader in Cavite. He issued a

the seat of the Revolution. When Governor

proclamation on October 31, 1896 enjoining the

General

people to take courage and continue fighting for

Polavieja on April 27, 1897, he immediately

Philippine independence.

marched

made

him

the

Primo

to

de

Naic,

Rivera

Cavite

replaced

to

Camilo

persuade

the

Filipinos to surrender. The rebels, however, stood


Owing to the defeat of the Spaniards in Cavite,

their ground.

Camilo de Polavieja replaced Ramon Blanco as


governor

general

on

December

Polavieja

was

more

successful

13,

1896.

than

Aguinaldo realized that Cavite was no longer

his

safe for his men. They moved to Batangas,

predecessor and slowly regained one-third of the

where they temporarily set up camp in the town

province.

of Talisay. However, Spanish soldiers were able


to pursue them there. Thus, they retreated to

Andres Bonifacio's Execution

Morong on June 10, 1897 and proceeded to Biakna-Bato in Bulacan.

While Aguinaldo was recognized as leader by the


Magdalo faction, Bonifacio was recognized as

With the establishment of the Katipunan, Andrs

the leader of the Katipunan by the Magdiwang

Bonifacio requested his wife, Gregoria de Jess,

to create a flag for the society. De Jess devised

defiance of Spanish authority. The flag was used

a simple red flag bearing the society's acronym,

later during the Battle of San Juan del Monte on

KKK, white and arranged horizontally at the

August 30, 1896, the first major battle of the

center. This became the society's first flag.

Philippine Revolution.

Bonifacio stated the "K" in the middle of the Sun


stood for Kalayaan, Freedom.[3]:105

Philippine revolution flag llanera.png


General Mariano Llanera who fought in the

Some Katipunan members used other variations.

provinces of Bulacan, Tarlac, Pampanga, and

One variation has the three Ks arranged in the

Nueva Ecija used a black flag with a white K on

form of a triangle. Some others used a red flag

the left and a white skull and crossed bones on

with only one K.

the right, resembling the Jolly Roger. Bonifacio


referred to the flag as Bungo ni Llanera or

Philippine revolution flag magdiwang.svg

Llanera's Skull.

When the revolution heated up, the Magdiwang


faction of the Katipunan, which operated in

Flag of Pio del Pilar.svg

Cavite under Mariano lvarez, adopted a flag

General Po del Pilar used a red banner which

consisting of a red banner with a white sun with

has a white triangle on the hoist with a K at each

the baybayin (the ancient Tagalog script) letter

angle. At the centre of the triangle was a

ka (for K) at the center.

mountain with a rising sun behind it. The flag


was called Bandila ng Matagumpay (Flag Of the

Philippine revolution flag magdalo alternate.svg

Triumphants) and was first used on July 11,

The Magdalo faction of the Katipunan, which

1895. The flag was also one of the first to depict

also operated in Cavite under Emilio Aguinaldo,

an eight-rayed sun.

used a flag similar to the Magdiwang faction's,


featuring a white sun with a baybayin letter ka.

Philippine revolution flag gregoriodelpilar.svg

The sun initially had an indefinite number of

General Gregorio del Pilar used a tricolour with a

rays and was later standardized to eight rays, to

blue triangle at the hoist, a red stripe at the top

represent the eight provinces that Spanish

and a black stripe at the bottom. Del Pilar

colonial authorities placed under martial law

patterned his flag after that of Cuba's, which

(Manila, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan,

was also in revolt against Spain.

Pampanga, Bataan, and Nueva Ecija). An eightrayed sun was later used in the national flag of

First official Filipino flag[edit]

the Philippines.

Flag of the Tagalog people.svg


At the Naic Assembly on 17 March 1897, the

Personal flags[edit]

Katipunan military leaders decided to adopt a

Philippine revolution flag pugadlawin.svg

new flag. The new design was red and depicted

As the Katipunan's Supremo, Andrs Bonifacio

a white sun with eight rays and a face. This flag

had a personal flag which depicts a white sun

became the first official Philippine flag, but was

with an indefinite number of rays on a field of

used for less than a year because Filipino

red. Below the sun are three white Ks arranged

leaders signed a truce with Spanish authorities

horizontally. This flag was first unveiled on

on 14 and 15 December 1897.

August 23, 1896 during the Cry of Pugadlawin


where the assembled Katipunan members tore

Other flags[edit]

their cedulas (community tax certificates) in

These are other flags which are not recognized

during the Philippine Centennial celebration in

Philippines.

1998 but nevertheless still used during the


Philippine Revolution

Modern Replica[edit]
Philippine revolution flag magdalo.svg

Flag of the Katipuneros of Bicol.svg

A flag reminiscent of historical Katipunan flags

Flag adopted by Katipuneros of the Bicol region.

was used by a breakaway faction of the Armed

The flag was used in many battles including the

Forces of the Philippines, who called themselves

Battle of Agdangan.[4]

the Bagong Katipuneros ("new Katipuneros")[5]


but labelled the "Mgdalo Group" by media.

Negrense revolution banner.svg


Aniceto

Lacson,

Juan

Araneta

These officers participated in the 2004 Oakwood


and

other

mutiny

and

2007

Manila

Peninsula

mutiny

Negrense revolutionists also used a tricolour flag

against the government of former President

in 1898. Their standard was inverted, with the

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. The Mgdalo Group

red field in the upper part to indicate wartime

mutinied at the behest of Senator Gregorio

and solidarity with other revolutionaries. and a

Honasan and were at both times led by Senator

sun that resembling a medal. The colours are

Antonio Trillanes IV.

similar to those of the current flag of the