pirate chemistry

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pirate chemistry

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All text copyright Chris Smith 2009. All pictures obtained from internet and are

copyright of their owners but assumed to be public accessible. If you are the owner

of a picture and want it removed, email csmith@d211.org, and

it will be.

Problem Solving with Heat

Heat is quite a complex concept. Heat can be effected by how much of the

substance there is,

what temperature the substance is at, and what the substance is. We need a unit

define and

quantify heat. It is a unit that you are very familiar with already; the calorie.

Calories

A calorie is a unit of energy, of heat. With every substance having a different

specific heat capacity, it can be difficult to come up with a unit that describes all

energy. It was decided to pick

a common substance to act as a standard against which all other substances would

be measured.

The common substance picked was water. We know that mass, specific heat, and

temperature

all effect the energy of a substance so to keep the numbers very simple:

a calorie was defined as the amount of energy needed to raise 1 grams of water by

1

o

C

Do you notice that all three aspects of heat are included; mass, temperature, and

identity? Thus,

the specific heat capacity of water (as indicated in the previous section) is defined

as 1 cal/g

o

C.

So if 1 calorie of heat is applied to 1 gram of water at 20

o

C, the water increases to 21

o

C. If 10

calories of heat are applied to 1 gram of water at 20

o

C, the water increases to 30

o

C. If 10 calories of heat are applied to 10 grams of water at 20

o

C, the water increase to 21

o

C! Lets put all

this into a simple equation which includes all of our variables:

Q = mc TfTi)

Q = mc T)

The heat quantity is Q, the mass is m, the specific heat capacity is c, and the final

temperature is

Tf while the initial temperature is Ti

.. Another way to represent this equation is by combining

Tf and Ti

into one variable T, which is the change in the temperature; the same thing as Tf-Ti

.

Lets look at some examples of typical problems you will see:

Heat

Mass Specific heat

capacity

Change in

temperature

Final temperature minus the inititial temperaturePirate Chemistry 2009

All text copyright Chris Smith 2009. All pictures obtained from internet and are

copyright of their owners but assumed to be public accessible. If you are the owner

of a picture and want it removed, email csmith@d211.org, and

it will be.

Example 1:

How much heat (in calories) is needed to raise 20 grams of water from 5

o

C to 40

o

C?

Q = mc(TfTi)

Q=x

m = 20 grams

c = 1 cal/g

o

C (this is the specific heat of water)

Tf = 40

o

C

Ti = 5

x = (20 g) (1 cal/g

o

C)(40 -5

0

C) = 700 cal

Example 2:

How much heat (in calories) is needed to raise 140 grams of water from 20

o

C to 25

o

C?

Q = mc(TfTi)

Q=x

m = 140 grams

c = 1 cal/g

o

C (this is the specific heat of water)

Tf = 25

o

C

Ti = 20

o

C

x = (140 g) (1 cal/g

o

C)(25-20

0

) = 700 cal

Please note that the amount of calories is the same in both problems.

In example 1 we have 20 grams being changed by 35

o

C while in example 2 we have much more

water (140 grams) being changed by a much smaller amount (5

o

C).

Example 3:

How much heat (in calories) is needed to raise 250 grams of water from 80

o

C to 87

o

C?

Q = mc(TfTi)

Q=x

m = 250 grams

c = 1 cal/g

o

C (this is the specific heat of water)

Tf = 87

o

C

Ti = 80

o

C

x = (250 g) (1 cal/g

o

C)(8780

0

C) = 1750 calPirate Chemistry 2009

All text copyright Chris Smith 2009. All pictures obtained from internet and are

copyright of their owners but assumed to be public accessible. If you are the owner

of a picture and want it removed, email csmith@d211.org, and

it will be.

Example 4:

How many calories are needed to raise 50 grams of iron from 55

o

C to 200

o

C? The specific

heat capacity of iron is 0.11 cal/g

o

C.

Q = mc(TfTi)

Q=x

m = 50 grams

c = 0.11 cal/g

o

C

Tf = 200

o

C

Ti = 55

o

C

o

C)(200 55

0

C) = 797.5 cal

Example 5:

How many grams of aluminum can be heated from 90

o

C to 120

o

C if 500 calories are applied?

The specific heat of aluminum is 0.21 cal/g

o

C.

Q = mc(TfTi)

Q = 500 calories

m = x grams

c = 0.21 cal/g

o

C

Tf = 120

o

C

Ti = 90

o

C

o

C)(12090

0

C)

x = 79.4 grams

Example 6:

What is the specific heat capacity of a substance if 400 calories cause 25 grams of it

to go from

60

o

C to 190

o

C?

Q = mc(TfTi)

Q = 400 calories

m = 25 grams

c = x cal/g

o

C

Tf = 190

o

C

Ti = 60

o

C

400 calories = (25 g) (x)(130

0

C)

x = 0.123 cal/g

o

CPirate Chemistry 2009

All text copyright Chris Smith 2009. All pictures obtained from internet and are

copyright of their owners but assumed to be public accessible. If you are the owner

of a picture and want it removed, email csmith@d211.org, and

it will be.

Example 7:

What is the final temperature if 500 calories are applied to 40 grams of copper at 20

o

C? The

specific heat capacity of copper is 0.092 cal/g

o

C.

Q = mc(TfTi)

Q = 500

m = 40 grams

c = 0.092 cal/g

o

C

Tf = x

Ti = 20

o

C

500 cal = (40 g) (0.092 cal/g

o

C)(x 20

0

C)

x = 156

o

C

Example 8:

What was the initial temperature if 250 calories were applied to 100 grams of gold

and the final

temperature of the gold was 175

o

C? The specific heat capacity of gold is 0.031 cal/g

o

C.

Q = mc(TfTi)

Q = 250 calories

m = 100 grams

c = 0.031 cal/g

o

C

Tf = 175

o

C

Ti = x

o

C

o

C)(175x

0

C)

x = 94

o

C

Example 9:

What is the change in the temperature if 75 calories are applied to 10 grams of

water?

Q = mc(TfTi)

Q = 75 calories

m = 10 grams

c = 1 cal/g

o

C

Tf Ti = x (note that in this problem we want the change so both TfTi are included

as x)

75 calories = (10 g) (1 cal/g

o

C)(x)

x = 7.5

o

CPirate Chemistry 2009

All text copyright Chris Smith 2009. All pictures obtained from internet and are

copyright of their owners but assumed to be public accessible. If you are the owner

of a picture and want it removed, email csmith@d211.org, and

it will be.

Substance Specific Heat Capacity (cal/g

o

C)

Water 1.0

Ice 0.49

Copper 0.092

Gold 0.031

Iron 0.11

Aluminum 0.21

Questions

Specific Heat Capacities

1. How many calories would it take to raise the temperature of 200 grams of water

from 5

o

C

to 85

o

C?

2. How many calories would problem number 1 be if it was aluminum instead of

water?

3. How many grams of copper could be heated from 20

o

C to 75

o

C if 1200 calories are applied to it?

4. How many grams of iron could be heated from 15

o

C to 300

o

C if 8000 calories are applied

to it?

5. What is the specific heat capacity of a substance if 750 calories caused 100

grams of it to go

from 90

o

C to 135

o

C?

6. When 400 calories are applied to 20 grams of a substance, it goes from 62

o

C to 82

o

C.

Which of the substances in the table above is this?

7. What is the final temperature if 400 calories are applied to 225 grams of iron at

40

o

C?

8. What would the final temperature be if 500 calories are applied to 150 grams of

ice at 90

o

C?

9. What is the temperature change if 50 calories are applied to 4 grams of water?

10. What would the temperature change by if a 90 gram piece of hot iron cooled by

losing 200

calories.

We typically think of calories as the energy from food. However,

food calories are actually Calories with a capital C. This small

change is very important as a Calorie is equal to 1000 calories or 1

kilocalorie. This nutrition fact shows that an egg can give 70 Calories which would

be 70,000 calories. This is enough energy to

raise 70,000 grams of water by 1

o

C!

A typical diet is supposed to have about 2000 Calories or 2,000,000

calories which seems like a lot. Keep in mind, though, that our

bodies have to keep us at about 31

o

C every minute of the day and a

typical person weighs around 175 pounds or around 80,000 grams.

Also, our bodies are not perfect in turning every bit of that energy

into useful, productive outcomes.

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