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Kim, Eunho ()

Introduction

()

Introduction
: Vector Mechanics for Engineers
Dynamics (11th edition)
: Beer, Johnston, Cornwell, Self, Sanghi
: (35), (35), (10), (10)
(5), (5)

Introduction
1.
2. : 2
3. :
4.

5.
6. :
7. :
8.

Introduction

Statics

F 0

vs

Dynamics

F ma

Introduction
Dynamics includes:
Kinematics: study of the geometry of motion.
Relates displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time without reference
to the cause of motion.
Fdownforce
Fdrive

Fdrag

Kinetics: study of the relations existing between the forces acting on


a body, the mass of the body, and the motion of the body. Kinetics is
used to predict the motion caused by given forces or to determine the
forces required to produce a given motion.

Particle kinetics includes:

Rectilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a part


icle as it moves along a straight line.

Curvilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a part


icle as it moves along a curved line in two or three dimensions.

Consider particle which occupies position P


at time t and P at t+Dt,
Dx

Average velocity
Dt
Dx

lim
Instantaneous velocity
Dt 0 Dt
Instantaneous velocity may be positive or n
egative. Magnitude of velocity is referred t
o as particle speed.
From the definition of a derivative,
Dx dx
v lim

dt
Dt 0 Dt
e.g., x 6t 2 t 3
dx
v
12t 3t 2
dt

Consider particle with velocity v at time t and


v at t+Dt,
Dv
Instantaneous acceleration a lim
Dt 0 Dt
Instantaneous acceleration may be:
- positive: increasing positive velocity
or decreasing negative velocity
- negative: decreasing positive velocity
or increasing negative velocity.
From the definition of a derivative,
Dv dv d 2 x
a lim

2
dt dt
Dt 0 Dt
e.g. v 12t 3t 2
a

dv
12 6t
dt
11 - 9

What is true about the kinematics of a particle?


a) The velocity of a particle is always positive
b) The velocity of a particle is equal to the slope of
the position-time graph
c) If the position of a particle is zero, then the veloc
ity must zero
d) If the velocity of a particle is zero, then its accele
ration must be zero

From our example,


x 6t 2 t 3
v

dx
12t 3t 2
dt

dv d 2 x
a

12 6t
dt dt 2

What are x, v, and a at t = 2 s ?


- at t = 2 s, x = 16 m, v = vmax = 12 m/s, a = 0
Note that vmax occurs when a=0, and that the slo
pe of the velocity curve is zero at this point.
What are x, v, and a at t = 4 s ?
- at t = 4 s, x = xmax = 32 m, v = 0, a = -12 m/s2

We often determine accelerations from the forces applied (ki


netics will be covered later)
Generally have three classes of motion
- acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)
- acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x)
- acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)

Can you think of a physical example of when force is a


When force is a function of velocity?
function of position?
A Spring

Drag

S.P. 1

S.P. 2

The position of a particle moving along


a straight line is defined as follows:

x t 3 6t 2 15t 40
Determine:
Time at which the velocity is zero,
Position and distance traveled by the pa
rticle at that time
Acceleration of the particle at that time
The distance traveled by the particle fro
m t=4s to t=6s.

Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity


from window 20 m above ground.
Determine:
velocity and elevation above gro
und at time t,
highest elevation reached by ball
and corresponding time, and
time when ball will hit the groun
d and corresponding velocity.

If.
a a t

a a x

Kinematic relationship

dt

dx
dv
and a
v
dt

dv
a (v )
dt
dv
v a v
dx

v0

dv a t dt

dv
a(t )
dt

v dv a x dx

a a v

Integrate

v0

x0

v dv a x dx
v

dv
v a v 0 dt
0
x

v dv
x dx v a v
0
0

Uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion


For a particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the accelera
tion of the particle is constant. You may recognize these constant accel
eration equations from your physics courses.

dv
a constant
dt

dx
v0 at
dt

dv a dt

v0

dx v0 at dt

x0

dv
v a constant
dx

v v0 at

x x0 v0t 12 at 2

v0

x0

v dv a dx

v 2 v02 2a x x0

Careful these only apply to uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion!

Relative motion
For particles moving along the same line, time s
hould be recorded from the same starting instant
and displacements should be measured from the
same origin in the same direction.
x B x A relative position of B wit
h respect to A
xB x A xB A
xB

v B v A relative velocity of B wit


h respect to A
vB v A vB A
vB

a B a A relative acceleration of B
with respect to A
aB a A aB A
aB

Relative motion

xA

xB / A

B
A

xA

xB

xA/ B
xB

xB x A xB / A

x A xB x A / B

vB v A vB / A

v A vB v A / B

aB a A aB / A

x A / B xB / A

a A aB a A / B

Dependent motion

Degrees of Freedom: The minimum number of


coordinates to specify a configuration

For a single particle confined to a line, one coordinate


suffices so it has one degree of freedom

For a single particle in a plane two coordinates define its


location so it has two degrees of freedom
y

constraint
y x 1

x
Number of DOF ?

o
Number of DOF ?

Dependent motion
2 x A 2 xB xC const
dx
dx A
dx
2 B C 0
dt
dt
dt
2vA 2vB vC 0
2

dv A
dvB dvC
2
2

0
dt
dt
dt
2a A 2aB aC 0

Sample problem
S.P. 5

Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level in elevator shaft with initial velocity of
18 m/s. At same instant, open-platform elevator passes 5 m level moving upw
ard at 2 m/s.
Determine (a) when and where ball hits elevator and (b) relative velocity of b
all and elevator at contact.

Sample problem
v B v0 at 18
For B

m
m
y B y0 v0t 12 at 2 12 m 18 t 4.905 2 t 2
s
s

vE 2
For E

For B/E

m
m
9.81 2 t
s
s

m
s

m
y E y0 v E t 5 m 2 t
s

y B E 12 18t 4.905t
vB

18 9.81t 2
16 9.813.65

5 2t 0

t 0.39 s meaningles s
t 3.65 s

vB

19.81

m
s

Sample problem
S.P. 7

200mm

Collar A start to move downward from K with a constant acceleration and no i


nitial velocity. When collar A passes through L, its velocity is 300mm/s.
Pulley D moves downward with a constant velocity of 75 mm/s

Determine (a) change in elevation, the velocity, and the acceleration of block
B when collar A passes through L.

Homework#1
11.4, 11.9, 11.16, 11.23, 11.36, 11.43, 11.49, 11.54, 11.55

Curvilinear Motion
The snowboarder and the train both u
ndergo curvilinear motion.

A particle moving along a curve other than a s


traight line is in curvilinear motion.

Curvilinear Motion
Instantaneous velocity (vector)
The position vector of a particle
at time t is defined by a vector b
etween origin O of a fixed refer
ence frame and the position occ
upied by particle.

Dr dr

Dt 0 Dt
dt

v lim

Instantaneous speed (scalar)


Ds ds

Dt 0 Dt
dt

v lim

Curvilinear Motion
Dv dv
a lim

instantaneous acceleration (vector)


Dt 0 Dt
dt

In general, the acceleration vector is not tangent to the particle path


and velocity vector.

Curvilinear Motion
When position vector of particle P is given by its
rectangular components,

r xi y j zk
Velocity vector,

dx dy dz
v i j k xi y j zk
dt
dt
dt

vx i v y j vz k
Acceleration vector,

d 2 x d 2 y d 2 z
a 2 i 2 j 2 k xi y j zk
dt
dt
dt

ax i a y j az k

Sample problem
S.P. 10

A projectile is fired from the edge


of a 150-m cliff with an initial
velocity of 180 m/s at an angle of
30with the horizontal. Neglecting
air resistance, find (a) the horizontal
distance from the gun to the point
where the projectile strikes the
ground, (b) the greatest elevation
above the ground reached by the
projectile.

Sample problem
S.P. 14
Automobile A is traveling east at the constant
speed of 36 km/h. As automobile A crosses the
intersection shown, automobile B starts from rest
35 m north of the intersection and moves south
with a constant acceleration of 1.2 m/s2.
Determine the position, velocity, and acceleration
of B relative to A 5 s after A crosses the
intersection.

Concept Quiz
If you are sitting in train
B looking out the window,
it which direction does it a
ppear that train A is movi
ng?

a)

25o

c)

b)

25o

d)

Tangential and Normal Components


If we have an idea of the path of a vehicle or object, it is often co
nvenient to analyze the motion using tangential and normal com
ponents (sometimes called path coordinates).

Tangential and Normal Components


y

r= the instantaneous r
adius of curvature

v v et

en

v= vt et

dv
v2
a e t en
dt
r

et

x
The tangential direction (et) is tangent to the path of the particle
. This velocity vector of a particle is in this direction

The normal direction (en) is perpendicular to et and points towa


rds the inside of the curve.
The acceleration can have components in both the en and et directions

Tangential and Normal Components


To derive the acceleration vector in tangential an
d normal components, define the motion of a par
ticle as shown in the figure.

et and et are tangential unit vectors for the parti


cle path at P and P. When drawn with respect t

o the same origin,
Det et et and
D is the angle between them.
Det 2 sinD 2

Det
sinD 2

lim
lim
en en
D 0 D
D 0 D 2

det

en
d

Tangential and Normal Components

With the velocity vector expressed as v vet


the particle acceleration may be written as

de dv
de d ds
dv dv
a
et v
et v
dt dt
dt dt
d ds dt
but
det
ds
en
r d ds
v
d
dt
After substituting,
dv
v2
dv v 2
a et en
at
an
dt
r
dt
r

The tangential component of acceleration reflect


s change of speed and the normal component ref
lects change of direction.
The tangential component may be positive or n
egative. Normal component always points tow
ard center of path curvature.

Tangential and Normal Components


Relations for tangential and normal acceleration als
o apply for particle moving along a space curve.
dv v 2
a et en
dt
r

dv
at
dt

an

v2

The plane containing tangential and normal unit v


ectors is called the osculating plane.
The normal to the osculating plane is found from


eb et en

en principal normal

eb binormal
Acceleration has no component along the binormal.

Sample problem
S.P. 16

A motorist is traveling on a curved section of highway of radius 750 m at the


speed of 90 km/h. The motorist suddenly applies the brakes, causing the
automobile to slow down at a constant rate. Knowing that after 8 s the speed has
been reduced to 72 km/h, determine the acceleration of the automobile
immediately after the brakes have been applied.

Sample problem
MODELING and ANALYSIS:
Define your coordinate system
Determine velocity and acceleration in t
he tangential direction

The deceleration constant, therefore

Immediately after the brakes are applied,


the speed is still 25 m/s

a an2 at2 0.6252 0.8332

Radial and Transverse Components


In 2001, a race scheduled at the Texas Motor Speedway was cancelle
d because the normal accelerations were too high and caused some
drivers to experience excessive g-loads (similar to fighter pilots) and
possibly pass out. What are some things that could be done to solve
this problem?

Some possibilities:
Reduce the allowed speed
Increase the turn radius (diffi
cult and costly)
Have the racers wear g-suits

Radial and Transverse Components


The position of a particle P is expres
sed as a distance r from the origin O
to P this defines the radial directio
n er. The transverse direction e is pe
rpendicular to er

r rer
The particle velocity vector is

v r er r e
The particle acceleration vector is

a r r 2 er r 2r e

Radial and Transverse Components


We can derive the velocity and acceleration relations
hips by recognizing that the unit vectors change dire
ction.

r rer

der
e
d

The particle velocity vector is

der dr
dr
d
d
v rer er r
er r
e
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

r er r e

de

er
d

der der d d

e
dt
d dt
dt

de de d
d

er
dt
d dt
dt

Similarly, the particle acceleration vector is


d
d dr
a er r
e
dt dt
dt

d 2 r dr der dr d
d 2
d de
2 er

e r 2 e r
dt dt dt dt
dt dt
dt
dt

r r 2 er r 2r e

Radial and Transverse Components


When particle position is given in cylindrical co
ordinates, it is convenient to express the velocity
and acceleration vectors
using the unit vectors

eR , e , and k .
Position vector,

r R e R z k
Velocity vector,

dr

v
R eR R e z k
dt
Acceleration vector,

dv

R eR R 2 R e z k
a
R
dt

Sample problem
S.P. 18

Rotation of the arm about O is defined


by = 0.15t2 where is in radians and t
in seconds. Collar B slides along the ar
m such that r = 0.9 - 0.12t2 where r is in
meters.
After the arm has rotated through 30o, d
etermine (a) the total velocity of the col
lar, (b) the total acceleration of the colla
r, and (c) the relative acceleration of the
collar with respect to the arm.

MODELING and ANALYSIS


Evaluate time t for = 30o.

0.15 t 2
30 0.524 rad

t 1.869 s

Evaluate radial and angular positions, and first a


nd second derivatives at time t.
r 0.9 0.12 t 2 0.481 m
r 0.24 t 0.449 m s
r 0.24 m s 2

0.15 t 2 0.524 rad


0.30 t 0.561 rad s
0.30 rad s 2

Calculate velocity and acceleration.


vr r 0.449 m s
v r 0.481m 0.561rad s 0.270 m s
v
tan 1

v vr2 v2

vr

v 0.524 m s

31.0

ar r r 2
0.240 m s 2 0.481m 0.561rad s 2
0.391m s 2
a r 2r

0.481m 0.3 rad s 2 2 0.449 m s 0.561rad s


0.359 m s 2
a ar2 a2

a
tan 1

ar
a 0.531m s

42.6

Evaluate acceleration with respect to arm.


Motion of collar with respect to arm is rectilinear
and defined by coordinate r.
a B OA r 0.240 m s 2

Homework#2
11.98, 11.103, 11.107, 11.135, 11.141, 11.161