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Kim, Eunho ()

Introduction

()

Introduction

: Vector Mechanics for Engineers

Dynamics (11th edition)

: Beer, Johnston, Cornwell, Self, Sanghi

: (35), (35), (10), (10)

(5), (5)

Introduction

1.

2. : 2

3. :

4.

5.

6. :

7. :

8.

Introduction

Statics

F 0

vs

Dynamics

F ma

Introduction

Dynamics includes:

Kinematics: study of the geometry of motion.

Relates displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time without reference

to the cause of motion.

Fdownforce

Fdrive

Fdrag

a body, the mass of the body, and the motion of the body. Kinetics is

used to predict the motion caused by given forces or to determine the

forces required to produce a given motion.

icle as it moves along a straight line.

icle as it moves along a curved line in two or three dimensions.

at time t and P at t+Dt,

Dx

Average velocity

Dt

Dx

lim

Instantaneous velocity

Dt 0 Dt

Instantaneous velocity may be positive or n

egative. Magnitude of velocity is referred t

o as particle speed.

From the definition of a derivative,

Dx dx

v lim

dt

Dt 0 Dt

e.g., x 6t 2 t 3

dx

v

12t 3t 2

dt

v at t+Dt,

Dv

Instantaneous acceleration a lim

Dt 0 Dt

Instantaneous acceleration may be:

- positive: increasing positive velocity

or decreasing negative velocity

- negative: decreasing positive velocity

or increasing negative velocity.

From the definition of a derivative,

Dv dv d 2 x

a lim

2

dt dt

Dt 0 Dt

e.g. v 12t 3t 2

a

dv

12 6t

dt

11 - 9

a) The velocity of a particle is always positive

b) The velocity of a particle is equal to the slope of

the position-time graph

c) If the position of a particle is zero, then the veloc

ity must zero

d) If the velocity of a particle is zero, then its accele

ration must be zero

x 6t 2 t 3

v

dx

12t 3t 2

dt

dv d 2 x

a

12 6t

dt dt 2

- at t = 2 s, x = 16 m, v = vmax = 12 m/s, a = 0

Note that vmax occurs when a=0, and that the slo

pe of the velocity curve is zero at this point.

What are x, v, and a at t = 4 s ?

- at t = 4 s, x = xmax = 32 m, v = 0, a = -12 m/s2

netics will be covered later)

Generally have three classes of motion

- acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)

- acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x)

- acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)

When force is a function of velocity?

function of position?

A Spring

Drag

S.P. 1

S.P. 2

a straight line is defined as follows:

x t 3 6t 2 15t 40

Determine:

Time at which the velocity is zero,

Position and distance traveled by the pa

rticle at that time

Acceleration of the particle at that time

The distance traveled by the particle fro

m t=4s to t=6s.

from window 20 m above ground.

Determine:

velocity and elevation above gro

und at time t,

highest elevation reached by ball

and corresponding time, and

time when ball will hit the groun

d and corresponding velocity.

If.

a a t

a a x

Kinematic relationship

dt

dx

dv

and a

v

dt

dv

a (v )

dt

dv

v a v

dx

v0

dv a t dt

dv

a(t )

dt

v dv a x dx

a a v

Integrate

v0

x0

v dv a x dx

v

dv

v a v 0 dt

0

x

v dv

x dx v a v

0

0

For a particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the accelera

tion of the particle is constant. You may recognize these constant accel

eration equations from your physics courses.

dv

a constant

dt

dx

v0 at

dt

dv a dt

v0

dx v0 at dt

x0

dv

v a constant

dx

v v0 at

x x0 v0t 12 at 2

v0

x0

v dv a dx

v 2 v02 2a x x0

Relative motion

For particles moving along the same line, time s

hould be recorded from the same starting instant

and displacements should be measured from the

same origin in the same direction.

x B x A relative position of B wit

h respect to A

xB x A xB A

xB

h respect to A

vB v A vB A

vB

a B a A relative acceleration of B

with respect to A

aB a A aB A

aB

Relative motion

xA

xB / A

B

A

xA

xB

xA/ B

xB

xB x A xB / A

x A xB x A / B

vB v A vB / A

v A vB v A / B

aB a A aB / A

x A / B xB / A

a A aB a A / B

Dependent motion

coordinates to specify a configuration

suffices so it has one degree of freedom

location so it has two degrees of freedom

y

constraint

y x 1

x

Number of DOF ?

o

Number of DOF ?

Dependent motion

2 x A 2 xB xC const

dx

dx A

dx

2 B C 0

dt

dt

dt

2vA 2vB vC 0

2

dv A

dvB dvC

2

2

0

dt

dt

dt

2a A 2aB aC 0

Sample problem

S.P. 5

Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level in elevator shaft with initial velocity of

18 m/s. At same instant, open-platform elevator passes 5 m level moving upw

ard at 2 m/s.

Determine (a) when and where ball hits elevator and (b) relative velocity of b

all and elevator at contact.

Sample problem

v B v0 at 18

For B

m

m

y B y0 v0t 12 at 2 12 m 18 t 4.905 2 t 2

s

s

vE 2

For E

For B/E

m

m

9.81 2 t

s

s

m

s

m

y E y0 v E t 5 m 2 t

s

y B E 12 18t 4.905t

vB

18 9.81t 2

16 9.813.65

5 2t 0

t 0.39 s meaningles s

t 3.65 s

vB

19.81

m

s

Sample problem

S.P. 7

200mm

nitial velocity. When collar A passes through L, its velocity is 300mm/s.

Pulley D moves downward with a constant velocity of 75 mm/s

Determine (a) change in elevation, the velocity, and the acceleration of block

B when collar A passes through L.

Homework#1

11.4, 11.9, 11.16, 11.23, 11.36, 11.43, 11.49, 11.54, 11.55

Curvilinear Motion

The snowboarder and the train both u

ndergo curvilinear motion.

traight line is in curvilinear motion.

Curvilinear Motion

Instantaneous velocity (vector)

The position vector of a particle

at time t is defined by a vector b

etween origin O of a fixed refer

ence frame and the position occ

upied by particle.

Dr dr

Dt 0 Dt

dt

v lim

Ds ds

Dt 0 Dt

dt

v lim

Curvilinear Motion

Dv dv

a lim

Dt 0 Dt

dt

and velocity vector.

Curvilinear Motion

When position vector of particle P is given by its

rectangular components,

r xi y j zk

Velocity vector,

dx dy dz

v i j k xi y j zk

dt

dt

dt

vx i v y j vz k

Acceleration vector,

d 2 x d 2 y d 2 z

a 2 i 2 j 2 k xi y j zk

dt

dt

dt

ax i a y j az k

Sample problem

S.P. 10

of a 150-m cliff with an initial

velocity of 180 m/s at an angle of

30with the horizontal. Neglecting

air resistance, find (a) the horizontal

distance from the gun to the point

where the projectile strikes the

ground, (b) the greatest elevation

above the ground reached by the

projectile.

Sample problem

S.P. 14

Automobile A is traveling east at the constant

speed of 36 km/h. As automobile A crosses the

intersection shown, automobile B starts from rest

35 m north of the intersection and moves south

with a constant acceleration of 1.2 m/s2.

Determine the position, velocity, and acceleration

of B relative to A 5 s after A crosses the

intersection.

Concept Quiz

If you are sitting in train

B looking out the window,

it which direction does it a

ppear that train A is movi

ng?

a)

25o

c)

b)

25o

d)

If we have an idea of the path of a vehicle or object, it is often co

nvenient to analyze the motion using tangential and normal com

ponents (sometimes called path coordinates).

y

r= the instantaneous r

adius of curvature

v v et

en

v= vt et

dv

v2

a e t en

dt

r

et

x

The tangential direction (et) is tangent to the path of the particle

. This velocity vector of a particle is in this direction

rds the inside of the curve.

The acceleration can have components in both the en and et directions

To derive the acceleration vector in tangential an

d normal components, define the motion of a par

ticle as shown in the figure.

cle path at P and P. When drawn with respect t

o the same origin,

Det et et and

D is the angle between them.

Det 2 sinD 2

Det

sinD 2

lim

lim

en en

D 0 D

D 0 D 2

det

en

d

the particle acceleration may be written as

de dv

de d ds

dv dv

a

et v

et v

dt dt

dt dt

d ds dt

but

det

ds

en

r d ds

v

d

dt

After substituting,

dv

v2

dv v 2

a et en

at

an

dt

r

dt

r

s change of speed and the normal component ref

lects change of direction.

The tangential component may be positive or n

egative. Normal component always points tow

ard center of path curvature.

Relations for tangential and normal acceleration als

o apply for particle moving along a space curve.

dv v 2

a et en

dt

r

dv

at

dt

an

v2

ectors is called the osculating plane.

The normal to the osculating plane is found from

eb et en

en principal normal

eb binormal

Acceleration has no component along the binormal.

Sample problem

S.P. 16

speed of 90 km/h. The motorist suddenly applies the brakes, causing the

automobile to slow down at a constant rate. Knowing that after 8 s the speed has

been reduced to 72 km/h, determine the acceleration of the automobile

immediately after the brakes have been applied.

Sample problem

MODELING and ANALYSIS:

Define your coordinate system

Determine velocity and acceleration in t

he tangential direction

the speed is still 25 m/s

In 2001, a race scheduled at the Texas Motor Speedway was cancelle

d because the normal accelerations were too high and caused some

drivers to experience excessive g-loads (similar to fighter pilots) and

possibly pass out. What are some things that could be done to solve

this problem?

Some possibilities:

Reduce the allowed speed

Increase the turn radius (diffi

cult and costly)

Have the racers wear g-suits

The position of a particle P is expres

sed as a distance r from the origin O

to P this defines the radial directio

n er. The transverse direction e is pe

rpendicular to er

r rer

The particle velocity vector is

v r er r e

The particle acceleration vector is

a r r 2 er r 2r e

We can derive the velocity and acceleration relations

hips by recognizing that the unit vectors change dire

ction.

r rer

der

e

d

der dr

dr

d

d

v rer er r

er r

e

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

r er r e

de

er

d

der der d d

e

dt

d dt

dt

de de d

d

er

dt

d dt

dt

d

d dr

a er r

e

dt dt

dt

d 2 r dr der dr d

d 2

d de

2 er

e r 2 e r

dt dt dt dt

dt dt

dt

dt

r r 2 er r 2r e

When particle position is given in cylindrical co

ordinates, it is convenient to express the velocity

and acceleration vectors

using the unit vectors

eR , e , and k .

Position vector,

r R e R z k

Velocity vector,

dr

v

R eR R e z k

dt

Acceleration vector,

dv

R eR R 2 R e z k

a

R

dt

Sample problem

S.P. 18

by = 0.15t2 where is in radians and t

in seconds. Collar B slides along the ar

m such that r = 0.9 - 0.12t2 where r is in

meters.

After the arm has rotated through 30o, d

etermine (a) the total velocity of the col

lar, (b) the total acceleration of the colla

r, and (c) the relative acceleration of the

collar with respect to the arm.

Evaluate time t for = 30o.

0.15 t 2

30 0.524 rad

t 1.869 s

nd second derivatives at time t.

r 0.9 0.12 t 2 0.481 m

r 0.24 t 0.449 m s

r 0.24 m s 2

0.30 t 0.561 rad s

0.30 rad s 2

vr r 0.449 m s

v r 0.481m 0.561rad s 0.270 m s

v

tan 1

v vr2 v2

vr

v 0.524 m s

31.0

ar r r 2

0.240 m s 2 0.481m 0.561rad s 2

0.391m s 2

a r 2r

0.359 m s 2

a ar2 a2

a

tan 1

ar

a 0.531m s

42.6

Motion of collar with respect to arm is rectilinear

and defined by coordinate r.

a B OA r 0.240 m s 2

Homework#2

11.98, 11.103, 11.107, 11.135, 11.141, 11.161

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