You are on page 1of 16

STANDARD TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR ELECTRIC WORKS

CIVIL WORKS
( SPECIFICATION )

CONCRETE AND REINFORCED CONCRETE

TRANSCO STANDARD : 331246470.DOC

331246470.doc

Page 1 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

CONTENTS
1

GENERAL......................................................................................................................

2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.8.1
2.8.2
2.8.3
2.8.4
2.8.5
2.8.6
2.8.7
2.9

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION......................................................................................
General.............................................................................................................................
Concrete............................................................................................................................
Form-Work.......................................................................................................................
General.............................................................................................................................5
Form-Work Classes...........................................................................................................5
Form-Work Removal........................................................................................................6
Reinforcement..................................................................................................................
Material............................................................................................................................7
Fabrication........................................................................................................................7
Site Installation and Handling...........................................................................................8
Epoxy Coated Reinforcement...........................................................................................9
Cement..............................................................................................................................
Aggregates......................................................................................................................
Admixtures.....................................................................................................................
Tests and Properties........................................................................................................
Testing............................................................................................................................11
Concrete Quality Requirements......................................................................................12
Particular Requirements..................................................................................................13
Construction and Expansion Joints.................................................................................13
Construction Joints.........................................................................................................14
Expansion Joints.............................................................................................................14
Joint Filler Board............................................................................................................14
Special Requirements for Safety against Cracking.........................................................

GENERAL FOR PRE-CAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION..............................

331246470.doc

Page 2 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

CONCRETE AND REINFORCED CONCRETE


1

GENERAL

This part of the Specification shall cover all items related to concrete and reinforced concrete
works for the Project. Works shall include all items required for the tendered Project, as well as
all auxiliary works as/and where required.
All works shall further be carried out in full compliance with all local rules and regulations and
the Specification shall further be read if applicable for the Project.
For applicable technical standards, tests, reference shall be made to:
S-TR-CIVIL-GEN

General Requirements
(Applicable Technical Standards, Tests, etc.)

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION

2.1

General

This article shall apply to all concrete and reinforced concrete works within this Project. All
works shall be designed and executed in accordance with the structural analysis and the
approved design. All work shall be performed according to the working drawings designed by
the Bidder/Contractor and approved by TRANSCO.
Concrete and reinforced concrete shall be placed either in-situ or by prefabricated units.
This Article also covers the reinforcement steel, as well as the form-work required for the
particular structural member.
2.2

Concrete

Before executing any load bearing structural members, the Bidder/Contractor shall furnish
TRANSCO with a concrete mix design and a detailed concreting programme, which shall be
subject for approval.
Only ready-mix concrete shall to be used and one trial mix has at least to be carried out
successfully for every mix. The batching plant has to be approved by TRANSCO. If a known
mix, which was successfully used before, is proposed, trial mixing can be waived The
composition of one batch concrete, its aggregates, the cement and water content and the
additives, if any, in kg or litre per m3 of compacted concrete shall be displayed legibly at the
batching plant.
Concrete shall be placed and compacted in its final position within 90 minutes of the water being
added to the mix. If the Bidder/Contractor proposes the use of pumps for the transporting and
placing of concrete, he shall submit a detailed method statement. Bidder/Contractor shall ensure
that pumping shocks shall not be transferred from the pipeline to the form-work, previously laid

331246470.doc

Page 3 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

concrete or the structure. The initial discharge of any pumped concrete shall be discarded
completely.
Concrete shall be placed and compacted/vibrated in horizontal layers of not more than 300 mm
thickness each. For large areas to be cast proven technique (e.g. staggered layers) may be
proposed for approval at Site. The rate of delivery of concrete during concreting operations shall
be such that the interval between batches shall be minimised to avoid cold joints, if cold joints
cannot be avoided, a stop-end vertical surface joint shall be provided.
For slabs thicker than 900 mm, thermocouples shall be provided to control and record the
temperature of the concrete during curing.
For concreting in hot weather, ACI Standard 305R "Hot Weather Concreting" and the "CIRIA
and Concrete Societys Guide to the construction of reinforced concrete in the Arabian
Peninsular. and its recommendations shall be followed and various means may be employed to
lower the temperature of concrete such as:

Cooling coarse aggregate with water by sprinkling and shading

Using chilled water

Using crushed ice

Avoiding the use of the hot cement

Shading mixer drums, facilities and material by use of permanent wet burlap coverings

Adequately watering of sub-grade, form-work and reinforcement

Insulating water supply lines and tanks and/or painting exposed portions white

Working only at cooler daytime

Covering freshly poured concrete with polythene sheets

Intensive moist-curing with potable water of the concrete placed

Curing the concrete continuously with water at least for 7 days and as detailed in CIRIA
and Concrete Societys Guide to the construction of reinforced concrete in the Arabian
Peninsular. Attention to curing requirements is important at all times; it is especially in
hot, dry weather because of greater danger of cracking. The use of ice to lower the
temperature of fresh concrete must be carefully controlled. If flaked ice is used in the mix,
it must be of such a size that it will melt completely in the mix and that no ice remains
once the batching is complete. The temperature of fresh concrete must in no case exceed
+ 30C. When discharged in the form-work, particular care shall be given for thick section
(>900mm) where insulation boards shall be used to reduce temperature gradient.

331246470.doc

Page 4 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

2.3

Form-Work

2.3.1

General

The stability of the form-work, false work and scaffolding shall be proven by static analysis.
Form-work and its supporting structures shall be constructed in accordance with the static
analysis and shall safely resist all occurring forces, including the effect of the concreting rate and
the method of compaction. For columns and walls, the strength of form-work shall be adjusted to
the rate of placing the concrete. All timber for form-work shall have selected quality and shall
have a flexural stress "Sigma b" minimum 10 N/mm2.
All form-work and moulds shall be of such tight construction that slurry cannot flow out at the
joints during pouring and compaction. If required, joints shall be sealed with foam rubber strips.
2.3.2

Form-Work Classes

The class of form-work shall be indicated on the working drawings. All permanent concrete
edges shall be chamfered by means of neatly planned 25/25 mm triangular fillets. The visible
faces shall have a uniform appearance.

Class F1 (sawn)

This finish shall be used for surfaces against which backfill, further concrete, or grout will be
placed. Form-work of this class shall consist of sawn timber, metal, or other suitable and
approved material.
Applicable for all types of foundations.

Class F2 (wrought)

This finish shall be used for structural surfaces permanently exposed to view. Form-work of this
class shall be faced with wrought boards, with square edges, uniformly arranged, and with nail
and knotholes filled flush with putty or another approved substance.
Applicable for all sub-structural work, considering that the surface finish is good enough to
received the water proofing membrane.

Class F3 (precast quality)

This finish shall be used for permanent or important architectural features, or for precast concrete
units. It shall be free from board-marks or surface pitting and the form-work shall be faced with
"marine plywood or equivalent material in large sheets arranged in an approved uniform
pattern. Joints in the facing shall coincide with architectural features or changes in direction of
the surface and shall be either vertical or horizontal unless otherwise directed by TRANSCO.
Applicable for super-structural work with exposed surfaces.

Class F4 (rigid accurate)

This finish shall be used for formed concrete surfaces where accurate alignment and evenness of
surface are essential for prevention of the destructive effects of water action. The form-work

331246470.doc

Page 5 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

shall be strong and held rigidly and accurately to the prescribed alignment. Any form-work
material that will produce the required surface may be used.
Applicable for: exposed fire walls, projected columns, frames and beams on elevations.
Class F5 (rough-faced)

This finish shall be used for structural surfaces where plaster or stucco is to be applied.
Rough-faced form boards shall be used.
Aluminium lining for form-work will not be permitted.
Applicable for super-structural work where plaster is to be applied or if a rough surfaces is
required.
2.3.3

Form-Work Removal

Removal of form-work shall be approved by TRANSCO at Site, and shall be effected in such a
manner as will ensure that no damage to the freshly cast concrete occurs. No form-work shall be
removed before the concrete has attained sufficient strength to carry the stress induced in the
concrete by such removal. If required, the Bidder/Contractor shall provide evidence of the same,
which is satisfactory to TRANSCO.
The Bidder/Contractor shall delay the removal of the forms if in the opinion of TRANSCO the
concrete has not gained sufficient strength. The cost of rectifying damage arising from the
premature removal of forms shall be at the Bidders/Contractors risk.
Unless BS provides more stringent requirements, following minimum removal periods are to be
observed:
Beams, walls, columns, beams (vertical faces)
Soffits to slabs

24 hours
7 days

Props to slabs, etc.

14 days

Soffits to beams, frames, etc.

14 days

Props under beams, frames, etc.

21 days

2.4

Reinforcement

For Reinforcement, reference shall be made to the below listed drawings, which are provided in
the Drawings Section.
Drawing No.

Title

DWG TR CIV 06 01

Typical Stair Reinforcement

DWG TR CIV 06 02

Temperature Reinforcement

DWG TR CIV 06 03-1

Column Reinforcement (Sheet 1)

331246470.doc

Page 6 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

DWG TR CIV 06 03-2

Column Reinforcement (Sheet 2)

DWG TR CIV 06 04

Wall Reinforcement

DWG TR CIV 06 05

Typical Slab Reinforcement

DWG TR CIV 06 06

Reinforcement Arrangement Flat Slab Without Drop Panel

DWG TR CIV 06 07-1

Reinforcement of Continuous Beams, Elevation (Alternative 1)

DWG TR CIV 06 07-2

Reinforcement of Continuous Beams, Elevation (Alternative 2)

DWG TR CIV 06 08

Openings & Sleeves in Slab

DWG TR CIV 06 09

Slab on Grade

2.4.1

Material

Reinforcement is to be hot-rolled deformed high yield steel in accordance with DIN 488 DIN EN
ISO 15360 or BS 4449 Grade 460, or higher. Before use, any matter liable to impair the bond
shall be removed from the steel, e.g., dirt, grease, organic matter, and rust. Particular care shall
be taken to ensure that the reinforcing bars are given the shape (including diameter of curvature),
length and position conforming to the reinforcement drawings.
Any reinforcement shall be so far cold deformable that it will stand the cold bending test, where
the space between the two limbs of the piece bent through 180 must be equal to twice the
diameter of the rod under test. No cracks shall occur on the tensioned side.
Reinforcing steels of group IIIa shall be weldable by the flash welding process to produce
welded joints, which pass the cold bending test.
Steel fabrics of group IVb shall be of steel whose elastic limit and tensile strength are guaranteed
by special cold working, however, steel fabrics shall not be welded or heat-treated in any other
way.
Fabric reinforcement shall be bent accurately to the required shapes before the fabric is laid in
position all bending and cutting shall be done cold and no heating or welding is allowed. All
the fabric shall be lapped and tied together on both the longitudinal and transverse wires and all
lapping shall be sufficient for the steel to develop its full strength.
Pre-stressing reinforcement shall comply with BS 5896-1980 or DIN 10138 and DIN EN
ISO 15630.
2.4.2

Fabrication

All reinforcements shall be bent cold unless otherwise permitted by TRANSCO. Bar cutting and
bending equipment for coated reinforcement shall have padded supports and contact areas and
shall be fitted with nylon or plastic mandrels supplied by, or approved by, the coating factory
representative.

331246470.doc

Page 7 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

2.4.3

Site Installation and Handling

Reinforcement of all types shall be stored on Site in protected racks above ground in an
approved manner so as to avoid damage to the coating. Direct metal to coating contact should be
avoided wherever possible.
The number, size, form and positioning of bars shall be strictly in accordance with the drawings
and bending schedules or as directed by TRANSCO. Reinforcement shall be inspected/checked
after being fixed and no concrete shall be placed around the reinforcement until such
checking/inspection has taken place and concrete permission has been signed by TRANSCO.
Equipment for handling epoxy coated bars shall have padded contact areas. Bundles shall be
lifted with a strong-back or have multiple supports to prevent bar-to-bar abrasion from sags in
the bundle. Bars or bundles shall not be dragged or dropped. Any coating damage due to
handling, shipment and placing shall be repaired as described below.
All chairs, tie-wires or other devices used to connect, support, secure or fasten epoxy coated
reinforcement shall be made of, or coated with, a dielectric material such as nylon, epoxy or
plastic. All bundles shall be identified at the factory with durable tags to allow checking of
coating quality control at site. Reinforcement shall not be straightened or re-bent in a manner,
which may cause injury to the material. Bars with shapes not shown on the drawings shall not be
used.
All reinforcing bars shall be bent in accordance with the relevant standard. In particular, no
reinforcement shall be heated. All reinforcement shall be rigidly fixed in position to the concrete
cover specified by an approved means.
The Bidder/Contractor shall provide adequate scaffold boards or similar to ensure that the
coating is not damaged during fixing and the reinforcement is not displaced by being walked
upon during the placing of the concrete or other operations.
Prior to continuing the concreting at working joints, the Bidder/Contractor shall ensure that the
reinforcement is cleaned of all concrete from previous pours and any damage to the coating is
repaired. To avoid coating damage, coated reinforcement shall be cleaned immediately after
casting and before setting of concrete.
The reinforcement shall be fixed in a way that vibrators can be inserted at all necessary points.
The compressive and the tensile reinforcement (main reinforcement) shall be secured to the
transverse and distribution bars or stirrups by means of binding wire. If the structural loading is
predominantly static in character, welding may be used in lieu of these tied connections, in so far
as welding of the reinforcement is permitted.
The reinforcing bars shall be interconnected to form a rigid cage and shall be so secured in their
specified position by means of spacers which do not impair corrosion protection that they are not
displaced during the placing and compaction of the concrete.
The top reinforcement shall be secured against being pushed down by using steel chairs/supports
positioned between top and bottom layers of reinforcement. Steel supports shall be made of new
steel of similar type and quality of the main reinforcement.

331246470.doc

Page 8 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

Reinforcement bars shall normally not be connected to the earthing system. Separate earthing
mesh shall be provided instead. Earthing to be routed through piles must be isolated from the pile
reinforcement.
To receive good bonding and to avoid corrosion, plastic spacers shall be fixed between formwork and reinforcement minimum four per m2.
2.4.4

Epoxy Coated Reinforcement

2.4.4.1 General
Reinforcement of piles only, up to 100 mm below the top level of pile cap and subject to ensure
sufficient anchorage of the pile reinforcement into the pile cap, shall be reinforcement with a
fusion-bonded epoxy coating. The coating shall be applied in accordance with ASTM
A775/775M-01, and shall be carried out by an approved coating factory using approved epoxy
resins.
Bending procedures shall follow the coating factory's recommendations. The coating factory
representative shall ensure his product is used fully in accordance with his recommendations.
2.4.4.2 Coating Damages
When epoxy coating is damaged, (cut ends, accidental damage etc.) the coating shall be repaired
with parching material conforming to A775/775M-01and shall be carried out in accordance with
the manufacturer's recommendations.
The repair to the damaged area shall be carried out as soon as possible, and before oxidation of
the surface occurs. In no case shall the repair be delayed more than 8 hours. Any trace or rust or
oxidation must be removed by grinder or wire brush prior to touch-up.
To avoid damaging of the epoxy coating of pile reinforcements during removal of pile head, the
main reinforcement and the spiral stirrups of the pile shall be warped with polyethylene/plastic
sheet up to 50 mm above the cut-off level before placing concrete into the pile. Such
polyethylene/plastic sheets shall be completely removed after breaking/ removing the pile head
and before casting concrete to pile(s) cap.
2.5

Cement

The type of cement to be used shall depend on the constructional circumstances and on the
prevailing local conditions. Portland cement, Type I, may be used at places not exposed to
chemical aggressiveness, whereas Portland cement, Type V, shall in general be used for all
concrete work in foundations and plinths and in concrete structures covered by soil.
Moderate sulphate resistant cement as per ASTM C 150, type 2, may be used only after
TRANSCO's explicit written approval to replace the type V cement.
Cement shall be of recent manufacture and shall be used within a period of 3 months from
production.

331246470.doc

Page 9 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

Total cementitious contents in the mix shall be limited to avoid excessive risk of thermal and
shrinkage cracking. It shall always be in the range of 350 400 kg/m 3 unless otherwise approved
by TRANSCO. The proportioning of mixes for durability will be primarily controlled through
the specified limits on free W/C ratio. The W/C ratio shall always lie in the range of 0.36-0.45.
Appropriate use shall be made of approved admixtures to simultaneously meet the requirements
for W/C ratio and workability.
Before supplying cement to Site or receiving ready-mixed concrete, the Bidder/Contractor shall
submit to TRANSCO, the manufacturers statement of Specification and test certificate together
with date of manufacture of any cement to be used. TRANSCO reserves the right to take samples
and order any additional / re-tests in accordance with BS EN 196-7 : 1992, BS EN 196-6, BS
4450 and ASTMC 186.
In mix designs with an emphasis on durability, ground granulated blast furnace slag as per BS
6699 or EN 197 or microsilica may be incorporated in the mix. Proportions of slag shall
normally not exceed 60 %, those of microsilica shall not exceed 8%, for items thicker than 1.2m,
these proportions shall not exceed 10%.
2.6

Aggregates

Aggregates shall be crushed rock type and conform to the relevant applicable standard BS
882:1992. The combined aggregate shall be as coarse-grained and dense-graded as possible and
shall be according to the guidelines of BS 882. The maximum particle size shall be so chosen as
to be compatible with mixing, handling, placing and workability of the concrete.
For underwater concrete, proof shall be given that the mix is adequately cohesive and maintains
this property during placing by using under-water admixtures.
Aggregates shall - for all groups except the dune sand - be a product of crushed rock, with the
source and type being subject to TRANSCOs approval. Only for exceptional cases and upon
TRANSCOs specific written approval, aggregates of other origin may be used for certain parts
of the work.
Size of aggregate used in concrete: maximum aggregate size shall be 20mm, except for thick
elements (>900mm) where particular heat of hydration control is required. There, aggregate of
28mm max size may be used. For the required concrete of Grade 40 (C 28 = 40 N/mm2), at least
one particle size fraction shall be in the 0-4 mm range.
2.7

Admixtures

No admixtures shall be used without approval of TRANSCO and unless the suitability of
admixtures must be proven in trial mixes in presence of TRANSCO.
Admixture containing chlorides shall not be used under any circumstance.
Manufacturers recommendations and instructions concerning overdosing of additives shall be
strictly observed.

331246470.doc

Page 10 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

2.8

Tests and Properties

2.8.1

Testing

Throughout the construction period the quality of concrete mixed at and/or delivered to Site has
to be controlled. Tests shall be carried out in the presence of TRANSCO or under the supervision
of an approved office for testing of such kind of works. The following minimum numbers of
tests shall be carried out:
a)

Aggregates

Sampling of Aggregate: Sampling and testing of Aggregate shall be carried out in accordance
with BS 812 and BS 882. However, the Client reserves the right to call for additional tests
whenever felt necessary.
b)

Cement

b1)

For site mixed concrete if applicable and or approved by TRANSCO

b2)

c)

One setting test to vicat per car-load

One boiling test per car-load.

For ready mixed concrete

Mill certificates of the cement used in the plant

Chemical composition in line with DIN 1164 or BS 12.

Water

One chemical water analysis every 3 months of construction. First analysis before start of
foundation works.
d)

Admixtures and Additives

Three (3) samples of each kind of admixture and additive before start of casting of the first load
bearing structural member.
e)

Concrete delivered to Site

One set of at least six (6) test cubes for every 100 m3 or every daily pour of concrete or as
directed by TRANSCO.
The compression strength tests shall be carried out after seven (7) days for the first two
cubes of each set, and after 28 days for the second two cubes of the set, and - if requested
the last two cubes of each set may be tested in case of failure of a cube.

Slump tests are to be executed for every truck load supplied during concreting and as per
TRANSCO's instructions, provided concreting is proceeding.

Concrete temperature is to be recorded at the arrival of concrete at Site.

331246470.doc

Page 11 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

Bimonthly or for every 750 m3 of concrete cast, the Bidder/Contractor shall prepare the
following for durability testing, which - after approval of TRANSCO may be carried out
through the concrete supplier:

f)

Rapid test for chlorides

Rapid test for sulphates

A Trial panel, from which at 28 days 3 Nos. Cores, 75mm diameter and 75 mm long,
shall be taken for water absorption testing (to BS 1881)

3 Nos. blocks, 200 x 200 x 120 mm thick, for water penetration testing (to DIN
1048)

4 Nos. cubes, 150 mm, for rapid chloride permeability testing (to AASHTO T-277)
curing of samples shall be as close to the current Site practice as possible.

Reinforcement

The Bidder/Contractor shall provide copies of the manufacturers test certificates with each
consignment of reinforcement brought to Site. In addition and before the execution of works, and
for every 100 T in each shipment, two (2) samples of each bar size shall be tested as follows:

Chemical composition to be tested to BS 4449

Mechanical properties test including tensile properties, elongation, bend test and re-bent test

Cross sectional area and mass test

For detailed curves, diagrams and tables, reference is made to DIN 1045 or the relevant BS,
both latest editions.

In case of failure of tests, retesting for steel shall be carried out as BS4449.
For epoxy coated reinforcement, following additional tests shall be carried out in line with the
guidelines of A775/775M-01:

Coating thickness

Holidays on the coating

Adhesion of the coating.

2.8.2

Concrete Quality Requirements

The following are the test requirements shall be met to prove the durability of the concrete:

Slump: Piling concrete to be self levelling with a slump above 175 mm, all other concrete
generally not to exceed 100 mm:
Test

Applicable Standard

Concrete in Areas Classified According to


CIRIA Section 5, Table 5.1
a to c

331246470.doc

d & f*

e **

Page 12 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

Water permeability

as per DIN 1048

Water absorption

as per BS 1881

25 mm

to AASHTO T-277:

10 mm

< 2.5%

Chloride permeability AASHTO T-277


Rapid chloride
permeability

15 mm

2500 C

1000 C

Curing of samples shall be as close to the


current site practice as possible

Notes:
*

Water retaining structures and Basements in areas with high water table

**

Marine structures and structures in areas with highly aggressive soil conditions, classified
as class 4 & 5 as per the BRE Digest 363.
Aggregates contamination limits shall be as follows:

Chlorides

Sulphates

Reference

Coarse Aggregates

< 0.03%

< 0.4%

CIRIA

Fine Aggregates

< 0.06%

< 0.4%

CIRIA

RC with SRC

< 0.20%

< 4.0%

CIRIA

RC with OPC

< 0.30%

< 4.0%

CIRIA

Not Reinforced Concrete

< 0.60%

< 4.0%

CIRIA

2.8.3

Particular Requirements

This chapter covers all works and services, which shall be performed in connection with the
construction of concrete and reinforced concrete structures.
Special attention and care shall be taken to prevent buoyancy for any underground structures,
which might occur due to the ground water table.
2.8.4

Construction and Expansion Joints

For Construction and Expansion Joints, reference shall be made to the below listed drawings,
which are provided in the Drawings Section.
Drawing No.

Title

DWG TR CIV 06 09

Slab on Grade

2.8.5

Construction Joints

The positions and treatment of construction joints shall either be shown on the drawings or be
agreed with TRANSCO in line with the applicable standards before concreting. Joints shall be

331246470.doc

Page 13 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

made across planes of minimum shear and away from planes of maximum bending moments.
Vertical construction joints shall be made against properly constructed stop boards firmly fixed
and holed where necessary to pass reinforcement.
The Bidder/Contractor shall take all necessary steps to ensure that the lines produced on the
exposed face of the work due to horizontal or vertical joints are perfectly straight and regular.
Slabs shall - wherever possible - be concreted at the same time as the beams of which they form
a part. If this is not possible, the junction shall be treated as a horizontal construction joint.
To ensure bond between old and new concrete at construction joints, surfaces of the cast (old)
concrete shall be cleaned of all defective concrete, latency, oil, grease, dirt, loose concrete, etc.
and shall properly be roughened by chipping, hammering or other techniques to expose the
aggregates and provide sufficient key for the two layers. Before casting the new concrete, the old
concrete surfaces shall be thoroughly wetted and saturated with water, commencing at least 12
hours prior to casting the new concrete.
Cast (old) concrete surfaces may further after explicit approval of material and method of
application by TRANSCO - be treated with a bonding agent, applied as recommended by the
manufacturer.
Shear key joints shall be provided in vertical construction joints, the reinforcement of such key
joints shall be subject to approval by TRANSCO.
All construction joints in culverts, trenches, basements, etc., shall contain a PVC water bar as
specified and the reinforcement shall be arranged accordingly.
2.8.6

Expansion Joints

Expansion joints shall be located as determined during the structural design and marked in the
relevant drawings. Suitable water stoppers must be installed and all expansion joints shall be
sealed with a durable sealing compound, and materials to achieve water tight expansion joints
shall be approved by TRANSCO.
After sealing the expansion joints, joints shall be protected by durable covers (e.g. powder coated
metal covers, aluminium strips, etc.), approved by TRANSCO. Covers shall be applied at
external elevations, internal floor joints, walls, etc.
2.8.7

Joint Filler Board

For joints designed to operate as a separation and expansion/settlement joint in concrete or brick
structures, fibre-boards, manufactured from high-grade fibres which are bitumen impregnated
and compounded into compressible non-extruding boards, shall be used. The physical properties
of the board shall conform with the requirements of US Federal Specification HH-F, 341a Type I,
and Class A, thickness of board:
min. 25 mm.

331246470.doc

Page 14 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

2.9

Special Requirements for Safety against Cracking

Because of the purpose for which reinforced concrete components are used, the crack width has
to be limited as specified in BS 8110 and BS 8007. In this context, it shall be necessary to
consider restraint stresses, e.g., due to uniform and non-uniform temperature variations and
shrinkage.
The design assumptions, with respect to temperature variations and shrinkage, adopted in
calculating the restraint stresses, shall correspond to the actual construction procedures, these
and the assumptions shall be inter-adjusted. Pre-stressing shall be considered in critical cases
where the reduction of cracking cannot be ensured by more economical means.
To prevent / reduce shrinkage cracking the Bidder/Contractor may propose the use of
polypropylene fibres to substitute / supplement the reinforcement for TRANSCOs approval.
3

GENERAL FOR PRE-CAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION

In addition to the previously given guidelines for concrete and reinforced concrete works, the
Bidder/Contractor shall furnish and install all pre-cast concrete units in accordance with this
clause, where shown on the drawings or directed by TRANSCO.
The maximum size of the coarse aggregates for pre-cast concrete units shall be 20 mm.
Pre-cast concrete units shall be cast in individual forms and may be cured in the pre-cast yard by
steam curing for at least four (4) days or continuous water curing for at least 7 days, followed by
application of an approved curing membrane or other approved methods.
For pre-cast concrete elements and units where the use of immersion type vibrators is not
applicable, the Bidder/Contractor shall consolidate such units on vibrating tables or by any other
method approved by TRANSCO.
Pre-cast concrete units shall not be branded or marked in any position, which can be seen, in the
finished work or against which any concrete is to be placed.
Pre-cast concrete units may be supplied by a Manufacturer or may be manufactured by the
Bidder/Contractor at a location as approved by TRANSCO.
During transportation and storage, pre-cast panels shall be supported as in their final positions.
Other methods of support will not be permitted. The pre-cast members shall be adequately
braced and supported during erection to ensure proper alignment and safety. Such bracing or
support shall be maintained until adequate permanent connections have been made.
The dimensions of the finished pre-cast units shall be within the following limits at the time of
placement in the structure:
Overall dimensions of member

3.0 mm

Cross-sectional dimensions:

Sections less than 75 mm

1.5 mm

Sections over 75 mm and less than 300 mm

3.0 mm

331246470.doc

Page 15 of 16

CIVIL WORKS
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

Sections over 300 mm

Deviation from straight line in long sections

less than 5 mm per 6 m

Deviation from camber

1.5 mm per 3 m of span

Maximum difference in level between adjacent


units in erected position

5.0 mm

span/1000 or 10mm,
which ever is minimum

No pre-cast units shall be considered for diaphragm action horizontal pre-cast elements. Normal
weight concrete topping is to be used for such behaviour.
Bond/Anchorage test must be performed in the Factory on at least 2 samples of each thickness of
Hollow Core Slabs.
Full scale load tests shall be carried out on each panel of typical design in accordance with ACI
318M-89/318RM-89. The purpose of such load tests is to determine the behaviour of the slabs
under working conditions. Acceptance criteria shall be as follows:
Applied test load T shall be equal to 0.85 (1.4 D + 1.7 L). (D = dead load, L = live load under
consideration of reductions permitted in the general design). Loads shall be applied in at least
four (4) increments and the final load shall be kept for at least 24 hours.
The test load shall be removed immediately after reading of the initial deflection and the final
reading shall be taken 24 hours after removal of the test load.
If visual evidence of failure, e.g. cracking, spaling, excessive deflection, etc., appears, the tested
member shall be considered to have failed the test. If no visual indications of failure occur,
following shall be the limiting criteria to define acceptable behaviour:

Maximum deflection of beams, floor or roof shall be less than l 2 / 20,000 h. (l = clear span
and h = thickness)

If the above is exceeded, the deflection recovery within 24 hours after removal of the test
load shall be at least 75% of the maximum deflection for non-pre-stressed concrete or 80%
for pre-stressed concrete

For cantilevers, l shall taken as twice the distance from cantilever support to end.
Deflection shall be adjusted for support movements.

Retesting:
If nonprestressed concrete fails to show the required 75% recovery of deflection, may be retested not earlier than 72 hours after first test load removal. The re-tested portion of the structure
may be considered satisfactory if it shows no visible sign of failure, and the deflection recovery
caused by the second test load is at least 80% of the maximum deflection in the second test.
Pre-stressed concrete construction shall not be re-tested.

331246470.doc

Page 16 of 16