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THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SELF WITH SPECIAL REFRENCE TO ALLAM IQBALS

PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

Chapter One
1.1

Overview

In this chapter the researcher will introduce the topic along with the significance of the study,
research objectives and related questions.
1.2 Introduction
Iqbal (1876-1938) is one of the most prominent, and acknowledged Muslim poet philosopher
of Indo-Pak. He played a significant role in promoting an intellectual revolution among the
Muslims of sub-continent. He received both eastern and western education at home as well as
abroad. He expressed his philosophy mainly in verse, in Persian and Urdu, in addition to his
prose writings in English and Urdu. He took keen interest in the social economical political
cultural and religious life of the country with an emphasis on positive constructive activity
and change (Singh, 1951).
Iqbal as poet, lawyer, Muslim reformer, political thinker and a great humanist, presented his
philosophical poetry to influence his audience and followers. Esposito states that "Iqbal's
poetry has moved millions; his life and work have inspired literally thousands of books and
articles as well as Iqbal societies and journals. The popularity of his poetry among educated
and uneducated alike, political activists and Muslim intellectuals of every persuasion have
sought to proclaim him as their source and master"(Esposito, 1983).
He based his philosophy on the teaching of Islam, that's why he urged the Muslims to follow
the teachings of Quran and the path of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). Most of Allama Iqbal's
work is devoted to a revival of Islam. He encouraged Muslims to know and reconstruct self,

THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SELF WITH SPECIAL REFRENCE TO ALLAM IQBALS


PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

to modify society and embrace ideals of brotherhood, justice, and service. To Iqbal, Qur'an
contains rich information that deals with modern problems that Islamic states and the entire
humanity are facing and attachment with Qur'an is crucial in Islamic revivalism and to make
this world a place of happiness (Munawwar, 1992).
Iqbal states in his stray thoughts or reflection that Given character and healthy imagination,
it is possible to reconstruct this world of sin and misery into a veritable paradise(Iqbal
1961).
Philosophy is the pursuit or quest of wisdom, the study of realities and general principles. It is
concerned with a search of eternal truth.
Educational philosophy is concerned with the purpose of human life and education; it is also
concerned with the relationship of individual to the community. Philosophy and education are
interrelated. Philosophy depends upon education for the formulation of aims and objectives
and education depends upon philosophy for its guidance. The formulation of aims and the
objectives of education is the main responsibility of educational philosophy. Education aims
are influenced by the economical social political and religious conditions prevailing in a
country. The educational philosophy draws its data from a wide variety of sources; it draws
data from science, history and religion (Brubacher, 1973).
A country first of all should evolve a philosophy of its education and later on plan a scheme
of education according to it. Philosophy and education are two side of a coin, philosophy is
the contemplative side, and education is the active side, one is theory and the other is
practical. Sir john Adams says, Education is the dynamic side of philosophy.
The success of an educational practice depends upon the soundness of its philosophy. A
competent teacher must have a sound philosophy of education. Teacher takes the
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PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

responsibility of educating the youth of a nation. Teachers are the builders of a nation. They
have to look after the overall development of generation. A teacher is a person who transmits
knowledge, transform attitude, and cultivate skills. He should encourage learning, use all
available technology (ICT) and lay foundation for life-long education. Teachers must have a
thorough knowledge about the educational philosophers of the world so that they may adopt
or develop a philosophy which may be fruitful for the reconstruction and modification of self
and society, a philosophy which fulfill the need of individual and community (MaRuf, 1987).
The educational aspect of Iqbals philosophy has been chosen purposely. For education is one
of the most important means for maintaining the life of self and society. Education is the
fundamental right of every human being; it has been on central significance to the
development of self and society. According to Allama Iqbal, education is compulsory for
every man and woman in the society.
It is through education that the ideas of Iqbal will influence the life of the nation. An
attempt has been made to infer Iqbals educational ideas from the study of his philosophy as
expressed in his work, poems prose, addresses and letters. Allama Iqbal is a versatile, world
recognized revolutionary poet and philosopher, many aspects of his art and thought have yet
to be arranged and studied. One such aspect which has been barely touched upon by the
scholars is the reconstruction of self.
In this study an effort will be made to understand self, its importance and reconstruction, role
of education in the reconstruction and development of self, and at the end hurdles in the
reconstruction of self with remedies will be discussed.

THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SELF WITH SPECIAL REFRENCE TO ALLAM IQBALS


PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

1.2 Research Problem


The problem under study is to analyze The reconstruction of self with special reference to
Allama Iqbal Philosophy of Education. The purpose of the study is to examine the role of
Allama Iqbals philosophy of education to realize the importance of self, the significance of
its reconstruction and development through education.
Attempt will also be made to assess as to how far the educational implications of the
philosophical ideas of Allama Iqbal can help to improve our present day pathetic conditions
of education.

1.3 Significance of the study


The study would be of great importance and will highlight the following points.
a. This study may assist educationist and researchers in understanding the Allama Iqbal
Philosophy of Education.
b. It may also be helpful to elaborate the concept of self and its stages of reconstruction.
c. In this study barriers in the reconstruction of self will be discussed with remedies and
recommendations.

1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES


The main objectives of this study are as under:

THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SELF WITH SPECIAL REFRENCE TO ALLAM IQBALS


PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

i.

To explore the reconstruction of self with reference to Iqbals philosophy of


education.

ii.

To explain the role of Education in the reconstruction of self.

iii.

To identify obstacles in the reconstruction of self.

iv.

To provide recommendations as a result of findings.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION


This study will be guided by the following research questions:
A. What is the role of Iqbals educational philosophy in the reconstruction of self?
B. What is the importance of education in the reconstruction of self?
C.

What guidelines can be provided by Iqbals philosophy of education for the


reconstruction of self?

THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SELF WITH SPECIAL REFRENCE TO ALLAM IQBALS


PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

CHAPTER TWO
2.1

Overview

In chapter two an effort will be made to review the topic in the light of previous research
work.

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW


There has always remained a discussion that which kind of philosophy will be fruitful for
education and for the reconstruction of self, a philosophy based on Spiritualism or a
philosophy based on Materialism. This is an important issue because educational system of
any country is based on prevailing philosophy. If people of a country believe that the visible
world is whole of reality and deny human spirit then their education system will be shaped
accordingly.
If people of a country believe that this world is mere an illusion then they will develop such
philosophy of education which is in harmony with this idea (Saiyidain, 1938).
Now the question arises, what is the significance of the ideal and the real in the life of
man?

THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SELF WITH SPECIAL REFRENCE TO ALLAM IQBALS


PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

Should we assign the supremacy to the values of spirit or to the needs and demands of
material life?
To Iqbal, the purpose of education is not to concentrating exclusively on gaining this world
even at the cost of losing his soul in the process. Philosophy is the logic of right, history and
the logic of might. (Stray Reflections p.40) Private Note book of Allama Iqbal first published
in 1961.
Philosophy is a set of abstraction shivering in the cold night of human reason. The poet
comes and warms them up into objectivity (Iqbal 1961).
Educational philosophy is the branch of general philosophy. It deals with the purpose of
human life and education; it is also concerned with the relationship of individual to the
community.
Philosophy and education are interrelated. Philosophy depends upon education for the
formulation of aims and objectives and education depends upon philosophy for its guidance.
The formulation of aims and the objectives of education is the main responsibility of
educational philosophy. (Khalid, 1983)
According to Mian Muhammad Tufail, (1966) he stated about Allama iqbals philosophy.
Iqbal, under the leadership of an Oriental Philosopher, Moulana Rumi, and after gaining
strength for his thought from the study of both eastern and western thinkers, began to develop
his own philosophy, which, in view of its most prominent features, may be called
Philosophy of the Self. It is in the light of this philosophy that one must understand Iqbals
ever-increasing emphasis on the efficiency and eternity of the will and his ever decreasing
belief in the efficiency and eternity of beauty, a change which took him away from Platonism
and pantheistic mysticism. Iqbal gave importance to the efficiency of will upon beauty. Iqbal
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PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

formulated his new philosophy in his poems of Bang-i-Dara (The Caravan Bell, 1924) Asrari- Khudi (The Mysteries of the Self, 1915), and Rumuzi-i Bekhudi (The Mysteries of
Selflessness, 1918).
His thought was guided by concept of the self which is regarded as a dynamic center of
wishes, aspirations, efforts, resolves, powers, and action. The self does not live in time but
time is dynamism of the self. God can be reached through the self only. Search after is God,
therefore, conditioned upon a search after ones own self (Toufail, 1966).

Summary
In the light of the literature reviewed, it is stated that education is a social institution and it
brings positive change in behavior of an individual. It reforms self and society, for a sound
and balanced development of self and society a dynamic versatile comprehensive educational
philosophy is needed. It is the key to success in the field of education and in the
reconstruction of self and community as well.

THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SELF WITH SPECIAL REFRENCE TO ALLAM IQBALS


PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

Chapter Three
3.1

Overview
This chapter explains the course of action that the researcher will follow for doing this

study. First of all the nature of the study has been described in terms of qualitative or
quantitative, then the tool used for collecting the data has been discussed, also the data
collection procedure has been described.

3.2

Research Methodology

Since the research study will be qualitative in nature and historical by type. So, the data will
be collected from primary and secondary sources. For this purpose, the main focus will be to
study the original text which will help us to know about Allama Iqbals educational
contribution in the reconstruction of self.

3.3 Data collection


The data for this work will be collected with the help of textual analysis of Allama Iqbals
work. Textual analysis is the ability to identify and classify specific information from a text.
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THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SELF WITH SPECIAL REFRENCE TO ALLAM IQBALS


PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

The purpose of textual analysis is to describe the content, structure, and function of the
messages contained in texts. A textual analysis is most often used to analyze historical
documents and narratives.

3.4 Delimitations of the research study


The study will be delimited to the work of Allama Iqbal as expressed in his poetry.
Some other work resources regarding to topic will be considered for study.

3.5 Organization of The Study


The research thesis will be organized into six chapters which are briefly given below.
Chapter 1: Chapter one will deal with the introduction of the research thesis, and will
highlight its background and significance.
Chapter 2: This chapter will offer a review of related Literature. Literature about the Iqbals
educational philosophy towards reconstruction of self.
Chapter 3: Chapter Three will shed light on the methodology of this study.
Chapter 4: Here an attempt will be made to describe the significance of self reconstruction
and its stages in the light of Quran.
Chapter 5: This chapter will unveil the sources from which he derived his educational
philosophy.
Chapter 6: Chapter six will highlight the barriers in the reconstruction of self.
Recommendations will be mentioned at the end of this chapter.

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REFRENCES:Iqbal Sir Muhammad, Asrar-i Khudi, (The Mysteries of the self) Lahore, 1915.
Iqbal,Sir Muhammad, Rumuzi-i Bekhudi, (The Mysteries of Selflessness)
Lahore,1918.
Iqbal,Sir Muhammad, Bal-i Jibril, Lahore (Sh.Ghulam Ali), 1955.
Iqbal,Sir Muhammad, Bang-I Dara, Lahore, 1924.
Iqbal,Sir Muhammad, Zarb-I Kalim, Lahore (Sh.Ghulam Ali), 1955.
Iqbal,Sir Muhammad,Payam-I Mashriq,Lahore, 1954.
Iqbal,Sir Muhammad, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, London (Oxford
University Press), 1934.
Iqbal,Sir Muhammad, The Development of Metaphysics in Persia, 1908.
Saiyidain,K.g., Iqbals Educational Philosophy, Lahore (Ashraf), 1954.
Singh, Iqbal, The Adrent Pilgrim: An Introduction to the Life and Work of Muhammad Iqbal,
Calcutta, 1951.
Nicholson, R.A., trans, The secrets of the Self: A Philosophical Poem by Muhammad Iqbal,
Lahore, 1955.
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PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, Self and Society, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Mrs.Tanvir Khalid, EDUCATION, An Introduction to Educational philosophy and History,
National Book Foundation Islamabad, 1983.
Brubacher, Jhon., A History of the Problems of Education, New York (McGraw Hill), 1947.
Dewey, Jhon, The Sources of a Science of Education, New York, 1929.
Day, C. Teachers in the twenty-first century: Time to renew the vision. Teachers and
Teaching: Theory and Practice, 2000.
IQBAL Quarterly Journal of the Bazm-i -Iqbal, Volume 61/62, March 2015.

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