You are on page 1of 92

Heat Treatment and Toughness Behavior of

Tool Steels (D2 and H13) for Cutting Blades

Attaullah. (Ayooq) Arain

Theses submitted in conformity with the requirernents


for the degree of Master of Applied Science
Graduate Department of Metallurgy and Material Science
University of Toronto

O Copyright by A. (Ayooq ) Arain 1999

N B

National Library
dan,

Bibliothque nationale
du Canada

Acquisitions and
Bibliogiaphic Services

Acquisitions et
services bibliographiques

395 Wellington Street


tawaON K1AON4
Canada

OttawON K1AOlU4

395, nie Wellington


Canada
Your fi&

Votre mhrsn

Our t& Nuire r

The author has granted a nonexclusive licence allowing the


National Library of Canada to
reproduce, loan, distribute or sel1
copies of this thesis in rnicrofonn,
paper or electronic formats.

L'auteur a accord une Licence non


exclusive permettant la
Bibliothque nationale du Canada de
reproduire, prter, distribuer ou
vendre des copies de cette thse sous
la forme de rnicrofiche/film, de
reproduction sur papier ou sur format
lectronique.

The author retains ownership of the


copyright in this thesis. Neither the
thesis nor substantial extracts fkom it
may be printed or otherwise
reproduced without the author's
permission.

L'auteur conserve la proprit du


droit d'auteur qui protge cette thse.
Ni la thse ni des extraits substantiels
de celle-ci ne doivent tre imprims
ou autrement reproduits sans son
autorisation.

Acknowledgements
The author would like to express his sincere gratitude to his supervisor, Professor

Zhirui Wang, for his advice and encouragement throughout the course of this thesis.

Special thanks are due to Mohamrnad Hasnat (President) and George Kodama
(Technical Director) of A& M Heat Treat Ltd. for their assistance with the use of the

Vacuum Furnace and laboratory facilities, and for thought provoking discussions
pertaining to the data generated by this study. Material supplied by the Central
Welding Ltd is highly appreciated. Thanks are also due to Mr. F. Nueb and Sal
Boccia for their assistance in operating the SEM, and the author's research group
members, Dr. Bo Gong, Dr. Yang, Dr. Hamid S, Mr. Hai Ni, and Mr. John Yan, for
valuable discussions and collaborations.

Heat Treatment and Toughness Behavior of

Tool Steels (D2 and H13) for Cutting blades


Attaullah. (Ayooq) Arain

Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science


University of Toronto

ABSTRACT
The effects of austenitizing and tempering temperatures on the microstructure,
as-quenched and tempered hardness capability, and Charpy V-notch impact
resistance of D2 and H l 3 tool steels were investigated. Decarborization behavior
of D2 and H i 3 tool steels was observed by heat treating the samples in vacuum

and normal furnaces. Heat treatment in an open atmosphere furnace gave up to


.018"(.45rnm) thick layer of decarborization and also results in the loss of
precious alloying elements, which should be in controlled amounts for 02 and
H l3 tool steels. The main results can be summarized as: (1) An increase in
austenitizing temperature resulted in coarsening of the grain structure, increased
dissolution of carbides, increased asquenched and tempered hardness
capability, and decreased impact toughness; (2) Tempering three times in
comparison with two times after hardening in a controlled atmosphere furnace

gives an increase in Charpy impact toughness of up to 25%; (3) 02 and H l 3


steels hardened at 1038'~ followed by three temperings show relatively higher

Charpy impact values versus those treated with one or two temperings. The
failure mechanism of the impact tested 02 and H l 3 steels after heat treatment at
1OZS*C, 1038'~, and 4 0 6 5 ' ~ followed by the tempering up to three times at

temperatures 205'~, 5 3 8 ' ~ , 593%, and 6 2 0 ' ~ was studied through using
Scanning Electron Microscopy. The resultant microstructure of D2 and H i3
steels after the three tempering process gives better plasticity than after two
temperings.

iv

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
List of Figures

vi

List of Tables

3 . Introduction

Background
Tool Steels
Category of Tool Steels
Cutting Performance of Tool Steel

Chernical Composition of Tool Steel


Heat Treatment of Tool Steel
Microstructure of Tod Steel
High Carbon-High Chromium Cold Work Tool Steels

Hot Work Tool Steels


Heat Treatment of Hot and Cold Work Tool Steels

02 Cold Work Tool Steel


H l 3 Hot Work Tool Steel
Objective

2. Experimental
2.1 . Materiais

2.2. Heat Treatment and hardness measurements

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

2.3.

Heat Treatrnent in vacuum and control atmosphere furnaces

23

2.4.

Sample preparation for optical microscopy

24

2.5.

Charpy V-notch impact testing

25

2.6.

Scanning Electron Microscopy

27

3. Results and Discussion


3.1. Heat Treatrnent in Vacuum and Control Atmosphere Furnaces
3.2. Heat Treatment in open atmosphere furnace

3.3.

Heat treatment by Current Operation

3.4. Charpy V-Notch Dynamic Impact Test

3.5. Surface analysis by using Scanning Electron Microscope

3.6. Hardness measurement in HRC

3.7. Summary of Major Results

4. Conclusions

References

vi

List of Figures

--

List of Figures

List of Figures
Fig. 1

Schematic of tool steel heat treatments.

Fig. 2

Schematic continuous cooling diagrarn for a typical tool steel.

Fig. 3

Isothemal section of the iron-chromium-carbon system at 700%.

Fig. 4

Isothemal section of the iron-chromium-carbon system at 1 0 0 0 ~ ~ .

Fig. 5

Vertical section for 5 pct Cr alloys of the Fe-Cr-C system.

Fig. 6

Fig. 7

Charpy V-Notch impact testing machine.


Optical micrograph of D2 tool steel heat treated in vacuum furnace at
102SC/30min and tempered twice at 538OCI2hrs.

Fig. 8

Optical micrograph of D2 tool steel heat treated in vacuum furnace at


1038"C/3Omin and tempered twice at 538"C/2hrs.

Fig. 9

Optical micrograph of 02 tool steel heat treated in vacuum furnace at


1065OC130min and tempered hnrice at 538"CIZhrs.

Fig. 10

Optical micrograph of H l 3 tool steel heat treated in vacuum furnace at


1025'C/30min and tempered Wice at 538'C and 593"C/2hrs.

Fig. 11

Optical micrograph of Hl3 tool steel heat treated in vacuum furnace at


1065'C/30min and tempered Nice at 538% t2hn.

Fig. 12

Microhardness measurement of 02 tool steel in Knoop scale by using


weight 500 gram.

vii

--

List of Figures
Fig. 13

List of Figures

Microhardness measurement of H l 3 tool steel in Knoop scale by using


weight

500 gram.

Fig. 14 Optical micrograph of D2 tool steel heat treated by current operation

(open atmosphere) at 1025"C/30min and tempered twice.

Fig. 15

Optical micrograph of H l 3 tool steel heat treated by current operation


(open atmosphere) at 1025"C/30min and tempered twice.

Fig. 16 V-Notch Charpy impact test result for H l3 tool steel heat treated at
1025"C, 1038OC, 1065OC/30min. and tempered up to three times at
538C and 593OC12hrs.
Fig. 17 V-Notch Charpy impact test result for Hl3 tool steel heat treated at

1025"C, 1038OC, 1065OCf30rnin. and tempered up to three times at


538C 12hrs.

Fig. 18 V-Notch Charpy impact test result for H13 tool steel heat treated at
1038*C, 1065C130min. and tempered up to three times at 538C and
62O0C12hrs.
Fig. 19

V-Notch Charpy impact test result for D2 tool steel heat treated at
1025OC, 1038OC, 1065OC/30min. and ternpered up to three times at
593OC12hrs.

Fig. 20

V-Notch Charpy impact test result for D2 tool steel heat treated at
1025OC, 1038OC, 1065C130min. and tempered two times at 20SC/2hrs.

Fig. 21

V-Notch Charpy impact test result for D2 tool steel heat treated at
1025*C, 1038OC, 1065C/30rnin. and tempered two times at 538OCMhrs.

viii
List of Figures
Fig. 22

--

List of Figures

SEM micrograph of D2 tool steel heat treated in controlled atmosphere


fumace at 1025'C/30min and tempered at 593'C 12hrs.

Fig. 23

SEM micrograph of D2 tool steel heat treated in controlled atmosphere


furnace at 1038"C/30min and tempered at 593C 12hn showing the
matching part and morphology of fractured surface.

Fig. 24

SEM micrograph of 02 tool steel heat treated in controlled atmosphere


furnace at 1038"C130min and tempered at 593C 12hrs showing the
matching part of fractured carbide.

Fig. 25

SEM rnicrograph of 02 tool steel heat treated in controlled atmosphere


furnace at 1065'C130min and tempered thrice at 593% nhrs showing
the morphology of fracture.

Fig. 26

SEM micrograph of H l 3 tool steel heat treated in controlled atmosphere

furnace at 1025"C/30min and tempered thrice at 538OC, 593C and


593C /2hrs showing the difference between two and three tempering.
Fig. 27

SEM micrograph of H l 3 tool steel heat treated in controlled atmosphere


fumace at 1065'C/30min and tempered thrice at 538OC, 593C and
593C 12hrs showing the morphology of fracture surface.

Fig. 28

SEM rnicrograph of H l 3 tool steel heat treated in controlled atmosphere


fumace at 1025"C/30min and tempered at 538C and 593C /2hrs
showing the difference between two and three tempers.

Fig. 29

Hardness data (HRC) for V-Notch Charpy impact 02 tool steel samples
heat treated at 1025OC, 1038OC, 1065OC130min. and tempered up to
three times at 593OCt2hrs.

ix

List of Figures
Fig. 30

List of Figures

Hardness data (HRC) for V-Notch Charpy impact 02 tool steel samples
heat treated at 1025OC, 1038OC, 1065C130min. and tempered up to
three times at 538C/2hrs.

Fig. 31

Hardness data (HRC) for V-Notch Charpy impact D2 tool steel samples
heat treated at 1025C1 1038OC, 1065C/30min. and tempered up to
three tirnes at 205Ci2hrs.

Fig. 32

Hardness data (HRC) for V-Notch Charpy impact H l 3 tool steel samples
heat treated at 1025OC, 1038OC, 1065OC/30min. and tempered up to
three tirnes at 538OC and 593OCI2hrs.

Fig. 33

Hardness data (HRC) for V-Notch Charpy impact H l 3 tool steel samples
heat treated at 1025OC, 10380C1 1065C/30min. and tempered up to
three times at 538OC/2hrs.

Fig. 34

Hardness data (HRC) for V-Notch Charpy impact Hl3 tool steel samples
heat treated at 1025OC, 1038OC, 1065OC/30min. and tempered up to
three times at 538C and 620C/2hrs.

List of Tables

List of Tables

List of Tables
Table 2.1. Showing austenitizing temperature, soaking time, and cooling pradice
used for 02 and H13 tool steel.
Table 3.1. HRC and V-Notch Charpy impact values for 02 steel at several

austenitizingand tempering temperatures.


Table 3.2. HRC and V-Notch Charpy impact values for H l 3 steel by using

several austenitizing and tempering temperatures.

1 Introduction
1.1 Background:
Research work was carried out on 02 and Hl3 tool steels to increase the
service life of blades and knives manufactured by the Central Welding Ltd, which
is the only Canadian manufacturer of heavy-uty shear blades and machine
knives, used in the steel and scrap metal industries. This Company is specialized
in the manufacturing of rotary edge trimmers and slitter knives. At the present
time, premature replacement of D2 and H13 tool steel knives is often required as
the result of cutting edge chipping and dulling. Chipping is a phenornenon in
which srnall parts of the material break away from the cutting edge. Chipping
apparently will damage the integrity of the cutting edge counter leading to a poor
cutting process and unsatisfactory products. Dulling is the phenornenon in which
the sharp edge of the knives or blades becorne "rounded" after a certain period of
normal use, Le., application without overloading or over-pressure. In order to
increase the service life of the blades and knives, research on 02 and Hf3 tool
steels has therefore been conducted supported by OCMR and Central Welding
Ltd.

1.2 Tool Steels

A tool steel is any steel used to make tools for cutting, foming or otheiwise
shaping a material into a part or component adapted to a definite use. The
addition of relatively large amounts of tungsten, molybdenum, manganese and
chromium can enable tool steels to meet stn'ngent service demands and can

provide greater dimensional control and freedom from cracking during heat
treatment.
The performance of a tool in senrice depends on the design of the tool, the

accuracy with which the tool is made, the choice of tool steel, and the choice of
heat treatment. High quality tool steel, appropriate design, and proper
manufacturing methods are the essential factors determining the procedure of
the heat treatment.

1.2.1

Categoiies of Tool Steels

It is important to classify tool steels into a relatively small number of groups for
purposes of comparison and evaluation and to facilitate the selection of steel for
a particular application. Because tool steels are of such diverse compositions, it
has never been easy to fit them into one category of the alloy steel system. Tool
steels have narrow Iimits on the amounts of alloying elements, and entire series
of steels are based on the variation in carbon content. The methods used most
frequently for classification of tool steels are the "Society for Automotive
Engineers" (SAE) and "American lron and Steel Institute" (AISI) rnethods. The
AISI method is more popular because it makes tool steel classification more

simple and understandable.


The AISI classification of tool steels will be used throughout the balance of this
study. The classification and a brief sumrnary of the major features of each class

is mentioned below (1,2):


Water-hardening tool steek, type - W

Shock-resisting tool steels, type


Mold tool steels, type

-S

-P
-

Special-purpose tool steels, type L and F


Cold work tool steels, type - O, A and D
Hot work tool steels, type - H

High-speed tool steels, type T and M


The water hardening tool steels, AISI type W, have the lowest alloy content and
therefore the lowest hardenability of any of the tool steels. As a result, the W tool
steels frequently require water quenching and heavy sections harden only to
shallow depths. Thin sections can be hardened by oil quenching to minimize
quench cracking and distortion.
The shock-resistant tool steels, AISI type S, have lower carbon content and
somewhat higher alloy content than the W steels. The medium carbon content
improves toughness and makes the type S steels good for applications with
shock and impact loading.
Tool steels for cold work include three classes of steels, AlSI type O,A and D.
These classes each have high carbon content for high hardness and high Wear
resistance in cold work applications, but differ in alloy content, which affects
hardenability and the carbide distributions incorporated into the hardened
microstructures.
Tool steels used for dies to mold plastics, AlSI type P. are exposed to less
severe Wear than metal-working steel, and therefore have low carbon content. A
key requirement is good polishability and excellent surface finish.

Hot work tool steels, AISI type Hl fall into groups which have either chromium,
tungsten, or molybdenurn as the major alloying element. The H steels are used

for hot forging, metal shearing, and metal die-casting dies.


The high-speed tool steels are highly alloyed, with tungsten, and molybdenum
as the major alloying elements in the T and M grades, respectively. The tungsten
and vanadium in these steels produce very high densities of stable carbides. As
a result, the high-speed tool steels are capable of retaining hardness at high
temperatures and are widely used for high-speed cutting and machining
applications.

1.3 Cutting performance of tool steel


Normally. cutting performance refers to tool life until the tool is reground or until
end-wear. Cutting performance is econornically significant because production
costs are influenced by it. Cutting performance of tool steel can be judged by
mechanical properties such as sharpness, hardness, strength, toughness, and
microstructure of tool steel. These mechanical properties, however, are
influenced by the chernical composition and heat treatment of the tool, which
affect the tool's microstructure.

1.3.1 Chernical composition of tool steel


Chernical composition is the most important influence upon shearing
performance of the tool steel. Each alloying element in tool steel. such as
tungsten, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, has a specific role in detemining

the mechanical properties. For hot work tool steels and high-carbon highchromiurn tool steels, slow cooling during solidification results in large amounts of
segregate that is a carbide of different alloys and is deposited frorn the melt as a
eutectic mixture of austenite and carbide. After solidification, such a segregate
can be broken up only with difficulty and then, only by mechanical work. These
carides are brittle and their nonunifonn distribution causes the steel to possess
limited ductility and also variation in chemical composition. Therefore, it becomes
highly important in the "freezing" of the steel that the distribution of the carbide
segregate be as closely controlled as possible. Also mechanical working
operations should be strictly controlled to avoid change in chemical composition.

1.3.2 Heat treatrnent of Tool Steel


The heat treatment to which a tool has been subjected has a marked influence

on cutting performance of tool steel (3). The general heat treatment schedules
applied to tool steels are shown in figure 1. Austenitizing is a very critical step in
the hardening of tool steel. It is in this step that the final alloy elements are
partitioned between the austenitic matrix (which will transfonn to martensite) and
the retained carbides. This partitioning fixes the chemistry, volume fraction, and
dispersion of the retained carbides. The retained alloy carbides not only
contribute to Wear resistance, but also wntrol austenitic grain size. The finer the
carbides and the larger the volume fraction of carbides, the more effectively
austenitic grain growth is controlled. If during heating the austenitizing
temperature is high, the carbide will dissolve to a large extent, and the

TIME

Figure: 1

Figure: 2

Schematic of tool steel heat treatment (4).

Schematic continuous cooling diagram for a typical tool steel.


Tl, T2, and T3 npresent decieasing cooling rates, Ci, Pi and Bi
repmsents the initiation of carbide, pearlite, and bainite
formation respectively (5).

precipitation of cementite on cooling will have a greater tendency to take place at


coarse austenite grain boundaries. If, however, the carbide has not been
completely dissolved and brge quantities remain in the f o m of rounded particles
throughout the matrix, carbide precipitation will take place on these preexisting
points, and the network of cementite surrounding the grain boundary will not
form. Thus, overly high austenitizing temperatures rnust be avoided so as to
prevent grain growth which can led to problems with cracking, retained austenite,
and excessive distortion.
Relatively slow oil quenching or air cooling for hardening of tool steels can lead
to grain boundary carbide formation, which makes tool steel susceptible to
intergranular failure. Figure 2 shows schematically the effects of three cooling
rates on the transformation of a typical tool steel (5). The high hardenability of
tool steels effectively suppresses perlite formation at al1 cooling rates. Bainite
formation is also readily suppressed except in heavy sections, which cool slowly.
However by slow cooling, the formation of carbides on austenite grain
boundaries is difficult to suppress, as shown in fig 2. Small amounts of carbides
do not significantly affect hardness but may lower tool steel fracture resistance,

leading to quench cracking, intergranular fracture of tool steels and reduced


performance of hot work tool steels such as H l 3 (6,7). A number of
investigations have shown that the presence of the grain boundary carbides
significantly reduces toughness of hardened and tempered tool steels (6,8,9).
Tool steels hardened in an oxidizing atmosphere scale freely; the 02 and H l 3

tool steels cannot be hardened in this manner without excessive decarborization.

Steels that can be hardened satisfactorily in an oxidizing atmosphere generally


have low chromium content ( 1% or less ) and do not require a high hardening
temperature ( no greater than 870C ) (44). In order to protect the tool steel
surface from decarborization and scaling during heat treatment, the fumace
medium must be kept neutral. Othewise decarborization will lead to soft surfaces
and cause cracking due to the formation of residual tensile stresses in the
surface. A possible explanation of this mechanism is that the reductions in
carbon content raise the rnartensite transformation temperature. Thus, on
quenching, the outer layers transfomi first at a much higher temperature, and
when the core transforms and expands, it puts the outer layer in tension (10).

1.3.3 Microstructure of Tool Steel


The cutting performance of heat treated tool steel can be improved by obtaining
finer grain size, a minimum amount of retained austenite, spheroid and finer
carbide size and a unifom distribution of carbides (3). As mentioned above, the
austenitizing temperature and quenching time should be appropriate, otherwise
grain growth and an increased amount of retained austenite and segregation of
carbides along grain boundaries will occur and can significantly reduce the life
and cutting performance of tool steel.

1.4 Highcarbon high-chromium cold work tool steels


In general, high-carbon high-chromium steels can be divided into M o main
categories: those that are essentially oil hardening and those that are essentially

air hardening. Further division can also be made on the basis of carbon content.
The original high-carbon high-chromiurn steels contained frorn 2.00 to 2.50%
carbon. Later modifications to obtain better machinability and less brittleness
lowered the carbon content to the range of 1.00 to 1.50% (2). Cold-work steels
should show the following physical characteristics:
1. Low rnovement in hardening.

2. High asquench hardness.


3. Maintenance of a keen edge for cutting purposes.
4. Resistance to mechanical shock.

5. Good machinability in annealed condition.


The nominal composition of high-Carbon highChromium cold work cutting

steels is: C: 1.5 to 2.00%, Mn: .30 Oh, Si: 0.25 to 0.85%, Cr: 12%. V: 0.25 to

0.6%, and Mo: 0.5 to 1%. The outstanding characteristics of cold work cutting
steels are high hardenability, Wear resistance, and high strength.
lsothermal sections of the ternary iron-chromium-carbon system provide insight
into the structure and properties of chromium cold work steels. Figure 3 shows

an isothemal section through this system at 700c, which should correspond


closely to the room temperature section. Therefore, this diagram represents
phases present in annealed alloys. When the ratio of chromium to carbon
exceeds 3:1, chrornium-rich carbides are found ((CrFe)&

or (CrFe)7Ca or

both). In high-carbon high-chromium steels, (CrFe)7C3 carbide is predominant. In


more complex steels, the metal lattice of the carbides may also contain
molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, and manganese (45,46). The composlion of

Figure: 3

lsotheimal section of the ironthromium-carbon


system at 7 0 0 ' ~(11).

carbides found in this system is variable and depends on the overall composition
of the alloy. Molybdenum or tungsten present in some of these steels stabilizes
the (CrFe)23C6 carbide. For example, D2 with molybdenum higher than usual
(1.41% Cl13.1 3% Cr, 1.2% Mo) is reported to contain only (CrFe)&

carbide in

the annealed condition (12). Most of the vanadium, some of the cobalt, but
relatively little of the nickel that may be present are also found in the carbide
phase (13). Each carbide present in steel has a different nature, and Wear
resistance of the steel is detenined by the amount and nature of that carbide:
the harder the excess carbide, the greater the Wear resistance. Microhardness
measurements made using the Knoop scale found the (CrFe)7C3 carbide to be
considerably harder (1820 Knoop) than the cementite in a plain carbon tool steel
(1150 Knoop) (14, 15).

On austenitizing some of the carbide dissolves in the austenite, thus supplying


the matrix with alloying elements necessary for high hardenability and asquenched hardness. The isothermal section shown in Figure 4 dernonstrates the
).
carbide
structures prevailing at the austenitizing temperature (10 0 0 ~ ~(CrFe)7C3
is the only carbide present in high-carbon highthromiurn steels after
austenitizing at 1000' C.
The presence of high chromium content enables these steels to resist oxidation
at high temperatures to a much greater degree than carbon or other low-alloy
steels. High chromium content also causes an appreciable resistance to staining
when the steel is hardened and polished.

Figure: 4

lsothermal section of the iron-chromium-carbon

Other elements added in small amounts to high-carbon high-chromium steels

include vanadium, cobalt, silicon, and tungsten. Yamanaka (17) has studied the
effect of variations of molybdenum (O to 1.5%) and vanadium (O to 1.2%) on the
properties of D2 tool steel and found that molybdenum increases hardenability
and toughness but has little effect on austenite grain size or the quantity of
retained austenite. Vanadium (in proportions greater than 0.8%) produces fine
grain size but decreases hardenability (the austentizing temperature required to
produce full hardness increases w l h increasing vanadium). Vanadium decreases
retained austenite and, with proportions up to 1%, improves toughness.
Typical applications of high-carbon high-chromium cold work tool steels include
shear blades, slitting cutters, cold extrusion dies, punches, broaches, mandrels,
forming and bending rolls, and hot trimming of forgings.

1.5 Hot work tool steels

In general, hot work steels are of the medium and high-alloy type, and most of
them have relatively low carbon content (0.25 to 0.6%). Hot work steels should

show the following physical characteristics:


1. Resistance to deformation at the working temperature.

2. Resistance to shock.

3. Resistance to Wear at the working temperature.


4. Resistance to heat treating deformation.

5. Resistance to heat checking.


6. Good machinability in the annealed condition.

The nominal composition of chromium-molybdenum hot work cutting steels is:


C: .35 to .40%. Mn: .30 to .60%, Si: 1.0%. Cr: 3.50 to 5.0%, V: .4 to 1.0%,

W: 1.25 to 1.50%, and Mo: 1.50 to 2.5%. The outstanding characteristics of hot
work cutting steels are toughness, shock resistance, and hot hardness.
Typical applications of chromium-molybdenum hot work steels include diecasting dies. forging dies, shear blades for hot work, punches, piercers and
mandrels for hot work. hot extrusion tooling, and al1 types of dies for hot work that
involves shock. Certain of these steels are used for ultra high-strength structural
parts (18).
Chromium-molybdenum steels have extremely high hardenability. Molybdenum,
which is present in an amount of 1% or greater, is responsible in large rneasure
for this property. Tungsten, which may be present, contributes little to
hardenability, and vanadium actually decreases it by tying up carbon in the form
of stable vanadium carbides. The high silicon content in these steels improves
oxidation resistance while changing the type of scale formed on air cooling to
enable its easy removal. Either carborization or decarborization of these steels
increases the tendency to heat checking. The vertical section (Fig. 5) (shows
temperature ranges over which the various carbides coexist with austenite and
ferrite) for Fe-Cr-C alloys containing 5 wt.% chrornium. This information is useful
in designing hot work schedules and heat treatments for annealing and
hardening (4,9,16).

Figure: 5

Vertical section for 5 pct Cr alloys of the Fe-Cr-C system.


Vertical dashed lines indicate phase equilibria of the
alloys based only on their chromium carbon contents. A,
F and L designate austenite, ferrite and liquid respectively
(39).

1.6 Heat treatment of cold and hot work tool steels

Heat treatment of tool steels for cutting purposes are conducted to produce an
optimal combination of high hardness, good Wear resistance, and sufficient
fracture resistance or toughness for a given application. High hardness is
frequently produced by the transformation of austenite into martensite, and

toughness is controlled largely by the tempering of the martensite.


Heat treatment to produce martensite consists of three steps: heating to the
austenitizing temperature, austenitizing, and cooling or quenching. Heating of the
ferrite-spheroidized carbide microstructure to the austenitizing temperature in
highly alloyed tool steels requires a preheat step to equalize the ternperature
through a section, thereby preventing distortion or cracking that might occur if the
surface and centre sections heat at significantly different rates (19,20).
Once the austenite is fomed, the alloying elements and carbon partition
themselves between the austenite and the carbides according to the
requirements of equilibrium at a given temperature. As the carbides dissolve, the
austenite becomes rich in carbon and alloying element content (21-23). The
austenitizing of cold and hot work cutting steel is designed to retain a significant
volume fraction of spheroidized carbides for the following purposes: to produce
austenite of optimum composition; to improve Wear resistance during service;
and to prevent grain coanening and abnomial grain growth during austenitizing
(40)-

The hardenability of cold and hot work cutting tool steels is quite high, and
therefore the steels can generally be hardened by air cooling. When diffusion

controlled transformations are avoided, the austenite remains untransfotmed until


the martensite start temperature (M,)

is reached. At this temperature, the

diffusionless transformation of austenite into martensite begins. The higher the


carbon and alloy content of the austenite, the lower the M, temperature (24),

which results in less martensite formation at room temperature. Thus in highly


alloyed austenite, a considerable fraction of the austenite might be retained in the
microstructure at room temperature, resulting in a much lower hardness than
expected for more completely transformed microstructures. When retained
austenite is of concern, the austenitizing temperature can be decreased to retain
more carbides. Subzero cooling to transform additional austenite into martensite
is also used sometimes (20). If sewndary hardening is required during
tempering, austenitizing is designed to put as much alloy and carbon in solution
as possible, while avoiding abnormal grain growth and excessive retained
austenite.

1.7

0 2 tool steel

D2 tool steel used for cutting purposes operates under conditions of impact,
where resistance to mechanical damage is desired. Due to high carbon and high
chromium content, the Wear resistance of D2 tool steel is approxirnately eight
times that of plain carbon steels (25). The chernical composition of 02 steel is
usually: C-1.5%, Mn-0.30%, Si-0.25%, Cr4 2%, V-0.60%, Mo-0.80%.
Kligler (26) has shown that the mechanical properties of D2 steel are
anisotropic and depend on orientation with respect to the rolling direction. 60th

strength and ductility, as measured by tension, compression and bend tests were
found to be maximum in the direction parallel to the rolling direction and minimum
in the direction transverse to the rolling direction. This directionality of mechanical
properties can be attributed to the production of eiongated carbide stringers in
the direction of rolling.
The dimensional changes resulting from hardening of high-carbon highchromiurn steels are exceptionally small. Previous research (27-29) showed that
an 11.00% chromium steel of this type expanded only 0.1% of the annealed
volume after hardening in air.
Although the majority of applications of D2 tool steel involve cold work, it is also
widely used for hot trimming of forgings. Typical applications include blanking
dies, slitting cutters, shear blades, forming dies, knurls, gages (plug and thread),
punches, trimming dies, etc.

1.8 Hl3 tool steel

H i 3 tool steel that belongs to the hot working tool steel group is the most

frequently used steel in this group. This steel possesses a combination of hot
strength, Wear resistance and toughness, and is predominantly based on the
0.4%C, 5%Cr compositions containing up to l.S%Mo, 1%V and sometimes with

increased silicon.

To maintain the required properties at high temperatures in Hl3 tool steel, the
most convenient method is to use a secondary hardening reaction involving the

precipitation of alloy carbides such as Mo2C and VC after tempering at


500~1650~~.

The most stable carbide in H l 3 steel is VC, which mostly remains undissolved
at recommended austenitizing temperatures. These undissolved, uniformly
distributed carbide particles are pinned to the austenite grain boundaries and
help to maintain the fine austenite grain size. H l3 is an air hardening steel, but at
the slower cooling rates in larger sections there are increased amounts of both

lower and upper bainite (30),and also an increased tendency for carbides to be
precipitated during cooling on the austenitite grain boundaries. It is well known

(30-32) that upper bainite impairs both the high ductility and impact toughness,
and a similar detrimental effect is also produced by grain boundary carbides
which are mainly of the VC type (32).
During tempering of H l 3 tool steel, secondary hardening occurs due to
precipitating carbide being VC in which some molybdenum is dissolved (23).
Because secondary hardening is due to precipitation, its intensity increases with
increasing volume fraction and decreasing particle size of the alloy carbide.
Austenitizing at higher temperature provides a greater number of nuclei during
tempering, and consequently a smaller particle size, smaller interparticle spacing
and greater intensity of secondary hardening. It has been suggested (34.35) that

at lower austenitizing temperatures there are VC clusters which are inherited by


the martensite and act as nuclei for VC precipitation during tempering. Hence
coarser precipitates are formed, and if the VC clusten segregate to austenite
grain boundaries, more VC would fonn on the boundaries during tempering and

give even less secondary hardening. On the other hand, austenitizing at higher
temperatures causes the VC clusten to be thermally dispersed so that the VC
precipitated during tempering has no precipitation nuclei and forms a greater
number of smaller particles with a consequent greater intensity of secondary
hardening and a higher overaged hardness. Thus, increasing the austenitizing
temperature not only dissolves more VC and gives a larger volume fraction of
precipitate during tempering, but also refines the precipitate particle size. Both
effects lead to greater secondary hardening and higher overaged hardness. Of
course, the austenitizing temperature must not be increased so much that grain
coarsening takes place. During overaging at high tempering temperatures, the
VC coarsens slowly and MZ3C6 is precipitated, possibly at the expense of some

dissolution of VC (33,36). H l 3 tool steel is not tempered at maximum secondary


hardness due to a marked embrittlement which occurs (37-39).

1.9

Objectives

This project has following objectives:

1. To investigate failure mechanisms of the 02 and H l 3 cutting tools with


consideration of the relationship between current heat treatment procedures
and the resultant microstructures/hardnessin these materials.

2. To evaluate the dynamic impact toughness at several heat treatment


conditions by using Charpy V-notch impact toughness tests for 02 and Hl3
tool steels.

3. f o study the fracture surface of the Charpy impact tested specimens using
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to understand the failure
mechanism.
4. To determine the optimum conditions for heat treatments of these materials

for which the properties and life of the tools can be improved. Parameters
considered include austenitizing temperature, tempering temperature. and
number of temperings.

2.

Experimental

2.1.

Materials

The materials used in this investigation were supplied by Central Welding Ltd. in
annealed conditions. Chernical analyses were performed on the 0 2 and Hl3
steel samples used in this study. The samples were: commercial grade tool steel

D2 with a nominal composition of 1.49 wt. % carbon, 11.59 wt. % chromium, .80

wt. % molybdenum. .80 wt. % vanadium, .43 wt. % manganese. .39 wt. % silicon.
and .14 wt % nickel; and commercial grade tool steel H l 3 with a nominal
composition of .38 wt % carbon, 4.89 wt. % chromium, 1.32 wt. % molybdenum,
1.11 wt. % vanadium, .99 wt. % silicon, .35 wt. % rnanganese, and .36wt %

nickel. The results from these analyses indicated that both D2 and H l 3 steels
were within the limits set forth by AlSI (51). Samples from prematurely failed D2
and H l 3 tool steel cutting blades were also used in this study.

2.2

Heat treatment and hardness measurements

In order to study the behaviour of D2 and H l 3 tool steels at various


austenitizing temperatures, annealed samples of 02 and H l 3 tool steels were
heat treated in a vacuum, a controlled atmosphere, and an open atmosphere
furnace. After hardening, several tempering temperatures were used to
investigate the relation between hardness, microstrudure, and impact toughness.
The samples (1in x 1in x 1in) were cut from the rolled and annealed plates before
they were heat treated. After heat treatment, the heat treated samples were

ground on abrasive paper to 600 grit. Then hardness tests were carried out on a
Rockwell tester and a micro hardness tester using the C-scale (HRC) and
Knoop-scale (KHN), respectively. The standard penetration was obtained with a
120' sphero-conical diamond indentor on the Rockwell s a l e and with a rhombic-

based pyramidal diamond on the Knoop scale, and the applied major loads were
150 kgf and 500 grams, respectively. The hardness tests provided a measure of

D2 and H l 3 tool steel resistance to permanent or plastic defornation after

hardening and tempering at various temperatures. At least four hardness


measurements were made for each heat treatment condition to ensure accurate
results.

2.3

Heat treatment in vacuum and controlled atmosphere

furnaces
D2 and Hl3 tool steel annealed samples were heated slowly and uniformly to

the austenitizing temperatures 102SC, 1038'C, and 1065C in a horizontal boxtype vacuum furnace with heating on two sides and gas cooling from bottom to

top. The maximum nitrogen cooling gas pressure at quenching was 2 Bar. An
electrically heated furnace with argon protective atmosphere was also used to
austenitize the D2 and Hl3 tool steel samples at the same above mentioned
temperatures and followed by air cooling. After cooling, the D2 and H l3 tool steel
samples were tempered in order to release stresses that developd during
quenching and also to obtain optimum toughness. 60th furnaces were calibrated

before and during heat treatment by using extra thermocouple.

2.4

Sample preparation for optical microscopy

Metallographic preparation of 02 and Hl3 tool steels is relatively difficult due


to the large amount of carbides. The test pieces were cut from the annealed and
heat treated samples using an abrasive cutting wheel. Due to the large amount of

massive carbide particles, it was very difFicult to cut the samples, even when in
annealed condition, so extreme care had been taken during the cutting process.
A soft grade of cutting wheel, a copious supply of coolant, and a slow cutting

speed were used to avoid over heating and breaking the carbide particles. Each
of these effects can lead to misinterpretation of the observed microstructure. A
Buehler mounting machine was used to mount the sarnples, which were attached
with Transoptic mounting powder; a pressure of up to 3000-psi and a
temperature of up to 6 6 ' ~were used during mounting.
After rnounting, grinding and polishing of the specimen was carried out in
several steps. Motor-driven disk grinders were used with 240, 320,400: 600, and
1200 grit grinding papers. After fine grinding, polishing produced a surface that

was Rat, scratch-free, and rnirror-like in appearance. For mechanical polishing,


the specimen was introduced to a cloth, and 1pm alumina particle spray was
introduced for a short time at a low initial pressure. The pressure was increased
for the main polishing time and then reduced toward the end. To polish the
scratch-free surface, a .5pm diamond paste was applied in high concentration at
the beginning, and smaller quantities were applied as required during the
polishing stage. The polishing time was kept short and the pressure was kept

25
low. A long polishing time or high pressure can result in the formation of relief,
because of the carbide particles, or may pull out or drag inclusions. A
microscopie examination of the surface should not reveal any polishing scratches

or any residual abrasive. All the samples were observed under an MeF3 optical
microscope.

2.5 Charpy V-Notch Impact Testing


One hundred and fi@
Charpy impact test blanks (20 mm square x 70mm) were

saw cut from square bars of 02 and H l3 tool steels, respectively. The specimen
blanks were machined to diameter of 10 mm by a finish length of 55 mm
(tolerance t .O5 mm) with a notch of radius 22 X0 @or to heat treating. Twenty
five machined V-Notch samples of each of 02 and H l 3 were austenitized in a

controlled atmosphere furnace by using one of the three heat treatment cycles
outlined in Table 2.1. Following austenitizing, specimens from each 02 and H l 3
tool steel were single, double and triple tempered at either 205, 538. 593, or
620% for 2 hours + 2 hours and + 2 hours (For accurate results three specimens

were used at each tempering temperature) in protective atmosphere in order to


avoid any decarborization at the notch root of samples. Charpy impact testing
was conducted at room temperature by using The Hounsfield Balanced Impact

Machine, which has 48 ft-lb maximum capacity and is accurate to t .lft-lb. The
working procedure of the V-Notch Charpy impact testing machine is shown in
Figure 6 (52).

Figure:
6
-

Charpy V-Notch impact testing machine.


~ i a g r a mshoiwing-impact hammer, W, dropping from
height, h l ,impacthg at C and rising to final height, h2.
The energy absorbed, h2 hl, is recorded on dial D
(52).

Table 2.1 Austenitizing temperature, soaking time, and cooling pnctice


used for 0 2 and Hl3 tool steels.
Austenitking Temperature["CI

1 Soaking Time

1 Cooling Practice

1024C

30min

Air Cool

1038'C

30min

Air Cool

1065C

30min

Air Cool

Upon completion of this testing, the Rockwell C hardness of select impact


samples was evaluated in order to measure the tempered hardness of each set
of test specimens. In addition, the tempering response of these specimens
coupled with the Charpy V-Notch impact test data were used to evaluate the
strengthltoughness combination that was achieved in the specimens based on
the austenitizing parameten investigated in this study.

2.6

Scanning Electron Mictoscopy

In order to more thoroughly understand the effects of austenitizing temperature


and tempering behavior on the impact properties of 02 and Hl3 tool steels, the
fracture surfaces of selected specimens were examined using a Hitachi S-570
combined with a Link EDX system Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
operating at an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. Representative images of the
obsewed features on these fracture surfaces were recorded.

3. Results and discussion


3.1

Heat treatment in vacuum and controlled atmosphere


furnaces

After heat treatment, the samples of D2 and Hl3 steeis were observed under
optical microscope. The results revealed that the heat treatment in the vacuum
furnace and the controlted atmosphere furnace, at appropriate austenitizing
temperatures, gave uniforrn microstructure, and no decarborization and scaling
was observed. An increase in austenitizing temperatures will affect the
microstructure, austenite grain size, carbide solutioning behavior, and other
properties such as Charpy V-notch impact toughness, hardness capability and
temper resistance of D2 and H l 3 tool steels (4).
Figure 7 shows the optical micrograph for 02 tool steel that was heat treated in
the vacuum furnace at 1 0 2 5 ' ~ and tempered at 5 3 8 ' ~ . The microstructure
reveals tempered martensite in which coane carbides (The carbides those do not
dissolve during austenitizing) dispersion coexists with fine carbides (The carbides
those precepitate during tempering) dispersion. The coarse carbide particles are

expected to be M7C3(chromium carbides) (4). Coarse carbides act as barriers to

austenite grain growth and are responsible to a large degree for the high Wear
resistance. The shape and distribution of these carbide particles are believed ta
be responsible for the anisotropic mechanical properes. The micrograph also

shows the fine carbide particles that are precipitated after tempering.

Fig: 7
02 Tool Steel heat treated in vacuum furnace at 1025C/30minand

tempered Nice at 538OC12HRS. ( M t ) 320X and (Right) 800X.

Fig 8 shows the optical micrograph for D2 steel hardened and tempered at
1 0 3 8 ' ~and 5 3 8 ' ~ ,respectively. The microstructure reveals a fine grain size, not

much dissolution of carbides at this austenitizing temperature, and coarser


carbides with angular shape and finer carbides with spheroid shape existing
throughout the martensitic matrix. This observation is also supported by ref (2).
Austenitizing at 1065~~130min
and tempering at 538O~12hrs(Fig 9) resulted in a
significant amount of the coarser and finer carbides dissolved into the matrix but
even coarser carbides are present to stop rapid grain growth. Therefore, there is
no evidence of a large amount of grain growth at this temperature, and study of
the micrograph reveals the carbides are precipitated along grain boundaries.

D2 and H l 3 steel blades should have an optimum combination of high hardness,


good Wear resistance and sufficient fracture resistance or toughness for a given
application. The austenitizing of 02 and H l 3 tool steels should be designed to
retain a significant volume fraction of spheroidized carbides to produce austenite
in balance composition. The retained carbides also contribute significantly to Wear
resistance during service and unifon distributions of carbides are necessary to
prevent grain coanening and abnomal grain growth during austenitizing (40).
The optical micrograph of H l 3 tool steel specimen heat treated at 1025'~in the
vacuum fumace followed by tempering (Fig 10) shows martensite with small preexisting austenite grain boundaries and spheroid carbide particles that are
distributed throughout the matrix. These martensitic structures were very uniforni

Fig: 8
D2 Tool Steel heat treated in vacuum furnace at 1038OCJ30minand
tempe-

twice at 538OC12HRS. 625X.

Fig: 9
02 Tool Steel heat treated in vacuum furnace at 16SCE30min and
tempered twlce at 538'CMHRS. (Loft) 320X and (Right) 800X.

Fig: 10
Hl3 Toal steel austenitized in vacuum furnace at 102S0C/30min and

temperd twico at 538% and 593'CnHRS. (Left) 320X and (Right) 8X.

and exhibited minimal signs of alloy segregation. Hardening at 1O6S0C followed


by tempering resulted in coarsening of the martenslic structure and increased

dissolution of primary carbides as shown by the photomicrographs contained in


Fig 11. Austenitizing of tool steel at 1065C versus 1025C will decrease the
average ASTM grain size number by approxirnately 13%. A decrease in grain size
of 13% is not considered to be a serious degradation in the structure of a tool
steel (41). The optical micrograph also reveals that the austenitizing temperature
of 1 0 6 5 ' ~resulted in increased delineation of the austenite grain boundaries; this
condition is caused by the presence of intergranular proeutectoid carbide. It is
suspected that the presence of the proeutectoid carbide phase in the material
austenitized at 1 0 6 5 ' ~followed by air cooling to room temperature will have a
deleterious effect on the totighness of this material (41).
Since increased austenitizing temperatures dissolve more carbide and since the
hardness of martensite is proportional to its carbon concentration, the effect of
austenitizing temperature on the hardness of the martensite is expected. Thus,
the trend of increasing as-quenched hardness with increasing austenitizing
temperature is related to an increase in the alloy content of the martensite.
H13 steel is hot working steel, and therefore a high austenitiang temperature

without causing grain growth is important to improve the red hardness and the
high dynamic impact value.

Fig: 11
Hl3 Tool Steel Heat treated in vacuum furnace at 1065C/30min and

temperad Nice at 538OC I2HRS. 800X

3.2

Heat treatment in open atmophere furnace

02 and H l 3 tool steel annealed samples (linxlinxlin) were heat treated at

austenitizing temperatures of 1025C and 1038C in an electrically heated, open


atmosphere furnace for 30 minutes, followed by air cooling. After heat treatment a
thick layer of scaling and decarborization was obsecved, which was measured
using a micro hardness tester with a Knoop diamond indentor, a 500 gram load
and a 15 second load time. A 500-gram load was used in order that the Knoop
hardness numbers could be converted accurately to HRC values. The result
(Figures 12 8 13) shows that D2 tool steel has a .35mm decarborised layer and
H l 3 tool steel has a .45mm decarborised layer. Heavy duty cutting blades and
machine knives must have sharp and thin working edges. During heat treatment
not only decarborization takes place, but also precious alloying elements that are
present in very stringent amounts in the steel are lost. Any slight loss of these
elements can be expected to reduce the tool quality below that which is predicted
(42).

3.3 Heat treatrnent by current operation


Prematurely failed heavy-duty cold and hot work machine knives samples
manufactured by 02 and Hl3 tool steels were received from Central Welding Ltd.

The steels were heat treated in an electhlly heated, open atmosphere fumace
using an austenitizing temperature of 1 0 2 5 followed
~~
by tempering. The samples

were prepared very carefully in order to observe the microstructure using an


optical microscope.
The optical micrograph of 02 tool steel reveals that coarse carbide particles
(white) have a net-like microconstituent throughout the matrix (Figure 14). There
is evidence of large and nonequiaxial prior austenite grain boundaries and also
precipitation of carbides along these grain boundaries, as shown in Figure 14. The
rnartensite structure is not well revealed; we believe this is due to the presence of
retained austenite in this material. A coarse carbide network present in steel will
deteriorate the mechanical properties of the steel, and during working operation,
cracks can initiate and propagate through this brittle carbide network and fracture
can occur even if the applied stresses during working are low.

H l3 steel heat treated at 1025C followed by tempering is shown in Fig 15. The

micrograph reveals large prior austenite grain boundaries with clear evidence of
carbide precipitation on these grain boundaries. High magnification reveals the
carbide precipitation on martensite lath boundaries (Figure 15). If during heating
the austenitizing temperature is high, the carbides will dissolve to a large extent
into solution, and grain growth will occur and the precipitation of proeutectoid
carbides on cooling will have a greater tendency to take place at coarse austenite
grain boundaries. The martensite start temperature is lower than usual in this
case and a high amount of austenite will be retained. This austenite during
working under stresses and temperature will change to upper bainite or fresh

Fig: 14

D2 Tool Steel heat treated by cunent opewation at 102SC130mintempered


twice at 3C/2HRS. (Left) 125x and (Right) 800x

Hl3 Tool steel Heat treated In open atmosptmre furnace at 12SC and

tempered twice at 538"IZHRS.

martensite, which has a brittle structure and can deteriorate the toughness of
steel.

3.4 Charpy V-notch dynamic impact test


V-notch dynamic impact tests were carried out because in service D2 and H l 3
tool steel heavy-duty machine knives and blades are used under dynamic impact
loading conditions. The objective was to determine which heat treatment condition
produced a high impact value and what is the effect of tempering temperature and
nurnber of temperings under V-notch impact loading conditions. The 0 2 and H l 3

tool steels samples were rnachined to precise tolerances and heat treated in an
electrically heated argon gas protective atmosphere fumace at 1025"C, 1038*C,
and 1065C for 30 minutes. Seventy-five samples from each 02 and H l 3 tool
steels were used for al1 three austenitizing temperatures. Asquenched samples of

D2 tool steel were tempered up to three times at each of 205'C, 538"C, and
593'C for two hours, and approximately twenty-five samples were used at each

tempering temperature. Asquenched samples of H l 3 tool steel were tempered at


5 3 8 * ~5, 9 3 ' ~ ,and 620c/2hrs, and approximately hventy-five samples were used

at each tempering temperature.

The results of the room temperature Charpy V-notch impact testing are plotted as
a function of austenitizing temperature, tempering temperature, and number of
temperings (Figures 16-21).

Heat treatment of 02 steel at 1025"C, 1038'C, and 1065C temperatures


~
is within the secondary hardening range,
followed by ternpering at 5 3 8 ' ~which
decrease the impact toughness values as expected (43), but the decrease is not
significant as shown in Figure 21. The impact toughness values after ternpering at
5 3 8 ' ~were found to be lower than the impact toughness values obsewed after

tempering at 205C and 593C. It is speculated that the retained austenite present
in D2 steel may help to provide high impact toughness at 205'~.
Austenitizing of D2 steel at 1025'C, 1O38"C, and 1065C followed by tempering

up to three times at 593'C (Figure 19) shows a trend that an increase in the
number of temperings at each austenitizing temperature significantly increases
the toughness of the material. The increase in toughness between one and three
ternpers after using an austenitizing temperature of 1038C followed by tempering
at 593'C, is 83% and between two and three tempers is 17%.
H13 tool steel heat treated at the above-mentioned austenitizing temperatures

followed by tempering at 538O~,593O~,and 6 2 0 ' ~ has a trend that impact


toughness of the steel increases with increasing the nurnber of temperings. The
results show that tempering three times versus one or two gives high impact
toughness values, as shown in Figures 16-18. The increase in toughness
between two and three tempers after using an austenitizing temperature of
1038C followed by ternpering at 538"C, is 25% and drop in hardness is less than
1 HRC, which is not significant as shown in figure 16. The possible explanation for

the increase in toughness after the third temper is the optimum distribution of

Fig: 16

Austenite temp: 1OZ0C, 1O38OC, and 1O6S0C


Tempering temp: 53SC
No of tempers : 1,2, and 3
Charpy Impact Test Result
Material Hl3 tool steel

1038C

Austenitizing temperature(%)

1065C

Fig: 17

Austenite temp: 1025OC, 1038OC, and 1065OC


Tempering temp: 53fI0C,and 593OC
No of tempers : 1,2, and 3

Charpy Impact Test Result


Material H l3 tool steel

1038C

1065C

Austenitizing temperature('C)
Ml One tenper at 538'CRhrs O Tw o terrpers at 538'Ct593"C12hrs B ~ h r e tempers
e
538'C,593'C,593'C/2hrs

Fig: 19

Austenite temp: 1025OC, 1O3S0C, and 106SC


Tempering temp: 593OC
No of tempers : 1,2, and 3
Charpy Impact Test Result
Material 0 2 tool steel

NO of tempers at 593C12hrs

/ O A ustenitized at 1025"c/30rnin O Austenitized at 1038'c/30min

O Austenitized at 1065"c/30min

Fig: 20

Austenite temp: 102SC, 1038OC, and 106SC


Tempering temp: 205OC
No of tempers : 1, and 2

C harpy Impact Test Result


Material D2 tool steel

No of tempers at 20SC12hrs
O Austenitized at 1025"C/30min O

Austenitized at 1038"C/30min O A ustenitized at 1065OC130min

Fig: 21

Austenite temp: 1 0 2 ~ ~ 1038OC,


C,
and 106SC
Tempering temp: 53g0C
No of tempers : 1,2, and 3

C harpy Impact Test Result

Material D2 tool steel

No of tempers at 538OCIZhrs
I

i O Austenitized at 1025"C/30min 13 Austenitized at 103BC130min 8 Austenitized at 1065'~/30min~

alloying elements between carbides and the matrix, finer dispersion and
agglorneration of carbide particles that precipitate dunng first and second
tempering, and spherodizing of carbide particles that are present on interfacial
martensite boundaries. The increase in toughness value is also evident from the
observation made by SEM of greater ductility on the fractured surfaces after the
third tempering.

Analyses of the fracture surfaces of 02 and Hl3 steel from martensitic impact
specimens using Scanning Electron Microscopy follow.

3.5 Fracture Surface Analysis by using Scanning Electron


Microscope
The Charpy impact fractured surfaces show different morphology for the

samples tempered once, twice, and thrice at the same tempering temperature. It
is clear in the fractrograph taken at low magnification (Figure 22) that 02 tool steel
tempered once has brittle features as compared to three times tempering which
shows more plasticity, and the drop in hardness is less than PHRC which is not
significant. Due to its high carbon and high chromium content, D2 steel has
coarse chromium carbides throughout the matrix, and the fracture morphology on
the fractrograph in Figure 23 shows that fracture occun due to the breaking of
these carbide particles, and therefore D2 steel absorbs very little fracture energy.
The fractrograph in Figure 24 shows the matching part on high magnification and
reveals that the carbide particle is separated into two pieces without experiencing

Fig: 22
D2 Tool steel austenitized at 103BC/3min (Left) Tempered once at 593'C

RHRS and (Right) Temperd thrice at 593'C RHRS.

Fig: 23

D2 Tod steel austenitized at 1038OC130rninternpered thrice at 593'C RHRS

Showing the matching part and moiphology of fracturd surface.

Fig: 24

02 Tool steel austenitized at 130CMOmintempered thrice at 593C DHRS


Showing the matching part of fraotured carbide.

plastic deformation, and however there is a plastically deforrned region


surrounding the carbide particle, evidenced by the appearance of many dimples.
The predominant fracture mode displayed by these particular specimens was
transgranular quasileavage, which is not uncornmon for high strength, tempered
martensitic steels (34). Figure 25 shows the morphology of the fractured surface
for a 02 steel sample austenitized at 1065C and tempered three times at 593C.

Even at high austenitizing temperatures, the fracture is mostly transgranular in


nature and a portion of the samples have intergranular fracture along prior
austenite grain boundaries. The transgranular nature is due to coarse carbide
particles that do not dissolve into matrix even at high austenitizing ternperatures,
as well as the agglorneration of precipitated carbides after tempering three times.
The intergranular mode of fracture is related to the segregation of carbides on
prior austenite grain boundaries.
The results of H l 3 impact toughness test show a clear trend that toughness of
the material increases as the nurnber of temperings increases, and therefore
tempering three times after austenitizing gives higher toughness than tempering
once or twice. Austenitization of H l 3 tool steel samples were carried out at

1025*C, 1038C. and 1065'C followed by tempering up to three times at 538"C,


593'C, and 620C. Austenitizing at 1038C followed by tempering up to three
times gives high impact toughness values venus 1025'~and 1065'~,whereas
austenitizing at 1065C shows lower toughness as compared to austenitizing at

Fig: 25

D2 Tool Steel heat treated in controlled atmosphaie furnace at


10BSC/30min and temperad thrice at 593OCEHRS.

1025C. The average increase in dynamic impact toughness between two and

three temperings is 15% and an austenitizing temperature of 1 0 3 8 ' ~followed by


tempering at 5 3 8 ' ~resulted in an increase of 25%.
Tempering once at 538C resulted in low impact toughness values at all three
austenitizing temperatures because of the secondary hardening that occurs in
H l 3 steel. After tempering at 53eC, the fine particles of VC in which some

molybdenum is dissolved, precipitate throughout the rnatrix and along grain


boundaries. Also, retained austenite present in the steel transfomis into
secondary rnartensite, impairing the ductility and impact toughness of the steel

(33).
Analysis of the fracture swfaces frorn fully martensitic impact specimens
tempered at 593C and tested at roorn temperature revealed that a distinct
change in fracture morphology occurs as the austenitizing temperature is
increased. For exarnple, the fracture surface associated with material austenitized
at 1025% indicates that considerable plastic deformation occurred during the
fracture process as is evidenced by the presence of the raised lips shown in the
scanning electron rnicrograph (Figure 26). This type of structure on a fracture
surface indicates that the material has relatively good ductility and toughness.
This statement is supported by the average Charpy V-notch impact toughness
(4.3 ft-lb) measured by the material austenitized at 1025'~ and air cooled

followed by tempering thrice ai 5 9 3 ' ~(Figure 17). The predominant fracture mode
displayed by these particular specimens was transgranular quasi-cleavage.

However, as is evidenced by the fractrograph, a portion of the fracture surface


was intergranular in nature. Figure 27 clearly reveals that a decrease in the
transgranular quasileavage component and an increase in the intergranular
component of the fracture accompanies an increase in austenitizing temperature
(1065'~).In addition, extensive secondary microcracking is readily visible in this

fractrograph. Based on the analysis of the asquenched and tempered


microstructures of the rnartensitic material, the trend of increasing intergranular
fracture with increasing austenitizing temperature is to be expected.
Fractrographs shown in Figure 26 demonstrate the difference between
specimens that were austenitized at 1 0 2 5 ' ~followed by tempering at 5 9 3 ' ~two

and three tirnes, respectively. The micrograph of the twice tempered specimen
shows a net-like microconstituent wRh cleavage facets, whereas tempering three
times resulted in considerable plastic deformation during the fracture process as
is evidenced by the presence of the raised lips and coarse features of the fracture
surface and by the 15% increase in impact toughness. This type of structure on a
fracture surface indicates that the material has relatively good ductifity and
toughness. The cornparison on low magnification in Figure 28 also shows the

same behavior.
From the above research, we can Say that the impact resistance of these tool
steeis is influenced by a number of physical and structural variables such as grain

size, hardness, and type and volume fraction of phases present. However, the
primary variables that were affect4 by austenitizing temperature are grain size,

Fig: 26

Hl3 Tool steel austenitized at 1025*Wmin (Left) Tempered twice at 538C


and 593OC/WRS (Right) Tempered thrice at 538'C, 593'C and 593C /2HRS

Fig: 27

Hl3 Tool steel austenitked at 1065*C/30min tempered thrice at 538"C,


593C and S90C DHRS showing the morphology of fracture surface.

Fig: 28
Hl3 Tool steel austenitized at 10 2 S 0 ~ 0 m i(Lett)
n
Tempered Nice at 538C
and 593OCIZHAS (Right) Tempere thrice at 538*C, 593'C and 593% MHRS.

hardness capability, and the type and amount of various transformation products
that are present. In general, impact resistance is inverseiy proportional to grain

size and hardness.


Austenitizing temperatures in excess of 1038'~ resulted in coarsening of the
austenitic grain structure, increased dissolution of carbides, increased tempered
hardness capability, and decreased Charpy V-notch impact toughness.

3.6 Hardness measurement in HRC


Rockwell C hardness testing was petfomed on hardened and tempered
specimens of D2 and H l 3 tool steel measured after Charpy V-notch impact
testing in order to establish a relationship between hardness of the specimen and
energy absorbed by the material. The average results are contained in tables 3.1
and 3.2. The data contained in Figures 29-34 indicate that an increase in
austenitizing temperature for a material air cooled following austenitization and
tempering resulted in increased tempered hardness. Tempering temperatures of

538"C, 593C and 620C used for 02 and H l 3 tool steel sarnples show similar
behavior.
Thus, the use of increased austenitizing temperatures promoted improved

temper resistance in the 02 and H l 3 tool steels that were evaluated. Undoubtedly
this effect is related to the increased levels of alloy in soiid solution that would be
available to form temper carbides. The degree of strengthening resulting from
second phase particles depends on the distribution of the particles in the ductile

TABLE 3.1- Tempered Rockwell C Hardaess and V-Notcb Charpy Impact


Values for D2 steel samples (Three samples were used at each test
for accuracy of results)

Austenitizing Temp

1 No of Temper at OC

Hardness (HRC)

Charpy Impact Energy fi-lb

538 "C12hrs

Once
Twice
Thrice
593 '~/2hrs
Once
Twice
Thrice
20s Ocnhr~
Once
Twice

1025 o~/30min

538 '~/2hrs
Once
Twice

1038 '~/30min

58.5
56.1

1.1
1.O

48.1

1.2
1.9

593 'C/Z hrs

Once
Twice
Thrice
205 '~/2hrs

47.3
46.3

62.7
62.0

Once

Twice
L

2.2
1.6
1-9

538 Oc/2hrs

1065 '~/30min
t

Once
Twice
Thrice
593 o ~ / 2 h r s
Once
Twice
Thrice
205 '~L2hn
Once
Twice

64.1
60.6

1.2
1 .O

48.7
47.3
46.0

1.1
1.9
2.1

60.7
60.7

1.5
1.8

TABLE 3.2 - Tempered Rockuell C Hardness and V-Notch Cbarpy Impact


Values for H l 3 steel simples (Tbree sampks were used ot each test
for accuracy of results)

Austenitizing Temp No of Temper at OC


538 'cl2 hrs
1025 "/30min
Once
Twice
Thrice
593 '~12hrs
I Once 538 '~12hr
1 Twice

i
1

1 038 '~/30min

--

Charpy Impact Energy fi-lb

55.8
55.0

2.6
3.4
3.9

54.2
I

55.8
50.5

1 Once

1 Twice

538 Ocnhr~
Once
1 Twice
Thrice
593 '~/2hrs
Once 538 Ocl2h.r
Twice
Thrice
620 '~/2hrs
Once 538 Oc12hr
1 Twice

56.6

1065 o ~ / 3 ~ m i n Once
Twice
593 ' ~ n h r s
Once 538 '~12hr

Twice

Hardness (HRC)

620 "C12hrs
Once 538 '~/2hr
1 Twice

56.0

55.3

2.6
3.7

29
3 -5
3.4

56.6
50.2
49.0

2.9

56.6
44.5

2.9
5 -8

4.1

4.4

58.0
56.5

2.4
3 -5

58.0
50.8

2.4
3.6

58.O
44.9

2.4

5.6

rnatrix. For a given volume fraction of a second phase, reducing the particle sire
decreases the average distance between particles, which enhances the
precipitation strengthening effect. So during tempering, very fine carbides
precipitate throughout the matrix giving high secondary hardness.
Figures 29-34 reveal comparatively higher secondary hardness at 1065C
austenitizing temperature, than at 1038C and 1025C after tempering up to three
times at 538C. However, tempering at 2 0 5 ' ~shows the reverse behavior. A
possible explanation for this behavior is the presence of a relatively large amount
of retained austenite after air cooling from 1065'~(versus 1038C or 1025C)
that, after tempering at 2 0 5 does
~ ~ ~not transform into martensite or another
transformation product, and as a result shows relatively lower hardness. The
second or third tempering at 5 9 3 ' ~or 62CI0C produced almost the same hardness
for al1 three austenitizing temperatures. This research shows that tempering
following austenitization at high temperature precipitates very fine, unifomly
distributed carbide particles that produce high strength and hardness, whereas
tempering following austenitization at low temperature precipitates coarser
carbide particles, which give relatively low strength and hardness. Second or third
tempering agglomerate the finer and coarser carbide particles in the same
manner and gives similar hardnesses.

Fig: 29

Austenite temp: 1025OC, 1038OC, and 106SC


Tempering temp: 53g0C
No of tempers : 1,2, and 3
Hardness data
Material D2 tool steel

No of tempers at 538C12hrs

Fig: 30

Austenite temp: 1025OC, 1038OC, and 106SC


Tempering temp: 20SC
No of tempers : 1, and 2

Hardness data
Material D2 tool steel

No of tempers at 20SC12hrs

I +Austenitioed at 1O25"CBOMN

Austenitized at 1038"C(30niin

+Austenitized at 1O65"CBOnin '

Fig: 32

Austenite temp:
Tempering tem p:
No of tempers :

103tB0C, and 106SC


538OC, and 620C
1,2, and 3

Hardness data
Material H l3 tool steel

No of tempers at 538OC, and 62O0CI2hrs

1 -+-

Austenlizing temperature 1038C/30min -LAustenlk ing temperature 1065'C/30min

Series3

Fig: 34

Austenite temp: 1025OC, 1038*C, and 106SC


Tempering temp: 53aC, and 593OC
No of tempers : 1,2, and 3

Hardness data
Material H l3 tool steel

-tAustenitized at

1025'Ci30nln

Austentized at 103BC(30nin

-*-Austenitized at 1065'C130min

1
1

3.7

Summary of Major Results

The microstructures of H l 3 and D2 alloy steels, heat treated in an open


atmosphere furnace (as received) are coarse, with large grain sire. There is
also evidence that most of the carbides are dissolved into solution and then
precipitated along grain boundaries. This kind of microstructure would reduce
the mechanical properties considerably, especially toughness, resulting in
chipping and dulting of the tools.
The microhardness of D2 and H l 3 tool steels hardened in an open
atmosphere furnace is not uniform.
Heat treatment in open atmosphere gives a thick layer of oxidation and
decarburization.

Vacuum heat treatment gives homogenous microstructure and hardness.


In both D2 and H l 3 tool steels, hardening followed by three temperings gives
high impact toughness, in comparison with hardening followed by one and two
temperings.
Hardness drop after three temperings in comparison with one and two
temperings is only within 2-HRC range.
H l3 and 0 2 tool steels hardened at 1038'~followed by tempering show high

impact toughness.

D2 steel austenitized at 1038'~followed by tempering ai 5 9 3 ' ~shows a 17%


increase in toughness after three tempers versus two ternperings.

9. H l 3 steel austenitized at 1038'~followed by tempering at 5 3 8 ' ~shows a

25% increase in toughness after three temperings versus two temperings.


10. lncreasing the tempering temperature of D2 and Hl3 tool steels reduces the

hardness, except in the secondary hardening zone due to precipitation of fine


carbides throughout the martensitic matrix.

4. Conclusions
Based on the above results and discussion, the following conclusions and
recommendations can be drawn.
1. 02 and H i 3 tool steels should be hardened in a controlied protective

atmosphere furnace followed by air cooling.


2. Hardening in a vacuum furnace followed by liquid nitrogen gas quenching
gives minimum distortion, uniform martensite microstructure without

decarburization and scaling and minimum amount of retained austenite. For


the reason that quenching of 02 and Hl3 tool steels in Vacuum furnace is

moderate (slower than oil and faster than air cooling), which manage little
temperature difference between core and case of the material and results in
uniform microstructure with less distortion.
3. Three temperings are necessary for both D2 and H l 3 tool steels used for

shearing processes. Because 02 and H l 3 steels are under impact loading


conditions during shearing processes and require high strength and high
toughness, tempering third time gives higher toughness without significant loss
of strength.
4. D2 tool steel should be free from carbide segregation, which solidify during

ingot casting and form coarse and brittle networks. Since such carbides are
not greatly affected by heat treatment, heavy reduction by hot working before

die manufacturing is necessary to refine the structure.

5. D2 and H l 3 tool steels contain elements such as carbon, chromium, tungsten,

molybdenum, and vanadium in closely controlled arnounts. Any slight loss of


these elements would reduce the tool quality below the predicted values.
6. For H l 3 tool steel, decreasing the rate of quenching leads to a gradua1

increase in the width of the bainite laths together with an increase in volume
fraction of upper bainite, and this results in deterioration of the toughness.

References
1. E. Haberling and H.H. Weigand., "Correlation between mechanical properties,
microstructure and performance of high speed tool steels". P l 70,
Proceedings of the international conference held at the National Physical
Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, on 28 and 29 April 1981. Published by
Metal Society London.

2. George Krauss.,

"Steels: Heat treatment and prosessing principles".

Published by ASM International, Materials Park, OHIO 44073.

3. T.L Elliott., "lrnproving tool life by correct heat treatment" . P143, Proceedings
of the international conference held at the National Physical Laboratory,

Teddington, Middlesex, on 28 and 29 April 1981. Published by Metal Society


London.

4. George A. Roberts and Robert A. Cary ., "Tool steels 4'h editioon 1980"
Published by American Society for Metals. Metals Park, Ohio 44073.

5. Woodfine,B.C., "Temper Brittleness: Acr~ticalreview of the literature," J lron


Steel Inst, 173 (1953), p 229.

6. Sato, Tl. Nishizawa, Tl. and Murai, K., "Study on carbides in commercial
special steels by Electrolyc isolation (v)- On carbides in several cold-working
Die steels," Tetsu-to-Hagane, 42 (1956).

7. Gill, J. P., "High-Carbon High-Chromium Steels," Trans ASST, 15 (1929), P


387.

8. Tarasov, L. P., r h e Microhardness of Carbides in Tool Steels," Metal


progress (Dec 1948). P 846.

9.

Bungardt, K., Kunze, E., and Hom, E., "Investigation of the Structure of the
Iron-Chromium-Carbon System," Arch Eisenhuttebew, 29 (1M8), P 193.

10. Yamanaka, N., and Kusaka., K., 'Influence of Vanadium and Molybdenum on
the properties of Air-Hardening Die steel Containing 1.5% carbon and 12%

chromium," Testu-to-Hagane, 41 (1955), p 67 3.

11. Robert Wilson., "Metallurgy and Heat treatrnent of tool steels"., London:
McGraw Hill, 1975.

12.

Karl Erik Thelning, Steel and its Heat treatment. London: Butterworths, 1984.

13.

J. R. C. Guimaraes, J. R. T. Branco, and T. Kajita, "Partial Substitution of

Niobium for Vanadium in Hl3 Hot Work Tool Steel" , Material Science
andTechnology . 2 (1986).

14.

George Krauss, Principles of Heat Treatment of Steel, Metals Park, OH:


Amencan Society for Metals, 1980).

15.

Karl-Erik Thelning, Steel and its Heat Treatment ( London: Butterworths,


1984)

16.

Harnaker, J. C., Jr., "Die Steel Useful for Ultra High-Strength Structural
Requirements," Metal Progress (Dec 1956), p 93.

17. Wear of materials ASME 1991, R. A. Poggie and J. J. Wert.

Klinger, L. J., Chow, C. C., and Sachs, G., "Flow and Fracture
Charactertistics of a Die Steel at High Hardness levets," Trans AIME, 185
(1949), P 927.

Ameen, E., "Dimensional Changes of tool steels During Quenching and


Tempering," Trans ASM , 2 8 (1MO), P 472.
Butler, G. M., "Study of Dimensional and Other Changes in Various Die Steels
Due to Heat Treatment," Trans ASM, 30 (1942),

P 191.

Scott, H., and Gray, T. H., "Dimensional Changes on Hardening High-

Chromium Tool Steels," Trans ASM, 29 (1941), P503.


Haberling, T. E. W. Tech Berich, 7981, 7, 161.
Bunghardt, o. Mulders and R. Meyer-Rhotert, Arch. Eisenhut tenwesen,
1966, 37,381.
H. Nilsson, O, Sandberg and W. Roberts, in "Tolls for Die Casting",

UddeholmfSwedish lnstitute for Metals Research, ' 1983, 5 1.


B. Lehtinen and W. Roberts, ibid., 71.
K.W. Andrews, H. Hughes and D. J. Dyson, JISI, 1972,210,337.
F.B. Pickering, "Physical Metallurgy and Design of Steels," Applied Science
Publishers, London, 1978.
G. P. Contracter, E.G. Schempp and W. A. Morgan, Trans ASM, 196, 54,

208.

29.

H. Nordberg in "Tools for Die Casting", lJddeholmlSwedish lnstitute for Metal

Research, 1983, 1.

30. H. Niisson, O. Sandberg, and W. Roberts, 'The Influence of Austenitization


Temperature and the Cooling Rate after Austenitization on the Mechanical
Properties of the Hot-Work Tool Steel H7 1 and H l 3" , Tools for Die Casting ,
eds. H. Nordberg, and W. Roberts (Stockholm: Tryckeri AB Dahlberg and
CO., 1983), 51-70.

31.

D L . Cocks, Longer Die Life from H13 Die Casting Dies by the practical
Applications of Recent Research Results, in Tool Materials for Molds and
Dies, G. Krauss and H. Nordberg (Eds.), Colorado School of Mines Press,

Golden, 1987.
32.

H. Berns, p. Dyrda, and

F. Wendl, "Korngrenzenkarbidausscheidugen

im

warmarbeitsstahl X40CrMoV51t', Steel Research, 56 (3) (1985), 167-170.

33.

H. Berns, E. Haberling, and F. Wendl, 'Einflub des Gluhgefugls auf die

Zahigkeit Von Wamiarbeitsstahlen" , Thyssen Edelst. Techn. Ber.,

11

(1985), 150-157.

34.

M.L. Schmidt., "Effect of Austenitizing temperature on laboratory treated and

large section sizes of H l 3 tool steel". Carpenter Technology Corp. Tool and
Alloy Research and Developrnent Reading, PA. P l 19.
35.

R.M. Hemphill and D.E. Wert., "Impact and Fracture Toughness Testing of
Common Grades of Tool Steelsn. Carpenter Technology Corp. Tool and Alloy
Research and Development Reading, PA 19603-0662, p66.

D.L. Yaney, "The effects of phosphorous and tempering on the fracture of

AlSI 52100 steeln , (MS Thesis, Colorado School of Mines, 1981).


T. Ando, and G. Krauss, "The lsothermal Thickening of Cementite

Allotriomorphs in a 1.5 Cr4 C Steeln, Acta Metallurgica, 29 (1981).


T. Ando, and G. Krauss, "Development and Application of Growth Models for
Grain Boundary Allotriomorphs of a Stoichiometric compound in Ternary
Systems" , Metallurgical Transactions A, 14A (1983).
J.R.T. Branco and G. Krauss, Heat treatment and Microstructure of Tool

Steels for Molds and Dies, in Tool Materials for molds and Dies, G. Krauss
and H. Nordberg (Eds.), Colorado School of Mines Press, Golden, 1987.
K. Bungardt, E. Kunze, and E. Horn, Investigation of the Structure of the Iron-

Chromium-Carbon System, Archiv Eisenhutt, Vol 29, 1958.


Tarasov, L.P., The Microhardness of Carbides in Tool Steels." Metal
Progress (Dec

1948).

P.D. Hawey (Ed.), Heat treatment of Tool Steels, Metal Engineering Instute,
American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH, 1981.
F.B. Pickering in 'HSLA Steels- Metallurgy and Applications' , Eds. J.M. Gray
et al, ASM International, 1986, 305.

B. Garbarz and F.B. Pickering , Paper Submitted to Metals Science and


Technology, Apdl 1987.
45.

D. J. Grieve: Optimum Heat treatment of Tools.

Palmer, F.R., and Luerssen, G.V., "Tool Steel Simplified," Carpenter Steel
Company.
C. Leroy, H. Michel, and M. Gantois, "Transformation of ( Cr, M )7C3-Type

Carbides During Nitriding of Chromium Alloyed Steels", Journal Material


Science, 21 (1986).
K. Stiller et al., "High Resolution Microanalytical Study of Precipitation in a

Powder Metallurgical High Speed Steel", Acta Metallergica, 32 (9) (1984).

R. Wilson and G. N. Shepherd., "Developments in Heat treatment of Tool


Steels". Proceedings of the international conference held at the National
Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, on 28 and 29 April 1987.
Published by Metal Society London. P l 39.
R. Wilson: 'Metaflurgy and Heat treatment of Tool Steels', 1975, Maidenhead,
UK, McGraw-hill.

American Society for Metals. Metals Handbook. (The Society, Metals Park,
OH, 9" ed., Vol. 3, 1980) ,422.

Richard W. Hertzberg: "Defonnation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering


Materialsn. Fourth Edition, published by, John Willy and Sons, Inc.