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A NORMALIZED CONTROL

SYSTEM FOR A TURBOJET


ENGINE
Ori Yekutiel, Yinon Amir
RAFAEL Ltd- P.O.B 2250 (39)
Haifa 31021, Israel

6th Symposium on Jet Engines and Gas Turbines


November 2006

RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

APPROACH:
Normalization of fuel flow and RPM
u

correction for altitude, mach, DISA, and


linearization

Normalize Measurements
Design single controller (for all flight
conditions)
"de-normalize output (normalized fuel
flow) and apply to engine

RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

FEATURES:
uEngine

normalization
simplifies control system
design for all control design
approaches

uOnly

a simple PI example

included in presentation
RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

A PREVIOUS CONTROLLER(1/5)
u GAIN

SCHEDULING (Mach,Altitude,

RPM)
u Requires

Tables extensive testing

for modeling and verification


u Limited

use of knowledge of the

physical engine behavior


RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

A PREVIOUS CONTROLLER(2/5)

RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

A PREVIOUS CONTROLLER(3/5)
P2, T2, T5
XDUCERS
RPM com
COMMAND
LIMITER

ACCELERATION
LIMITER

error

CONTROLLER

Wf com
[Volt]

(PI)

AMPLIFIER
&
PUMP

Wf com
[g/s]

RPM

ENGINE

satlo, sathi
MIN/MAX RPM

BW, ACCEL

Mach, Altitude

PUMP RPM
XDUCER

RPM XDUCER

LIMITER

RPM,...
RPM

CUTOFF

T5

ELECTRONIC
INTERFACE
UNIT
Other Telemetry Data
(Temperatures, Pressures, ...)

RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

A PREVIOUS CONTROLLER(4/5)

CTRLLR

ENGINE

RPMcom

PI

RPM2Wfcom

Wfcom2RPM

ENGINE
DYNAMICS
(GAIN=1)

LIMIT

RPM

meas

RAFAEL Ltd.

RPM
Measurement

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

A PREVIOUS CONTROLLER(5/5)

RPMcom
1+

KI
s

1
1 + s eng

OL

LIMIT
1
eng
RPM

RAFAEL Ltd.

meas

KI

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

THE NORMALIZED CONTROLLER


u
u
u
u
u
u

T0
TISA
Tamb
Beta
Ttot
Delta

u
u
u
u

Theta
RPM*
Wf*

= 288.15
= T0 - 0.0065 * Alt
= TISA + DISA
= 1+ ( Mach ^ 2 ) / 5
= Tamb * Beta
= ( ( TISA / T0 )^5.256 ) * Beta^3.5
= Ptot/P0
= Ttot / T0
= RPM / Sqrt ( Theta )
= Wf / ( Delta * Sqrt ( Theta ) )

RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

THE CONCEPT:
Engine with normalized controller
M 4

M , H, DISA5

1
RPMcom

C TJ
C TJ

RPM
Normalization

RPMcom *

RPMcom *
LIM ITER

C TJ

RPM M ach
Correction

PI

Wf '

C TJ

Wf Mach
Corre ction
inverse

Wf *

Wf
de -normalization

Wf

Tau
Wf-Tag
LIM ITER

C TJ

Dynamics

6
M , H, DISA

Wf ' (RPM *)
RPM M ach
Corre ction

C TJ
M 3

RPM *

RPM
Normalization

C TJ

RPM

ENGINE

M , H, DISA2

red:
physical normalization (valid for all engines);
cyan: Engine-dependent blocks (note: only 2 different
types)
yell: PI parameters, per individual controller requirement
(BW, Disturbance Rejection, ).
RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

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FEATURES (1/2):
u Gain

is practically constant and unity


over RPM, altitude, mach and DISA

uA

single gain P and Fuel Flow limits


can be designed.

u Other

Controller designs (not PI) also


simplified (no, or less, envelope
dependence)
RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

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FEATURES (2/2):
u

Integral Gain I is dependent on engine dynamics.

A mach-Altitude-RPM table may be used (as in


the Present Solution)

Alternately a model of Corrected Tau can be


explored.
Otto, E.W. and Taylor, B.L, "Dynamics of a Turbojet Engine Considered
Considered
as a QuasiQuasi-Static System," NACA TR 1011, 1951.

RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

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FUEL LIMITER:
u OBJECTIVES:

Avoid surge, stall, over-temperature,


blowout
u DESIGN:

In normalized controller !!
u IMPLEMENTATION

(PI case):

Include anti-windup
RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

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SIMULATION RESULTS (1/2):


RPM [%]

80

100
50
0

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.5
0.6
RPM COM
RPM-Meas

0.5
0.6
Sat-High
Sat-Low
Wf-Tag

0.7

0.7

0.8

0.8

0.9
Norm Wf [%]

Norm Wf [%]

0.1

Norm. envelope

RPM C.L. Step response: Full envelope

0.9

100
0
-100
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
Normalized time
M ach [%]
Alt [%]
DeltaISA : -100 -> 100 [%]

RAFAEL Ltd.

0.8

0.9

Norm. envelope

RPM [%]

RPM C.L. Step response: Full envelope


100

99

72

0.6

0.62

0.64

0.66
0.68
RPM COM
RPM-Meas

0.7

0.72

0.74

0.6

0.62

0.64

0.66

0.7

0.72

0.74

0.6

0.62

0.64

0.66
0.68
0.7
Normalized time
M ach [%]
Alt [%]
DeltaISA : -100 -> 100 [%]

0.72

0.74

106.
55.5

100
0
-100

0.68
Sat-High
Sat-Low
Wf-Tag

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

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SIMULATION RESULTS (2/2):


(Increased gain !!)

COMPRESSOR MAP.M=0 [%] ; H=0[%]; DISA=0[K];

RPM C.L . Step respon se: M =0 [%] ; H=0[%]; DISA =0[K];

100

100

Corrected RPM [%]

80

80
RPM COM
RPM-Meas

60

100

Surge Line

70

40
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.8

91
60

SM = 5% Line

82

50

Norm Wf [%]

Pressure Ratio: P03/P02 [%]

90

RPM [%]

Steady-State Line

73
64

40

response

55
30
20

47
30

38 40

50
60
70
80
Corrected Air Mass Flow [%]

RAFAEL Ltd.

90

100

Sat-High
Sat-Low
Wf-Tag

0.5

0
0

0.2

0.4
0.6
Normalized time

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

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BENEFITS of the APPROACH:


u

good physical basis for design

simple controller - single design

simple limiter - single design

easier testability - fewer envelope points

simpler transportability of the controller to


other engines
RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

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THANK YOU

J
RAFAEL Ltd.

A NORMALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM for a TURBOJET ENGINE

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