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Introduction to Organic

Pre-University Chemistry CAPE Unit 2
Mrs. C. Williams-Massey
MBCC Westmoreland Campus

My Philosophies
• My philosophy on education is that it must be
practical and learning should be fun.
• My philosophy on life is that you should always
do your best- the rest will work itself out.
• Tenets of my philosophy on life: (i) put God first
in everything that you do (ii) hard work pays (iii)
having good manners and a good reputation goes
a far way and (iv) now is the time to do your best.

2. 3. 4. Obey all rules as stipulated in the code of conduct and also in the Student Handbook. . Listen first and ask questions in a polite manner.Classroom Norms 1. Always be respectful.respect yourself and respect others. Always be on time.

Who are you? • What are your philosophies on life and on education? • What are your goals and expectations? • Are you satisfied with your CSEC/CAPE grades from the previous academic year? • What do you think you can do better this school year to improve your passes? .

Auditory. Read/write and Kinesthetic/ .Learning Style • What is your learning style? VARK: Visual. multimodality. Learning styles: • http://vark-learn.

Ramsden. • (PPQ’s) . • Publisher: Nelson 4th (video tutorials) • (notes) • (Q&A) • http://www.khanacademy.Chemistry Resources • Chemistry for CAPE by Susan Maraj and Arnold Samai. 2000.xtremepapers. N. Publisher: Caribbean Educational Publishers CEP.Level Chemistry by E.

Laboratory work • Your laboratory exercises will come from various sources. . or photocopied and given to you. • Your laboratory reports will be written on folder leaves and inserted into a sturdy folder that I will keep. to write up and submit the next day unless instructed otherwise. • The instructions will be typed and emailed. • You will submit your results for signing before you leave the lab.

• The situations for P&D labs will be given to you on a Tuesday the latest. and the work is to be submitted by the Friday of that week. a laboratory coat and sometimes protective gloves. .Laboratory work • I will give you the format for your lab reports when you get the instructions sheet. • You need safety glasses.

Assessment • You will be given a weekly test on the topics covered in the previous week. These questions will test your higher order thinking skills. analysis. namely: application. This will predominantly test lower order processing skills such as knowledge and comprehension. • At the end of each month you will be given a test that covers every topic that was taught in that month. • I will collect your notebooks every other week to mark assigned class work and to also monitor your work progress. • You will be given graded homework at different intervals. synthesis and evaluation of Chemistry information. .

Assessment Bloom’s taxonomy (Thinking skills) Learning Pyramid .


4. Define the terms: tetravalency. hybridisation and resonance.Lesson Objectives By the end of the period you should be able to: 1. Define the term organic chemistry. Tell what carbon is and state the different allotropes of carbon. Explain why carbon can form so may compounds. 2. . catenation. 3.

Branches of Chemistry Physical Biochemistry Nuclear Chemistry Analytical Inorganic Organic .

• Organic compounds are those compounds that predominantly contain the elements carbon and hydrogen.What is organic chemistry? • Organic Chemistry studies the structure. . composition and chemical properties of organic compounds.


They are formed as a result of different bonding arrangements.Carbon Allotropes • Carbon is the sixth element in the Periodic Table. It is a very unique naturally abundant non-metallic element. Allotropes are different forms of the same element in the same physical state with different properties. Diamond Graphite Charcoal Fullerenes 16 . • • Carbon exists as allotropes. They therefore have different chemical and physical properties.

Allotropes of Carbon Diamond sp3 hybridized carbon atom Graphite sp2 hybridized carbon atom organized Charcoal sp2 hybridized carbon atom random 17 .

.Properties of carbon • Carbon has the ability to form covalent bonds with a large number of non-metals (and even some metals) and therefore produces an almost infinite number of compounds.

Tetravalency • Carbon is the sixth element and therefore has a ground state electronic configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p2. four electrons are available in the four sp3 hybridised orbitals for bonding. • Carbon in the excited (1s2 2s 2px 2py 2pz) state makes it possible for the formation of four covalent bonds (tetravalency) with itself and to other non-metallic elements. • When carbon atoms move from the ground state to an excited state (1s2 2s 2px 2py 2pz). .

• Carbon undergoes catenation to form all kinds of rings and three-dimensional structures. • Catenation is the ability of an element to form long chainlike structures through a series of covalent bonds. double or triple. .Catenation • Due to its electronegativity and small size. based on the type of hybridisation occurring between the s and p orbitals. carbon atoms can join to each other and form strong covalent bonds (catenation) to produce a wide range of structures. • The covalent bonds between carbon atoms can be single.

• The delocalised electrons within these molecules lowers the potential energy of the molecule. . • Resonance or mesomerism is a concept used to describe delocalised electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where bonding cannot be expressed by a single Lewis formula.Resonance • When carbon catenates to form polyunsaturated ring structures. resonance is sometimes seen. and this increases its stability.

its ability to form four bonds (tetravalency). .the ability of carbon to form a variety of bonds (single. .Summary • Carbon can form a range of organic molecules because of: .the ability to form stable aromatic compounds (resonance). .the ability of carbon atoms to add to each other (catenation) and form different compounds and isomers. . double and triple).its strong covalent bonds. .

2) What is a homologous series? 3) What is a functional group? 4) Differentiate between chemical properties and physical properties within a homologous series. .Home work 1) Make a list of 5 careers possible in chemistry and state their job description. • Tetravalency and catenation of carbon http://chemguide. • Carbon allotropes http://www.chemguide.html 1st edition.html . bonding in benzene http://www.References • Maraj. Pages 260-262. • Hybridisation: http://www. S and • Resonance. Caribbean Educational Publishers CEP: Chemistry for CAPE.html and http://www.

Test Guide • In addition to reading your textbooks. please visit the websites given in the reference list for information that will come on your test. All the best! .