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The Order and Regulation

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Narrator: When it comes to range safety, a mistake can cost a life. You need t
o pay close attention to range safety regulations to ensure safe range operation
s. Army Regulation 385-63/Marine Corps Order 3570.1 establishes range safety pol
icies and responsibilities for firing ammunition, lasers, guided missiles, and r
ockets on Marine Corps and Army ranges.
The Order and Regulation
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Narrator: The Army Regulation and Marine Corps Order is unique, in that it is
an inter-service publication shared between the two services. The Army Regulatio
n 385-63/Marine Corps Order 3570.1 is the ultimate document governing range safe
ty for the Marine Corps and the Army. Additionally, it is a two-part system with
weapon-specific technical data being published in the Department of the Army Pa
mphlet 385-63 . Together these collective publications are referred to as the The
Marine Corps Order . The Order must be adhered to by all other services, agencies
, and civilian organizations that use Marine Corps ranges.
This topic introduced you to the documents used as guidance for range safety on
all Marine Corps ranges:
AR 385-63/MCO 3570.1
DA Pam 385-63
Next you will learn about the resources commonly used to conduct live-fire exerc
ises.
The DA Pam 385-63 is a pamphlet that provides implementation guidance for the Ma
rine Corps Range Safety Program. Each chapter covers a different topic. Some cha
pters explain broad topics and other chapters give specific procedures for speci
fic weapons systems.
Each range or range complex will have its own standard operating procedure (SOP)
. The SOP for an installation will have installation-specific instructions for r
ange safety. You must read the most current SOP for the range that you will be u
sing.
The
to
ger
and

USMC Range Safety Pocket Guide summarizes the policies and procedures needed
conduct a live-fire event. This document contains information on surface dan
zone (SDZ) setup for weapon systems. The Pocket Guide also provides the OIC
RSO with a checklist that will assist them with their most common tasks.

Safety Of Use
(RTAM) Branch
Total Force.
written into

Memorandums (SOUM) are how the Range and Training Area Management
provides range safety information and guidance to the Marine Corps
This guidance is directive until the SOUM is cancelled, changed or
the Range Safety Order.

The range control officer controls the logistics and administrative duties of th
e range complex.
RCO's are critical to the administration of installation ranges and the executio
n of training events. They are also a key part of range safety training and educ

ation.
The officer-in-charge is responsible for the overall safe conduct of range exer
cises. Which means he ensures that the training is successful and no one gets hu
rt in the process.
OICs are vital to the planning and execution of each training event.
The laser range safety officer s role is similar to the range safety officer. Lik
e the RSO, the LRSO subscribes to the range safety principles outlined in the Or
der. Directing the safe use of lasers is the LRSO's focus. A laser range safety
officer can serve as both an RSO and LRSO for a training event. LRSOs are vital
to the planning of each training event as well as the execution of the event. In
addition to completing a range safety certification program, the LRSO must also
complete the Range Laser Safety DL Course.
Another resource for range laser operations is Military Handbook 828, which prov
ides guidance for the safe use of military lasers and laser systems on DOD range
s. The aim is to establish range safety for the evaluation and control of lasers
in order to reduce to a minimum the hazards to personnel, property, and the env
ironment. The handbook applies to all ranges where systems-certified laser syste
ms are employed. The handbook addresses the roles of several levels of authority
for range laser operations including the unit's.
RCO - Responsible for all range safety matters and provides coordination of range
s in the installation complex
OIC - Responsible and accountable for conduct of the exercise and ensuring partic
ipants follow safety regulations
RSO - Responsible for range safety for the exercise
LRSO - Responsible for laser range safety for exercises involving lasers
Rank requirements for officers in charge and range safety officers are based on
the type of weapon system used in the exercise. Table 1-1 of DA Pam 385-63 provi
des the rank requirements for specific weapon systems. For example, a small arms
exercise requires the RSO to be an E-5 or above. An exercise in antitank missil
es requires the OIC to be an E-7 or above due to the advanced weaponry used. Not
e that while an E-6 is commonly the minimum rank requirement to be a RSO for mor
tar exercises, the Marine Corps allows sergeants or E-5s to be RSO's.
When planning or conducting live-fire exercises on a range, you must consider th
e land, airspace and waterways. Most ranges are designed to take into account ai
rspace and the land area required for specific weapon systems. Other ranges requ
ire all three components to ensure that the surface danger zone is contained.
Impact areas are: An impact area is an area that has designated boundaries where
all ordnance will detonate or impact. Its purpose is to contain all hazards ass
ociated with the ordnance being fired
Designated areas Dedicated impact areas are normally associated with non-sensit
ive ammunition, and explosives. These areas can be very dangerous due to possibl
e dud ammunition. Access to dedicated impact areas will be strictly controlled b
y range control.
High-hazard impact areas are permanently designated to contain sensitive ammunit
ion and explosives. These areas are very dangerous because they contain high exp
losives and sensitive unexploded ordnance. Never enter a high-hazard impact area
without permission from range control.

A temporary impact area is normally for small arms or non-dud-producing ammuniti


on. This type of impact area exists only for the length of an exercise. After th
e exercise, the area should be capable of being cleared and returned to the orig
inal state following termination of firing.
Ordnance contained
Access-restricted
Dedicated: Usually large pieces of land that multiple ranges fire into. Dedicate
d impact areas contain fired ordnance and fragments.
High-hazard: Contain high explosives and sensitive unexploded ordnance (such as
cluster bombs, artillery rounds, mortar rounds, grenades, and missiles).
Temporary: Exists for one exercise at a time and is returned to its original sta
te after firing
When firing over navigable waters the installation commander will coordinate wit
h the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Coast Guard to ensure proper not
ification of the waterway involved, the operations to be conducted, and the sect
or of waterway that must be closed. If boats or ships enter your range area duri
ng a live-fire exercise, call an immediate cease fire and contact Range Control.
The purpose of a danger zone (DZ) is to designate areas that protect personnel a
nd property from dangers during training and, to the extent practicable, during
combat.
The design of the DZ is intended to prevent injury to personnel or damage to pr
operty by identifying hazardous boundaries of ricochets and fragmentation associ
ated with live fire training.
The construction of an accurate DZ is key to establishing a safe environment for
training.
There are three types of danger zones that apply to range use:
Surface danger zo
nes (SDZ)
The surface danger zone (SDZ) is the danger zone area for munitions fired from t
he ground.
Narrator: Surface danger zones are created from the "ballistic footprint" of a w
eapon system. Each weapon system's ballistic footprint is the firing pattern cre
ated when a weapon is tested, firing a certain ammunition at certain target medi
a. The characteristics of the firing pattern are measured to create an SDZ.
Here you see a weapon that is firing at a static target. A pattern of test fire
d rounds is recorded. The SDZ that is created for the specific type of weapon, a
mmunition, and impact media includes the area around the target where the rounds
land, the resting place for ricochets and some fragments, and the final resting
place for all other debris and fragments. You can see that the SDZ will contain
all rounds, debris and fragments if set up correctly according to the weapon, t
ype of ammunition and impact media used.
Larger weapon systems such as rockets, missiles, and artillery utilize different
SDZ parameters; however the standard SDZ for small arms are cone and batwing
The cone SDZ is typically used when conducting training that does not involve fi

re and movement or fire and maneuver.


The batwing SDZ provides greater containment of ricochets. It will be used when
designing or conducting training that involves fire and movement, fire and maneu
ver, flanking fire, or when ricochet hazards outside the range complex boundary
may endanger
The cone SDZ is an older design and will contain rounds, ricochets, fragments, a
nd debris. The cone surface danger zone consists of a dispersion area, a ricoche
t area, and an area "A".
Cone
Distance X Distance X is the maximum distance a projectile (including guided mi
ssiles and rockets) will travel when fired or launched at a given elevation with
a given charge or propulsion system.
Dispersion Area The Dispersion Area is the area that contains projectiles after
making initial contact with the target medium. This is the area within the surf
ace danger zone located between the gun target line (GTL) and the ricochet area.
This area accounts for human error, gun or cannon tube wear, propellant tempera
ture, etc.
Ricochet Area The area that contains projectiles after making initial contact w
ith the target medium. The Ricochet Area for the cone SDZ is defined as an addit
ional 5 degrees off the dispersion area line on the left and right sides.
Area A
Area A is the secondary danger area, or buffer zone, that laterally parallels th
e impact area or ricochet area depending on the weapon system. Area A contains f
ragments, debris, and components from frangible or explosive projectiles and war
heads functioning on the right or left edge of the impact area or ricochet area.
For non-explosive projectiles Area A is a standard 100m in width. For explosive
projectiles, the width varies by weapon and munition.
The batwing SDZ consists of a dispersion area and a ricochet area. It provides g
reater containment of ricochets at closer range than the cone SDZ.
Distance X Distance X is the maximum distance a projectile (including guided mi
ssiles or rockets) will travel when fired or launched at a given quadrant elevat
ion with a given charge or propulsion system
Dispersion Area The Dispersion Area is the area within the surface danger zone
located between the gun target line (GTL) and the ricochet area. This area accou
nts for human error, gun or cannon tube wear, propellant temperature, etc
Distance Y
Distance Y is the maximum distance downrange at which lateral ricochet is expect
ed to occur when a projectile is fired at a given quadrant elevation.
Angle P
Angle P defines the area beginning at the firing point, located to the left and
right of the dispersion area, which contains projectiles after making initial co
ntact with the target medium.
Angle Q Angle Q defines the area beginning at distance Y, located to the left an
d right of the dispersion area, which contains projectiles after making initial
contact with the target medium
Distance W Distance W is the maximum lateral distance a projectile will ricoche
t after impacting within the dispersion area. Distance W defines the maximum lat
eral edge of the ricochet area

Ricochet Area The Ricochet Area is the area to the left and right of the disper
sion area that contains projectiles after making initial contact with the target
medium.
For SDZs having angles P and Q, it is also the area located to the left and rig
ht of the dispersion area. The ricochet area width is defined by distance W.
The cone and batwing SDZs both contain basic components such as distance X and d
ispersion area.
The major difference is the size and shape of the ricochet area.
When firing small arms with exploding projectiles, the dimensions of the cone an
d batwing SDZs are increased to account for fragments and debris from explosions
.
For the cone SDZ, the width of Area A will be increased to provide improved cont
ainment based on the type of weapon and projectile. An Area B is added as a buff
er beyond the Distance X dimension
Weapon danger zones (WDZ)
The weapon danger zone (WDZ) is the danger zone for air-delivered munitions
Laser surface danger zones (LSDZ)
A laser surface danger zone (LSDZ) is a specific type of danger zone when lasers
are in use.
The danger zone boundary is determined by the type of weapon
system and the munitions being used.
The physical size of a danger zone is based on the weapon and ammunition being f
ired. Tables in the DA Pam 385-63 and Range Safety Pocket Guide identify the spe
cific dimensions of the SDZ for the weapon/ammunition combination you will be us
ing in your exercise. For example, if you are firing a 5.56mm using M193 Ball am
munition, Distance X will be 3100m. However, the Distance X increases to 3437m f
or the same weapon when firing the M855 ball.
The areas around, behind, and the actual target where a projectile may impact ar
e known as impact media.
Impact media have an effect on SDZs because of different densities and composit
ions. Differences in composition between impact media result in different deflec
tion characteristics.
In addition to the weapon and ammunition being fired, the type of impact media
also affects the dimensions of the SDZ.
There are four main types of impact media: earth, water, steel and concrete. Be
cause of their similar density and composition, they are grouped in pairs: Earth
/Water and Steel/Concrete
SDZs will be modified when your training involves multiple targets, multiple fir
ing points or moving targets. The adjustments for these types
of exercises involve separating the gun target line (GTL) lengthwise resulting
in a wider SDZ to account for left and right limits of fire.

Narrator: Your ability to minimize risks is a crucial and necessary responsibi


lity.
There are five steps to RM process Step one is to identify the hazards to the ex
ercise. Step two, Assess Hazards , involves evaluating each hazard's severity and p
robability. Step three is Make Risk Decisions . In this step, you must develop cont
rol measures that will reduce the risk threat of a hazard. In step four, Impleme
nt Controls, you will implement the control measures developed at step three. St
ep five is Supervise. Supervising involves monitoring the exercise for new hazards
.
Narrator: Step one in the RM process is to identify the hazards to the exercis
e. According to Marine Corps Order 3500.27, a hazard is any issue, real or poten
tial, that can cause personal injury, death, property damage, mission degradatio
n or damage to the environment.
Hazards during a range exercise can result from the weather conditions, terrain,
types of weaponry, and ammunition used. The possible risks associated with haza
rds can range from low risk that personnel will injure themselves to high risk t
hat personnel may lose their life. Hazards can also be a threat to property and
command interests.
Identifying hazards is the foundation of the entire RM process. If a hazard is n
ot identified it cannot be controlled. Identifying hazards allow you to protect
personnel, property and mission.
You are the OIC for a squad attack exercise. Your squad will practice attacking
and taking a small brick building on the range. The weather conditions are overc
ast and raining with a temperature of 56. The terrain is hilly with grass, rocks
and bare dirt.
The uneven terrain, including deep crevices, is a hazard during this range exerc
ise. Personnel are at risk of falling and injuring themselves.
Typically, there are multiple hazards involved in any range exercise. But for th
e purposes of this range exercise, we will focus on one hazard using the RM proc
ess.

Narrator: Step two of the RM process is


ntified you must determine the associated
d probability. Once their probability and
also be categorized. The risk assessment
ps Order 3500.27.

assessing hazards. For each hazard ide


degree of risk in terms of severity an
severity are established, hazards must
categories are described in Marine Cor

Hazard severity is represented by Roman numerals one through four. Mishap probab
ility is represented by the letters A through D .
A represents the most probable and

represents the least probable.

Personnel falling and injuring themselves was identified as a risk for the squa
d live-fire exercise. The severity for this risk can be assessed as low because
any injuries would be minor. Therefore the hazard severity category for this ris
k is three. The probability of this risk occurring is high because personnel wil
l be running on uneven and wet terrain. So the mishap probability category for t
his risk is A .

Narrator: Use the Risk Assessment Matrix to determine the Risk Assessment Code
(RAC). The RAC represents the overall risk of a hazard. You will determine the
RAC for each hazard by using each hazard's severity and probability category.
You previously identified personnel falling and injuring themselves as a risk. T
his risk was given a low severity because the resulting injuries would be minor,
but it was given a high, or likely, probability because of the uneven and wet t
errain.
Therefore, the personnel falling and injuring themselves risk has a RAC of two
according to the Risk Assessment Matrix, representing an overall moderate risk.
Narrator: Step three of the RM process involves making risk decisions. As the
OIC, you will develop measures to reduce risks for each hazard. Develop control
measures starting with those with the lowest RAC or highest risk.
Personnel falling and injuring themselves was one of the risks identified for t
his exercise. The hazard consisted of slippery weather conditions, and crevices
and sink holes in the ground. This hazard was determined to be a moderate risk a
nd assigned a RAC of two. Two is the lowest RAC for your exercise. Control measu
res developed for this hazard include:
Measure 1: Conduct a walk-through of the course to determine the likely areas w
here personnel could fall due to slippery weather conditions or where there were
crevices and sink holes in the ground.
Measure 2: Mark off or fill in the deep crevices and sink holes in the ground
Measure 3: Notify personnel of the location of hazards and instruct them to avo
id these areas.
Measure 4: Make sure all personnel are wearing Kevlar helmets.
Narrator: Implementing controls effectively requires clear communication, acco
untable personnel, and sufficient resources to implement the controls. As you ta
ke action to implement controls consider the three types of controls: Administra
tive, Engineering, and Personal Protective Equipment.
You identified four control measures to reduce the risk of personnel falling an
d injuring themselves during the squad attack exercise. The four measures can be
identified as one of the three control types.
Administrative controls reduce risks through specific administrative actions. T
hey are implemented by providing warning signs and notices, establishing policie
s and procedures, training personnel to recognize hazards, and limiting exposure
to hazards. Conducting a walk-through and briefing personnel on avoiding trip h
azards are both Administrative control types. You can implement these controls b
y making notes of potential slip areas and notifying personnel about those areas
at the safety brief.
Engineering controls use engineering methods to reduce risks by design, materia
l selection, or substitution. Marking off or filling in the deep crevices and si
nk holes in the ground are Eengineering controls. You can implement these contro
ls by marking off the deep crevices and sink holes in the ground with tape and w
ooden stakes.
Personal Protective Equipment, such as Kevlar helmets, flak jackets, glasses, a
nd ear plugs, serve as a barrier between personnel and a hazard and should be us
ed when other controls do not reduce the hazard to an acceptable level. Ensuring
that all personnel are wearing Kevlar helmets is an example of a protective equ
ipment control. You can implement this control by ensuring that all personnel ar

e wearing Kevlar helmets prior to beginning the exercise.


Narrator: Step five is supervising. Supervising involves monitoring the effect
iveness of the controls that are implemented. As the OIC, your supervisory dutie
s include: monitoring the exercise for new hazards, assigning observers to enfor
ce established procedures and follow through with selected controls, adjusting c
ontrols which are ineffective, and determining which controls were effective and
ensuring they are implemented for future exercises.
Now that you have identified and assessed the hazards for the squad attack exerc
ise and implemented the control measures to reduce the risk of personnel falling
and injuring themselves, you must ensure the effectiveness of your risk control
s through careful supervision.
Make sure that personnel are not running through potential trip hazard areas. D
esignate observers to help supervise the controls and tell you if they are worki
ng.
Handling ammunition and explosives properly will ensure safety. Marine Corps Ord
er P8020.10 governs the handling of ammunition. Marine Corps Order 8011.5 provid
es additional safety program requirements for Class V(W) training ammunition.
MCO P8020.10
Marine Corps Order P8020.10 establishes regulations for ammunition handling, acc
ountability, and reporting. This order provides policies and requirements for: Tr
ansportation
Storage and handling
Security and accountability
Malfunction reporting

Ammunition Accounting and Reporting


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Narrator: Proper security and accounting of ammunition and explosives used in
training is vital. Ammunition and explosives are most susceptible to loss or the
ft during field exercises. Strict accountability procedures must be followed.
Chapter 7 of MCO P4400.150, Consumer-Level Supply Policy Manual, establishes po
licies to account for ammunition received, expended, and returned. This order al
so provides guidance for requisitioning, custody tracking, and expenditure repor
ting using the NAVMC 11381 Expenditure Report.

Ammunition Accounting and Reporting


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Narrator: As the Office-in-Charge or Range Safety Officer, you are required to
document receipt and expenditure of ammunition on NAVMC 11381, Class V (W) Expe
nditure Report. Prior to the range going live, you will report the exact type, D
ODIC, and quantity of ammunition on hand to Range Control.
When the OIC or RSO receives the ammunition from the ammunition technician, he m

ust verify the types and quantities of ammunition on the expenditure report and
sign for custody. The NAVMC 11381 will list the DODIC, Nomenclature, Lot or Seri
al Number, and Quantity Received.

Ammunition Accounting and Reporting


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Narrator: When the range goes cold at the conclusion of the exercise, the OIC
will report to Range Control the type and quantity of ammunition expended and qu
antity being turned in. Ammunition that has not been expended is turned over to
the ammunition technician for return to the Ammunition Supply Point.
For each item of ammunition that was received, you must record the Quantity exp
ended, and the Quantity turned in, serviceable and unserviceable.
The ammunition technician will verify the quantities before accepting custody of
the returned ammunition. Any apparent discrepancy between the verbal report to
Range Control and the NAVMC 11381 data must be resolved immediately.
In this topic you learned that the OIC/RSO must follow ammunition accountabilit
y procedures in MCO 8011.5 and MCO P4400.150, Chapter 7.
You also learned that, upon receipt of ammunition, the OIC/RSO must verify that
the NAVMC 11381 reflects the correct:
DODIC
Nomenclature
Lot/Serial number
Quantity received
At turn-in you will provide the:
Quantity expended
Quantity turned in (serviceable)
Quantity turned in (unserviceable)
This report tracks ammunition usage and needs to be submitted on time with accur
ate information to ensure that commanders and the ASP

Handling Ammunition and Explosives


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Narrator: Ammunition that is defective or damaged presents an immediate safety
risk. Do not use any ammunition with visible defects or damage.
Defective ammunition is often found before firing begins. You should check for
defective or damaged ammunition before and during your exercise.
Defects or damage include: Fused rounds that are missing safety devices
Visible defects in material or assembly such as a cracked cartridge case
Ammunition showing damage from mishandling
Ammunition packaging that shows evidence of tampering.

Handling Ammunition and Explosives

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Narrator: Procedures for handling ammunition need to be strictly enforced and
followed to avoid accidents. Mixing live and blank ammunition is extremely dange
rous. There are a few simple rules to make sure that live and blank ammunition a
re not mixed.
Ammunition distribution will occur only in areas designated for that purpose. F
or example, ammunition breakdown areas, ready lines, firing lines, attack positi
ons, assembly areas, or defilade positions.
On the range, live and blank ammunition will not be stored in or issued from th
e same place at the same time.
All ammunition that is not fired during an exercise must be returned to the amm
unition supply point in original packaging after the exercise.
Do not indiscriminately fire or discard ammunition to avoid returning unfired a
mmunition to the proper storage facilities.
Unexploded ordnance and misfires represent a defect or malfunction in ammunition
or explosives. UXO or dud munitions and misfires are unique from other less thr
eatening defects because they can explode or fire off at any time.
Ammunition and explosives which have been primed, fused, armed, or otherwise pre
pared for action, and then dropped, launched, projected or placed in such a mann
er as to pose a hazard to operations, installations, personnel, or materiel, and
remains unexploded either by malfunction or design or from any other cause.
A misfire is complete failure to fire that may not necessarily be hazardous. Bec
ause a misfire cannot be readily distinguished from a delay in functioning (hang
fire), it must be handled as worst case in accordance with procedures for the we
apon system.

Unexploded Ordnance and Misfire Procedures


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Narrator: The OIC is required to submit a report on all UXO and misfires that
are experienced during an exercise for ammunition tracking. Reporting UXO and mi
sfire incidents enables tracking of problems and can lead to suspension of ammun
ition that is potentially defective. This report helps investigators understand
the causes of malfunctions.
For each incident, the OIC must report:
The unit firing the ammunition.
The type of ammunition that malfunctioned.
The weapons used to fire the ammunition.
A description of the malfunction. For example, a grenade that is thrown at the ta
rget, but does not detonate.
Prevailing conditions during the exercise such as, date, weather, and terrain.
Storage conditions that the ammunition was stored in before firing. For instance,
was the ammunition in the magazine, or was the ammunition outside under a tarp.
And Remarks about other important infoAAHtion regarding the malfunction.

Unexploded Ordnance and Misfire Procedures


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Narrator: The danger presented by ammunition malfunctions requires quick and d
etailed reporting to help avoid further occurrences. Investigations may be condu
cted on malfunctions and it is important that you provide accurate information t
o aid in the investigation. The NAVMC 10155, Ammunition Malfunction Data Collect
ion Card, provides a list of essential data elements that should be noted immedi
ately at the scene.
Recording information immediately will help ensure your report is complete and a
ccurate. There are five steps for reporting ammunition malfunctions.
The first is to document what happened. Note the details of what actually occur
red and the actions of appropriate personnel immediately prior to the malfunctio
n. Next, record the time, date, and weather conditions. Identify the items invol
ved by DODIC and lot number, if identifiable. Also, identify the condition of th
e ammunition prior to use. Was the item or packaging wet or discolored or appear
deteriorated? Finally, identify the weapon used by model and serial number. Des
cribe the condition of the weapon prior to and after firing. Include the number
of rounds fired on this date.

Unexploded Ordnance and Misfire Procedures


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Narrator: There may come a time when someone in your exercise will experience
an ammunition malfunction. Defective ammunition is often found in the pre-fire p
art of an exercise but some defective rounds may still make it to firing.
Order a cease-fire and contact range control anytime someone experiences an amm
unition malfunction that presents a safety risk.
Range control will provide you with direction to either continue the exercise or
halt the exercise until the problem with the ammunition can be resolved.