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UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

REVISED ASSIGNMENT 3

CHEMICAL PLANT DESIGN


PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF PRODUCTION OF 1-BUTANOL FROM
BIOMASS (CORN COBS)

Group 14 Paralel
Members of Group

Franciscus Adam Perkasa

1106070842

Laras Novitasari

1106070930

Mochamad Ilham Chairat

1106070943

Samuel Edo Pratama

1106070741

Yan Aulia Ardiansyah

1206314642

Yessica Hannauli

1106070880

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
DEPOK
2014

Executive Summary
In this assignment, there are two chapters. The first chapter is Heat
Exchanger Network (HEN) and Utility Analysis, the second chapter is Utility. In
the first chapter, we analyze the heat exchanger that we use to optimize the utility
system. In our plant we use steam, cooling water, electricity, and fuel utility.
Before we determine the utility analysis we have to analyze the exchanger first.
To know the minimum utility for cold and hot stream, there are three
methods (composite curves, problem table cascade, and pinch design). In
composite curves method we determine and the cold and hold fluid based on the
process. This method is resulting composite curve to determine the minimum
utility for hold and cold. The second method is problem cascade method. This
method is determine the energy (Q) based on mix temperature without
identification of hot and cold streams. The result is also the same with the first
method. For the first and the second method will result the energy efficiency that
we use which is around 87% for hot utility and 65% for cold utility.
After we design HEN analysis (pinch design method), we decided to add
two heat exchangers, one cooling tower and one boiler. These changes can be
seen in the revised P&ID considering HEN. Cooling water and boiler are for
regeneration for hot and cold utilities. The steam that we need before HEN is
277867 kg/batch. However after HEN analysis the utility for steam is reduced to
100.05 kg/batch..

This utility reduction is also happed with cooling water

requirement. The use of cooling water before HEN is about 122712 kg/batch.
However after HEN, the use of cooling water is reduced to 335.43 kg/batch.
In chapter two we design the utility system including the utility reduction
that have been mentioned before. Utility is divided in three groups which are
water, electricity, and fuel. The electricity utility we need 86,191.59 kWh/year.
This electricity is supplied by generator and PLN. Cost of electricity that
generated by PLN is 58 million IDR. The fuel electricity is calculated by the using
of the diesel for generator which is about 14.45 liter/hour. The cost for fuel per
batch is about 6 million rupiahs; with total per year is 1.4 billion rupiahs.

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Table of Content
Executive Summary ............................................................................................. ii
Table of Content ................................................................................................. iii
List of Figure ...................................................................................................... iv
List of Tables ........................................................................................................v
CHAPTER I ........................................................................................................1
HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK ..................................................................1
1.1. Stream Classifications ...................................................................................1
1.2. Heat Recovery Pinch Method .......................................................................2
1.2.1. Composite Curves...................................................................................2
1.2.2. Problem Table Cascade ..........................................................................5
1.3. Pinch Design Method.....................................................................................9
CHAPTER II .....................................................................................................12
UTILITY............................................................................................................12
2.1. Utility Reduction .........................................................................................12
2.2. Utility Process .............................................................................................12
2.2.1. Water Utility .........................................................................................12
2.2.2. Electricity Requirement ........................................................................23
2.2.3. Fuel Utility ............................................................................................26
CHAPTER III ...................................................................................................28
CONCLUSIONS ...............................................................................................28
REFERENCES ...................................................................................................29

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List of Figure
Figure 1.1. Cold Fluid Composite Curves ...............................................................3
Figure 1.2. Hot Fluid Composite Curve...................................................................3
Figure 1.3. Combined Hot and Cold Fluid Composite Curves ................................4
Figure 1.4. Combined Hot and Cold Fluid Composite Curves After Pinch ............5
Figure 1.5. Hot and Cold Fluid Program Table Cascade .........................................8
Figure 1.6. Grand Composite Curve ........................................................................9
Figure 1.7. Pinch Design Method ..........................................................................10
Figure 1.8. P&ID Revised After HEN ...................................................................11
Figure 2.1. Steam Generator ..................................................................................14
Figure 2.2. Hot Utility Scheme ..............................................................................15
Figure 2.3. Countercurrent-Induced Draft Cooling Tower ....................................18
Figure 2.4. Cold Utility Scheme ............................................................................18
Figure 2.5. Water Treatment Process .....................................................................22
Figure 2.6. Caterpillar Generator XQ 750 .............................................................27

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List of Tables
Table 1.1. Classification of Hot and Cold Fluid in Butanol Plant ...........................1
Table 1.2. Minimum Utility Requirement Based On Cumulative Curve After
Pinch ......................................................................................................5
Table 1.3. Shifted temperature for the data from Table 1.1. ....................................6
Table 1.4. The Temperature Interval Heat Balance .................................................7
Table 1.5. Minimum utility requirement based on problem table cascade ..............9
Table 2.1. Utility Efficiency ..................................................................................12
Table 2.2. Steam Requirement before HEN ..........................................................13
Table 2.3. Steam Requirement After HEN ............................................................13
Table 2.4. Water Requirement Before HEN ..........................................................15
Table 2.5. Water Requirement After HEN ............................................................17
Table 2.6. Total Water Requirement Before HEN.................................................19
Table 2.7. Total Water Requirement After HEN ...................................................20
Table 2.8. Kedung Ombo Lake Water Quality ......................................................21
Table 2.9. Electricity Requirement ........................................................................23
Table 2.10. Electricity Calculation ........................................................................24
Table 2.11. Generator Specification ......................................................................26

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CHAPTER I
HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK

Heat exchanger network is needed to optimize and to determine of utilities


system that would be used in this plant. HEN is used to decrease the using of
unnecessary utilities since heat of fluid can be used in purpose to replace utilities.
An overall goal of using the available energy sources in the most efficient way
can be satisfied by optimal heat recovery from different parts of a given process
(Zhang et al., 2011).
Good heat recovery from a given process can be achieved through
effective use of heat exchangers. Often, heat exchangers are combined in a heat
exchanger network to distribute the available hot streams effectively. Now that we
have the system requirements, we turn our attention to heat-exchanger network
design and explain how to construct a network that will accomplish the necessary
heat transfer and satisfy the stream data using the least amount of heating and
cooling utilities and the fewest number of heat exchanger units.
To analyze HEN there are two ways. They are Heat Recovery Pinch
Method (Composite Curves and Program Table Cascade), and Pinch Design
Method. In order to use heat recovery pinch method. we have to classify the
stream first,
1.1. Stream Classifications
There are several streams in butanol plants, but only a few streams are
necessary to evaluate the heat transfer. Flow to be evaluated is divided into two
types, namely cold fluid and heat fluid. Cold fluid is the flow of heat that requires
utilities to heat flow towards the desired temperature. Meanwhile, hot fluid is a
flow that requires a cool utility to cool the flow towards the desired temperature.
The initial temperature (termed supply temperature), final temperature (termed
target temperature), and enthalpy change of both streams are given in Table 1.1.
Table 1.1. Classification of Hot and Cold Fluid in Butanol Plant

No

Stream In

1
2

33
40

Stream
Out
34
41

Tin (oC)

Tout (oC)

Type

45
117

117
80

Cold
Hot

Q
Cp (MW/K)
(MW/batch)
7.71
0.107083333
30.26
0.817837838

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Table 1.1. Classification of Hot and Cold Fluid in Butanol Plant (contd)

No
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Stream
Tin (oC)
Tout (oC)
Out
42
43
110
90
48
49
110
80
52
53
80
110
54
55
90
110
2
7
25
40
56
57
46
45
58
59
46
45
(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

Stream In

Type
Hot
Hot
Cold
Cold
Cold
Hot
Hot

Q
Cp (MW/K)
(MW/batch)
5.076
0.2538
5.22
0.174
5.613
0.1871
5.236
0.2618
1.78
0.118666667
0.061
0.061
0.076
0.076

Through Table 4.1. we can define that our plants has 4 cold streams and 5
hot streams known by read in P&ID. Q value as specific heat of a measured
substances in each streams is resulted from general equation, Q=mcT. Enthalpy
associated with a stream passing through the exchanger is given by First Law
Thermodynamics;

In heat exchanger, no mechanical work is being performed:

The above equation simplifies to:

1.2. Heat Recovery Pinch Method


The term pinch was introduced by Linnhoff and Vredeveld to represent a
new set of thermodynamically based methods that guarantee minimum energy
levels in design of heat exchanger networks. There are two kinds of methods that
can be used to determine the pinch from all heat exchanger in one plant; they are
composite curve and problem table cascade.

1.2.1. Composite Curves


The first step to determine the amount of heat can be recovered by pinch
method, composite curve is generated. Composite curve is generated for hot fluid,
cold fluid and combination of both fluids. This section describes the use of a heat
exchanger network (HEN) to recover the heat in production of butanol. Composite
curves consist if temperature (T)-enthalpy (H) profiles of heat availability in the

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process (the hot composite curve) and heat demands in the process (the cold
composite curve) together in a graphical representation. Hence, we can plot
composite curve directly based on the stream data that we deliberated before
Table 1.1.
140.00
120.00

T (oC)

100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
0

10

20

30

40

50

40

50

H (MW)
Figure 1.1. Cold Fluid Composite Curves
(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)
140.00
120.00

T (oC)

100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
-10

10

20

30

H (MW)

Figure 1.2. Hot Fluid Composite Curve


(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

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To make the pinch, both of this composite curve need to be combined and plotted
in one curve, as shown in Figure 1.3.
140.00

120.00

100.00

T (oC)

80.00
Cold Fluid

60.00

Hot Fluid

40.00

20.00

0.00
0

10

20

30

40

50

Q (MW)
Figure 1.3. Combined Hot and Cold Fluid Composite Curves
(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

For heat exchange to occur from the hot stream to the cold stream, the hot
stream cooling curve must lie above the cold stream-heating curve. The premium
approach temperature (Tmin) can be measured directly from the T-H profiles as
being the minimum vertical difference between the hot and cold curves. This
point of minimum temperature difference represents a bottleneck in heat recovery
and is commonly refer as the pinch. We are using temperature difference about
10oC to get the pinch composition. The graph after pinch you can see in the figure
1.4.

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140

2.65 (Hot Utility Minimum)


120
100

80
"Cold Fluid"

60

"Hot Fluid"
40
20

22.86 (Cold Utility Minimum)


0
0

10

20

30

40

50

H (MW)

Figure 1.4. Combined Hot and Cold Fluid Composite Curves After Pinch
(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

Figure 1.4. shows that the pinch is being at 107oC for cold fluid and 117oC
for hot fluid, as we use 10oC as the minimum temperature difference. At that
particular Tmin, the overlap shows the maximum possible scope for heat
recovery within the process. The hot end and overshoots indicate minimum hot
utility requirement (QHmin) and minimum cold utility requirement (QCmin), as
shown below.

Table 1.2. Minimum Utility Requirement Based On Cumulative Curve After Pinch

Utility

Q (MW)

Hot

2.65

Cold

22.86

(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

1.2.2. Problem Table Cascade


Although composite curves can be used to set energy targets, they are
inconvenient since they are based on a graphical construction. A method of
calculating energy targets directly without the necessity of graphical construction
can be developed.

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Table 1.3. Shifted temperature for the data from Table 1.1.

No

Type

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Cold
Hot
Hot
Hot
Cold
Cold
Cold
Hot
Hot

Tin ( )
45
117
110
110
80
90
25
46
46

Tout ( )
117
80
90
80
110
110
40
45
45

Tin*( )
50
112
105
105
85
95
30
41
41

Tout*( )
122
75
85
75
115
115
45
40
40

(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

The basic approach can be developed into a formal algorithm known as the
problem table algorithm. The algorithm will be explained using the data from
Table 1.1 for Tmin. The first step is determined the shifted temperature intervals
(T*) from actual supply and target temperatures. Hot streams are shifted down in
temperature by Tmin/2 and cold streams up by Tmin/2 as detailed in Table 1.3.

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Table 1.4. The Temperature Interval Heat Balance

Ti

Stream Population

Surplus/Deficit

122
7

0.11

0.75

Deficit

0.56

1.67

Deficit

-0.26

-1.83

Surplus

10

-0.69

-6.90

Surplus

10

-0.95

-9.51

Surplus

10

-0.88

-8.85

Surplus

25

0.11

2.68

Deficit

0.00

0.00

0.12

0.47

Deficit

-0.02

-0.02

Surplus

10

0.12

1.19

Deficit

115
112
105
95
85
75
50
45
41
40
30
No
1
2
3
CP
0.11
0.82
0.25
(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

4
0.17

5
0.19

6
0.26

7
0.12

8
0.06

9
0.08

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After we have the problem table, we can cascade any surplus heat down
the temperature scale from interval to interval. This is possible any excess heat
available from the hot streams in an interval is hot enough to supply a deficit in
the cold streams in the next interval down. From the figure above we can
determine the minimum utility requirement:

Figure 1.5. Hot and Cold Fluid Program Table Cascade


(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

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Table 1.5. Minimum utility requirement based on problem table cascade

Utility

Q (MW)

Hot

2.42

Cold

22.77

(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

Another way to see the minimum utility requirement is based on the grand
composite curve. The grand composite curve is a more appropriate tool for
understanding the interface between the process and the utility system. It will be
shown in the later chapters to be a useful tool to study the interaction between
heat-integrated reactors and separators and the rest of the process. The grand
composite curve is obtained by plotting the problem table cascade.
140

2.42 (Hot Utility Minimum)

120

T (oC)

100
80
60
40
20

22.77 (Cold Utility Minimum)

0
0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00

Q (MW)

Figure 1.6. Grand Composite Curve


(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

1.3. Pinch Design Method


This pinch design method is used for determine the use for hot or cold
fluid for heating or cooling the stream itself. The determination of the heat
transfer is based on the are above and below the pinch and also the loading of its
heat exchanger. The design is shown in the figure 1.7. After we have all the
exchanger network analysis, we revised the P&ID that is shown in the figure 1.8.

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Figure 1.7. Pinch Design Method


(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

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Figure 1.8. P&ID Revised After HEN


(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

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CHAPTER II
UTILITY

2.1. Utility Reduction


In this section, we will compare the energy for utility after and before
HEN also the energy efficiency calculation. The performance of energy efficiency
we can see in the next table:
Table 2.1. Utility Efficiency

Utility

Utility Necessity (MW)

Difference

Efficiency

Before HEN

After HEN

(MW)

Hot

20.34

2.417

17.923

88%

Cold

40.69

14.248

26.442

65%

(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

Thus, HEN manages to decrease the necessity up to 88% for hot utility and
65% for cold utility.
2.2. Utility Process
Utilities are the main supporting unit in the running of a production
process. In a factory, utilities are important utility role. Because of a production
process does not work if the utility does not exist. Therefore, all the facilities and
infrastructure should be designed in such a way as to ensure continuity of
operation of the plant.
Based on the needs, utilities on 1-butanol manufacturing plant are as follows:
1. Water Utility
2. Electricity Utility
3. Fuel Utility
2.2.1. Water Utility
In our butanol plant we need water as a feed to boiler to produce steam, as
a cooling water, as process water and others. So in this sub chapter, we are going
to explain every requirement from water utility.

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a. Steam Requirement
Before we choose what kind of boiler or steam generator that we select,
we have to calculate how much steam that we need for this plant. Basically we
need steam for hydrolysis, heat exchanger, and also boiler for distillation process.
This table below shows the calculation based on the simulation and sizing (before
HEN):
Table 2.2. Steam Requirement before HEN

Steam Requirement

No

Equipment

Code

Hydrolysis Reactor

H-101

3032

Heat Exchanger

HE-101

5222

Reboiler I

HE-102

9513

Reboiler II

HE-103

10100

(kg/batch)

Total

27867

(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

The steam used is saturated steam (150oC). The total steam requirement per batch
is 27,867 kg. The total steam needed is enhanced 20% for safety reason and 10%
for leakage prevention:

Assume that 90% of the condensate can be reused:

The total addition of water needed per batch is:

For after HEN calculation we need three hot utility:


Table 2.3. Steam Requirement After HEN

No

Equipment

Hydrolysis Reactor

Steam Requirement
(kg/batch)
42.50

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Table 2.3. Steam Requirement after HEN (contd)

Steam Requirement

No

Equipment

H1

25.48

H2

13.36

H3

18.71

TOTAL

(kg/batch)

100.05

The steam used is saturated steam (150oC). The total steam requirement per batch
is 100.05 kg. The total steam needed is enhanced 20% for safety reason and 10%
for leakage prevention:

Assume that 90% of the condensate can be reused:

The total addition of water needed per batch is:

Based on the capacity for the steam requirements we can use steam
generator or boiler that shippable and ready to hook up to the process. Units with
capacities in a range of sizes up to about 350,000 lb/hr of steam are on the market,
and are obtainable on a rental/purchase basis for emergency need.

Figure 2.1. Steam Generator


(Source: Walas, 2004)

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The simplified sketch in Figure 2.1. identifies several zones of heat


transfer in the equipment. Residual heat in the Rue gas is recovered as preheat of
the water in an economizer and in an air preheater. The combustion chamber is
lined with tubes along the floor and walls to keep the refractory cool and usually
to recover more than half the heat of combustion. The tabulations of this example
are of the distribution of heat transfer surfaces and the amount of heat transfer in
each zone.
The scheme for boiler will be show in the next figure:

Boiler
Process

Pump
Figure 2.2. Hot Utility Scheme
(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

b. Cooling Water Requirement


The cooling water system is designed for a 25C supply temperature with
55C temperature rise in coolers throughout the facility. The cooling water
requirement in each area is listed in the table below:
Table 2.4. Water Requirement Before HEN

Cooling Water

No

Equipment

Code

Fermenter I

FR-101

10564

Fermenter II

FR-102

13122.98

Condenser I

CR-101

56570

Requirement (kg/batch)

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Table 2.4. Water Requirement Before HEN (contd)

Cooling Water

No

Equipment

Code

Condenser II

CR-102

19856

Condenser III

CR-103

22600

Requirement (kg/batch)

Total

122712.98

(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

The cooling water is reused after being cooled in cooling tower. Assume
that some water losses during circulation, the total amount of make-up water
needed is the water losses from evaporation, drift loss, and blow down.
The water loss from evaporation is calculated:

Where:
Wc = inlet water to cooling tower
We = water loss from evaporation
T2 = inlet water temperature = 55C
T1 = outlet water temperature =25C

The water loss from drift loss is usually 0.1-0.2% from the total inlet
cooling water. Assume 0.2% drift loss:

Water losses from blow down depend on the amount of cooling water
cycle, usually between 3-5 cycles. Assume 5 cycles:

Where
Wb = water losses from blow down
C = numbers of cycle

The total make up cooling water required can then be calculated:

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For after HEN calculation we need five cold utility:


Table 2.5. Water Requirement After HEN

No

Equipment

Water Requirement (kg/batch)

C1

1.45

C2

1.81

C3

249.29

C4

0.74

C5

82.14

TOTAL

335.43

(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

The cooling water is reused after being cooled in cooling tower. Assume
that some water losses during circulation, the total amount of make-up water
needed is the water losses from evaporation, drift loss, and blow down same as
before HEN. Based on the equation 2.1, the water loss is

The water loss from drift loss is usually 0.1-0.2% from the total inlet
cooling water. Assume 0.2% drift loss:

Based on equation 2.2, the water blow down is:

The total make up cooling water required can then be calculated (equation 2.3)

For cooling water type that we select is countercurrent-induced draft


construction. We choose this because it is the most common type in process
industries. Mechanical draft is capable of a greater degree of control than natural
draft and such towers are able in some cases to cool the water within 2F of the

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wet bulb temperature of the air.

The elevated fan location introduces some

structural and noise problems. The flow of air is quite uniform across the cross
section and its discharge is positive and at high velocity so that there is little
backflow of humid air into the tower.

Figure 2.3. Countercurrent-Induced Draft Cooling Tower


(Source: Walas, 2004)

The scheme for cooling tower will be show in the next figure. The
condenser is used for change the phase of steam that we used for utility.
Cooling Tower
Process

Pump

Condenser

Figure 2.4. Cold Utility Scheme


(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

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c. Process Water
The only process water that we require is only for hydrolysis process. It
uses 11,250 kg/batch of water.
d. Domestic Waste Requirement
Domestic water is used to accomplish water needs of staff and factory
worker. Domestic water includes water MCK (bathing, washing, and toilet),
drinking water, water for watering plants and other water needs. The water comes
from the ground, and can be obtained by making own wells and through water
treatment unit (if the water quality is not good).
Clean Water for Toilet

Assume:
-

30 people in the plant

Each people uses 33000 L/year (UNESCO, 2002)

Drinking Water

Assume:
-

30 people in the plant

Each people consumes 2 L/day (UNESCO, 2002)

Therefore, The total domestic water required is: 1,098,800 kg/year

e. Total Water Requirement


From the calculation above we can summed up the total use for in this
table below:
Table 2.6. Total Water Requirement Before HEN

No

Requirement

Amount (kg/batch)

Water for Boiler/Steam Generator


1

Amountb (kg/year)
755753.04

a. Boiler Water Requirementa

33,440.40

b. Make up Water for Boiler

3,344.04

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Table 2.6. Total Water Requirement Before HEN (contd)

No

Requirement

Amount (kg/batch)

Cooling Water
a. Cooling Water Requirementa

Amountb (kg/year)
1020603.855

122,712.98

b. Make up Water for Cooling Tower

4157

Process Water

11250

2430000

Domestic Water

1009800

167,403

5,220,000

Total
(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

Total water requirement after HEN can be seen from the table below
Table 2.7. Total Water Requirement After HEN

No

Requirement

Amount (kg/batch)

Water for Boiler/Steam Generator


1

2694.21

a. Boiler Water Requirementa

100.05

b. Make up Water for Boiler

12.01

Cooling Water
a. Cooling Water Requirementa

b. Make up Water for Cooling Tower


3

Process Water

Domestic Water
Total

Amountb (kg/year)

1249.11
335.43
4.23
11250

2430000

1009800

11,701.72

3,450,000

(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)


a

reused in the next batch, required at the first process only

water requirement per year for boiler and cooling is calculated by (total batch/year x make up

water) + first process requirement

The water feed for boiler, cooling tower, and process water also the makeup water is used from Kedung Ombo Lake. For domestic water we use from
PDAM. Because we need water from Kedung Ombo, we need to pretreat the water
for industrial using. This is the table shows the Kedung Ombo Lake Water quality:

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Table 2.8. Kedung Ombo Lake Water Quality

No

Analysis

Unit

Result

PHYSICAL
1

Odor

No Smell

Turbidity

NTU

5.16

Taste

Color

Temperature

No Taste
TCU
o

150
25

CHEMICAL
1

Chloride

mg/L

1.3

NO3N

mg/L

0.2

COD

mg/L

45

BOD

mg/L

30

SO4-

mg/L

16

PO4

mg/L

0.245

Hardness

mg/L

95

pH

mg/L

6.6

Fe2+

mg/L

10

10

Mn2+

mg/L

0.016

11

Zn2+

mg/L

0.0012

12

Ca2+

mg/L

63

13

Mg2+

mg/L

87

14

Free CO2

mg/L

132

15

Cu2+

mg/L

0.0032

(Source: Grobogan Area Description, 2012)

Because of this water quality we need to have simple water treatment


facilities to reduce the impurities. Reducing the impurities will also reduce the dirt
coefficient in heat exchanger and also increase the efficiency in the heat
exchanger.

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f. Water Treatment Unit


The water requirement for the plant is derived from the Kedung Ombo
Lake, located near the plant. To ensure a continuous supply of water, it was built
on the location of the water reservoir (water intake) which is also a pre-treatment
of river water. This processing includes filtering waste and impurities carried
along the water. Furthermore, water is pumped to the factory to be processed and
used as needed. Water treatment plant consists of several stages:

Feed Water

Screening

Sedimentation

Clarification

Demineralization

De-aeration

Pure Water

Filtration

Figure 2.5. Water Treatment Process


(Source: Degremont, 2011)

This is the description for each process:


1. Screening
Screening stage is the initial stage of water treatment. The purpose of
screening is to maintain the structure of the flow in the utility of the large objects
that may damage the unit of utility facilities and facilitate the separation and
remove solid particles carried in large river. At this stage, the particles will be
filtered without the added of chemicals. Whereas particles smaller would be
bound with water to the next processing unit.
2. Sedimentation
Sedimentation is an early stage of the water treatment plant. In the tank,
the solid particles are large diameter (about 10 microns - 10 mm) will settle due to
gravity without the aid of chemicals, while particles smaller would be bound with
water to the next processing unit.
3. Clarification
Clarification is the removal of turbidity in the water by mixing it with a
solution of Al2(SO4)3 and Na2CO3 (soda ash). Solution of Al2(SO4)3serves as a

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primary coagulant and coagulant solute Na2CO3as an addition that serves as an


adjuvant to advance precipitation and pH neutralization. In the clarifier basin,
there will be a process of coagulation and flocculation. This stage aims to get rid
of Suspended Solid (SS) and colloids.
4. Filtration
Filtration in water purification is a common operation in order to get rid
with Suspended Solid (SS), including particulate BOD in water (Metcalf, 1984).
Materials used in the medium can vary: sand, anthracite (crushed anthracite coal),
carbon active granular, powdered active carbon and garnet stones. The most
commonly used in Africa and Asia are sand and gravel as a primary filter,
consider another type is quite expensive (Kawamura, 1991)
5. Demineralization
This process is used to remove any ion and mineral to make the water free
of it.
6. De-aeration
De-aeration serves to heat the water that comes out of the ion exchanger
and condensate tool marks before it is sent as feed water. In this de-aerator, water
is heated to 100C so that the gases dissolved in the water such as O2 and CO2 can
be eliminated, because these gases can cause corrosion. The heating is done by
using a heating coil inside the de-aerator.

2.2.2. Electricity Requirement


In general, the electricity requirement in this plant can be divided as
process and utility unit and other requirement. The other requirement is the
electricity needed in manufacture and office area.
The total requirement needed in our plant can be seen in table below:
Table 2.9. Electricity Requirement

No

Requirement Unit

Total requirement/year (kWh)

Process and utility unit

78,1265.09

Other
TOTAL

8,066.50
86,191.59

(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

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a. Process and utility unit


The process utility electricity requirement is calculated based on the total
requirement per batch. Power requirement is calculated from equipment quantity,
time usage, and power.
The electricity process and utility unit calculation can be seen from the
table below
Table 2.10. Electricity Calculation

No

Equipment

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Belt Conveyor
Jaw Crusher
Hammer Mills
Screw Conveyor
Enzyme Pump
Water Pump
Broth Pump
Hydrolysis Agitator
Glucose Pump
Seed Fermenter-1
Seed 1 Pump
Fermenter Recycle Pump 1
Fermenter-1
Butyric Acid Pump
Seed Fermenter-2
Fermenter-2
Seed 2 Pump
Fermenter Recycle Pump 2
Butanol Pump
Compressor-1
Compressor-2
Butanol To Stripping Pump
Compressor-3
Compressor-4
Compressor-5
Decanter Reflux Pump
Pure Butanol Pump
TOTAL

Usage
Quantity
Time (h)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
31

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
8
1
3
14
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
52

Power
(kW)
27.05
0.85
65.30
14.96
0.01
6.97
1.03
14.55
1.20
0.04
1.00
10.52
3.13
0.81
0.04
1.79
0.93
11.21
12.00
30.60
2.42
13.85
0.98
29.54
42.16
1.19
7.53
301.65

Power
Required
(kWh)
27.05
0.85
65.30
14.96
0.01
6.97
1.03
29.10
1.20
0.24
1.00
10.52
25.00
0.81
0.24
25.00
0.93
11.21
12.00
30.60
2.42
13.85
0.98
29.54
42.16
1.19
7.53
361.69

(Source: Authors Personal Data, 2014)

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We assume there are 216 batches per year and we need 52 hour per batch.
So we can calculate total process and utility unit requirement per year by this
equation

b. Other Electricity Requirement


The other electricity requirement is for lightness of the plant area. The
total electricity needed for lighting production area, office, and other facilities is
calculated:
Manufacture Area

= 1000 m2

Average Lighting

= 322.917 lumen/m2
(Vilbrandt, 4th Ed., P. 327)

1 lumen

= 0.001496 Watts

Manufacture Lighting Power

= 483 Watts
= 4.83 kW

Office Area

= 75 m2

Average Lighting

= 807.293 lumen/m2
(Vilbrandt, 4th Ed., P. 327)

Total Lighting Requirement

= 60,546.98 lumen

Office Lighting Power

= 90.58 Watts
= 0.091 kW

Electronic Device Power

= 2 kW

Plant and Office Lighting Requirement

= 2.21 kW

We assume that there are 24 hours for manufacture area and 10 hours for office
per day. So we can calculate total other electricity requirement by this equation

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c. Cost of Electricity
Electricity from PLN for industries with price 1,112 IDR/ kWh. Needs of
electricity per day is: (only for others electricity requirement)

Manufacture area
Operational time/day

: 24 hour

Cost of electricity/year

: electricity x price = 42,310 x 1,112 IDR =


47 million IDR

Office area
Operational time/day

: 10 hour

Cost of electricity/year

: electricity x price = 8066,5 x 1,112 IDR =


9 millions IDR

Total cost
Total cost/year = 47 million+ 9 million = 56 millions IDR

2.2.3. Fuel Utility


Fuel consumption for process
Generator used is manufactured by Caterpillar XQ750 with 750 kW
capacity, specifications:
Table 2.11. Generator Specification

Generator Characteristics Specification


Minimum Rating

275 ekW/275 kVA

Maximum Rating

400 ekW/400 kVA

Voltage

220 to 480 volt

Frequency

50 or 60 Hz

RPM

1500 or 1800

Price

789.9 million IDR

Fuel consumption

38 liter/hour

(Source: Caterpillar Catalog, 2014)

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We have two generators, one is going to be used in production process, the other
one is for spare if the first generator is broken

Figure 2. 6. Caterpillar Generator XQ 750


(Source: Caterpillar Catalog, 2014)

The fuel used is diesel for industries with price 11.350 IDR/liter include
tax. Needs of diesel per batch production is:
Production time/batch : 38 hour
Fuel needed

: 38 liter/hour (750 kW) = 14.4756 liter/hour (361.9 kW)

Power needed/batch : fuel needed x production time = 550.088 liter


Cost of electricity

: Power needed/batch x diesel price = 6,243,498.8 IDR


= 6,3 millions IDR

Cost of electricity per year = 6,3 millions x 216 = 1,4 billions IDR

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CHAPTER III
CONCLUSIONS

In this assignment we get the following conclusions, there are:

Heat Exchanger Network Analysis is used for optimize the hot and cold for
utility

There are thee methods in HEN. The methods are composite curves, program
table cascade, and pinch design method.

The first and second methods resulting the energy utility efficiency for hot and
cold utility are about 87% and 65%.

After HEN analysis we decided to add two heat exchangers, one bolier, and
cooling tower to optimize the use of utility.

Utility for our plant is including water, fuel, and electricity.

The water utility is including the water for oiler feed, cooling tower, domestic
water, and make-up water

The electricity utility includes the electricity for process and for supporting
such as office and manufacturing area.

The electricity utility we need 86,191.59 kWh/year. This electricity is supplied


by generator and PLN.

The cost of electricity that generated by PLN is 58 millions IDR per year

The fuel electricity is calculated by the using of the diesel for generator which
is about 14.44756 liter/hour. The cost for fuel per batch is about 6 million
rupiahs with toal per year 1.4 billion IDR.

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REFERENCES

Branan, Carl. 2002. Rules of Thumb For Chemical Engineers. Houston : ElSevier.
Brownell, Lloyd E and Edwin H. Young. 1959. Process Equipment Design. John
Wiley & Sons, inc.
Cheremisinoff , Nicholas P. 2000. Handbook of Chemical Processing Equipment.
Butterworth-Heinemann.
Coulson & Richardson. 1983. Chemical Engineering Design. Oxford : El-Sevier.
Chemical And Process Design Handbook. New York : McGraw-Hill.
Ludwig, E. E. 1997. Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical
Plants, Gulf Professional Publishing.
Perry, Robert H. 1999. Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.
Seider, W. D., Seader, J. D. & Lewin, D. R. 2003. Product and Process Design
Principles, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Sinnott, R. K. 2005. Chemical Engineering Design 4th edition. Elsevier.
Wallas, Stanley M. 1988. Chemical Process Equipment Selection and Design.
Butterworth-Heinemann.

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