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Agenda

9:10 to 10:45: Introductory session: Overview of hydrogen, key drivers and barriers
10:45 to 11:00: Coffee break
11:00 to 12:30: Session 1 - Overview of regional approaches to supporting deployment
12:30 to 13:45: Lunch
13:45 to 16:00: Session 2: Specific hydrogen applications and case studies

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Overview of hydrogen light


duty vehicles progress to
date
Nick Asselin-Miller

16th September 2016

Ricardo plc 2015

Recap on key drivers for adopting hydrogen vehicles


Various benefits of adopting hydrogen vehicles
Decarbonisation of transport and energy security:
Hydrogen can be produced from a number of routes
Low carbon routes such as electrolysis can lead to substantial
carbon savings
Reduced local emissions:
Zero local emissions

Only local emission is water vapour


Improved efficiency
Fuel cells operate at higher efficiency than traditional
combustion engines
Can lead to significant overall energy consumption benefits
Energy system benefits
Hydrogen production can contribute towards a successful
smart grid
Energy storage through can have wide ranging benefits
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Three main types of hydrogen vehicles

Fuel cell electric

Fuel cell range-extended

Fully electric drivetrain

Fully electric drivetrain

Powered exclusively by a
high-efficiency hydrogen
fuel cell

Powered by combination
of battery and fuel cell

Size of fuel cell


determined by vehicle
size and likely duty cycle
Hydrogen fuel stored as
high pressure gas

Size of fuel cell smaller


than on FCEVs
Hydrogen fuel stored as
high pressure gas
Additional energy
required from charging
on-board batteries

Hydrogen combustion
Traditional mechanical
drivetrain
Hydrogen combusted in
internal combustion
engine
Usually in combination
with small quantities of
diesel can be dual fuel
Hydrogen fuel stored as
high pressure gas

Source: Toyota, Aberdeen City Council, ULEMCo


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On-board hydrogen storage, refuelling and use

High-pressure composite cylinders

Preferred storage mechanisms is in high-pressure


composite cylinders:
350 bar for shorter range or RE-EV applications
700 bar for longer range production cars c. 5kg of onboard hydrogen can give > 300 miles of range
Hydrogen refuelling and consumption

Refuelling occurs at a hydrogen refuelling station


(HRS):
Simple, safe, lockable nozzle connects to FCEV
C. 5 minutes to fill 5kg @ 700 bar pressure

Vehicle then consumes c. 0.02kg per mile or


0.01kg per km (rounded figures)1
1: Assumes c. 300 mile range for 5kg, as per the Toyota Mirai quoted EPA-rated consumption
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FCEVs are well suited to larger light duty vehicles in longer-range


applications

Source: McKinsey & Co


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Battery electric vs. fuel cell electric vehicles complementary


technologies for ultra-low emission transport
Battery electric vehicle BEV

Fuel cell electric vehicle FCEV

Zero local emissions

Zero local emissions

Full electric drivetrain, with associated


performance benefits

Full electric drivetrain, with associated


performance benefits

Energy recovery from braking

Energy recovery from braking

Widely available recharging infrastructure

Rapid refuelling times, similar to


conventional vehicles

Currently optimised for lighter-weight,


lower-medium range vehicles
Significantly lower range capability than
conventional vehicles
Long recharging times
Potential for range anxiety and reduced
performance at low charge levels
Carbon content of energy supplied can
vary significantly depending on source of
electricity

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Long-range capability, similar to


conventional vehicles with no
performance issues at low fuel levels
Currently optimised for larger, mediumhigh range vehicles
Poor current availability of recharging
infrastructure
High purity requirements and cost of H2
Carbon content of H2 can vary
significantly depending on production
pathway
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A number of OEMs and SMEs are actively working towards


commercialising hydrogen light duty vehicles
Progress towards deployment of FCEVs globally
Early fuel cell vehicle
deployment projects

2000

Honda Clarity first


production FCEV

Revolve dual-fuel
hydrogen van

2005

2010

Hyundai ix35 first


series FCEV

Toyota Mirai launch in


major markets

2015

2020

Honda and Daimler


announce FCEVs

Next gen. FCEVs in


larger volumes

2025

Conventional vehicle
cost-parity reached

Source: Various OEMs, McKinsey & Co


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Significant growth in adoption of FCEVs is expected, led by the


Asia-Pacific region

Source: 4th Energy Wave 2015


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Some key challenges remain to be overcome in order to


successfully commercialise hydrogen passenger cars
Refuelling infrastructure availability

Vehicle costs

Chicken and egg situation high cost of


infrastructure with limited returns

High up-front cost due to low volumes


and expensive fuel cell components

Complex hydrogen distribution logistics

Cost-parity expected to be achieved in


mid-2020s

Costs of hydrogen

Greeness of hydrogen used

Amortising cost of infrastructure costly

Clear local air quality benefits

For traditional means, there is a trade-off


between carbon content and cost

Large variation in carbon content


depending on production pathway

Source: Air Products, McKinsey & Co


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Coordinated action is required to overcome the various barriers


Partnerships are the key to success in supporting FCEV deployment

Various public-private-partnerships to support FCEV rollout:


Promote use of FCEVs with Governments and the public
Coordinated infrastructure planning to support rollout
Coordinated investment to overcome chicken and egg situation
Support from national and regional funding agencies:
R&D activities to support cost reductions and tech. development
Funding for early deployment to support commercialisation
Multiple partnerships established between OEMs, or between OEMs
and fuel cell manufacturers:
Reduces overall risk associated with developing fuel cell systems
Leads to lower overall costs through volume production
Partnership between transport & energy sectors for H2 production:
Co-benefits of energy storage as part of the smart grid

Power-to-gas can contribute to heat sector decarbonisation


Overall impact is to reduce cost and increase greenness of H2
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Nick Asselin-Miller
30 Eastbourne Terrace
London
W2 6LA
nick.asselin-miller@ricardo.com