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Improvement of Oil Palm Wood Properties

Using Bioresin

Erwinsyah

Dissertation
Institut fr Forstnutzung und Forsttechnik
Fakultt fr Forst-, Geo- und Hydrowissenschaften
Technische Universitt Dresden

Improvement of Oil Palm Wood Properties


Using Bioresin

Dissertation
zur Erlangung des Akademischen Grades
doctor rerum silvaticarum (Dr. rer. silv.)
vorgelegt der
Fakultt fr Forst-, Geo- und Hydrowissenschaften
der Technische Universitt Dresden

von Erwinsyah, S.Hut. M.Sc. forest. trop.


geboren am 17.07.1973 in Bogor, Indonesia

Gutachter
Prof. Dr. Dr. habil. Claus-Thomas Bues, TU Dresden
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andr Wagenfhr, TU Dresden
Prof. Dr. Michael Khl, Universitt Hamburg

Dresden, 27 May 2008

Dresden, May 27, 2008

I dedicated this dissertation to


Hj. Novi Zurnailis Erwinsyah and Muhammad Fayyadh Altamis Erwinsyah
whose prayers, support and love
blessed my heart and sustained me in the years of life

Erwinsyah

Preface
Oil palm wood is one of the oil palm solid wastes which available in large amount throughout
the year and currently this material has not been fully utilized yet, due to great variations in
physical and mechanical properties which caused many difculties of working and using the
wood for application. It might also be due to the insufcient the scientic information and the
know-how of this biomaterial. This study was carried out to provide sufcient information and
to improve the wood properties of oil palm using bioresin.
The dissertation consists of ve chapters. The rst chapter describes very short-history of oil
palm from its origin-land to the expansion of this crop in the Southeast Asia, and discusses
about the scientic background in combination to the problem of the oil palm wood utilization
to address the objectives and hypothesis of this study.
The second chapter contains the reviewed of the related literatures, which is divided into parts,
i.e. general reviews and related research reviews. In general reviews, the several subjects were
discussed and explained systematically starting from the forest and wood trends in Indonesia
followed by development of oil palm industry as an impact of ban log export that is introduced in 1985. Further, the author reviewed more detail about the oil palm, including botanical
description, distribution and utilization of this popular crop as well as reviewed the bioresin
availability, uses and production and trading. The related researches were reviewed including
the oil palm wood conditions, its characters (anatomical characteristics, physical and mechanical properties, and chemical composition). The characteristic of bioresin was also discussed in
this chapter.
Third chapter consists of description and explanation about the materials used in this study and
the methodology to run all experiments both in the eld and laboratory. The processing of oil
palm trunk and manufacturing specimens was explained in this chapter. The methodology part
contains the research frame which guiding the whole experimental-chain activities, explanation
the methods used starting from the characteristics of wood (the anatomical investigation, wood
zoning determination and bioresin reinforcement techniques) to the testing of physical, mechanical and machinery properties. Experimental data analysis and scope, location and limitation
of the research were discussed in this chapter.
Fourth chapter contains all the results and discussions which are divided into ve sections, i.e.:
Section 4.1 discusses the anatomical characteristics of oil palm wood, including macroscopic and microscopic.
Section 4.2 is concerned with the wood zoning determination, due to very heterogeneity in
characteristics and properties of oil palm wood along the trunk height and depth. Hence,
it is necessary to improve its homogeneity by dening the population and distribution of
vascular bundles over the transverse section of the trunk.
Section 4.3 discusses in detail the properties of oil palm wood which is divided into three
parts, i.e. (1) Physical properties (moisture content, density and volumetric shrinkage);
(2) Mechanical properties (static bending strength (modulus of elasticity and modulus of
rupture), shear strength parallel to grain, hardness strength, compression strength parallel
to grain, tension strength parallel and perpendicular to grain, cleavage strength and nail
withdrawal resistance; and (3) Machinery properties (cross cutting, planning, shaving and
moulding, and boring).

Preface
Section 4.4 and 4.5 discuss and evaluate the bioresin reinforcement techniques and proving the proposed hypothesis and research outlook, respectively.
The last chapter concludes the all research results and ndings in this study and also describes
several recommendations concerning to the use of oil palm wood and the recommended future
research works.

Dresden, May 27, 2008


Erwinsyah

viii

Acknowledgement
I wish to praise and thank to the Lord Almighty Allah for the divine protection and direction to
pursue this enviable program.
I also wish to express my sincere gratitude, deepest appreciation to my major advisor, Prof. Dr.
Dr. habil. Claus-Thomas Bues, Chair of Forest Utilization, Institute of Forest Utilization and
Forest Techniques, Dresden University of Technology, for his words of encouragement, patience, suggestion, expertise and research facilities during my research periods both in Dresden,
Deutschland and in Medan, Indonesia.
My sincere thanks also goes to my second advisor, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andr Wagenfhr Professorship of Wood and Fibre Materials Technology, Dresden University of Technology, for his
constructive criticisms, support and suggestion. I am grateful to Prof. Dr. Michael Khl from
University of Hamburg, for accepting to be my third advisor.
I wish to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to Prof. Dr. Andreas Roloff, Chair of
Forest Botany, Institute of Forest Botany and Forest Zoology, Dresden University of Technology, for accepting to be the examiner in the rigorosum with the subject of forest botany and as
the chairman during the seminar defense.
I am very grateful to Dr. Ir. Witjaksana Darmosarkoro, MS., the Director of Indonesian Oil
Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) and the entire staffs for the recommendation, guidance and
scholarship support and research facilities to pursue this doctoral program.
I wish to express my special grateful to my dear wife Hj. Novi Zurnailis Erwinsyah and my
son Muhammad Fayyadh Altamis Erwinsyah for the spiritual, moral, encouragement and their
deepest love that they gave me to pursue this nobel program.
I would like to express my greetings to my parents Suparman and Hodijah, H. Suwarno and Hj.
Zuhairiah, and my sister Irmawati and my brothers Eriek Permana, Eris Gustiar, Arief Haryono
and Zulkar Adli for their prayers and encouragement during my study in Deutschland.
I am further grateful to DFI Ernst Bucker and Liane Stirl for helping in the light microscopy
and the scanning electron microscopy analysis, and also to Ediansjah Zulkii for the LaTeX and
Fortran assistances during preparation of this document.
Last but not least, I would like to express my greetings to Ing. (FH) Harald Kirchner, Dipl.Forstw. Bjrn Gnther, Dr. Jrgen Knig, Daniela Hernig, and Antje Hage for a good cooperation and help during the period of this doctoral program.

Dresden, May 27, 2008


Erwinsyah

Table of Contents

Preface

vii

Acknowledgement

ix

Table of Contents

xi

Symbol Glossaries

xvii

Abbreviation

xix

Abstract

xxi

Introduction

1.1

Scientic Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

Problem Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3

Research Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4

Research Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Review of Related Literatures

2.1

General Reviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.1

Forest and Wood Trends in Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.2

Government Policy Regarding Oil Palm Industry in Indonesia . . . . . . . .

10

2.1.3 Development of Oil Palm In Indonesia


2.1.3.1 Botanical Description of Oil Palm .
2.1.3.2 Distribution of Oil Palm . . . . . .
2.1.3.3 Oil Palm Industry and Its Products
2.1.3.4 Oil Palm Wastes and Its Utilization

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2.1.4 Bioresin and Its Availability .


2.1.4.1 Resin, Rosin and Bioresin .
2.1.4.2 Rosin and Its Uses . . . . .
2.1.4.3 Rosin Production and Trade

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2.2

Related Research Reviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.2.1

Oil Palm Wood Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

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xi

Table of Contents

2.2.2 Oil Palm Wood Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

2.2.3 Characteristics of Rosin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

Material and Methodology

29

3.1

Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

3.1.1 Oil Palm Trunk Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

3.1.2 Wood Specimen Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

3.2

Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

3.2.1 Characterization of Oil Palm Wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.2.1.1 Anatomical Investigation of Oil Palm Wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1.2 Wood Zoning Determination of Oil Palm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3.2.2 Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques of Oil Palm Wood . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.2.2.1 Heat Technique of Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2.2 Chemical Technique of Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3.2.3 Oil Palm Wood Properties Investigation


3.2.3.1 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3.2 Mechanical Properties . . . . . . . .
3.2.3.3 Machinery Properties . . . . . . . .

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3.2.4 Experimental Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

3.2.5 Scope, Location and Limitation of Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

Results and Discussion

53

4.1

Characteristics Oil Palm Wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

4.1.1 Macroscopic Oil Palm Wood Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

4.1.2 Microscopic Oil Palm Wood Structure


4.1.2.1 Vascular Bundle Structure . . . . .
4.1.2.2 Fibre Structure . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2.3 Vessel Structure . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2.4 Parenchyma Cell Structure . . . . .

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4.2

Oil Palm Wood Zoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

4.3

Properties of Oil Palm Wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4.3.1 Physical Properties of Oil Palm Wood . . .


4.3.1.1 Moisture Content of Oil Palm Wood . . .
4.3.1.2 Density of Oil Palm Wood . . . . . . . .
4.3.1.3 Volumetric Shrinkage of Oil Palm Wood

xii

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4.3.2 Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


4.3.2.1 Static Bending Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.1.1 The effect of wood zoning and trunk height on the static bending strength
(modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of oil palm
wood (untreated specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Table of Contents
4.3.2.1.2 The effect of wood zoning, trunk height and impregnation time on the static
bending strength (modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture
(MOR)) of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.1.3 The effect of wood zoning, trunk height, impregnation time and acetone
concentration on the static bending strength (modulus of elasticity (MOE)
and modulus of rupture (MOR) of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone
4.3.2.2 Shear Strength Parallel to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.2.1 The effect of wood zoning and trunk height on the shear strength parallel
to grain of oil palm wood (untreated specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.2.2 The effect of wood zoning, trunk height and impregnation time on the shear
strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin . . .
4.3.2.2.3 The effect of wood zoning, trunk height, impregnation time and acetone
concentration on the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.3 Hardness Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.3.1 The effect of wood zoning and trunk height on the hardness strength of oil
palm wood (untreated specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.3.2 The effect of wood zoning, trunk height and impregnation time on the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.3.3 The effect of wood zoning, trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin
concentration on the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated with
acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.4 Compression Strength Parallel to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.4.1 The effect of trunk height on the compression strength parallel to grain of
oil palm wood at peripheral zone (untreated specimen) . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.4.2 The effect of trunk height and impregnation time on the compression strength
parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with
bioresin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.4.3 The effect of trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration on
the compression strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral
zone impregnated with acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.5 Tension Strength Parallel to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.5.1 The effect of trunk height on the tension strength parallel to grain of oil
palm wood at peripheral zone (untreated specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.5.2 The effect of trunk height and impregnation time on the tension strength
parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with
bioresin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.5.3 The effect of trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration on
the tension strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone
impregnated with acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.6 Tension Strength Perpendicular to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.6.1 The effect of trunk height on the tension strength perpendicular to grain of
oil palm wood at peripheral zone (untreated specimen) . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.6.2 The effect of trunk height and impregnation time on the tension strength
perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated
with bioresin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Table of Contents
4.3.2.6.3 The effect of trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration on
the tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral
zone impregnated with acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.7 Cleavage Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.7.1 The effect of trunk height on the cleavage strength of oil palm wood at
peripheral zone (untreated specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.7.2 The effect of trunk height and impregnation time on the cleavage strength
of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with bioresin . . . . . . .
4.3.2.7.3 The effect of trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration
on the cleavage strength of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated
with acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.8 Nail Withdrawal Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.8.1 The effect of trunk height on the nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm
wood at peripheral zone (untreated specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.8.2 The effect of trunk height and impregnation time on the nail withdrawal
resistance of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with bioresin .
4.3.2.8.3 The effect of trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration
on the nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3 Machinery Properties of Oil Palm Wood
4.3.3.1 Cross Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3.2 Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3.3 Shaving and Moulding . . . . . . . .
4.3.3.4 Boring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4.4

Evaluation of Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

4.5

Proving Hypothesis and Research Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

4.5.1 Proving Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165


4.5.2 Research Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
5

Conclusions and Recommendations


5.1

167

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

5.1.1 Anatomical Characteristics of Oil Palm Wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167


5.1.2 Wood Zoning Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
5.1.3 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
5.1.4 Mechanical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
5.1.5 Machinery Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
5.1.6 Bioresin Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
5.2

Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

5.2.1 Recommendations for improving the oil palm wood processing and utilization 171
5.2.2 Recommendations for developing the bioresin reinforcement of oil palm wood 171
6
xiv

Bibliography

173

Table of Contents

List of Figures

181

List of Tables

187

Appendixes

201

A Chronology of Indonesian forest policy period 1945-1992

202

203

Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

C Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

224

D Data of Physical Properties

244

D.1

Moisture Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

D.2

Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

D.3

Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

Statistical Analysis of Physical Properties

258

E.1

Statistical Analysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

E.2

Regression Analysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

Data of Mechanical Properties

261

F.1

Static Bending Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

F.2

Shear Strength Parallel to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

F.3

Hardness Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

F.4

Compression Strength Parallel to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

F.5

Tension Strength Parallel to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

F.6

Tension Strength Perpendicular to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

F.7

Cleavage Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294

F.8

Nail Withdrawal Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

G Statistical Analysis of Mechanical Properties

300

G.1

Static Bending Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

G.2

Shear Strength  to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

G.3

Hardness Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

G.4

Compression Strength  to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

G.5

Tension Strength  to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

G.6

Tension Strength to Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

G.7

Cleavage Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403

G.8

Nail Withdrawal Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409


xv

Table of Contents

Declaration

xvi

415

Symbol Glossaries
General Symbolize

density in g/cm3

Bs

bending strength

proportion of void volume

ro

oven dry density in g/cm3

rw

density of cell-wall material in g/cm3

Sv

volumetric shrinkage in %

Vgreen

volume of specimen in green condition in cm3

Vovendry specimen volume after drying in cm3


Wovendry specimen weight after drying in g

Oil Palm Symbolize


D

dura variety of oil palm

Dy

dura dumpy variety of oil palm

DxP

variety of oil palm from dura (mother-tree) x pisifera (father-tree)

pisifera variety of oil palm

xvii

Symbol Glossaries

Wood Zoning Determination Symbolize


m

distance of sampling set/series

Af b

area of oil palm trunk without bark at transverse section

Db

trunk diameter with bark

nsi

number of sampling of tree-i

nsr

number of sampling for each series along the radius of the trunk

Rm

sampling series along the average radius of wood disk sample

rf b

trunk radius without bark at transverse section

Smn

number of vascular bundle at sampling series m and sampling position n

Bioresin Reinforcement Symbolize


Ebr

bioresin reinforcement value

fbr

factor value of bioresin reinforcement

Iv

improvement value in %

Iv

improvement value of wood density after treatment in %

Ivm

improvement value of mechanical properties of wood after treatment in %

xviii

Abbreviation
ANOVA Analysis of Variance
ASTM

American Standard Testing Method

CPO

Crude Palm Oil

CZ

Central Zone

DBH

Diameter at Breast Height

DIN

Deutsches Institut fr Normung

EFB

Empty Fruit Bunch

EVA

Equal Variances Assumed

EVNA

Equal Variances Not Assumed

FFB

Fresh Fruit Bunch

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GoI

Government of Indonesia

HPLC

High Performance Liquid Chromatography

IZ

Inner Zone

LM

Light Microscopy

MC

Moisture Content

MDF

Medium Density Fiberboard

MOE

Modulus of Elasticity

MoF

Ministry of Forestry

MOR

Modulus of Rupture

OPF

Oil Palm Fronds

OPM

Oil Palm Mill

OPSW

Oil Palm Solid Waste

OPT

Oil Palm Trunk

OPW

Oil Palm Wood

PF

Phenol Formaldehyde

PFF

Pressed Fruit Fibres

PKO

Palm Kernel Oil

Abbreviation
POPF

Pruning Oil Palm Frond

PZ

Peripheral Zone

SEM

Scanning Electron Microscopy

TUD

Technische Universitt Dresden

UW

Untreated Wood

VB

Vascular Bundle

WB

Treated Wood with Bioresin

WBA

Treated Wood with Bioresin using Chemical (acetone) Technique

WBA

Treated Wood with Bioresin using Heat Technique

WG

Window-Glass

WPG

Weight Percent Gain

WW

Water-White

xx

Abstract
Improvement of Oil Palm Wood Properties Using Bioresin

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) becomes the most popular crop, especially in Southeast Asia,
than its origin, West Africa. World demand of two main products from this crop (e.g. crude palm
oil and palm kernel oil) increases very rapidly, due to very wide ranges use of these vegetable
oils for industrial purposes, such as fried oil, oleo-chemical and -food, cosmetics, detergent,
biofuel and etc. Indonesia and Malaysia are the main producers and supplying more than 85%
of world consumption. On the other hand, due to the economic life span of this popular crop (25
years), the producer countries have been facing a serious environmental problems concerning to
the solid biowaste handling of oil palm industry, particularly the oil palm trunk after replanting
activity. Starting 2010, it is predicted that more than 20 millions cubic meter biomass from oil
palm trunk available annually.
The common handling-method during replanting process of oil palm plantation was the pushfelled and burn to reduce the mass and volume. This method creates very signicant air pollution, therefore, the above mentioned producers immediately banned the burning method through
introducing the zero burning program. Further, the push-felled followed by burning activity has
been modied into several ways such as the push-felled and windrow; the push-felled, chip
and windrow and the under-planting method. Most of the oil palm companies currently apply
these methods. It looks quite effective method, but it was also reported that the attacks by pests
and diseases increase very rapidly to the young and mature plants around the replanting area.
The chipped palms became nests of rats and beetles and also as media for Ganoderma disease.
Therefore, converting the oil palm trunk into valuable products, such as lightweight-board,
furniture, wood-pellet, biofuel and energy become a good potential possibility to improve the
utilization of this biomaterial.
In this dissertation, the investigation was conducted to develop the utilization of oil palm wood
through the wood properties improvement, including physical, mechanical and machinery properties. Due to the heterogeneity of physical and mechanical properties of oil palm wood along
the trunk height and depth, therefore, this study was also investigated the anatomical characteristics and dening wood zoning.
Ten oil palm trees were selected randomly from the species Elaeis guineensis Jacq, variety of
Dura x Pisifera at 27 years old plantation in Indonesia. Eight of them were used for the physical, mechanical and machinery properties investigation and the remains trees for anatomical
characteristics and wood zoning determination.
The anatomical characteristics were conducted through the light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The specimen for wood zoning determination over the transverse section was
cut in the form of wood disk, which is taken from 12 different trunk heights. It was determined
on the basic of distribution and population of vascular bundles. The vascular bundles were
counted manually and the recorded data was analyzed through the mathematical and statistical
analysis.
Bioresin which is derived from pine Pinus Merkusii was used to reinforce the oil palm wood.
The experiments were designed to compare the wood properties between the untreated wood

Abstract
and the treated woods. The treated wood using heat technique was carried out under temperature
process 180 C and the impregnation time 150 and 300 seconds. Whilst, the treated wood using
chemical technique was conducted under room temperature with the impregnation time 24 and
48 hours and bioresin concentration in acetone 10 and 20%.
The wood specimens were cut from various trunk height (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 meter) and trunk depth
(inner, central and peripheral) with till 5 replications. Number of wood specimen for physical
properties (moisture, density and volumetric shrinkage) was 417 specimens. For mechanical
testing (static bending (MOE and MOR), shear parallel to grain, hardness, compression parallel
to grain, tension parallel and perpendicular to grain, cleavage and nail withdrawal resistance)
was 1554 specimens, and 78 specimens for machinery properties (cross cutting, planning, shaving and moulding, and boring).
All the testing and specimen size and shape were done referring to the ASTM and DIN Standards. The experiments were designed to compare the above mentioned wood properties of the
untreated and the treated wood.
According to the visual observation, the trunk shape of oil palm is normally circular and two
parts might be distinguished, such as the main part of the trunk and the cortex and bark. At
transverse section, the main part of the trunk was commonly darker colour in peripheral than
that the inner part and no pith was observed. In green condition, the wood colour was yellowish
but brownish in dry condition. The wood structure of oil palm was arranged in different structure in comparison with the common wood, where bre and vessel components arrange in the
form of vascular bundles system which was surrounded by parenchymatous ground tissue. One
or two large vessels were distinguished in peripheral zone and two or three vessels in central and
inner zone. The number of this component toward the central point of the trunk was decreased
signicantly, therefore, refer to this nding, it is necessary to use the oil palm wood separately
based on the trunk depth. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the bre structure in vascular bundle system was arranged similarly to the common wood, which attached each others in
very compact formation. The bre composes lumen, cell walls and pits. The bre-wall layers
at transverse sectional view were distinguishable as primary and secondary layers. Intercellular layer, like mortar brick between walls which is namely middle lamella was also observed.
Parenchyma cells were mostly in the form of spherical cell with the thin-walled and brick-like
in formation, but in narrow space or area between one vascular bundle to the others, these cells
was commonly as elongated cell and oval-cell shapes.
According to the wood zoning determination, the distribution of vascular bundles was increased
from central point of the trunk toward the bark. Three different wood zoning were dened, i.e.
inner zone (IZ), central zone (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ). The average population of vascular
bundles at inner, central and peripheral zone were approx. 26; 46 and 97 vb/cm2 , respectively.
Furthermore, by dening the position of the above mentioned wood zoning at transverse section
based on their vascular bundle population, the position of inner, central and peripheral zone
was at radius of approx. 39 mm; 131 mm and 166 mm from the central point of the trunk,
respectively.
The physical investigation results of oil palm wood showed that the moisture content in green
condition can be reached more than 500% with the average value of about 304%. The moisture content was gradually increased from the bottom to the top of the trunk and it decreased
from central point toward the outer part of the trunk. The volumetric shrinkage was gradually
increased from the bottom to the top of the trunk and it varies between 10.3% and 22.8%.
xxii

Abstract
The wood density at inner and central zone were about 0.18 g/cm3 , ranging from 0.16 to 0.19,
and 0.20 g/cm3 , ranging from 0.17 to 0.23, respectively. Whilst, the density at peripheral zone
was higher compared to the others zone. It was about 0.40 g/cm3 , ranging from 0.37 to 0.43.
The density value was gradually increased from inner to peripheral zone, but it was slightly
decreased from the bottom to the top of the trunk. The inuence of wood zoning factor to the
wood density of oil palm was higher than the trunk height factor, hence, it is necessary to use
this material separately based on their wood zoning. Generally, it is also necessary to use the
oil palm trunk separately between up to 5 m and more than 5 m height
The mechanical properties of the untreated wood from three different zones showed signicantly different values, which correlated with changing of wood density over the transverse
section. The oil palm wood which is treated with bioresin using heat technique was resulted
a higher mechanical strength in comparison to the untreated wood and the treated wood using
chemical technique. For example, the bending strength at inner zone of the treated wood was
20% higher compared to the untreated wood.
In addition, the visual investigation also performed that the treated wood has a better wood
surface and more compact. Based on the machining tests, several surface-defects have been
observed on the oil palm wood, such as chipped grain, fuzzy grain and burl. Generally, the
machining quality of the untreated wood of oil palm was increased from poor or fair quality to
good or very good quality after treating with bioresin using heat technique.
The bioresin reinforcement experiments resulted that the proper technique of bioresin reinforcement was using heat than chemical (acetone). The optimum condition of process was achieved
at impregnation time for 150 seconds under temperature process of 180 C. The wood density
after treating with bioresin both heat and chemical techniques was generally increased more
than 70%, but the mechanical properties of treated wood was increase very signicant when
using the heat technique in comparison with the untreated wood.
Keywords: oil palm wood, anatomical characteristics, physical and mechanical properties, impregnation using
bioresin.

xxiii

Kurzfassung
Verbesserung der Eigenschaften des lpalmenholzes
durch Einsatz von Naturharz

Einleitung und Zielsetzung


Die aus Westafrika stammende lpalme (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) ist zur populrsten Kulturpanze in Sdostasien geworden. Als Haupterzeugnisse dieser Panze gelten die le der Frchte
und der Fruchtkerne. Die weltweite Nachfrage nach diesen beiden Haupterzeugnissen nimmt
sehr rasch zu. Ursache hierfr ist die breite Anwendungspalette dieser Panzenle, wie z.B.
Bratl, lbasierte Chemikalien und lbasierte Nahrungsmittel, Kosmetika, Waschmittel, Biobrennstoff usw. Indonesien und Malaysia sind die Hauptproduzenten und Hauptlieferanten
solcher Produkte und decken ber 85% des weltweiten Bedarfs. Mit Extensivierung der lpalmplantagen sehen sich die Erzeugerlnder zunehmend mit ernstzunehmenden Umweltprobleme konfrontiert, da nach Erreichen der wirtschaftlichen Lebenspanne (Umtriebszeit) von 25
Jahren groe Mengen an festen, biologischen Abfallstoffe bei der Neubegrndung der Bestnde
anfallen. So sollen z.B. im Jahre 2010 laut Vorhersagen mehr als 20 Mill. Kubikmeter lpalmenHolz jhrlich anfallen.
Bisher wurde bei der Neupanzungen von lpalmenplantagen alle alten Palmen mit Baggern umgedrckt und verbrannt (push-felled and burn). Da dieses Verfahren zu erheblichen
Luftverschmutzungen fhrt, wurde das Verbrennung verboten (zero burning). Heutzutage wird
eine mehrfach modizierte Methode angewandt, bei der die umgezogenen Palmenstmme auf
Wllen zusammengeschoben werden (push-felled and windrow). Die Zieh-Fllung mit anschlieender Hackschnitzelherstellung und das Ablegen derselben in Wllen (push-felled, chip
and windrow) sowie das Unterbau-Panzverfahren (under-planting) sind weitere Methoden
der Bestandesneubegrndung. Zunchst schienen diese Verfahren sehr effektiv zu sein. Immer huger wurde aber Probleme durch einen Befall mit Schaderregern und Pilz-Krankheiten
an jungen und alten lpalmen im Bereich der Nachpanzche berichtet, die schnell zunahmen. In den Hackschitzelhaufen aus lpalmholz bauten Ratten ihre Nester, Kfer siedelten sich in den Stmmen an. Das verrottende Holz war auch ein guter Nhrboden fr die
Ganoderma-Krankheit. Deshalb wird aktuell darber nachgedacht, das Holz der lpalmenstmme zu speziellen Produkten zu verarbeiten, wie z.B. leichte Bauplatten, Mbelholz oder
Pellets, um die groen Holzmengen so einer sinnvollen Nutzung zuzufhren.
Die in der vorliegenden Dissertation beschriebenen Untersuchen der Nutzungsmglichkeiten
des lpalmholzes gelten der Verbesserung der Holzeigenschaften, insbesondere der Verbesserung der physikalischen und mechanischen Eigenschaften sowie des Verhaltens in Bezug auf die
maschinelle Be- und Verarbeitung des lpalmholzes.
Material und Methoden
Zehn lpalmen der Spezies Elaeis guineensis Jacq, Variett Dura x Pisifera, wurden nach dem
Zufallsprinzip auf einer 27jhrigen Plantage auf der Insel Sumatra ausgewhlt. Acht dieser
Bume wurden zur Bestimmung der physikalischen, elastomechanischen und maschinellen

Kurzfassung
Bearbeitungs-Eigenschaften herangezogen. Die restlichen beiden Exemplare dienten der Bestimmung holzanatomischer Merkmale. Wegen der ausgeprgten Inhomogenitt des lpalmholzes ber dem Stammquerschnitt und in Stammlngsrichtung konzentrierten sich die anatomischen Untersuchungen auf die Bestimmung wichtiger, ausgewhlter anatomischen Holzeigenschaften einschlielich der Festlegung von 3 unterschiedlichen, anatomisch denierten Zonen
ber dem Stammquerschnitt.
Zur Holzzonen-Bestimmung ber der Querschnittsche wurden Stammscheiben aus 12 verschiedenen Stammhhen geschnitten. Die Holzzonen-Bestimmung des lpalmenstammes erfolgte auf der Basis der Verteilung und Hugkeit der Vaskularleitbndel. Die Vaskularbndel
wurden manuell gezhlt und durch mathematische und statistische Analysen 3 Grenzbereiche
bestimmt. Ausgewhlte anatomische Holzeigenschaften wurden anhand von Lichtmikroskopie
und Elektronenrastermikroskopie charakterisiert.
Von der in Indonesien beheimateten Kieferart Pinus merkusii gewonnenes Harz wurde zur Stabilisierung des lpalmenholzes genutzt. Die Imprgnierung wurde einerseits durch Erhitzen
des Harzes auf eine Temperatur von 180 C und Eintauchen des Holzes ber eine Zeitspanne
von 150 und 300 Sekunden durchgefhrt; andererseits erfolgte das Einbringen des Harzes durch
Lsung in Aceton (10 - 20%ige Lsung) und Trnkung des Holzes bei Raumtemperatur und
einer Imprgnierzeit von 24 und 48 Stunden.
Die Probennahme fr die physikalisch/elastomechanischen Untersuchungen erfolgten in unterschiedlichen Stammhhen (1, 3, 5, 7 und 9 Meter) sowie Stammtiefen (innere, mittlere und
periphere Lage ber den Stammquerschnitt), bei bis zu 5 Wiederholungen. Zur Beurteilung der
physikalischen Eigenschaften (Feuchtigkeit, Rohdichte und Quell-/Schwingverhalten) dienten
417 Probekrper. Fr die elastomechanischen Prfungen (Druckfestigkeit parallel zur Faser,
Biegefestigkeit und Biege-Elastizittsmodul, Zugfestigkeit parallel und rechtwinklig zur Faser,
Scherfestigkeit, Spaltfestigkeit, Hrte und Nagelauszugwiderstand) kamen 1554 Proben zur Anwendung. Das Verhalten des Holzes bei der Bearbeitung (Querschneiden, Hobeln, Frsen und
Bohren) wurde anhand von 78 Probekrpern visuell beurteilt.
Alle Probenausformungen und Prfungen der Proben erfolgten gem ASTM- und DIN-Standards. Die physikalischen und elastomechanischen Versuche wurden vergleichend an unbehandeltem und harzgetrnktem lpalmholz durchgefhrt.
Ergebnisse
Anatomische Charakterisierung
Die Stammquerschnitte der lpalme sind in der Regel kreisrund. Der eigentliche Holzkrper
wird von einer verhltnismig dnnen Rindenschicht (cortex and bark) umgeben. Im grnen
Zustand war die Holzfarbe gelblich, im trockenen jedoch brunlich. Der uere (periphere)
Teil der Stammquerschnittsche erscheint generell dunkler als die tiefer gelegenen, inneren
Holzbereiche. Holzstrahlen fehlen vllig. Faser- und Gefkomponenten bilden ein System aus
Vaskularleitbndeln (vascular bundles system), welches von parenchymatischem Grundgewebe
umgeben ist. In der uersten (peripheren) Stammquerschnittszone nden sich in den Leitbndeln nur 1 bis 2 groe Gefe, whrend in den beiden inneren Zonen 2 bis 3 Gefe im Leitbndel vorhanden sind. Rasterelektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen zeigten, dass die Faseranordnung im Gefbndelsystem des Palmenholzes der herkmmlicher Hlzer hnlich ist. Die
Faser besteht aus Lumen, Zellwnden und Tpfeln. Die Faserwandschichten lassen sich im
Querschnitt in primre und sekundre Schichten unterscheiden. Eine Interzellulrschicht, wie
xxvi

Kurzfassung
Ziegelmrtel zwischen den Wnden gelegen, welche die Mittellamelle darstellt, wurde ebenfalls
beobachtet. Parenchymzellen waren meist als dnnwandige Zellen in runder und ziegelartiger
Form zu beobachten, aber an sehr engen Stellen oder im Bereich zwischen zwei Vaskularbndeln traten diese Zellen im Allgemeinen in lnglicher oder ovaler Form in Erscheinung.
Bei der Holzzonen-Bestimmung zeigte sich, dass die Verteilung der Vaskularbndel vom Mittelpunkt des Stammes zum Kortex hin zunahm. Es wurden drei verschiedene Holzzonen deniert, d.h. die innere Zone (IZ), mittlere Zone (CZ) und die periphere Zone (PZ) anhand der
durchschnittlichen Hugkeit (26, 46 bzw. 97 V askularbndel/cm2 ) der Leitbndel signikant
voneinander abgegrenzt. In absoluten Lngen ausgedrckt, wies der innere Teil des Stammradius eine mittlere Lnge von 39 mm auf, der mittlere Teil betrug 131 mm und der uere
(periphere) Teil 166 mm.
Physikalisch und Elastomechanische Untersuchungen
Die Ergebnisse der physikalischen Untersuchung des lpalmenholzes zeigten, dass die darrdichtebezogene Holzfeuchte im grnen Zustand ber 500% erreichen kann (Durchschnittswert
von ca. 304%). Die natrliche Holzfeuchte nahm mit zunehmender Hhe im Stamm und ber
dem Stammquerschnitt von innen nach auen kontinuierlich ab. Die Volumenschwindung nahm
allmhlich vom unteren zum oberen Stammteil ab und lag zwischen 10,3% und 22,8%.
Die mittleren Rohdichten des Holzes in der inneren und mittleren Stammquerschnittszone lagen bei etwa 0,18 g/cm3 (0,16 - 0,20 g/cm3 ) und bei 0,20 g/cm3 (0.17 - 0.23 g/cm3 ), whrend
die Dichte in der peripheren Zone im Vergleich zu den anderen Zonen mit durchschnittlich
0,40 g/cm3 (0,37 - 0,43 g/cm3 ) deutlich hher ausel. Der Dichtewert erhhte sich allmhlich von der inneren zur peripheren Zone, verringerte sich aber leicht vom unteren zum oberen
Stammteil. Die Probennahme ber dem Stammquerschnitt hatte dabei einen greren Einu
auf die Rohdichte als die Entnahme ber die Stammhhe. Dennoch ist es bei einer stofichen
Nutzung des lpalmholzes erforderlich, nicht nur die Rohdichteunterschiede ber dem Stammquerschnitt zu beachten. Die Befunde zeigten, dass es generell erforderlich ist, den lpalmenstamm bis zu einer Hhe von 5 m und ab einer Hhe von 5 m getrennt zu verwenden.
Die elastomechanischen Eigenschaften des unbehandelten lpalmholzes wiesen fr die 3 unterschiedlichen Stammquerschnittszonen ebenfalls signikant unterschiedliche Werte auf, die gut
mit der vernderten Rohdichte korrelierten. Das mit heiem Kiefernharz behandelte lpalmenholz zeigte hhere elastomechanische Festigkeiten sowohl im Vergleich zum unbehandelten
Holz, als auch im Vergleich zur Behandlung mit dem Aceton-Harzgemisch. So wurde zum Bespiel die Biegefestigkeit in der inneren Zone um 20% im Vergleich zum unbehandeltem Holz
erhht werden.
Eine visuelle berprfung des harzgetrnkten lpalmholzes auf Qualittskriterien bei der mechanischen Bearbeitung zeigte, dass das behandelte Holz bei allen Bearbeitungsschritten bessere
Holzoberche besa und kompakter war. Hinsichtlich der maschinellen Bearbeitung wurden Faserausrisse, wollige Oberchen und Unebenheiten am unbehandelten lpalmenholz
beobachtet. Generell konnte die Bearbeitungsqualitt des unbehandelten lpalmenholzes von
schlecht oder mittelmig durch die Imprgnierung mit heiem Kiefernharz auf gut bis sehr gut
gesteigert werden.
Beurteilung der Imprgnierverfahren Die Experimente zur Stabilisierung des lpalmholzes mittels Kiefernharz belegten, dass erhitztes Kiefernharz wesentlich bessere Ergebnisse lieferte als
xxvii

Kurzfassung
die Trnkung des Holzes mit dem Aceton-Harz-Gemisch. Dieser Prozess der Heiharzbehandlung verlief optimal bei einer Imprgnierzeit von 150 Sekunden unter Verwendung von 180 C
heiem Harz. Durch Anwendung beider Imprgnierverfahren konnte zwar eine Erhhung der
Rohdichte um bis zu 70% erreicht werden, die mechanischen Eigenschaften lieen sich jedoch
nur mit der Behandlung durch heies Harz besonders deutlich steigern.
Schlsselwrter: lpalmenholz, anatomische Charakterisierung, physikalische und elastomechanische Eigenschaften, Imprgnierung durch Kiefernharz

xxviii

1 Introduction
Elaeis guineensis Jacq or oil palm, as it is commonly known, originated from the tropical rain
forest of West Africa. The great expansion of this crop has increased very rapid during the
last two decade in many parts of the world, such as Africa, the Pacic Islands, South America,
and especially in Southeast Asia, with Indonesia and Malaysia as main producers. In 2006,
Oil world [76] reported that both countries contributed more than 85% of the total 33.7 million tons of world production. Further, Colchester et al. [26] stated that South East Asia has
proven attractive to oil palm developers for a number of reasons, including the favorable climate,
comparatively low labour costs, low land rents and concerted government plans to develop the
sector, through provision of attractive (or unenforced) legal frameworks, cheap loans and scal
incentives.
The oil palm which is mainly grown for its oil production and its economic life spans is about
25 years. There are two main oil products which can be obtained from its fruit i.e. crude palm
oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO). These palm oils are used in a great variety of products,
both edible and non-edible products. Palm oil is being one of the main sources of cooking oil,
shortening, ice creams and margarine, as well as being used in non-edible products such as
detergents, soaps, shampoos, lipsticks, creams, waxes, candles and polishes. In advance, it is
used as a lubricant in industrial processes and also yields olein used in chemical processes to
produce esters, plastics, textiles, emulsiers, explosives and pharmaceutical products [35].
The oil palm was rst introduced to Indonesia in 1848. The pioneer of palm seedlings from
Africa which brought by Dutch Botanist were planted in the Botanic Gardens at Buitenzorg,
now Bogor, in West Java. Since the rst commercial plantation established in Sumatra in 1911
by a Belgian Adrien Hallet and together with establishment of 2,000 palms by a German, K.
Schadt, and in 1940, about 110 hectares plantation was reached [53], and currently the oil palm
plantation in Indonesia is expanding very rapid, reaching 2.9 million hectares by 1997 [35], and
more than 5 million hectares of productive oil palms by 2006 [76]. Parallel to the expansion of
plantation, the CPO production is experiencing a rm of increase from 900,000 tons (1983) [1]
to 14 million tons (2005) [76].
In line with the development of CPO production, the oil palm industry also produces bio-waste
(by-product) in two forms. Namely waste from mill and waste from plantation. The waste from
mill consist of shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB), pressed fruit bres (PFF), palm oil mill efuent
(POME), whilst the other wastes from the plantation comprises of oil palm fronds (OPF) and
oil palm trunks (OPT) during replanting after achieving its economic life spans [35]. Since the
last decade, the producers of oil palm, particularly Indonesia and Malaysia have been facing
a serious task concerning the utilization of oil palm solid wastes (OPSW) both from the mill
and plantation, particularly EFB and OPT. The amount of EFB produced by the oil palm mill
(OPM) is almost equal to the CPO yield (20-24%). Therefore in 2005, from about 200 oil
palm companies in Indonesia produce not less than 6 million tons EFB. Several methods have
technically and commercially developed for utilizing this material, such as EFB Seedling-pot
[37], EFB compost [51] [55] and EFB insulation [36]. Pulp and paper productions from EFB
has also introduced as well as panel based products [49] [50] [38] [39].
1

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1. Scientic Background

According to the projections of Indonesian Government program dealing with the oil palm
industry, starting 2010, there were at least 100,000 hectares of oil plantation should be annually
replanted [81]. If there were about 128 trees remained per hectare after reaching its life spans
with the average volume per tree approx. 1.638 m3 , therefore more than 20 million m3 biomass
from OPT available annually. This is a spectacular amount of natural solid waste which is
potentially good for biomass resources, such as bre, cellulose as well as raw material for
substituting wood material from natural forest. Unfortunately, the scientic information and
knowledge know-how of OPT is still limited as well as its utilization.
Yet, compared to the various intensive researches and the economically important of the oil
palm, both processing technology and diversication of palm oil based products mainly from
CPO and PKO, the oil palm solid waste, particularly the OPT, has received relatively little research attention. This might be due to lack or insufcient the scientic information and KnowHow of this material and might also be due to the difculties of working and using with the
OPT. Although several investigations have already conducted in the eld of OPT uses, but a sufcient knowledge shall be achieved in order to design and establish the new tailor-made wood
products based on oil palm wood1 , or OPW. Hence, this study was directed to focus the characteristics of OPW including anatomical, physical, mechanical and machinery properties, and
in order to use this material for structural purposes, the wood properties of OPW were improved
and reinforced with bioresin through the development of wood modication techniques.

1.1 Scientic Background


As a monocotyledons species, the oil palm does not have cambium, secondary growth, growth
rings, ray cells, sapwood, heartwood, branches and knots. Choon et al. [21] stated that the
growth and increase in diameter of the trunk result from the overall cell division and cell enlargement in the parenchymatous ground tissues, together with the enlargement of the bres of
the vascular bundles. Choon and Choon [23] also mentioned that the vascular bundles increase
from the butt end to the top of the palm and with regards to physical properties, there is great
variation of density values at different parts of the trunk. Bakar et al. [10] further stated that the
moisture content (MC) at the butt end is higher than the other parts and it is indicated slightly
decrease from the butt end to the top. Further, the density values decrease from the outer to
the center parts, but it is not clearly relation between trunk height and density values along the
trunk. Whilst, Killmann and Choon [65] mentioned that a gradual increase in MC is indicated
along the trunk height from the butt end to the top and the density decreases linearly with trunk
height and toward the center of the trunk. The above results showed different trends both MC
and density values and it shows contrarily each others.
Relating to the mechanical properties, the above physical conditions inuenced to the strength
properties of the trunk. Choon et al. [21] further reported that bending strength, compression
strength parallel to grain and hardness of the trunk is generally poor compares to other timber
species including rubberwood as well as coconut wood. In addition Ratanawilai et al. [86]
stated that the mechanical properties of oil palm trunk were approximately two times lower
than those of teak and rubberwood.
1

Wood here is primary tissue and is not comparable in developmental term to the wood of dicotyledons and
gymnosperms, because palms do not possess cambium

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.2. Problem Setting

Concerning to processing and preserving of the OPW, several investigations have already conducted by Ho et al. [56] and Haslett [54], including sawing, machining, seasoning and preservation. Regarding the machining aspect, Ho et al. [56]. further described that the lumber does
not have good machining properties. The main defect of oil palm lumber are cupping, twisting,
collapse and checks (splits) between vascular bundles and parenchymatous tissues. It is also
slightly difcult to very difcult to work with, depending on the machining process used and
gives very rough machined surfaces. On the seasoning, the lumber was found to suffer from
various drying defects and during the preservation of OPW, this material is also very susceptible to fungal and insect attacks due to the high sugar and starch contents. Several preservatives
have already tried but the results not as effective as on other susceptible timbers.
Facing the above mentioned difculties working and utilizing OPW due to non-consistency
response of wood properties, particularly physical features that cause of unstress mechanical
properties, therefore this study was precisely carried out to characterize the OPW from certain
age and variety of the palm, which can be used a basic information for developing a new-concept
of oil palm wood technology for this species. Parallel to this, the study also concentrated to
modied this wood with bioresin reinforcement techniques.

1.2 Problem Setting


Solving Through Replanting Methods
As one of renewable materials, oil palm wood is not only available in a large amount, but also
still poses a serious environmental problem. The problem is turn-up since the mature plants
reach their economic life span after 25 years, follows by replanting program. Three methods of
replanting has already been adopted by oil palm company in Indonesia and Malaysia, such as
push-felled, chip and burn, push-felled, chip and windrow, and under-planting methods. The
most common method for replanting of oil palm in the above mentioned countries was the pushfelled and burn method to reduce the mass and volume. Push-felled process was done by the
excavator or other heavy vehicle. Since the zero burning program was introduced in the 90s,
this method immediately banned, because it was signicantly creating the air pollution. Figure
1.1 showed the push-felled and burn method of oil palm replanting.
Further, the push-felled methods followed by burning process was modied into the new method
called push-felled and windrow as shows in Figure 1.2. In order to increase the decomposition and degradation process by natural decomposer, after pushing and felling, the palms were
chipped previously into pieces. The chipped of the palms were not burnt but then windrowed,
usually two palm rows to on windrow, and left them to decompose in the palm inter-rows, then
this method namely push-felled, chip and windrow. Most of the oil palm companies, either
public or private, currently applies this method. It looks quite effective method, but it was also
reported that the attacks by pests and diseases increase very rapidly to the young and mature
plants around the replanting area. The chipped palms became nests of rat and beetle and also as
media for Ganoderma disease.
The other zero burning technique of replanting program was the under-planting method, where
the young palms were planted under the old palms, which were gradually poisoned. This
method is illustrated in Figure 5.2.2. Unfortunately, the poisoned palms took more than two
years to decompose completely and this resulted in very high breeding of Oryctes rhinoceros
beetles, which has become the most serious pest in immature and young mature palms.
3

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.2. Problem Setting

Fig. 1.1: Push-felled and burn replanting method of the oil palm plantation

Fig. 1.2: Push-felled and windrow replanting method of the oil palm plantation

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.2. Problem Setting

A case study about the crop damage by this beetles attacks reported by Liau and Ahmad [71]
and Chung et al. [24] that beetle damage could cause crop losses of 40% and 92%, respectively,
in the rst year of harvesting in Malaysia. Further, apart from O. rhinoceros, the palm biomass
could also become the source of rats and Ganoderma boninense disease problems, like a side
effect of previous method.
Summarized from the above mentioned methods concerning the replanting of oil palm, it is
exactly still necessary to improve the technique of replanting program or looking for another
possibility to improve the utilization of oil palm trunk. Alternatively, converting the oil palm
trunk into others valuable products, such as bre based products, panel based products, source
of energy and also use for construction purposes. Relating to these efforts, several investigations
have already conducted both in Indonesia and Malaysia.

Fig. 1.3: Under-planting method of the oil palm replanting

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.2. Problem Setting

Producing Valuable Products


Producing valuable products from OPW such as particleboard, cement-bonded particleboard,
gypsum-bonded particleboard, blockboard, and MDF have already been investigated. The major problems faced in manufacturing panel products were at material preparation. Teck and Ong
[91] reported that processing of oil palm trunk by conventional method into particles is not feasible as clusters of brous strands produced by the trunk become entangled with the knives and
blade of the aker and causing the whole operation to stop. Instead, the trunk is rst processed
to chips. Further, Sudin, et al. [90]. faced a problem in producing cement-bonded particleboard from OPW. The retarding of cement-setting caused by the inherent high sugar and starch
contents of the material.
Producing bre based products from OPW, such as pulp and papers were technically accepted
by selecting the special treatment and pulping process due to the uctuation of pulp yield and
quality consider to active alkali required. Choon and Wan [22] reported that the sufcient active
alkali was not more that 14% to produce pulp of average yield and strengths using chemical
sulphate process.
Another possibility to use the OPW as source of energy has also conducted, like converting
OPT into charcoal which investigated by Lim and Lim [72]. But, it has concluded that OPT are
not suitable for the production of charcoal fuel, due to the low caloric value and high content of
the ash resulted from OPW charcoal.
An alternative for Structural Purposes
Several efforts to utilize the OPW has also tried. Killmann [64] has conducted a preliminary oil
palm stem densication using ammonia treatment, but further test series still require in order to
assess the potential of this process for economic use of oil palm stems and some aspects have
to be claried due to the seasoning defects, fungal attack and reduction of the use of ammonia.
Jumaat et al. [62] investigated the utilization of the OPW as trussed rafters. It is indicated that
certain portion of the trunks had good potential to be used as structural components. Further,
they concluded the result that the OPW has potential to be exploited for use as roof trusses with
some modications and proper grading of the trunk.

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.3. Research Objectives

Concerning improvement of oil palm wood quality, Bakar et al. [8] impregnated this material
with phenol formaldehyde (PF), but they stated that although the impregnation gave 19% weight
percent gain (WPG), but physical and mechanical properties were almost unchanged, indicating
that the treatment with PF could not improve the quality, and thus need other method to nd.
Addressing the research objectives
According to the advantage and disadvantage of oil palm wood described above, actually several
process modications and handling procedures, however, had to be made in order to counter the
poor processing and working characteristics of this material. In order to solve or eliminate the
difculties of oil palm wood in processing stage into producing valuable products, it is necessary to understood clearly about the characteristics of this oil palm bio-waste, both anatomical
features, physical and mechanical behaviour. On the other hand, due to the great variation
of density along the trunk height and toward the central point which resulted non-consistence
wood features, it has to be graded on the basic of natural characters of oil palm. Therefore, separation of the trunk into several parts based on the distribution of vascular bundles at transverse
section is an essential experiment which has to be conducted previously to get more homogeneous material for further processing. According to this reason, the study was also gathered the
determination of oil palm wood zoning. Concerning to the improvement the use of OPW for
structural purposes, the study was further concentrated to modied the wood through the reinforcement treatment using bioresin. The complete aims of this study were presented in Section
1.3.

1.3 Research Objectives


Consider to the challenges of the oil palm industry development in the world, nevertheless, the
utilization of oil palm trunk as one of solid bio-wastes of this popular crop is highly necessarily. The investigation shall be addressed in order to reduce the negative impacts and perhaps
converting into valuable products based on the oil palm wood. This can lead to a sustainable
oil palm in the future. The overall aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of oil
palm wood and reinforced this material through the wood modication process. In this task,
bioresin is used as ller and binding agent to improve the physical, mechanical and machinery
properties of the wood. Two reinforcement techniques were applied to reinforce and modify the
oil palm wood.
The detail objectives expected to be achieved at the end of this research work, are spelt out as
follows:
1. Investigation the anatomy of oil palm wood, including macroscopic and microscopic
structures,
2. Determination of wood zoning at transverse section of the oil palm trunk,
3. Bioresin reinforcement of oil palm wood using heat and chemical techniques,
4. Investigation the wood properties, including physical, mechanical and machinery, and in
comparison to the untreated wood of oil palm.

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.4. Research Hypothesis

1.4 Research Hypothesis


Due to the advantages and disadvantages of oil palm wood utilization, this study was carried out
to improve the physical, mechanical and machinery properties of oil palm wood by applying the
bioresin reinforcement using both heat and chemical techniques was investigated through the
laboratory and eld experiments. To examined the obtained results, the following hypothesists
were proven.
Concerning the experimental factors affecting the physical, mechanical and machinery properties of oil palm wood:
H0: the wood zoning and trunk height factors have insignicant effect in affecting the physical,
mechanical and machinery properties of oil palm wood.
H1: the wood zoning and trunk height factors have signicant effect in affecting the physical,
mechanical and machinery properties of oil palm wood. Therefore, the wood should be used
separately by considering to these factors.
Regarding Bioresin Reinforcement:
H0: the treated oil palm woods using bioresin have equal physical, mechanical and machinery
properties in comparison with the untreated wood.
H1: the treated oil palm woods using bioresin have signicant different in physical, mechanical
and machinery properties compared to the untreated wood. Thus, the bioresin reinforcement
able to improve the quality of oil palm wood.
The impregnation time and bioresin concentration factors were also examined complementary,
to support the above mentioned scientic hypotheses. Whilst, the anatomical investigation of
oil palm wood, both macroscopic and microscopic were also studied in detail to provide the
sufcient scientic knowledge with regards to improve the utilization of this biomaterial.

2 Review of Related Literatures


This chapter contains the reviewed of related literatures, which is divided into two parts, i.e.
general reviews and related research reviews. In general reviews, the several subjects were
discussed and explained systematically starting from the forest and wood trends in Indonesia
followed by development of oil palm industry as an impact of ban log export that is introduced
in 1985. Further, the author reviewed more detail about the oil palm, including botanical description and distribution of this popular crop.

2.1 General Reviews


There are four aspects described in this general reviews including (1) Forest and wood trends
in Indonesia; (2) the policy regarding the oil palm industry in Indonesia; (3) development of oil
palm in Indonesia; (4) Bioresin and its availability.

2.1.1 Forest and Wood Trends in Indonesia


The major forest types in Indonesia range from evergreen lowland dipterocarp forests in Sumatra and Kalimantan to seasonal monsoon forest and savannah grasslands in Nusa Tenggara and
non-dipterocarp lowland forest and alpine areas in Irian Jaya. Indonesia also contains the most
extensive mangrove forests in the world, estimated 4.25 million hectares in the early 1990s [47].
According to the aggregate of Consensus of Forest Land Use in 2000 stated that forestland
in Indonesia covers 112.5 million hectares, comprising 20.6 million hectares of conservation
forest, 29.9 million hectares of protected forest, 26.1 million hectares of restricted production
forest, 32.2 million hectares of production forest, and 3.6 million hectares of convertible production forest [63].
Indonesia is a signicant producer of tropical hardwood logs and sawn wood, plywood and
other boards, and pulp for papermaking. More than half the countrys forest, some 54 million
hectares are allocated for timber production (although not all are being actively log), and a
further 2 million hectares of industrial wood plantation have been established, supplying mostly
pulpwood [47]. In 1997, the forest and wood processing sectors accounted for 3.9% of Gross
Domestic Product (GDP), and export plywood, pulp and paper were valued at USD 5.5 billions.
This amount was nearly half the value of oil and gas export, and equal to nearly 10% of total
export earning.
The wood processing industries in Indonesia now require about 80 million m3 of wood annually
to feed sawmills, plywood manufacturing plants, pulp mills and papermaking plants. This
quantity of wood is far more than can be produced legally from the countrys forest and timber
plantations. As a result, more than half countrys wood supply is obtained from illegal logging
[47].
9

Chapter 2. Review of Related Literatures

2.1. General Reviews

2.1.2 Government Policy Regarding Oil Palm Industry in Indonesia


The Ministry of Forestry (MoF) derives the programmes on the basis of some items of legislation. Several legislation relevant to forestry development are Act No. 5 of 1967 - the basic
forestry law; Act No. 4 of 1982 - the basic environmental management law; and Act No. 5
of 1990 - the conservation of natural living resource and their ecosystem. Under the Act No.
5 of 1967, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) through the MoF holds authority to control,
manage and administer the forest resource. This law basically determined that forest resource
development be directed to: (a) water regulation, (b) ood and erosion prevention, (c) wood
and non-wood production, and (d) source of income. The Act also covered the sustained yield
principle and the rights of present and future generations to access to and hence benet from
the forest [42].
According to the chronology of Indonesian forest policy records, between 1945 and 1992, the
development of forest policy have been divided into three important eras, i.e. timber boom era
(1967 - 1985), timber estate era (1985 - 1990), plantation crops era (1990 - present) [2]. The
complete chronology of forest policy period 1945 - 1992 in Indonesia is presented in Appendix
A.
The timber estates development objectives were to provide wood for the pulp and paper industry. Indonesia plantations are increasing in this direction and it became a potential income
contributor to the national economy. Major Indonesian plantation crops include tree and nontree crops such as oil palm, coconut, rubber, coffee, and cloves, as well as sugarcane and tobacco
respectively. The demand for both palm oil and rubber has been growing. The United States
of America imported over $900 million worth of rubber and latex from Indonesia in 1996, representing more than twice as much as timber, and nearly twice as much from just four years
earlier. Sugarcane and tobacco are also largely grown in Java and Sumatra areas; other plantations are in the outer islands [34]. Oil palm plantation is one of the fastest growing crops in
the agriculture sub-sector in Indonesia. This has a great economical contribution to Malaysia
has about 3.37 million ha oil palm (44% of the world total). Indonesias production fell behind
Malaysia after World War II due to political unrest. Expansion of oil palm plantations took off
during the 1980s and 1990s. Currently Indonesia has about more than 3 million ha mature area,
representing (more than 34% of the world total), but on current trends it is expected to overtake
Malaysia during the coming decade [84]. The oil palm plantation has been increasing more
than 100,000 hectares per year since 1985. The planted area is mainly located in Sumatra [81].
The prolic growth of the oil palm sub-sector has conferred important economic benets. This
is because palm oil has become a valuable source of foreign exchange. In 1997, 2.9 million
tones of palm oil were exported bringing in earnings valued at 1.4 billion USD. This was 31%
of Indonesias agricultural exports and 3.5% of Indonesias total non-oil and gas exports. The
main destinations of the Indonesian exports were Holland (44%), Germany (12%), Italy (9%),
Spain (5%) and Kenya (3%) [19]. It is projected that in 2005 Indonesia would become the
world leader of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) production. The CPO production has increased from
168 thousand tones (1967) to about 6 million tones in 2002 [34].
In line with the Indonesia government program of developing the oil palm industry as one of the
important sectors for income generation, the oil palm industry should be well managed based
on economic, social and environmental performance. The development is not only to increase
the production and quality of CPO, PKO and other derived products, but also the management
and the utilization of oil palm waste for producing valuable products must be balanced.
10

Chapter 2. Review of Related Literatures

2.1. General Reviews

2.1.3 Development of Oil Palm In Indonesia


Early slave trade brought the oil palm to South America and Europe, but the industry really
began in South-east Asia, following the establishment of the large oil palm plantation and palm
oil mill in Indonesia and Malaysia. The industry gained considerable importance and expanded
tremendously after the Second World War due to increasing world demand and relatively stability in the worlds fats and oil prices [84].
The development of oil palm in South East Asia is currently faster than Africa as the origin
of oil palm. Development of mature area of oil palm plantation in Indonesia and Malaysia,
as main producers is increasing very rapid. In the early years of oil palm establishment in
Indonesia, the development of oil palm industry was initially slow, with greater emphasis being
place on the cultivation of rubber and wood as the major export. The situation changed in
the middle of 1985s, following the introduction of synthetic rubber and log ban export by the
government [33]. Alarmed by this, the oil palm industry developed very rapidly. As a result,
Pamin [81] stated that new lands were opened up for oil palm plantation more than 100,000
hectares per year since the log ban in effect. Granted with more than 18 million hectare suitable
for oil palm, Indonesia has carefully expanded its oil palm plantation. The expansion is mostly
accomplished in ex-logging industries and it has been able to convert bare land to a green
plantation environment. Nowadays, the beauty of oil palm is still seen as a large green carpet
covering almost 3 million hectares in many parts of Indonesia.
The mature area of oil palm plantation within 5 years (period 2000 to 2005) was increased about
67% in Indonesia and 22% in Malaysia as shown in Figure 2.1 and with the annual rates of estate
expansion in these countries are about 296.4 and 129.4 hectare per annum, respectively. Hence,
the expansion rate of this crop-area in Indonesia is 1.3 times faster than Malaysia.
In comparison with other crop (e.g. rubber plantation), the development of oil palm plantation
and its main products production were also faster than rubber estate expansion and dry-rubber
production, as shown in Table 2.1. From this table, CPO and PKO productions in 2006 were
about 10.9 and 2.3 million tons, whilst the dry-rubber production was only 0.45 million tons,
respectively [16] [17].

11

2.1. General Reviews

Chapter 2. Review of Related Literatures

3800

Indonesia
Malaysia

3600

Plantation area (,000 ha)

3400

3200

3000

2800

2600

2400

2200
2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Year

Fig. 2.1: Development of the mature area of oil palm plantation in Indonesia and Malaysia period 2000 to 2005 (Data calculated from Oil World, 2006 [76])

Tab. 2.1: Development of estate area and production of crops from 1995 to 2006 (comparison
between oil palm and rubber)
Plantation Area (ha)
Crops Production (million ton)
Year
Oil Palm Rubber
CPO
PKO
Dry Rubber
1995
992.4
471.9
2,476,400
605,300
341,000
2,569,500
626,600
334,600
1996
1,146.3
538,3
4,165,685
838,708
330,500
1997
2,109.1
557.9
4,585,846
917,169
332,570
1998
2,669.7
549.0
4,907,779
981,556
293,663
1999
2,860.8
545.0
5,094,855 1,018,971
375,819
2000
2,991.3
549.0
2001
3,152.4
506.6
5,598,440 1,117,759
397,720
6,195,605 1,209,723
403,712
2002
3,258.6
492.9
6,923,510 1,529,249
396,104
2003
3,429.2
517.6
8,479,262 1,861,965
403,800
2004
3,496.7
514.4
432,221
2005
3,592.0
512.4 10,119,061 2,155,925
2006
3,682.9
513.2 10,869,365 2,315,740
450,526
Sources: Data was generated from BPS, 2007 [16] [17]

12

Chapter 2. Review of Related Literatures

2.1. General Reviews

2.1.3.1 Botanical Description of Oil Palm


According to the Integrated Taxonomy Information System [61], the oil palm taxonomy is
presented below:
Kingdow: Plantae
Sub-Kingdom: Tracheobionta
Division: Angiospermae
Class: Monocotyledons
Sub-Class: Arecidae
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae
Genus: Elaeis
Species: Elaeis guineensis Jacq
Common name: African Oil Palm
The oil palm is a large feather palm having a solitary columnar stem with short internodes. It
is unarmed except for short spines on the leaf base and within the fruit bunch. Husin et al.
[58] stated that in high forest, oil palm might reach a height of 30 m, but elsewhere the reach
not more than 15 to 18 m. It is believed that many palms may be 200 years old or more, but
concerning fruit production, the economic life span of oil palm is between 25 and 30 years. So,
after which the oil palm should be replanted. At the replanting age, the oil palm has a height
that ranges between 7 and 13 m and diameter of about 45 to 65 cm, measured at 1.5 m above
ground level. The oil palm fruit is a drupe, the outer pulp of which provides the palm oil for
commerce. Within the pulp or mesocarp lies a hard-shelled nut containing the palm kernel, later
to provide two further commercial products, i.e. palm kernel oil (rather similar in composition
to coconut oil), the residual livestock food and palm kernel cake [53].
The rate of extension of the stem is very variable and depends on both environmental and
hereditary factors. Under normal plantation condition, the average increase in height will be
from 0.3 to 0.6 m per year, width of the stem varies from 20 to 75 cm, erect, heavy, and trunks
ringed. The stem functions as a supporting, vascular and storage organ. The number of leaves
produces annually by a plantation palm increases to between thirty and forty at 5 to 6 years of
age. Thereafter the production declines to a level of twenty to twenty-ve per annum [53].
Naibaho [79] stated that the oil palm fruit grows in large bunch with the weight of 20 to 70 kg
and each fruit bunch is containing 500-4000 individual fruits. The fruit bunch may reach 50 cm
in length and 35 cm in breadth. The bunch consists of outer and inner fruit, the latter somewhat
attened and less pigmented; a few so-called parthenocarpic fruit that have developed even
through fertilization has not taken place; some small-undeveloped non-oil-bearing infertile
fruit; and the bunch and spikelet stalks and spines.
The climate features of the main areas of highest bunch production summarized as follows:
a rainfall of 2000 mm or more distributed evenly through the year, i.e. no very marked
dry seasons,
a mean maximum temperature of about 29 30 C and a mean minimum temperature of
about 22 24 C
13

Chapter 2. Review of Related Literatures

2.1. General Reviews

sunshine amounting to about 5 hours per day in all months of the year and rising to 7
hours per day in some months, or solar radiation of around 350 cal per cm2 per day [53].
2.1.3.2 Distribution of Oil Palm
Elaeis guineensis Jacq originated from the tropical rain forests of West Africa. It is endemic to
a wide coastal belt stretching from Senegal to Angola, extending further along the Congo River
[77]. Hartley [53] reported that the growing of oil palm plantation started in the Far East and
strangely, there were no direct connection between the African groves and the establishment of
this new industry. The earliest record of the introduction of oil palms to the East Indies was
of four seedlings, two from Bourbon (Reunion) or Mauritius, and two from Amsterdam, which
were planted in the Botanic Gardens at Buitenzorg, now Bogor, in Java in 1848. At the present
time, the oil palm exists in a wild, semi wild and cultivated state in the three land areas of the
equatorial tropics: in Africa, in South-east Asia and in America. Of all oil bearing plants it is the
highest yielding, even the poorer plantations of Africa out-yielding the best elds of coconuts,
a crop that the oil palm has overtaken in the export eld.
2.1.3.3 Oil Palm Industry and Its Products
For serving the oil palm plantation, more than 200 palm oil mills have already been established
in Indonesia until the end of 2001 and 86% of them were located in Sumatra. Most of them are
working on the capacity of 30 tones fresh fruit bunches (FFB) per hour and some of them work
on the capacity between 45 and 60 tones FFB per hour [38]. The establishment of palm oil mill
is presented in Table 2.2.
Tab. 2.2: The oil palm mills in Indonesia, 1998
Location
Oil palm mills (unit)
Sumatra
178
Kalimantan
19
Sulawesi
5
Java
2
Irianjaya
2
Sources: Data from Erwinsyah, 2004 [35]

Herawan et al. [55] stated that due to the commercial importance of oil palm, the botanical,
cultivation and technological aspects of the oil palm have been investigated intensively in Indonesia. Lubis et al. [74] stated that all parts of oil palm tree could be used. From the fruit,
crude palm oil and palm kernel oil are extracted. From these oils, many edible and non-edible
products are derived.
Crude palm oil is extracted from the eshy mesocarp of the fruit which contains 45-55% oil
which varies from light yellow to orange-red in colour, and melts from 25 to 50 C. Palm kernel
oil is extracted from the kernel of endosperm, and contains about 50% oil. Similar to coconut
oil, with high content of saturated acids, mainly lauric, it is solid at normal temperatures in
temperate areas, and is nearly colourless, varying from white to slightly yellow.
14

Chapter 2. Review of Related Literatures

2.1. General Reviews

Crude palm oil are used in different industries for the production of frying oil, margarine, confectioneries, shortening, ice cream, yoghurt, food emulsier, coffee-whitener, candle, soap,
shampoo, detergent, lubricant, cosmetic, fatty acid, methyl ester, fatty alcohol, fatty amine,
and pharmaceutical products and etc. Palm kernel oil are used for manufacturing various palm
kernel oils and fats in order to produce cosmetics, detergents, soaps, candles and etc [60].
2.1.3.4 Oil Palm Wastes and Its Utilization
In line with the development of CPO production and its derived products, oil palm industry
also produces waste or by-product, both from the mill and the plantation. The waste from palm
oil mill consists of oil palm shell (OPS), oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), pressed fruit bre
(PFF) and palm oil mill efuent (POME), whilst the other waste from the plantation consists of
oil palm trunk (OPT), oil palm frond (OPF), and pruning oil palm frond (POPF). Pruning fronds
are constantly generated in the plantations and are mainly used in inter-row mulching [37]. The
availability of oil palm wastes from 1994 to 1999 is presented in Table 2.3.
Tab. 2.3: The availability of oil palm wastes from 1994 to 1999 in Indonesia
Empty Fruit Fronds from Fronds from
Oil Palm
Year
bunch
pruning
replanting
Trunk
(ton)
(ton)
(ton)
(ton)
1994 4,008,062.0 18,041,490.0 1,443,319.2
6,332,563.0
1995 4,631,182.2 20,249,860.0 1,619,988.8
7,107,700.9
1996 5,142,685.0 22,495,140.0 1,799,611.2
7,895,794.1
1997 5,738,847.6 25,160,790.0 2,012,863.2
8,831,437.3
1998 6,268,426.6 27,798,820.0 2,223,905.6
9,757,385.8
1999 6,722,069.8 29,570,790.0 2,365,663.2 10,379,347.3
Source: Erwinsyah, 2004 [35]

According to the above table, the availability of oil palm by-products from the largest to the
few amount are pruning fronds (29.6 million tones), oil palm trunk (10.4 million tones), empty
fruit bunch (6.7 million tones) and fronds from replanting area (2.3 million tones), respectively.
The largest amount of wastes is oil palm fronds from pruning activity, but this material is constantly generated in the plantations and mainly used as inter-row mulching. The second largest
is oil palm trunk, which is available during the replanting process. This material will become
an environmental problem, if no effort is made to use it, especially Indonesia as the main producer. By 2010, it is estimated that there would be more than 10 million tones of oil palm trunks
available per year at the replanting area. The next is oil palm empty fruit bunch or EFB, which
is produced by palm oil mill. Indonesia Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) has already been
conducting many researches in order to utilize and improve the economical values of this material, such as production of pulps, papers and panel products [59]. Oil palm wood has also been
utilized as a cellulosic raw material in the production of panel products, such as particleboard
[91], medium density breboard, mineral-bonded particleboard, block board [21], and cement
board [88].

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2.1.4 Bioresin and Its Availability


Referring to Fowler [46] who stated that bioresin is a resin or resin formulation derived from a
biological sources, therefore, the term of bioresin in this study is refer to resin that extracted
from pine resin, which is commonly known as rosin. As a major product obtained from pine
resin, this material remains behind as the in-volatile residue after distillation of the turpentine.
2.1.4.1 Resin, Rosin and Bioresin
Resin is a hydrocarbon secretion formed in special resin canals of many plants, from many of
which (for example, coniferous trees) it is exuded in soft drops from wounds, hardening into
solid masses in the air. It may be obtained by making incisions in the bark or wood of the
secreting plant. It can also be extracted from resin-bearing plants by leaching of the tissues
with alcohol [96].
Resin as produced by most plants is a viscous liquid, typically composed mainly of volatile uid
terpenes, with lesser components of dissolved non-volatile solids which make resin viscous and
sticky. The commonest terpenes in resin are the bicyclic terpenes alpha-pinene, beta-pinene,
delta-3 carene and sabinene, the monocyclic terpenes limonene and terpinolene, and smaller
amounts of the tricyclic sesquiterpenes longifolene, caryophyllene and delta-cadinene. The
individual components of resin can be separated by fractional distillation [25].
2.1.4.2 Rosin and Its Uses
Rosin is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers,
produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components. For
many years rosin and turpentine were used in an unprocessed form in the soap, paper, paint
and varnish industries. Currently, most rosin is modied and used in a wide range of products
including paper size, adhesives, printing inks, rubber compounds and surface coatings [41].
In industry it is the precursor to the ux used in soldering. The tin-lead solder commonly used
in electronics has about 1% rosin as a ux core helping the molten metal ow and making a
better connection. Rosin is an ingredient in printing inks, glues, medicines, chewing gum, paper
sizing, and soap. In addition to its extensive use in soap-making, rosin is largely employed in
making inferior varnishes, sealing-wax and various adhesives. It is also used for preparing
shoemakers wax, as a ux for soldering metals, for pitching lager beer casks, for rosining the
bows of musical instruments and numerous minor purposes [45].
In pharmaceutical it forms an ingredient in several plasters and ointments. On a large scale it is
treated by destructive distillation for the production of rosin spirit, pinoline and rosin oil. The
last enters into the composition of some of the solid lubricating greases, and is also used as an
adulterant of other oils. It is also extensively used for its friction-increasing capacity. Such uses
include rosining the bows of stringed instruments such as violins or cellos to enhance sound
production. For this purpose, extra substances such as gold and silver are added to the rosin for
extra friction [14]. Gymnasts, weight lifters, and baseball pitchers use a bag of powdered rosin
to keep their hands dry and to increase their grip. Ballet slippers are also rubbed in powdered
rosin to reduce slipping. A mixture of pitch and rosin is used to make a surface against which
glass is polished when making optical instruments such as lenses [75].
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Rosin is graded and sold on the basis of colour, the palest shades of yellow-brown being the
better quality. Although several other criteria determine rosin quality and acceptability for
different applications, colour and softening point are usually sufcient indicators of quality to
satisfy purchasers of rosin from traditional and proven sources. Rosin is packaged in a variety
of forms. On discharge from the still, the molten rosin is often fed into new, galvanized steel
drums of around 225-250 kg (net) capacity. The drums have domed tops so that after they have
been set aside for the rosin to cool and solidify (with resulting contraction in volume), the tops
can be hammered at. Alternatively, at-topped drums can be lled in two or three stages over
several days to allow for the change in volume on cooling. International shipments of rosin are
usually made in container loads. In the larger producing countries in which there are large endconsumers of rosin, transportation of molten rosin in specially designed tank-cars is feasible;
this is unlikely, however, to be something which a new, smaller producer would contemplate
[28].
End users are showing a growing preference for less robust forms of packaging to enable easier
opening and handling, and in this case, silicone or polypropylene-lined multi-wall paper bags
can be used. The sacks can be lled either with molten rosin directly from the still (which is
then allowed to cool to form a solid block) or with akes of solidied rosin. The akes are
formed by discharging hot rosin onto a moving belt; by the time it has reached the end of the
line, the rosin has solidied into a thin sheet which can easily be broken up and transferred to
bags. For ease of handling, 25 kg bags are a convenient size [41].

2.1.4.3 Rosin Production and Trade


In some of the major producing countries, the structure of the industry, and the channels of
distribution of gum naval stores into the international market, has changed in recent years.
International trade is normally conducted through agents or dealers, rather than by direct negotiation between producer and end user. Agents usually act on behalf of a specic producer.
Dealers buy and sell on their own account, their main contacts being other dealers, producers
and end users. They are very well informed about markets and trends, prices, product uses and
end user requirements; this knowledge may be difcult for producers to acquire, particularly
small ones. Most of the production in smaller producing countries is for domestic consumption. The processors sell directly to end users such as paper mills, paint or chemical companies.
However, there are some basic procedures and practices which should be noted by prospective
new producers or others considering the sale of exports. Most purchases are made on the basis of agreed specications. New producers will therefore need to reassure potential buyers of
the quality of the material being offered by providing samples beforehand and, perhaps, a trial
shipment [48].
Total annual production of rosin is about 1.2 million tonnes world-wide. Of this, it is estimated
that almost 720,000 tonnes, or 60%, is gum rosin; most of the remainder, about 35% is tall oil
rosin and the rest is wood rosin [41]. During the early 1960s, the United States and former
USSR were leading producers of resin and several European countries (France, Greece, Poland,
Portugal and Spain) were also major producers [20].
Regarding trade of rosin, Coppen and Hone [29] further stated that The Peoples Republic of
China has been the worlds dominant producer for many years, but a dramatic increase in production, signalled by the installation of an improved and expanded processing capacity in the
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early 1980s, has seen Indonesia become the second biggest producer of gum rosin and turpentine in the world. In 1993, Chinese gum naval stores production accounted for approximately
430,000 tonnes (60%) of world gum rosin production; Indonesia accounted for an additional
69,000 tonnes or about 10% of world production. While Chinese production is unlikely to
increase further, Indonesia has an ample (and growing) number of trees available for tapping
and the potential to increase production signicantly in the years to come [28]. Major rosin
producing countries between 1990 and 1993 is presented in Table 2.4.
Tab. 2.4: Major rosin producing countries between 1990 and 1993
Country
Rosin Production (%)*
China
60
Indonesia
10
Russia
9
Brazil
6
Portugal
3
India
3
Argentina
3
Mexico
3
Honduras
1
Venezuela
<1
Greece
<1
South Africa
<1
Vietnam
<1
Others
<1
Note: * Country production in percentage of World average total production
Source: Coppen and Hone [29]

Regarding production of crude resin and rosin in Indonesia, it is managed by Perum Perhutani,
the Forest State Corporations, who are also responsible for the tapping and processing operations (although some of the factories fall within the private sector). A very small quantity of
resin is produced intermittently in Sumatra. In the early 1980s, modern processing methods
were introduced to replace the older, direct-red distillation units. Production subsequently
rose from 16,000 tonnes of crude resin (9,000 tonnes of rosin) in 1981 to 70,000 tonnes of resin
(49,000 tonnes of rosin and 8,000 tonnes of turpentine) in 1991. By 1993, it had risen to over
100,000 tonnes of resin (69,000 tonnes of rosin and 12,000 tonnes of turpentine). Although
most of the rosin and turpentine produced in Indonesia is exported, an increasing proportion of
both are being consumed domestically. Perum Perhutani statistics for 1993 show that approximately 46,000 tonnes of rosin (two thirds of total production) and 7,500 tonnes of turpentine
were exported. In 1991, production in Indonesia came from about 100,000 ha of pine. The
actual area of planted pine in Java is about four times this gure and still expanding. There are
also large areas of pine plantations on Sumatra, Sulawesi and Kalimantan and these, too, are
increasing in size to meet the demand for wood pulp [27].

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2.2 Related Research Reviews


Several aspects in this related research reviews are described and discussed, including (1) Oil
palm wood conditions; (2) Oil palm wood characters (anatomical characteristics, physical and
mechanical properties, and chemical composition); and (3) Characteristics of rosin.
2.2.1 Oil Palm Wood Conditions
Oil palm trees are felled after reaching its economic life-span of 25 to 30 years. Felled trunks
are known to be a favourable focus for diseases and pests, such as basal stem rot, Ganoderma
and rhinoceros beetles (Oryetes rhinocerous). Currently, there is very limited economic use for
the oil palm trunks and its disposal imposes a heavy nancial burden to plantation owners. The
increasing number of replanting programmes anticipated in the near future will inevitably bring
even greater problems associated with the disposal of the large amount of trunks generated.
Killmann and Woon [66] reported that leaving the oil palm trunks to rot in the eld hinders
the replanting process since decomposition of the trunk proceeds at a very slow rate. Physical
removal of the trunks to dump sites is also found to be unfavourable due to high costs in transportation of the fresh material which can be three to four times the weight of the dry matter.
Therefore, it is not sound practice to leave this bulky waste material in the eld to degrade on its
own. Present in large quantities, as expected during replanting programmes, it poses a serious
threat to the environment.
In order to nd an effective solution to solve the above mention problem, various methods of
oil palm felling and disposal have been tried. Starting felling by hand, Hartley [53] stated that
technically this method was not only presents a lot of difculties, but also consumes a lot of
labour. Mechanical felling of the oil palm stands has proved to be easier and faster method,
where either an excavator or a tractor may be used to push-fell the trees.
The most common method for replanting of oil palm was the push-felled and burn method to
reduce the mass and volume. Push-felled was done by the excavator or other heavy vehicle.
Since the zero burning program was introduced in the 90s, this method immediately banned,
because it was signicantly creating the air pollution (Figure 1.1).
Further, the push-felled methods followed by burning process was modied into the new method
called push-felled and windrow as shows in Figure 1.2. In order to increase the decomposition and degradation process by natural decomposer, after pushing and felling, the palms were
chipped previously into pieces. The chipped of the palms were not burnt but then windrowed,
usually two palm rows to on windrow, and left them to decompose in the palm inter-rows, then
this method namely push-felled, chip and windrow.
Most of the oil palm companies, either public or private, currently applies this method. It looks
quite effective method, but it was also reported that the attacks by pests and diseases increase
very rapidly to the young mature plants around the replanting area. The chipped palms became
nests of rat and beetle and also as media for Ganoderma disease.
The other zero burning technique of replanting program was the under-planting method, where
the young palms were planted under the old palms, which were gradually poisoned. This
method is illustrated in Figure 5.2.2. Unfortunately, the poisoned palms took more than two
years to decompose completely and this resulted in very high breeding of Oryctes rhinoceros
beetles, which has become the most serious pest in immature and young mature palms.
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2.2.2 Oil Palm Wood Characters


Anatomical Review of Oil Palm Wood
As a monocotyledonous species, oil palm does not have cambium, secondary growth, growth
rings, ray cells, sapwood and heartwood or branches and knots. The growth and increase in diameter of the stem result from the overall cell division and cell enlargement in the parenchymatous ground tissue, together with the enlargement of the bres of the vascular bundles. Looking
at a cross sectional view of the oil palm trunk, Killmann and Choon [65] distinguished three
main parts, namely cortex, peripheral region and central zone.
Cortex - A narrow cortex, which is approximately 1.5 to 3.5 cm wide, makes up the outer part
of the trunk. It is largely composed of ground parenchyma with numerous longitudinal brous
strands of small and irregular shaped brous strands and vascular bundles.
Periphery - This region with narrow layers of parenchyma and congested vascular bundles, give
ride to a sclerotic zone which provides the main mechanical support for the palm trunk.
Central - The central zone, which makes up about 80% of the total are, is composed of slightly
larger and widely scattered vascular bundles embedded in the thin wall parenchymatous ground
tissues. Towards the core of the trunk the bundles increase in size and are more widely scattered.
Vascular bundles - Each vascular bundle is basically made up of a brous sheath, phloem cells,
xylem and parenchyma cells. According to Lim and Khoo [73] the number of vascular bundles
per unit area decrease towards the inner zones and increase from the butt end to the top of the
palm. The xylem is sheathed by parenchyma and contains mainly one or two wide vessels in
the peripheral region and two or three vessels of similar width in the central and core region.
Though rare, bundles with more than three vessels arranged tangentially or in clusters can also
be found scattered, particularly in the core region. Extended protoxylem, reduced vascular
tissue and small bundles with little brous tissue are also commonly found scattered among
the wider bundles in the core region. Lim and Khoo [73] further stated that the distribution
of brous strands depends on the number of bundles present. The peripheral region normally
contains a large number of radially extended brous sheathed, thus providing the mechanical
strength to the palm. The bres have multi-layered secondary walls and increase in length from
the periphery to the pith. The basal part of the stem, being older, normally has better developed
secondary walls than do the top parts. The phloem cells, in single strand, are present between
the xylem and bre strands. In the peripheral sclerotic region, the bundles are generally smaller
and in some cases, almost disappear. The area occupied by the phloem, which is in the form of
an inverted triangle, increases in size as the bundles become larger in the central region.
Parenchymatous Tissue - The ground parenchymatous cells consist mainly of thin-walled
spherical cells, except in the area around the vascular bundles. The walls are progressively
thicker and darker from the inner to the outer region.

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Physical Properties of Oil Palm Wood


Moisture Content
Killmann and Choon [65] stated that initial moisture content of the oil palm wood varies between 100 and 500%. Lim and Khoo [73] further stated that a gradual increase in moisture
content is indicated along the trunk height and towards the central region, with the outer and
lower zone having far lower values than the other two zones. Whilst, Bakar et al. [10] stated
that based on depth of the trunk, the highest moisture content was reached at the central of trunk
and a gradual decrease to the outer part of trunk. These values were between 258% and 575%.
An increasing in the number of vascular bundles was caused of a decreasing in percentage of
parenchyma cells which have high capacity in water absorption [83]. Bakar et al. [10] further
stated that based on the trunk height factor; there was a tendency that the moisture content was
decreased from the bottom to the top of the oil palm tree. They predicted that it was inuence
by the effect of earth gravity, where the water distribution to the higher part of the trunk requires
higher caviler pressure. Bakar et al. [10] again stated that the variant analysis was showed that
both the trunk height and depth were signicant at the level of 0.01 to the value of moisture
content.
Shrinkage
The shrinkage value of oil palm wood was varies between 25% and 74% [10]. Based on the
trunk depth, the highest value of shrinkage was reached at the central part and a gradually
decrease to the outer part. Whilst, based on the trunk height, from the bottom part to the height
of 2.75 m, this value was lower compare to the other parts. According to their ndings, there
was a tendency that a gradual increase in shrinkage value is indicated along the trunk height,
except at the height of 2.75 m. Regarding this phenomenon, Prayitno [83] further mentioned
his opinion that it was an anomaly for the oil palm trunk at 2.75 m height.
Density
Due to its monocotyledonous nature, there is a great variation of density values at different
parts of the oil palm stem. Density values range from 200 to 600 kg/m3 with an average
density of 370 kg/m3 [73] and according to the experiment result from Bakar et al. [10] who
conducted the investigation based on variety of Tenera, the density was varies between 110
and 400 kg/m3 . Lim and Khoo [73] further stated that the density of oil palm trunk decreases
linearly with the trunk height and towards the centre of the trunk. This is reected in the clear
distinction observed in hardness and weight between the outer and inner portions and the butt
and higher regions of the trunk. The outer region throughout the trunk shows density values
over twice those of the inner regions. These variations are due to several factors. Across the
trunk the density is inuenced largely by the number of vascular bundles per square unit which
decreases towards the center. However, variations in density along trunk height are due to the
vascular bundles being younger at the top and of the palm. Although higher in number per
square centimeter, the bundle here are smaller in size and the cell walls are thinner.
Higher density values in the peripheral zone are also due to the following reasons:
presence of radially extended brous sheaths,
lesser number of vessels and general absence of extended protoxylem in the outer vascular
bundles,
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progressively thicker walls of the ground parenchyma cells from the inner to the outer
zones,
presence of better developed secondary walls in the bres [73].
Sadikin [87] stated that the oil palm trunk can be use as wood construction until 2/3 from the
outer part across the trunk and the other 1/3 part can be used for making house tools. In addition,
Sadikin [87] suggested that the utilization of oil palm trunk for construction purposes was better
to use 1/3 from outer part of the trunk, based on the following reasons:
the specic gravity of oil palm trunk at peripheral zone was extremely different with the
central and inner zone,
the shrinkage values of oil palm trunk at both central and inner zones was far higher
values that peripheral zone,
Regarding the density value, Bakar et al. [10] stated that based on the trunk depth, the density
was a gradual decrease from the outer part to the inner part across the trunk, but based on the
trunk height, the relation between height and density was not clear, although the density value
at the bottom part was relatively lower compare to the other parts. Further, based on the average
density values, Bakar et al. [10] dened the classication of strength class of the oil palm trunk
that strength class III for peripheral zone, strength class IV for central zone and strength class
V for inner zone.
Fibre Dimensions
Oil palm wood bres show a slight increase in length from the butt end to a height of 3 to 5
meters before decreasing continuously towards the top. Longer bres at the butt are probably
due to more matured brous tissue in this region. Oil palm bre length increases from periphery
to the inner part. Mean bre length range from 1.76 mm at periphery to 2.37 mm at the inner
part. This is due to the nature of the palm growth where the overall increase in trunk diameter is
due to enlargement of the brous bundle sheath, particularly those accompanying the vascular
bundles in the central region. [65]. Lim and Khoo [73] stated that bre diameter decreases
along trunk height because broader bres are to be found in the larger vascular bundles nearer
the base of the palm trunk and vice versa. The bre dimensions of oil palm trunk compared
to those of angiosperms, represented by rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), and gymnosperms,
represented by Douglas r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) are shown in Table 2.5. Oil palm bres are
comparable in length to bres from rubberwood, but are much shorter than those of Douglas r
[21].
Tab. 2.5: Comparison of bre dimension between oil palm, rubberwood and douglas r)
Fibre Dimention
Oil Palm Trunk Rubberwood Douglas Fir
Length (mm)
1.22
1.40
3.40
Width ()
35.30
31.30
40.00
Cell wall Thickness
4.5
5.00
n.a
Source: Shaari et al. [21].

According to strength classication, Bakat et al. [10] came to the conclusions that oil palm
trunk is classied into class III to V, and according to durability classication it is classied into
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class V. Based on these strength and durability classes, the most outer part of oil palm trunk
that reached 30% of the stem frond-free volume, can be utilized as materials for certain part of
furniture and light building construction.
Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Wood
Killmann and Choon [65] have investigated the mechanical properties of oil palm trunk (30
years old) and compared to the other species, such as coconut wood and rubberwood. Mechanical properties of oil palm trunk reect the density variation observed in the trunk both in radial
as well as in the vertical direction. Bending strength values are obtained from the peripheral
lower portion of the trunk and the central core of the top portion of the trunk gives the lowest
strength. Bending strength of oil palm trunk is comparable to coconut wood, but lower compared to rubberwood. Variation of the compression strength parallel to grain also follows the
same trend as the bending strength. The compression strength value is comparable to rubberwood at similar density value. The hardness value of oil palm trunk is lower than rubberwood
as well as coconut wood.
The mechanical properties of oil palm wood based on Tenera variety investigations were meanwhile greatly advanced by Bakar et al. [9]. They came to the conclusion that all properties
tested including MOE, MOR, compressive strength, cleavage strength, shear strength, hardness
and toughness were decreased from the outer to the center and from the bottom to top of the
trunk, where the inuence of trunk depth factor was higher than the trunk height. Based on the
mechanical properties, the most outer part of the oil palm trunk which is comparable to the Sengon wood (Paraserianthes falcataria) and belongs to the strength class III to V were considered
could be used for light housing constructions and furniture.
Bakar et al. [9] stated that the average MOE values at various positions shown that those values
are indicated a gradual decrease in MOE along the trunk height and depth. The MOE value
range varies between 2908 kg/cm2 and 36289 kg/cm2 . Variation of the MOR also follows the
same trend as the MOE. The mean values of MOR at peripheral, central and inner zones were
about 295.41 kg/cm2 , 129.04 kg/cm2 and 66.91 kg/cm2 , respectively. Statistical analysis of
MOE value showed that the differences in trunk depth effect signicantly at the level of 0.01
and the trunk height only inuence signicantly at the level of 0.05. It means that in order
to produce the homogenous lumber, the trunk depth position should be taken into attention,
especially in determining the sawing pattern before lumbering process.
Chemical Properties of Oil Palm Wood
In order to investigate the chemical properties of oil palm wood, Yusoff et al. [97] stated that
the variation in chemical composition across the trunk at the 1.8 m height level in one tree was
difcult to generalise. However, Husin et al. [58] has studied the chemical properties of oil
palm trunk and found that the oil palm trunk has lignin and lignocelluloses contents markedly
lower but shows higher content of extractives, as well as water and alkali soluble than coconut
wood and rubberwood. In a separate study, Halimahton and Ahmad [52] observed that the lignin
content was fairly evenly distributed throughout the tree except that the core in the upper region
was slightly decient in the component whilst the bottom contained an excessive amount. The
lignin content range varies between 15% and 21.7%. The result are consistent with the fact that
the number of brous vascular bundles increases towards the peripheral region and thickening
of the older vascular bundles gives rise to the higher lignin content of the lower trunk. The ash
content also observed to be similar throughout the trunk with the range varies between 3.0%
and 3.3%.
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Important contribution of the further development of the chemical properties of oil palm trunk
were studies of free sugar and starch carried out by Sudin et al. [90]. Freshly felled oil palm
trunk may yield up to 10% free sugars and 25% starch. In advance, Hamilton and Ahmad [52]
reported that a total content of free sugars of 2 to 10% throughout the trunk height. The core regions were found to elaborate higher proportion of free sugars as shown by the methanol-water
extracts whilst the peripheral zones had the lowest. According to analysis by high performance
liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed sucrose, glucose and fructose as the three main free
sugars of the oil palm trunk. Further the authors indicated that analysis free sugar by acid hydrolysis of oil palm trunk produced higher amount of sugars, ranging between 48% and 70%.
Examination of the HPLC trace of the acid hydrolyzate showed the present of six sugar components namely glucose, xylose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, and rhamnose, with glucose
being the major component (35 to 48%) followed by xylose (11 to 16%).
On the basis of standard TAPPI of chemical analysis, Bakar et al. [10], using oil palm trunk of
Tenera variety, had also concluded that a gradual decrease in lignin content and cellulose from
peripheral zone to inner zone, whilst starch content were increased. Ash and silica contents
were found high value at the inner zone. The soluble analyses using hot water, cold water,
alcohol benzene and NaOH 1% were also found high proportions at the inner zone

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2.2.3 Characteristics of Rosin


Rosin is also known as colophony, yellow resin and abietic anhydride. It is obtained from Pinus
palustris and other species of Pinus pinaceae, as a residue after distilling off the volatile oil
from the oleoresin. Rosin can also be obtained from southern pine stumps, gum rosin exudes
from incisions in the living tree, Pinus palastris and Pinus caribaea and tall oil resin (liquid
rosin) [25].
It can have important uses for manufacturing varnish, soap, paint driers, printing inks, cements,
sealing wax, wood polishes, oor coverings, paper, plastics, greases, linoleum, otation agents,
asphalt emulsions and pharmaceutical ingredients (stiffening agent).
General Characteristics of Rosin
Rosin is the major product obtained from pine resin. It remains behind as the involatile residue
after distillation of the turpentine and is also known as colophony or colophonia resina from its
origin in Colophon, an ancient Ionic city. It is the resinous constituent of the oleo-resin exuded
by various species of pine, known in commerce as crude turpentine. The separation of the
oleo-resin into the essential oil-spirit of turpentine and common rosin is effected by distillation
in large copper stills. The essential oil is carried off at a temperature of between 100 C and
160 C, leaving uid rosin, which is run off through a tap at the bottom of the still, and puried
by passing through straining wadding [69].
Rosin varies in colour, according to the age of the tree from whence the turpentine is drawn
and the amount of heat applied in distillation, from an opaque almost pitchy black substance
through grades of brown and yellow to an almost perfectly transparent colourless glassy mass.
Base on rosin colour, the palest being the most desirable and designated WW (water-white).
This grade and the slightly lower grade WG (window-glass) are the most commonly traded
rosins. A superior grade, X, is sometimes offered. Darker grades are N, M, K, I, H and lower.
The notation follows the USDA colour scale for rosin which is used universally in international
trade [75].
Physical Characteristics of Rosin
Rosin is glassy solid, semi-transparent and varies in colour from yellow to black. It is insoluble
in water but soluble in many organic solvents. At room temperature it is brittle, but it melts at
stove-top temperatures [27].
Chemical Characteristics of Rosin
Rosin is chiey composed of about 90% resin acids and 10% neutral matter. Of the resin
acids, about 90% are isometric with abietic acid (C20 H30 O2 ), the other 10% is a mixture of
dihydroabietic acid (C20 H32 O2 ) and dehydroabietic acid (C20 H28 O2 ), with a molecular weight
of 302. Also it is readily fusible when heated, it has a density of 1.07-1.09, and is insoluble
in water, while being freely soluble in alcohol, benzene, ether, glacial acetic acid, oils, carbon
disulde, as well as being soluble in dilute solutions or xed alkali hydroxides. Rosin is very
ammable, burning with a smoky ame, so care should be taken when melting it. When melted
to a thick uid, it can be surprisingly ductile [18] [44]. The molecular structure detail of rosin
(colophony) is shown in Figure 2.2.
Olivares-Prez [80] stated that rosin is a composed of approximate constant percentiles of abietic acids, hydroabietics, neoabietics, priaric acid, levoprimaric acids and isoprimaric. Ninety
25

Chapter 2. Review of Related Literatures

2.2. Related Research Reviews

Fig. 2.2: Rosin basic structure monomer of the abietic acid

percent is made up of isometric abietic acids. With this information in order to simplify the
description process, that the abietic acid forms the rosin.
In a term applied to a naturally occurring solid resinous material obtained from pine trees, rosin
(colophony) is predominantly a mixture of resin acids belonging to one of four basic skeletal
classes: abietane, pimarane, isopimarane and labdane. The exact composition and properties of
the rosin depend on factors such as the species of timber, growth locality, recovery process and
method of preparation. Up to 10% of the rosin may also consist of other carboxylic acids and
non-acidic neutral compounds [85].
Rosin is a glass, rather than a crystalline solid, and the point at which is softens when heated
is referred to as the softening point (rather than melting point). A softening point in the range
70 80 C is usual, the higher end of the range representing the better quality. Several other
physico-chemical characteristics inuence the quality and these are largely dependent on the
species of pine from which the rosin is obtained, i.e., they are determined more by genetic than
environmental and processing factors [29]. The specication of rosin is presented in Table 2.6.

Origin

Colour

China
WW
Portugal
WW
Brazil
X/WW
Indonesia WW/WG

Tab. 2.6: Specication of rosin


Softening
Acid
Saponication
Point (oC) Number
Number
70-85
162-175
min. 70
165-171
171-177
70-78
155-170
165-185
75-78
160-200
170-210

Unsaponiable
Matter (%)
max. 7.5
4.3-5.5
max. 10
-

Source: Coppen and Hone [29]

Since rosin is an acidic material and the manufacturer of downstream derivatives depends on its
acid functionality, a high acid number (and saponication number) is also an indication of good
quality. The better quality rosins usually have an acid number in the range 160-170. Provided
that the acid number is high, the detailed resin acid composition of rosin is usually of little
consequence or interest to the end user. An exception is rosin derived from Pinus merkusii
which, because of the presence of a rather rare resin acid, has an acid number which is higher
than normal; it may reach 190 or more. The percentage of unsaponiable matter indicates the
amount of non-acidic material in the rosin, so the lower this value, the better; anything above
26

Chapter 2. Review of Related Literatures

2.2. Related Research Reviews

about 10% unsaponiable matter would be considered poorer quality rosin. The quality of rosin
is better compare to wood rosin which is produced by Harwick Chemical Corporation with acid
number about 150 and Unsaponiable Matter of about 8.1% [43].
Most rosin is used in a chemically modied form rather than in the raw state in which it is
obtained. It chiey consists of different resin acids, especially abietic acid. Abietic acid also
known as abietinic acid or sylvic acid is the primary irritant in pine, isolated from rosin via isomerization. Its ester is called an abietate. The chemical name of this acid is 13-isopropylpodocarpa -7,13-dien-15-oic acid with the molecular mass 302.44 g/mol, melting point 173 C, boiling point 250 C at 9 mmHg, yellow resinous powder, crystals or chunks forms. This intrinsic
acidity, coupled with other chemical properties, enables it to be converted to a large number of
downstream derivatives which are used in a wide range of applications. The derivatives include
salts, esters and maleic anhydride adducts, and hydrogenated, disproportionated and polymerized rosins [27].

27

3 Material and Methodology


In this chapter, the experimental was designed and explained systematically to provide a guidance for conducting the whole investigations of anatomical characteristics, wood zoning determination and reinforcement of oil palm wood with bioresin. Therefore, this chapter is divided
into two parts, i.e. material and methodology. In material section, it consists of material preparation, starting from trees selection to the specimen manufacturing, whilst the methodology
comprises the detail procedures to conduct the experiments.

3.1 Material
Oil Palm Wood
The oil palm plantations in Indonesia distribute in many islands, such as Sumatra, Kalimantan,
Java, Sulawesi and Irian Jaya. The oil palm wood for this study were taken from North Sumatra,
as shown in Figure 3.1. The sample trees are provided by IOPRI which are taken from Aek
Pancur oil palm plantation, Medan-Indonesia.
2

Fig. 3.1: Location of the research study where the oil palm trees collected

The 1978 estate was chosen as sampling area with the total area of about 5.1 hectares. This
estate consists of four different varieties of oil palm plant as shows in Table 3.1. The variety
of DxP was selected for experimental sample trees and ten trees were selected randomly from
two different plots area. Then, two trees are used for anatomical investigation and determining
29

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.1. Material

oil palm wood zoning and eight trees are chosen for producing wood-specimen in order to
investigate the physical, mechanical and machinery properties of oil palm wood. Basic data
including length and diameter of these ten oil palm trunks is presented in Table 3.2.
Tab. 3.1: Variety composition at the sampling area of oil palm plantation
Variety of plant
Number of plant
DxP
437
DyxP
247
DxD
34
DyxDy
14
Notes: D=Dura; P=Pisifera; Dy =Dura Dumpy
Sources: Data from Aek Pancur Plantation, 2005

Tab. 3.2: General data measurement of the length and diameter of the selected oil palm trunk
No. of tree Trunk Length (m)
Trunk Diameter (cm)
1
14
57
2
12
54
3
13
53
4
11.5
63
5
11
51
6
12
48
7
11
55
8
11
55
9
10.6
50
10
12
63
- Trunk length is measured from the trunk base until the 0.5 meter before the fronds
- Trunk diameter is measured at DBH

Bioresin
Besides the oil palm wood, the other material that used in this study is rosin or bioresin which
is derived from pine resin and used to reinforced the oil palm wood. The resin was tapped from
Pinus merkusii in Aek Nauli Plantation, North Sumatra and it was processed into rosin directly
by local resin company, but the author received 1 drum with weight approx. 25 kg of this material from CV. National1 . The obtained rosin was in glassy solid and semi transparent with the
yellow-brown light colour, as shown in Figure 3.2. according to the preliminary investigation
at Oleochemical Laboratory at IOPRI, this bioresin was brittle at room temperature (27 C), but
it melts at stove-top temperature with softening point starting at 75 C. Regarding the oil palm
wood reinforced bioresin treatment, acetone was used as the organic solvents for this bioresin.

This company is one of the representative re-seller of rosin in Medan, North Sumatra

30

3.1. Material

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

20 mm

Fig. 3.2: Glassy solid and semi-transparent bioresin which derived from pine resin Pinus
merkusii

3.1.1 Oil Palm Trunk Processing


In material preparation, all selected oil palm trees were felled manually using chainsaw. In
order to get the homogeneous lumbers, the bottom part of the trunk was marking based on the
visual colour-impression of vascular bundles distribution at transverse section. This was carried
out to dene initially the oil palm wood zoning. Further, eight trees were sawn and processed
into lumber. The dimension of lumbers were vary from 2.5 to 3.0 m in length and 10 to 25 cm
in width and various thick (6 to 10 cm) depend on the trunk condition. Lumbering process of
oil palm trunk using chainsaw is presented in Figure 3.3(a). The obtained lumbers were then
tagged or labeled and classied based on three different zones, i.e. inner, central and peripheral.
Further, the whole lumbers were transported to the local drying company2 as soon as possible
after lumbering process to dry the lumbers. The time between felling and drying was not more
12 hours to avoid the fungi attack. The obtained lumbers were dried until achieving the moisture
content (MC) of about 5 to 12%. This is carried out by applying the drying schedule which is
adopted directly from the drying company on the basis of their experience.
The remain two trees were then cut into several disks about 6 cm in thick with distance of one
meter each for the whole length of the trunk, as shown in Figure 3.3(b). In order to avoid fungal
attack, the obtained samples were then stored directly in refrigerator as soon as possible (not
more than 12 hours) after sawing process. Further, each disk sample was taken for counting
the vascular bundles to dene the oil palm wood zoning. This task was carried out manually
using simple apparatus and by helping of magnify glass. Detail process of this experiment is
described in Section 3.2.1.2.

PT. Ahlindo is one of the local drying company which has sufcient experiences in drying the oil palm wood

31

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

(a) Lumbering process of oil palm trunk using chainsaw

3.1. Material

(b) Oil palm disk samples for


wood zoning experiment

Fig. 3.3: Lumbering process and trunk disks of oil palm trunk using chainsaw
3.1.2 Wood Specimen Manufacturing
The manufacturing of wood specimen from oil palm wood was carried out by referring to standard testing methods, e.g. ASTM and DIN. According to ASTM Standard [3], there are two
methods of testing which can be used to evaluate the wood properties, i.e. primary method
and secondary method. These methods are used on the basic of wood condition, particularly
for wood from dicotyledon species due to the effect of growth rings which is inuenced by
earlywood and latewood differences in represent a considerable portion of the sampled material. Based on this regulation and due to the oil palm wood belongs to monocotyledon species,
which does not have a growth rings, and also the limited material available for wood specimen,
therefore most of testings and manufacturing of small clear specimen size from oil palm wood
were conducted and manufactured on the basic of secondary method, respectively.
The wood specimen from oil palm trunk for physical, mechanical and machinery properties
evaluation was produced by referring to ASTM [3], [4], [5] and DIN Standards [31], [30] and
the detail outline of wood specimen production is presented in Figure 3.4, whilst the shape and
dimension can be seen in Figure 3.9.
Detail of wood specimen (untreated and treated wood) including type of wood properties testing, standard testing used, number of specimen and its size, and from which part of the trunk
that the specimen has made, are presented in Table 3.3; 3.4; 3.5.

32

3.1. Material

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

Oil Palm Wood Specimen Production

10 oil palm trees, Variety of DxP


(randomly selected from 2 plot areas)

8 trees for oil palm trunk


properties investigation

2 trees for oil palm trunk


zone determination

Trimming & Lumbering

The trunks were trimmed with 3


meters in length and sawn into
lumber based on three different
zones (inner, central and
peripheral zone)

Lumber grouping

The obtained lumbers were then


classified into three group i.e.
inner (I); central (C) and
peripheral (P)

Drying & Conditioning

Oil palm lumbers were dried in


local wood drying company to
achieve the MC of about <12%
and conditioned for about 14
days under 20oC and 65% of RH

Specimen manufacturing

All specimen was manufactured


on the basis of the ASTM and DIN
standards. Most of the specimen
was taken from different height
positions i.e. 1; 3; 5; 7 and 9 meter
depends on the availability of
material.

Physical Testing
Specimens

Mechanical Testing
Specimens

Machinery Testing
Specimens

1. Moisture Content
2. Specific gravity
3. Shrinkage

1. Static bending
2. Shear Parallel to Grain
3. Hardness
4. Compression parallel
to Grain
5. Tension Parallel to Grain
6. Tension Perpendicular to
Grain
7. Cleavage
8. Nail Withdrawal

1. Cross cutting
2. Planning
3. Shaving
4. Mouldings
5. Boring

Each trunk was sawn into several


wood disks with the distance 1
meter each and 6 cm in thickness.

Each disk was further analyzed


by counting the number of
vascular bundles at transverse
section manually using help of
magnifying glass

All the obtained data of vascular


bundles distribution was analyzed
through the mathematical and
statistical approaches

Oil palm trunk zone

Fig. 3.4: Oil palm wood specimen outline for evaluating its wood characters and properties

33

34

S
Shrinkage
Mechanical Properties
D
Static Bending
(MOE & MOR)
E
Compression 
to grain
F
Hardness
G
Shear 
to grain
H
Cleavage
K
Tension 
to grain
L
Tension
to grain
M
Nail
Withdrawal
Machinery Properties
Machinery
Machinery

Physical Properties
A
Moisture
(green)
B
Density
IZ;CZ;PZ
IZ;CZ;PZ
PZ
IZ;CZ;PZ
IZ;CZ;PZ
PZ
PZ
PZ
PZ

IZ
CZ;PZ

2;3;5;6
1;3;5;7;9
1;3;5;7;9
1;3;5;7;9
1;3;5;7;9
1;3;5;7;9
1;3;5;7;9
1;3;5;7;9
1;3;5;7;9

1; 3; 5
1; 3; 5

1;2;3;4;5;6;7 IZ;CZ;PZ
8;9;10;11;12
1;3;5;7;9
IZ;CZ;PZ

3
5

5
5

5
5

10

D 1666-90
D 1666-90

D 143-94

D 143-94

D 143-94
D 143-94

D 143-94
D 143-94

D 143-94

D 143-94

100x10x5
100x10x5

50x40x100

50x50x63

50x50x100
460 in length

50x50x150
50x50x63

25x25x100

25x25x410

D 2016-94 50x50x35
DIN 52 183
D 2016-94 30x30x30
DIN 52 183
D 143-94
150x50x35

9
30

25

25

25
25

75
75

25

75

60

150

207

Tab. 3.3: Specimen of oil palm trunk for the untreated wood (control)
Code of
Wood Properties
Trunk
Wood
RepliStandard
Dimension Number of
Specimen
Testing
Height (m)
Zoning
cation
Testing
(mm)
Specimen

at 12 m
3 replication
-

Remark

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.1. Material

Tab. 3.4: Specimen of oil palm trunk for bioresin reinforcement using heat technique experiment
Code of
Wood Properties
Trunk
Wood
Impregnation Repli- Standard
Dimension Number of Remark
Specimen
Testing
Height (m)
Zoning
Time (s)
cation
Testing
(mm)
Specimen
Mechanical Properties
D
Static Bending
1;3;5;7;9 IZ;CZ;PZ
150;300
5
D 143-94 25x25x410
150
(MOE & MOR)
E
Compression 
1;3;5;7;9
PZ
150;300
5
D 143-94 25x25x100
50
to grain
F
Hardness
1;3;5;7;9 IZ;CZ;PZ
150;300
5
D 143-94 50x50x150
150
G
Shear 
1;3;5;7;9 IZ;CZ;PZ
150;300
5
D 143-94 50x50x63
150
to grain
H
Cleavage
1;3;5;7;9
PZ
150;300
5
D 143-94 50x50x100
50
K
Tension 
1;3;5;7;9
PZ
150;300
5
D 143-94 460 in length
50
to grain
L
Tension
1;3;5;7;9
PZ
150;300
5
D 143-94 50x50x63
50
to grain
M
Nail
1;3;5;7;9
PZ
150;300
5
D 143-94 50x40x100
50
Withdrawal
Machinery Properties
Machinery
1; 3; 5
IZ
150
3
D 1666-90 100x10x5
9
Machinery
1; 3; 5
CZ;PZ
150
5
D 1666-90 100x10x5
30
-

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.1. Material

35

36

Code of
Wood Properties
Specimen
Testing
Mechanical Properties
D
Static Bending
(MOE & MOR)
E
Compression 
to grain
F
Hardness
G
Shear 
to grain
H
Cleavage
K
Tension 
to grain
L
Tension
to grain
M
Nail
Withdrawal

Wood
Zoning
IZ;CZ;PZ
PZ
IZ;CZ;PZ
IZ;CZ;PZ
PZ
PZ
PZ
PZ

Trunk
Height (m)
3;5;7
3;5;7
3;5;7
3;5;7
3;5;7
3;5;7
3;5;7
3;5;7

24;48

24;48

24;48
24;48

24;48
24;48

24;48

24;48

Impregnation
Time (h)

10;20

10;20

10;20
10;20

10;20
10;20

10;20

10;20

3
3

3
3

Concen- Replitration (%) cation

25x25x100

25x25x410

Dimension
(mm)

D 143-94

D 143-94

50x40x100

50x50x63

D 143-94 50x50x100
D 143-94 460 in length

D 143-94 50x50x150
D 143-94 50x50x63

D 143-94

D 143-94

Standard
Testing

Tab. 3.5: Specimen of oil palm trunk for bioresin reinforcement using chemical technique experiment

36

36

36
36

108
108

36

108

Number of
Specimen

Remark

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.1. Material

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.2. Methodology

3.2 Methodology
Research methodology was guiding and conducting all activities during the experimental works,
both in the eld and laboratory, on the basis of the research methods or procedures which were
referring to the standard of analysis. It was also describing and explaining each research activities based on the standard testing and requirement, such as American Standard Testing Method
(ASTM) and German Standard (DIN). Starting from the determination of sampling area, tree
selection, tree measurement, trunk processing such as felling, lumbering, transporting, drying
and specimen manufacturing, etc., oil palm wood reinforcement and nally the experimental
data analysis. Therefore, the methodology was divided into several parts as follows: (1) Characterization of oil palm wood; (2) Reinforcement techniques of oil palm wood with bioresin;
(3) Wood properties testing of oil palm wood; and (4) Experimental data analysis. The research
frame is presented in Figure 3.5 which illustrates all experiments to achieve the objectives of
this study.
In order to do all experimental activities, several equipment were used. In this study, the equipment used is grouped into eld, workshop and laboratory equipments. Field equipment was
used for helping the eld work activities, starting from felling the trees until transporting the oil
palm lumbers. They are chainsaw, axe, machete, lumber labeling kit, and etc. Whilst, portable
circular saw, portable planner, portable sander, and others wood working kit were used at workshop, especially for preparing the oil palm wood specimen. Further, the impregnation tank,
thermometer, moisture meter, soaking box, and laboratory apparatus were used in laboratory
during the reinforcement of oil palm wood.

37

3.2. Methodology

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

Research Frame of Oil Palm Wood


Oil Palm Wood
Stage
Height (m): 1; 3; 5; 7; 9

Processing into specimen

Depth (zone): peripheral (P);


central (C); Inner (I)

Untreated Specimen
(Control)

Treated specimen

Technique 1
(high temperature)

Stage 1

(refer to specimen production outline)

Technique 2
(chemical)

Binding agent (R): Bioresin


Solvent: Acetone
Concentration: 10 & 20%
Temperature (T): 25-27oC
Impregantion time (t): 24 & 48 hours

Treated specimen 1

Treated specimen 2

Physical Testing
Specimens

Mechanical Testing
Specimens

1. Moisture Content
2. Specific gravity
3. Water Absorption and
Dimensional Swelling
4. Shrinkage

1. Static bending
2. Compression Parallel to
Grain
3. Compression perpendicular
to Grain
4. Hardness
5. Shear Parallel to Grain
6. Cleavage
7. Tension Parallel to Grain
8. Tension Perpendicular to
Grain
9. Nail Withdrawal

Machinery Testing
Specimens
1. Cross cutting
2. Planning
3. Shaving
4. Mouldings
5. Boring

Control specimen

Structural & Anatomical


Study
- Anatomy (macroscopy
and microscopy)
- Zone Determination

Analysis, Evaluation and Comparison of Oil Palm Wood Properties


between Treated and Untreated Woods
Note:
- Stage 1: Material preparation (manufacturing and grouping specimen based on the trunk height and depth (zone))
- Stage 2: Experimental treatments of oil palm wood
- Stage 3: Testing of oil palm wood based on standard testing methods (ASTM & DIN)
- Stage 4: Analysis, evaluation and comparison of the obtained experimental data

Fig. 3.5: Research frame of oil palm wood investigation

38

Stage 3

Treatment Condition

Stage 4

Treatment Condition
Binding agent (R): Bioresin
Temperature (T): 180oC
Impregantion time (t): 150 & 300 seconds

Stage 2

Preliminary
research

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.2. Methodology

3.2.1 Characterization of Oil Palm Wood


Oil palm wood characteristics were investigated including anatomical investigation by visual
observation using both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, particularly to investigate the wood components structure, such as vascular bundle structure, bres, vessel and
parenchymatous tissue arrangement. Besides wood anatomy of oil palm, the wood zoning of
this monocotyledons species was also investigated due to the heterogeneity of wood toward the
central point of the trunk. Therefore in this section, the research methodology is divided into
two parts, i.e. anatomical investigation and wood zoning determination.
3.2.1.1 Anatomical Investigation of Oil Palm Wood
Investigation of wood anatomy was carried out in Wood Laboratory at Forstnutzung, Dresden
University of Technology. Whilst, the dried wood of oil palm was prepared in Wood and Composite Laboratory at IOPRI, Indonesia.
General characteristics of OPW was investigated consisting colour and grain. Colour of OPW
was identied and examined visually by naked eyes. Tsoumis [93] stated that change of colour
of wood may take place soon after felling trees or after sawing green logs to lumber. Refer
to the relative size and proportion of vascular bundles and other wood elements as seen with
the naked eyes, the texture of OPW was also dened especially to describe the differentiate
between peripheral, central ad inner zones at transverse section of the trunk. Further, dening
the degree of vascular bundles uniformity which appearances at longitudinal view of trunk, was
also visually identied to dene the direction of vascular bundles arrangement.
Macroscopic features of oil palm wood were investigated by visual observation on several
pieces of wood-disk of oil palm trunk and also directly on the standing trees. Wood component identication, vascular bundles and parenchymatous tissue distribution were conducted by
helping a hand lens, further the colour and grain direction were also observed visually.
More detail structure of oil palm wood was carried out using light microscopy and scanning
electron microscopy. The maceration technique was adopted to macerate the vascular bundle
and its components. To record the microscopic structure of wood component, Nikon Coolpix
990 complete with special adapter to attach the microscope was used in this experiment. In order
to record the wood component at ultra-structure level, scanning electron microscopy was used,
especially to observe the vascular bundle structures and its component, such as parenchyma
cells, brous strands, tracheary elements, metaxylem and etc.
3.2.1.2 Wood Zoning Determination of Oil Palm
In order to develop the oil palm trunk processing through the improvement of homogeneity of
oil palm lumber and also to get more homogeny specimens for this study, the trunks were sawn
on the basis of vascular bundles distribution at transverse sectional view. In 1985, Killmann
and Choon [65] published their experimental result that the oil palm wood is divided into three
zones, i.e. inner, central and peripheral zone. Further, the position of each regions is not dened
yet. To dene the above mentioned zones at transverse section of the trunk, the author conducted
this experiment, namely wood zoning determination. It is done through the determination of oil
palm wood zone based on distribution vascular bundles population density from central point to
39

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.2. Methodology

outer part of the trunk. Two assumption were proposed in this experiment with regards to total
area of sampling and the size and form of sampling those shall be taken into consideration in
order to achieve the representative sample for analysis.
Consider to the above conditions, the proposed assumptions in this experiment are:
Assumption 1 total area of samplings is not less than 10% of the area of oil palm
wood without bark at transverse section,
Assumption 2 sampling form is spherical form with the diameter of sampling is
approximately ten millimeters.
The experiment was carried out through the following steps:
1. Dening the representative wood disk samples,
2. Mathematical calculation and analysis for dening the vascular bundle distribution from
the central point to the outer part of the trunk at transverse sectional view,
3. Statistical analysis for dening position or border-line of the oil palm wood zone at transverse sectional view.
Dening representative wood-disk samples
The wood samples were sawn from several positions along the trunk with the distance of about
100 cm from one sample to another (Figure 3.3(b)). This sample was taken from the trunk in
the form of wood disk, which was cut perpendicularly to grain direction. Whilst the sampling
form in this experiment was spherical with the diameter of about 10 mm as mentioned in the
above assumptions. The illustration how the oil palm wood-disk samples those were taken from
the trunk is presented in Figure 3.6.
Determining wood zoning based on vascular bundles distribution
The aim in this part is to determine the zone of oil palm wood based on vascular bundle distribution from the central point to the outer part of the trunk. Two steps of analysis are applied in
this experiment, i.e.: mathematical and statistical analysis.
The mathematical analysis was carried out to dene the number of representative samplings
shall be drawn on the wood-disk sample, as illustrated in the Figure 3.7. Further, this analysis
was also used to dene the distance of sampling series, which was drawn from the central
point to the outer part of the trunk. Based on this approach, practically each sampling was
drawn using special ruler with spherical holes 10 mm and the vascular bundles were counted
manually using help of magnifying glass, as shown in Figure 3.8. The distribution of vascular
bundles was then analyzed based on the obtained data of population density of vascular bundles
per square centimeter. Population in this term is referring to the number of vascular bundles
that presence in the spherical sampling. The complete of mathematical analysis of wood zoning
is presented in Appendix B.
After dening the above mentioned variables (number of sampling and distance of sampling
series), the statistical analysis was applied to determined the zone position of oil palm wood at
transverse section of the trunk. This analysis was conducted on the basis of average values of
40

3.2. Methodology

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
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wood disk sample

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dbh
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Fig. 3.6: Wood-disk samples for determining the wood zoning of oil palm at transverse sectional
view, where ht is trunk height and hm is merchantable height

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Dfb
Db

Fig. 3.7: Position of sampling series for dening the distribution and population of vascular
bundles at transverse sectional view (where, Rm is sampling series along the average
radius of the wood disk sample; Smn is number of vascular bundle at the sampling
series m and sampling position n); Db is trunk diameter with bark; and Df b is trunk
diameter without bark

41

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.2. Methodology

Fig. 3.8: Manually counting of vascular bundles at transverse section of wood-disk using special
ruler with spherical-holes line and using help of a magnifying glass

vascular bundles populations density. It was analyzed by using the several statistical tests, such
as homogeneity test of variance, analysis of variance, mean comparison analysis and one-way
ANOVA including post hoc multiple comparison test, and univariate analysis. This operation
runs by using SPSS v15.0. The complete of statistical analysis of wood zoning is presented in
Appendix C.

3.2.2 Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques of Oil Palm Wood


Concerning the improvement of wood utilization, modied wood have been growing steadily
in importance because of unusual properties and beauty of the nished product. The properties
and even the appearance of the modied wood are largely dependent on the actual physical
and chemical methods used in manufacture. In this study, reinforcement of oil palm wood
with bioresin was one of effort to improve its utilization. The wood specimens were treated
with bioresin to improve its physical, mechanical and machinery properties. Two methods or
techniques of bioresin reinforcement were tested in this study, i.e. high temperature technique
and chemical technique. These methods were referred to the standard specication of modied
wood [6] through the impregnation process of bioresin. In order to reach the optimum experimental condition, the experiment was previously conducted at preliminary experiment and
continued to the main experiment using the optimum condition. The wood reinforced bioresin
process was carried out through the following process:
Using the heat technique, the wood specimen was submerged into hot liquid of bioresin in
impregnation tank at 180 C, the air vapour of wood evaporates directly due to different air
pressure between wood and liquid, and at the same time, the liquid penetrated into the specimen
immediately through the intercellular cavities of wood. When the specimen taken out from the
tank, the bioresin liquid in the wood specimen becomes harden and thermoset until the room
temperature was achieved. The chemical technique of bioresin reinforcement was carried out
42

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.2. Methodology

using similar procedure, but it runs in bioresin soluble in acetone at room temperature of about
27 to 30 C.
The experiment was divided into three groups of treatment and refer to the research frame (see
Figure 3.5), i.e.:
Group 1: Untreated Wood or simply UW, where the specimen was tested without any
treatment,
Group 2: Bioresin Heat Technique, where the specimen was treated with bioresin at
180 C and various impregnation time, e.g. 150 and 300 seconds,
Group 3: Bioresin Chemical Technique, where the specimen was treated with bioresin
soluble in acetone at various concentration (10 and 20%) and impregnation time (24 and
48 hours).
The untreated specimens (control) were prepared at the following conditions:
Material: oil palm trunk (MC 5-10%)
Trunk height: 1; 3; 5; 7 and 9 meter
Wood zoning: IZ (inner zone); CZ (central zone) and PZ (peripheral zone)
Replication: 5 times
Physical test: Moisture; density; and shrinkage
Mechanical test: static bending (MOE and MOR); shear parallel to grain, hardness, compression parallel to grain; tension parallel to grain; tension perpendicular to grain; cleavage, and nail withdrawal
Machinery test: cross cutting; planning; shaving; moulding; and boring
Total specimen: 806 pieces
3.2.2.1 Heat Technique of Reinforcement
In this technique, the treatment was run at high temperature. Three different temperatures were
applied in preliminary experiment,i.e. 120; 150; 180 C. According to the obtained result, the
optimum heat for bioresin was reached at temperature 180 C. Further, the treatment condition
at main experiment was conducted at temperature of 180 C; two different impregnating time
(150 and 300 seconds) for all specimens (physical, mechanical and machinery tests).
Summary of the experiment conditions:
Material: oil palm trunk (MC 5-10%)
Trunk height: 1; 3; 5; 7 and 9 meter
Wood zoning: IZ (inner zone); CZ (central zone) and PZ (peripheral zone)
43

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.2. Methodology

Temperature: 180 C
Impregnation time: 150; 300 seconds
Replication: 5 times
Physical test: Moisture; density; shrinkage
Mechanical test: static bending (MOE and MOR); shear parallel to grain, hardness, compression parallel to grain; tension parallel to grain; tension perpendicular to grain; cleavage, and nail withdrawal
Machinery test: cross cutting; planning; shaving; moulding; boring
Total specimen: 739 pieces
3.2.2.2 Chemical Technique of Reinforcement
Similar to the previous technique, the chemical technique of reinforcement was carried out
the preliminary experiment previously to achieve the optimum condition of the treatment process. Three different solvents were examined to select the proper solvent for bioresin, including
methanol, ethanol and acetone. According to the preliminary result, the acetone was selected
as proper organic solvent for bioresin. Further, the experimental condition of the treatment is
presented below:
Material: oil palm trunk (MC 5-10%)
Trunk height: 3; 5; 7 meter
Wood zoning: IZ (inner zone); CZ (central zone) and PZ (peripheral zone)
Temperature: room temperature
Impregnation time: 24; 48 hours
Replication: 3 times
Physical test: Moisture; density; shrinkage
Mechanical test: static bending (MOE and MOR); shear parallel to grain, hardness, compression parallel to grain; tension parallel to grain; tension perpendicular to grain; cleavage, and nail withdrawal
Total specimen: 504 pieces

44

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.2. Methodology

3.2.3 Oil Palm Wood Properties Investigation


Due to the unique of wood properties of oil palm trunk in comparison with the common woods,
where the oil palm wood has a great variety of density along the trunk, very susceptible to fungal attack, and difculties of wood-working process, hence the following important properties
including physical, mechanical, and machinery properties were tested and examined based on
ASTM and DIN standards. On the basic of ASTM procedure which was described in Section
3.1.2, most of the wood properties investigation were done through the secondary methods,
which referred to ASTM D 143-94 [3].
3.2.3.1 Physical Properties
Physical properties of oil palm wood were investigated, including moisture content, density
(specic gravity) and shrinkage. The testing was carried out referred to ASTM D 143-94 Standard methods of testing small clear specimens of timber [3], ASTM D 2016-94 [4] - Test
methods for moisture content of wood, and DIN 52 183 - Normen ber Holz - Bestimmung des
Feuchtigkeitsgehaltes [31].
Moisture content
At least two groups of wood specimen were used to investigate the moisture content, i.e. green
wood and dry wood of oil palm. The green wood specimen was taken from the trunk immediately after felling process or directly storing in refrigerator before measuring the moisture
content. The green moisture of oil palm wood was measured to determine the initial moisture content based on their position along the trunk and also their position over the transverse
section. Dry wood specimen was taken from the dried oil palm wood after drying process in
local drying company. The dry moisture content was measured to examine the initial moisture
content of oil palm wood for evaluating the mechanical and machinery properties.
The sample for moisture determination of each test specimen was selected randomly according
to their zones. After weighing, the specimens were dried at a temperature of 103 2 C until
approximately the constant mass was attained, after which the oven-dry mass was determined
[4]. According to DIN 52 183 [31], it was done by drying and weighing for at least three times,
i.e. after 24 hours; 6 hours and 2 hours. The specimen size was approx. 50 mm (length) x 50
mm (width) x 35 mm (height) as shown in Figure 3.9a. The moisture content was calculated
using the following formula:


MC =

BB
x100%
B

(3.1)


Where, M C is moisture content in (%); B is specimen weight at green condition in g; B is


specimen weight after drying in g.
Density
The wood density of oil palm was determined on the basic of dried specimen using archimedes
method. The specimen size was approx. 30x30x30 mm (Figure 3.9b). The wood specimens
were dried at a temperature of 103 2 C until approximately the constant mass was attained
[4][31]. After oven-drying, the specimens were weighed and immersed them in a hot parafn
bath, and removed the specimen quickly to ensure a thin coating. Further, the volume of the
45

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.2. Methodology

parafn-coated specimen was measured by immersion in millimeter glass. Finally, the wood
density was calculated using the following formula:
=

Wovendry
Vovendry

(3.2)

Where, is density in g/cm3 ; Wovendry is specimen weight after drying in g ; and Vovendry is
specimen volume after drying in cm3 .
Shrinkage
This wood feature was determined based on shrinkage-in-volume of the oil palm wood. The
dimension of green specimen was measured and dried at temperature of 103 2 C until approximately the constant mass was reached [3][30]. The volume of the dried specimen was
determined using archimedes method as similar as in density determination procedure (see Figure 3.9c). The volumetric shrinkage was calculated using the following formula:
Sv =

Vgreen Vovendry
x 100%
Vgreen

(3.3)

Where, Sv is volumetric shrinkage in percent; Vgreen is volume of specimen in green condition


in cm3 ; and Vovendry is volume of specimen after drying in cm3 .
3.2.3.2 Mechanical Properties
Mechanical properties of oil palm wood was tested through the following properties i.e. static
bending strength including modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR), shear
strength parallel to grain, hardness strength, compression strength parallel to grain, tension
strength parallel and perpendicular to grain, cleavage strength and nail withdrawal resistance
testings. All testings were done on the basic of ASTM D 143-94 [3] and all the specimen form
and size is presented in Figure 3.9.
Static Bending
The static bending test specimen was made on 25x25x410 mm (see Figure 3.9d) referring to
secondary method. Loading span and support were used center loading and a span length of
360 mm for the secondary method. This span were established in order to maintain a minimum
span-to-depth ratio of 14. Both supporting knife edge were provided with bearing plates and
rollers of such thickness that the distance from the point of support to the central plane was not
greater than the depth of the specimen. The load was applied continuously throughout the test
at a rate of motion of the movable crosshead of 1.3 mm/min.
Shear Strength Parallel to Grain
The shear strength parallel to grain test was made on 50x50x63 mm (see Figure 3.9e). The load
was applied to the specimen on end-grain surfaces. The edges of the specimen were vertical
and the end rest evenly on the support over the contact area. The load was run continuously
throughout the test at a rate motion of the movable crosshead 0.6 mm/min.
Hardness Strength
The hardness test was carried out using the modied ball test with a ball 11.3 mm in diameter.
The projected area of the ball on the test specimen was 1 cm2 . The load was recorded at which
46

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.2. Methodology

the ball has penetrated to one half its diameter. This test was done on 50x50x150 mm specimens
(Figure 3.9f). Two sides were tested for each specimen, one at tangential surface and another at
radial surface.
Compression Strength Parallel to Grain
Compression strength parallel to grain was carried out on 25x25x100 mm specimen (Figure
3.9g) and the load was applied through a metal bearing plate 50 mm in width placed across the
upper surface of the specimen at equal distances from the ends and right angles to the length.
It was applied continuously throughout the test at a rate of motion of the movable crosshead of
0.305 mm/min.
Tension Strength Parallel to Grain
The tension strength parallel to grain was conducted on the specimen of the size and shape
accordance with Figure 3.9h. The load was applied continuously throughout the test at a rate of
1 mm/min.
Tension Perpendicular to Grain
The tension strength perpendicular to grain was conducted on the specimen of the size and
shape accordance with Figure 3.9i. The load was applied continuously throughout the test at a
rate of 2.5 mm/min.
Cleavage Strength
The cleavage test was carried out on specimens of the form and size in accordance with Figure
3.9j. The load was applied continuously throughout the test at a rate of 2.5 mm/min.
Nail Withdrawal
This test was carried out on specimen of the form and size as shown in Figure 3.9k. Nails
used for withdrawal tests were 2.5 mm in diameter with bright diamond point of nails. All
nails was cleaned before use to remove any coating or surface lm that might be present as a
result of manufacturing operations. Each nail was used only once. The nail was driven at right
angle to the face of the specimen to a total penetration of 32 mm. Two nails were driven on a
tangential surface, two on a radial surface and one on end. In general, nails should not be driven
closer than 19 mm from the edge or 38 mm from the end of a piece. Two nails on a radial or
tangential surface were not be driven in line with each other or less than 50 mm apart. The load
was applied continuously throughout the test at a rate of motion of the movable crosshead of 2
mm/min.

47

3.2. Methodology

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

50 mm

(b) Density

(a) Moisture

50 mm

50

30 mm

m
m

m
m

30 mm
30

50

35 mm

m
m

150 mm

(c) Shrinkage

50 mm

63 mm

m
m

25

25 mm

m
m

410 mm

20

(d) Static bending

m
m
50

50

50 mm

50 mm

150 mm

(e) Shear // to grain


25

25 mm

100 mm

(f) Hardness

4.8 mm

50 mm

9.5 mm

25 mm

460 mm

100 mm

50

50 mm

50

63 mm

50 mm

(h) Tension // to grain

25 mm

(g) Compression // to grain

6 mm

76 mm

6 mm

13 mm

(j) Cleavage

13 mm

50

40 mm

to grain

(i) Tension

100 mm

(k) Nail withdrawal

Fig. 3.9: Specimen shape and dimension made from oil palm wood for investigating the physical
and mechanical properties. Specimen a. moisture; b. density; c. shrinkage; d. static
bending; e. shear  to grain; f. hardness; g. compression  to grain; h. tension  to
grain; i. tension to grain; j. cleavage; and k. nail withdrawal
.
48

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.2. Methodology

3.2.3.3 Machinery Properties


The investigation and evaluation of machinery properties of oil palm wood was done by the
responsible person who has good credibility and sufcient experiences in evaluating machining
or wood-working properties of woods. Therefore, the testing was done under controlling and
monitoring the competent person. This study was conducted at Bogor Agricultural University,
West Java, Indonesia. The machinery properties testings were evaluate under supervising by
Dr. Wayan Darmawan1 . The machinery properties were tested referring to ASTM Standard D
1666-90 [7]. This methods cover procedures for cross cutting, planning, shaving, moulding and
boring. The material for testing was in the form of lumber with various specimen sizes depend
on the applied testings.
According to the above mentioned standard, the specimen size for machining test was 100 cm
in length by 10 cm in width by 5 cm in thick, with the average moisture content of about 8%
and they were taken from different trunk height (1; 3 and 5 m) and wood zoning (inner, central
and peripheral zone).
Several machining tests of wood were conducted in this study, comprising:
Cross cutting was carried out using rotary-bandsaw under the condition of spindle speed
450 rpm, speed 2 m/min with the cutting length and thick of about 100 and 20 mm,
respectively.
Planning was conducted using Thicknezer machine under condition of spindle 3000 rpm,
speed 2 m/min with planning thickness 2 mm.
Shaving and Moulding were conducted using Shaper machine under condition of spindle
speed 5500 rpm, speed 2 m/min with grove and thickness of 12 and 10 mm, respectively. The grove and moulding were cut parallel to grain.
Boring was done using a single-spindle electric machine equipped with power feed. The
bit was about 25 mm size of the single-twist, solid-center brad point and the sharpening
lightly at intervals of not more that 1 hour of work. The borer was run at a spindle of 3600
rpm and the rate of boring was reached low enough to enable the drill to cut the rather
than tear through the specimen. Two holes were bored for each specimen.

He is an associate Professor of Wood Science and Technology, Department of Forest Product, Faculty of
Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

49

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.2. Methodology

3.2.4 Experimental Data Analysis


The experimental data was calculated and analyzed using the statistical data analysis for better interpretation and understanding of the wood properties of oil palm. The statistical data
analysis was run using help of the computer statistical program, namely SPSS v15.0 [78] [70].
Mathematical and statistical analysis were designed used depend on the experiment condition.
Therefore, one to the other analysis was different.
Generally, complete randomized design analysis of variance (ANOVA) was chosen in this study
and refer to the research frame (see Figure 3.5). Several analysis were also used to asses the
treatment condition and in comparison to the untreated wood specimen, such as compare mean,
analysis of variance and continued with the analysis of post-hoc test through the Duncans or
Thamhanes tests [32].
In Section 4.1.2, the obtained data was analyzed to determined the position of every zone from
central point to the outer part of the trunk and dening the border line values of each zone on
the basis of distribution of vascular bundles population density. The vascular bundle population
density means that the number of vascular bundles in certain area at transverse section of the
trunk. According to the original condition of the trunk, number of vascular bundles increases
from the central point to the outer part, therefore, the compare mean analysis through the homogeneity test was used to examine the homogeneity data, previously. Then, the analysis of
variance was carried out to dene the mean values of vascular bundle population density in
certain area of sampling at certain position. This was analyzed by F-test or probability analysis.
In order to dene the position of inner, central and peripheral zones, the analysis was continued with the Post-Hoc multiple comparison test. There are two alternatives in this test, if the
variance of vascular bundles density is equal at certain positions, then the Post-Hoc test was
analyzed using Least Signicant Different test or Duncans test. If it is not equal or unequal,
the Post-Hoc test was analyzed using Tamhanes T2 test.
In Section 4.2, the obtained experimental data was analyzed using ANOVA analysis and continued with the regression analysis in order to investigate the distribution and relation of oil
palm properties (physical, mechanical and machinery) at different height and depth positions of
the trunk. In Section 4.3, the reinforcement data was analyzed using Completely randomized
factorial design analysis to investigate the inuence of level of bioresin treatment to the wood
properties of oil palm.
3.2.5 Scope, Location and Limitation of Research
Scope of Research
The research was conducted to investigate the characteristics of oil palm wood including anatomical, physical, mechanical and machinery properties. Further, the investigation was focusing on
the improvement of the above properties of oil palm wood using bioresin reinforcement techniques, both heat and chemical.
Location of Research
The experimental activities were carried out both at the Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute
(IOPRI), Indonesia and the Institute of Forest Utilization and Forest Technology (Forstnutzung),
Technische Universitt Dresden (TUD), Deutschland.
50

Chapter 3. Material and Methodology

3.2. Methodology

Limitation of Research
This study was limited only to the oil palm wood (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) variety of DxP as
main material for the experimental analysis and bioresin derived from pine resin was used
as a ller and binding agent to improve wood properties of oil palm. The investigation was
conducted on the physical, mechanical and machinery properties of oil palm wood, both the
untreated and treated wood with bioresin.

51

4 Results and Discussion


The results and discussions in this study were collected and dened on the basic of visual
observation, laboratory test and analysis, and later the obtained data was analyzed using mathematical calculation and statistical analysis for a better interpretation and easily understanding
of the experimental results. This chapter was divided into ve sections:
Section 4.1 Characteristics of oil palm wood, including macroscopic and microscopic anatomy.
It describes intensively the anatomical aspects of oil palm wood, including its features and
components.
Section 4.2 Wood zoning determination, due to very heterogeneity in characteristics and
properties of oil palm wood along the trunk height and depth. Hence, it is necessary to
improve its homogeneity by dening the population and distribution of vascular bundles
over the transverse section of the trunk.
Section 4.3 Properties of oil palm wood which is divided into three parts, i.e. (1) Physical properties (moisture content, density and volumetric shrinkage); (2) Mechanical
properties (static bending strength (modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture), shear
strength parallel to grain, hardness strength, compression strength parallel to grain, tension strength parallel and perpendicular to grain, cleavage strength and nail withdrawal
resistance; and (3) Machinery properties (cross cutting, planning, shaving and moulding,
and boring).
Section 4.4 Evaluation of bioresin reinforcement techniques (heat and chemical) in order to
improve the wood properties in comparison to untreated wood properties.
Section 4.5 Proving hypothesis and research outlook.

4.1 Characteristics Oil Palm Wood


This study was emphasis in the detail investigation with regards to anatomical of oil palm wood
and determination of wood zoning of oil palm wood at transverse sectional view. The anatomical of oil palm wood was conducted both macroscopic and microscopic observations. Special
attention on microscopic structure of oil palm wood was paid to provide the sufcient information of its wood components, such as vascular bundle, bre and parenchymatous cell structures.
This was carried out using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Early work in anatomical aspects of some species of palms has been reported by Parthasaranthy
and Klotz [82], further the characteristics of oil palm stem has been conducted by Choon et al.
[21], basically Hartley [53] has also investigated the development of the stem and stem apex.
Whilst, determination of wood zoning of oil palm wood at transverse section was done to dene
its zone based on the population of vascular bundles toward the central point of the trunk. This
study was particularly to improve its homogeneity in production of oil palm lumber concerning
very heterogenous properties of this wooded material.
53

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Characteristics Oil Palm Wood

4.1.1 Macroscopic Oil Palm Wood Structure


Macroscopic characteristics are the features which are visible with the naked eyes or using a
magnifying glass with capability of magnifying 2-3 times. According to the visual observation
of oil palm wood, the trunk shape at transverse section is normally circular and two parts may
be distinguished e.g. the main part of the trunk and the cortex and bark, as shown in Figure 4.1.

Main part

Cortex
Bark

Fig. 4.1: Oil palm trunk at transverse section consists of the main part of the trunk and the cortex
and bark

Concentrating on the main part of oil palm wood at transverse section, this part consists of
brownish to blackish points or dots and they spread over the trunk. This component was intensively increasing in quantity from central point to outer part and predicted as main component
to support structural features of the trunk. According to Parthasarathy and Klotz in 1976, it is
namely vascular bundle. Visual observation on dried sample resulted that wood colour from
central to outer part degraded from brownish to blackish. This occur caused of different population density of vascular bundles toward the central point. It can be predicted the reasons why
the oil palm wood has different physical and mechanical properties toward the central point, as
mentioned by Bakar et al. [10][9], Killmann and Choon [65], and Lim and Khoo [73]. Because of this wood structural system, in drying process, the wood defects are mostly occurred
between vascular bundles and parenchymatous tissues. According visual investigation by both
air-drying (under shelter) and kiln-drying were identied that the wood was suffer from various
defects, such as collapse, twisting, warping, check and raised grain, especially the area around
central point of the trunk.
No pith was observed, but further in order to analysis requirement of the trunk, the pith1 was
dened as central point of the trunk. Cortex wide was approx. 24.9 mm ranging from 15 to 31
(Table 4.1). This component attached at the outer part of the trunk which composed of ground
parenchyma and longitudinal brous strands. On the basic of wood zoning determination (see
1

pith is addressing to the term of center point of the trunk, because naturally this palm does not have a pith

54

4.1. Characteristics Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Section 4.2), main part of wood was divided into three different zone, e.g. inner zone (IZ),
central zone (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ) consider to their population density of vascular
bundles per unit area.
Peripheral zone is located at the outer part of the trunk, before bark and cortex. It was the
hardest part of the trunk. This zone normally comprises high amount of wood bres in the
form of vascular bundles system, which is essential for supporting the structural features,
such as mechanical strength of the standing trees. The vascular bundles in this zone were
congested and the space or area of parenchymatous tissue was less narrow than the others
zones. The vascular bundles orientation in this zone was oriented to the center point of
the trunk, as shown in Figure 4.2, but it was only 10 to 15 mm in thickness and based on
visual observation, this part was usually darker than the other parts.
Central zone is comprised slightly larger and wider vascular bundles and area of this zone is
larger compared to the others zones. Almost more than 50% of total area of the trunk at
transverse sectional view belong to this zone. The orientation of vascular bundles in this
zone was random.
Inner zone is only 20 to 25% of the total area and it consisted high content of parenchyma
cells and moisture. The number vascular bundles in this zone was fewer in comparison
with the others two zone, but their size and orientation were similar with vascular bundles
in central zone.
Tab. 4.1: Cortex width of oil palm trunk
No. Disk
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

C1
23.0
22.0
15.0
32.0
25.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
18.0
26.0
15.0
25.0

Cortex wide (mm)


C2
C3
C4
25.0 24.0 28.0
27.0 26.0 22.0
29.0 30.0 36.0
30.0 35.0 27.0
17.0 32.0 26.0
23.0 23.0 30.0
30.0 29.0 30.0
50.0 20.0 22.0
19.0 10.0 16.0
23.0 35.0 30.0
22.0 10.0 26.0
25.0 23.0 25.0

Average
25.00
24.25
27.50
31.00
25.00
24.00
27.25
28.00
15.75
28.50
18.25
24.50

Furthermore, regarding the orientation of vascular bundles over cross section, most of vascular
bundles were oriented randomly, except at the outer part of the trunk under bark. Therefore,
on the basic of this condition, mechanical properties investigation in Section 4.3.2 was not
considered to the vascular bundles orientation. Due to the vascular bundles population at cross
sectional view, the average value of vascular bundle population at inner, central and peripheral zone were about 25.2; 45.8 and 97.5 vb/cm2 , respectively. Further discussion about this
population is presented in Section 4.2.
The oil palm wood surfaces at various sectional view can be observed based on their sawing
directions, as shown in Figure 4.3. At least, there were three different wood surfaces, except
wood surface under the bark, i.e.:
55

4.1. Characteristics Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Cross surface, produced by sawing the oil palm trunk with the sawing direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the trunk,
Tangential surface, produced by sawing he oil palm trunk with sawing direction perpendicular to the vascular bundles orientation in peripheral zone,
Radial surface, produced by sawing he oil palm trunk with sawing direction parallel to the
vascular bundles orientation in peripheral zone.

direction to center point

In green condition oil palm wood colour was yellowish, but brownish in dry condition. Transverse section of the trunk did not have a uniform colour, commonly the peripheral part was
darker colour that the inner part. This is contradiction in comparison with softwood or hardwood, where the inner part (heartwood) is mostly darker than the peripheral part (sapwood).
Dried wood was very lightweight compared to green wood condition. This was initially that
wood consists very high content of moisture. Physical investigation in Section 4.3.1.1 resulted
that moisture content of oil palm wood varies depend on its wood regions or zones at transverse
sectional view.

15 mm

Fig. 4.2: Vascular bundles orientation at cross surface view

56

4.1. Characteristics Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

15 mm

15 mm

15 mm

Fig. 4.3: Wood surface of oil palm wood structure at various sectional view, (a) wood view at
cross surface; (b) wood view at tangential surface; (c) wood view at radial surface.

4.1.2 Microscopic Oil Palm Wood Structure


This work presents a detailed wood anatomical overview of oil palm. In this part the discussion
is concentrated on the anatomical of oil palm wood structure under microscopic observations.
Special emphasis is paid in microscopic anatomy of wood using light microscopy and scanning
electron microscopy. Three main components of wood structure are observed and discussed,
including vascular bundle, bre and parenchymatous cell.
4.1.2.1 Vascular Bundle Structure
Vascular bundles are the main component of oil palm wood that supporting the structural features of the trunk. Detail structure of this component only visible under microscope, but it was
still clearly identied by a hand lens for initial observation. Based on visual investigation under
light microscope, vascular bundle consists of one or two large vessels in peripheral zone and
two to three vessels in central and inner zones, as shown in Figure 4.4(a) and 4.4(b). In this
gure was also identied that one or two smaller vessels divided into two parts. Large vessels
with very thick vessel-wall was predicted as main component which responsible for transporting the nutrient. This was in agreement with the result from Lim and Khoo [73]. The number of
vascular bundles decreased toward the central point or radial direction2 , as shown in Figure 4.16
and uctuated from bottom to top of the trunk, as identied from the obtained data in Table 4.6
(see Section 4.2). From this data, it also can be observed that the population density of vascular
bundles per unit area was signicantly different toward the central point or inner zone. Referring to this nding, it is necessary to use the oil palm wood separately based on its position at
transverse section.
2

orientation from central point to the bark due to missing the pith in oil palm trunk structure

57

4.1. Characteristics Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

500 m

500 m

(a) vascular bundle with single large vessel

(b) vascular bundle with three large vessels

Fig. 4.4: Vascular bundles with one large vessel (gure a) and three large vessels (gure b) at
transverse section under light microscopy view

paremchymatous
ground tissue

sperical cells

vessels

fibres

satellite bundles

Vascular bundle

elongated cells

Fig. 4.5: Structure of vascular bundle of oil palm wood at transverse section detail with the
existence of parenchymatous ground tissue, vessels, bres and phloem (photo by E.
Bucker, 2005)

58

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Characteristics Oil Palm Wood

More detail about oil palm wood structures, particularly vascular bundle structure is presented
in Figure 4.5. The photograph was produced using SEM and from this picture, it is easily
recognized and identied the existence of parenchymatous ground tissue, bres, and vessels.
The empty area near three large vessels was phloem cell area, but these phloem cells was broken
during sample preparation. Vascular bundle was surrounded by parenchymatous ground tissue,
therefore, the wood material from this species is not comparable to the woods which produced
from both dicotyledons and gymnosperms species which are developed from the secondary
xylem. Generally, three types of parenchyma cells were found in this study, i.e. spherical,
rectangular and elongated cells. Near the large vessels, it was also founded several smaller cells
and grouped together like a cluster, which usually separated into two clusters. Referring to Lim
and Khoo [73] result, this component is mentioned as satellite bundles.
Further, the bres component was distinguished and spread or scattered over the vascular bundles and lled the area surrounded by parenchyma cells. Structure of bres in this area was
similar to the common wood, which comprises of lumen, cell wall, and pith as well. Their
arrangement was also similar to normal wood structure. Phloem cells were distinguished as
strand with mostly triangular shape and located between vessels and bres.
Looking at longitudinal direction3 of vascular bundle, it was easily to identify how large the
diameter of vessel in comparison to bres and parenchyma cells, as shown in Figure 4.6. These
large vessel connected endwise to form a pipe-like structure and in radial direction, this component was attached and connected together with bres. Vascular bundles were mostly arranged
vertical or parallel to the length of the trunk, but oblique vascular bundles were also found,
commonly in radial surface, as can be observed in Figure 4.3c.

parenchyma cells
vessel
fibres

500 m

Fig. 4.6: Vascular bundle structure of oil palm wood with detail view of parenchyma cells, vessel and arrangement of bres at longitudinal direction view

orientation parallel to the length of the trunk.

59

4.1. Characteristics Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion


4.1.2.2 Fibre Structure

Fibres of oil palm wood spread or scattered over the vascular bundles and lled the area surrounded by parenchyma cells. Fibres have closed end, mostly pointed. The arrangement of
bres in this area was almost similar to the structure of common woods (softwood and hardwood 4 ), which comprises of lumen, cell wall, and pits. Transverse sectional view of oil palm
bres is presented in Figure 4.7, where the bres attached one to the others in very compact
formation. Various in sizes and shapes were distinguished, e.g. spherical, triangular and rectangular. Particularly, bres which located close to large vessels were observed as elongated bres,
as shown in Figure 4.5. The presence of pits also identied at bre wall as well as companion
cells. The walls might be thick or thin and the small or large lumina. The primary function of
bres was predicted to provide mechanical support to the living oil palm tree, especially in the
peripheral zone or the area near the bark.

companion cells

primary wall
secondary wall

spherical

pits

rectangular

triangular

Fig. 4.7: Scanning electron microscopy of bre structure at transverse sectional view. The bres
vary in sizes and also shapes, e.g. spherical, triangular and rectangular. Companion
cells was found as well as primary and secondary walls fairly distinguishable (photo
by E. Bucker, 2005)

More detail visualization of bre structure with walls formation is presented in Figure 4.8,
which produced by SEM photography. Cell-wall was composed of three layers, which they
designated as intercellular layer or popularly known as middle lamella, primary wall, secondary
wall and warty layer is toward the cell lumen. Intercellular layer, like mortar cement brick
between one bre to the others. Tsoumis [93] stated that this component composed high content
of lignin and further, Halimahton and Rashih [52] mentioned that the oil palm wood consist of
4

Softwood is produced by conifers and hardwood by broad-leaved species. Botanically, conifer species belongs
to Gymnosperms and broad-leaved species to Angiosperms (Dicotyledons), whilst oil palm wood belongs to
Angiosperms, class Monocotyledons [61].

60

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Characteristics Oil Palm Wood

lignin in high percentage, approx. 19%. Pit was found visible in the secondary wall. It was
predicted to serve as passages of communication between neighboring cells.
warty layer

intercellular layer
(middle lamella)

primary wall

secondary wall
pit

Fig. 4.8: Scanning electron microscopy of cell-wall layers at transverse sectional view with distinguishable primary and secondary layers, and intercellular layer, like mortar cement
brick between walls which called middle lamella (photo by E. Bucker, 2005)

Looking at longitudinal direction (Figure 4.9), the bres of oil palm wood were arranged parallel to the length of the trunk as shown in Figure 4.9(a), whilst the arrangement of bres was
distinguished in Figure 4.9(b), as macerated a piece of vascular bundle. The dimension of oil
palm bres at various trunk height in comparison with bres which were taken from empty fruit
bunch and oil palm fronds is presented in Table 4.2. Length of oil palm wood bre was about
2.04 mm, ranging from 1.9 to 2.1 with average diameter of approx. 26.1 m, ranging from 22
to 30. It is identied that the bre diameter was gradually decreased from the but end to the top
of the trunk.
The average values of lumen diameter and wall thickness were about 12.5 m and 6.8 m,
respectively. Fibre from oil palm wood (2.04 mm) was longer in comparison with oil palm
frond bre (1.4 mm) and empty fruit bunch bre (0.66 mm) as well as the bre diameter was
also larger. Further, wall thickness of oil palm wood bres were almost 50% thicker than EFB
and OPF.

61

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Characteristics Oil Palm Wood

500 m

(a) Fibres structure at longitudinal view

1000 m

(b) Fibres arrangement at longitudinal view

Fig. 4.9: Fibres structure and arrangement at transverse section under light microscopy views

Tab. 4.2: Fiber dimension of oil palm wood in comparison to EFB and OPF bres
OPW
Fibre Dimension
EFB* OPF*
2m
6 m 10 m
Length (mm):
- minimum
0.80
0.80
1.04
0.23
0.43
- maximum
3.44
3.36
3.36
1.48
3.04
- average
2.08
2.09
1.96
0.66
1.40
Diameter ( m):
- bre
29.19 26.58 22.48 16.89 14.47
- lumen
13.07 14.47
9.89
9.52
7.44
Wall Thickness
8.08
6.05
6.29
3.69
3.52
Notes: OPW=oil palm wood; EFB=empty fruit bunch;
OPF=oil palm fronds
*) Cited from Erwinsyah and Damayanti [40]

62

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Characteristics Oil Palm Wood

4.1.2.3 Vessel Structure


According to the vascular bundle structure which is presented in Figure 4.4 and 4.5, the presence of large vessel varies from one to three vessels. The term of large vessel here is the
tracheary elements of vascular bundle. The extensive surveys of tracheary elements in palms is
conducted by Tomlinson [92] and Bierhorst and Zamora [13]. Further, Parthasarathy and Klotz
[82] reported that the vascular bundle of the stem of palms, the cluster of traceary elements
display a gradation in morphology from protoxylem through early to late metaxylem. The end
walls of the tracheary element exhibit an increasing degree of evolutionary specialization, i.e.
they become decreasingly tracheid-like. The protoxylem tracheary elements and some of the
narrow early metaxylem elements almost always appear to be tracheids, whereas the remaining
narrow metaxylem elements and the wide late metaxylem elements show varying degrees of
specialization, depending on the organ and the species.
Regarding the detailed oil palm wood structure, the vascular bundles of oil palm wood contain
one, two or more than two wide metaxylem tracheary elements in transverse section, depending
on the position of the bundle within the trunk. It was indicated that this component increases
in number toward the central point of the trunk. In size, the tracheary elements were vary from
short to long vessels. Parthasarathy and Klotz [82] stated that it was ranging from 0.1 mm to
more than 1 cm in length, and from 0.02 mm to nearly 0.5 mm in width. Whilst, Tsoumis [93]
mentioned that vessel members particularly in earlywood of ring-porous hardwoods are mostly
massive wood cells. Some are more short than wide, it ranging from in average length from 0.2
to 1.3 mm and diameters may vary from 0.005 to 0.5 mm. Figure 4.10 showed the longitudinal
direction view of vessel elements and how the two tracheary elements were connected. The
perforation plate5 was distinguished with the angle approx. 45 as well as closely spaced bars.

500 m

Fig. 4.10: Light microscope view of connected endwise of large vessels of vascular bundle from
oil palm wood

Furthermore, the isolated metaxylem tracheary element is presented in Figure 4.11. The simple
perforation plates occupy the nearly transverse end walls. The cell wall of this element was
net-like. The end walls of this element closely spaced bars on very oblique end walls.

The area of adjacent end walls involved in endwise connection of two vessels members.

63

4.1. Characteristics Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

250 m

Fig. 4.11: Light microscope view of isolated wide metaxylem elements of vascular bundle from
oil palm wood

4.1.2.4 Parenchyma Cell Structure


Parenchyma cells of oil palm wood were mostly in the form of spherical cell with thin-walled
and brick-like in formation, but in the narrow space or area between vascular bundles, they were
commonly as elongated cells and oval-cells. These cells were functioned as the ground tissue
that make up the bulk of oil palm wood structures and used as storage of food. Physically, this
tissue was like spongy and moist in green condition and very lightweight and easy to separate
one cell to the others. Due to the starch content in oil palm wood, it attributed to the fact that
parenchyma cells also might be lled with starch. Figure 4.12 showed more detail the structure
of parenchyma cells. Many pits were observed on the primary cell wall, which functioned for
water or nutrient transport purposes.

spherical cell

elongated cell

pits
primary cell wall

ground parenchymatous tissue

100 m

Fig. 4.12: Vascular bundle with three large vessels at transverse sectional view

Based on this fact, it is logically accepted why ground parenchymatous tissue was very hygroscopic. It was easy to evaporate when the temperature is rising and also easily to absorb the
moisture in high humidity condition. This behaviour also answered why the moisture of dried
oil palm wood still not stable, like what Balfas reported [11]. According to scanning electron
64

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Characteristics Oil Palm Wood

microscopy of parenchyma cells in Figure 4.13, it was distinguished easily the presence of pits
on the primary cell-wall.

Fig. 4.13: Scanning electron microscopy of parenchyma cells with pits distribution on the primary cell-wall at transverse sectional view (photo by E. Bucker)

65

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.2. Oil Palm Wood Zoning

4.2 Oil Palm Wood Zoning


As monocotyledonous species, the oil palm wood structure is quite different compared to normal wood, either hardwood or softwood. Looking at transverse sectional view of the oil palm
wood, the structure consist of bres in the form of vascular bundle system and ground parenchymatous cells. In 1985, Killmann and Choon [65] published their experimental result and it stated
that the oil palm stem is divided into three zones, i.e. inner, central and peripheral zones. One
year later, Lim and Khoo [73] reported that the distribution of brous strands depends on the
number of bundles present. They further stated that the number of vascular bundles per unit
area decrease towards the inner zone and increase from the butt end to the top of the palm.
Based of the above mentioned oil palm wood structure, there is great variation of density values
at different part of the trunk. Density value range from 200 to 600 kg/m3 with an average
density 370 kg/m3 [73]. Its clearly understood that this condition affect to the properties of
oil palm wood, both physical and mechanical. Killmann and Choon [65] further stated that the
mechanical properties of oil palm wood reect the density variation observed both in radial as
well as in vertical directions. Unfortunately, this condition caused many difculties in wood
working processes.
In order to improve the homogeneity of lumber produced from oil palm tree, an effective sawing
pattern shall be designed on the basis of oil palm wood condition, such as wood structure,
distribution of vascular bundle and also distribution of wood density along the trunk.
Focusing on zone determination, the mathematical and statistical analysis were calculated and
applied to achieve the representative result, respectively. The mathematical analysis was generated to dene number and position of representative samplings on the transverse section of
the trunk. The complete mathematical analysis is presented in Appendix B. According to this
analysis, the number of sampling and distance for each samplings series at sample wood disk is
summarized in Table 4.3.
Tab. 4.3: Number of samples per sample disk of sample along the trunk and distance of one
samplings set to another (see Figure 3.7 for illustration)
Height
Trunk-1
Trunk-2
(m)
ns1 m1 ns2
m2
1
220
31
205
32
2
114
40
120
40
3
112
41
118
41
4
126
41
109
43
5
116
42
113
42
6
119
42
113
42
7
108
44
105
44
8
118
42
116
42
9
96
44
93
44
10
109
43
108
43
11
106
43
110
43
12
111
43
108
43
Note: nsi =number of sampling of tree-i
mi =distance of sampling set of tree-i ( )

All the sampling in this table has already achieved the Assumption 1 and 2 (see Sub-section
3.2.2.1). Further to dene the distribution of vascular bundles, the spherical samplings were
66

4.2. Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

drawn from the central point to the outer part (bark) of the trunk over the transverse section as
shown in Figure 3.7 (see Appendix B).
The distribution of vascular bundles was dened by calculating the number of vascular bundles
per certain unit area at transverse section. The Figure 3.7 is presented how the representative
sample and data were collected. In this case, it was calculated per square centimeter (cm2 ).
Regarding the sampling series, it can be stated that the number of sampling for each series (nsr )
is depends on the radius size of the trunk without bark (rf b ) (refer to Eq. B.7) and the distance
of one sampling series to another (m ) depends on the number of sampling series that can be
drawn at transverse section (refer to Eq. B.21). Based on the obtained result, the number of
vascular bundles per unit area increases from central point to the bark, both for sample Trunk-1
and Trunk-2 as shown in Figure 4.14 and 4.15, respectively. The trend-lines of vascular bundles
distribution at different height positions (12 height positions) were also similar between these
two sample trunks as shown in Figure 4.16.
According to the statistical analysis using compare means through the independent sample tTest, the average vascular bundles population for Trunk-1 and Trunk-2 (Table 4.4) were about
54.6 and 55.1 vb/cm2 , respectively. Further, the variances of these populations were similar
with the probability of about 0.738 (p > 0.05) and from the t-Test result in Table 4.5 through
equal variances assumed analysis, it is attributed to the fact that the means population of vascular bundles for these trunks were insignicantly different at level 0.05 with the probability
value 0.966. On the basic of this ndings, it can be stated that the vascular bundles distribution
along the trunk height of oil palm tree in the same variety (DxP) from the bottom to the top of
the trunk was identical.
Tab. 4.4: Descriptive of statistical groups analysis of Trunk-1 and Trunk-2
Sample trunk N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Trunk-1
15 54.653
30.1474
7.7840
Trunk-2
15 55.147
33.4251
8.6303

Tab. 4.5: Independent sample test for population of vascular bundles based on equal variances
assumed
Levenes Test*

t-test**

Sig.

df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Mean
Difference

Std. Error
Difference

0.114

0.738

-0.042

28

0.966

-0.4933

11.6221

95% Condence Interval of the Difference


Upper
Lower
-24.3002

23.3135

*) for Equality of Variances; **) for Equality of Means

67

68

h-1
h-2
h-3
h-4
h-5
h-6
h-7
h-8
h-9
h-10
h-11
h-12

Vascular bundles/cm2

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18 P19
Sampling position (mm)
Fig. 4.14: Relation between sampling position from central point to the outer part and population of vascular bundles of sample Trunk-1 at
different height along the trunk

0
Pith P1

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.2. Oil Palm Wood Zoning

0
Pith P1

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

h-1
h-2
h-3
h-4
h-5
h-6
h-7
h-8
h-9
h-10
h-11
h-12

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18


Sampling position (mm)
Fig. 4.15: Relation between sampling position from central point to the outer part and population of vascular bundles of sample Trunk-2 at
different height along the trunk

Vascular bundles/cm2

180

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.2. Oil Palm Wood Zoning

69

70

Vascular bundles/cm2 (average)

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

Trunk-1
Trunk-2

P7
P8
P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15
Sampling position (mm)
Fig. 4.16: Relation between sampling position from central point to the outer part and average value of vascular bundles population at different
height along the trunk for sample Trunk-1 and Trunk-2

0
Pith

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.2. Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.2. Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Referring to Figure 4.16, the relations between position and the number of vascular bundles per
certain area for the selected two sample trunks were mathematically expressed by the following
regression formulas:
Yt1 = 0.642x2 4.079x + 34.18, R2 = 0.978

(4.1)

Yt2 = 0.637x2 3.242x + 28.37, R2 = 0.975

(4.2)

Referring to the above equations, it can be stated that the relation between variable (distance
or position from pith) and response (number of vascular bundles/cm2 ) was very strong, it
is showed by the high R-value, approx. 0.989 and 0.987 for sample Trunk-1 and Trunk-2,
respectively. Furthermore, the lowest and highest population of vascular bundles were about
26.7 and 119.6 vb/cm2 (vascular bundles per square centimeter) for sample Trunk-1 and for
sample Trunk-2 of about 21.2 and 128.6 vb/cm2 , respectively. Summarized from this analysis,
the vascular bundle position is indicated as an important factor to dene the zone of oil palm
wood. By applying this result, the position of each zone was further examined by statistical
analysis, which is explained in Appendix C.
The summarized results of statistical analysis from the above mentioned appendix for oil palm
sample Trunk-1 and Trunk-2 are presented in Table 4.6 and 4.7. In these tables, the oil palm
wood zoning was symbolized using columnar-table. The columnar-1; columnar-2 and columnar3 were marked for inner zone (IZ), central zone (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ), respectively.
Tab. 4.6: Summary of statistical data analysis for sample Trunk-1 and Trunk-2
Vascular bundles population (vb/cm2 )
Trunk-1
Trunk-2
Height (m)
IZ
CZ
PZ
IZ
CZ
1
20.75 29.25
67.53 24.36 39.52
25.18 44.16 121.28 25.13 43.41
2
35.83 50.32
83.55 24.56 43.79
3
34.05 51.38
95.92 24.36 45.59
4
27.90 44.21
89.93 25.57 46.58
5
28.22 45.91
97.85 24.19 47.22
6
29.15 47.95 120.86 23.56 46.26
7
26.72 44.31
87.90 23.33 47.02
8
27.35 45.60
90.83 24.07 46.86
9
29.77 48.81
96.29 26.59 52.55
10
26.59 47.29
90.50 23.14 45.77
11
27.67 49.86 106.87 21.39 44.34
12
Average
28.26 45.76
95.78 24.19 45.74

PZ
83.09
93.63
100.41
99.66
95.74
112.34
110.96
106.61
112.11
94.71
90.16
90.76
99.18

71

72

Sample Trunk-2
1
22.3 21.1 22.6
2
22.5 23.1 25.8
3
22.3 22.1 25.0
4
20.7 22.3 24.7
5
21.0 22.5 24.7
6
20.5 21.2 24.2
7
21.8 23.4 25.5
8
20.4 20.9 25.0
9
22.7 22.7 26.8
10
21.0 22.8 26.0
11
20.1 22.9 23.6
12
19.3 19.3 20.2
Columnar-1: Inner Zone

Height
(m)
p1
p2
p3
Sample Trunk-1
1
21.2 20.1 20.7
2
23.2 24.2 24.8
3
34.7 33.4 33.8
4
30.4 32.0 35.8
5
26.3 25.6 26.9
6
28.5 27.5 27.7
7
28.7 29.0 29.8
8
23.9 25.3 28.0
9
25.5 25.8 28.0
10
28.0 29.3 32.0
11
24.5 25.6 27.2
12
25.5 26.1 28.5
Columnar-1: Inner Zone

25.3
31.8
31.1
32.8
30.9
32.8
37.1
33.0
38.2
33.4
30.3
30.3

20.4
26.8
38.1
36.1
30.4
34.7
35.8
32.6
32.9
41.4
34.4
33.4

20.5
24.0
39.2
36.0
30.3
29.1
33.4
29.6
30.0
35.2
29.0
30.6

24.1
29.1
28.8
29.8
28.8
30.9
32.3
27.1
31.1
29.8
26.0
26.8

p5

p4

p7

27.0 28.1
34.1 38.1
33.1 38.1
36.6 41.7
36.0 41.2
39.8 44.1
41.4 48.4
37.7 44.9
43.1 49.9
40.6 45.5
34.6 41.1
34.6 39.0
Columnar-2:

19.6 20.9
28.0 33.3
42.0 44.9
42.0 43.6
33.9 38.1
35.0 39.5
40.6 44.1
36.3 39.3
37.9 41.5
45.5 49.2
34.2 42.4
37.9 42.4
Columnar-2:

p6

p9

31.3 34.0
41.9 45.5
42.0 45.1
45.7 49.4
43.5 47.8
46.5 50.6
56.4 61.9
47.9 51.3
55.0 63.9
51.0 59.2
45.5 49.7
46.0 47.6
Central Zone

22.6 25.4
33.4 38.5
49.8 50.8
50.1 52.2
41.1 44.3
45.2 52.1
53.8 62.3
43.9 48.9
47.9 49.7
56.8 64.6
46.7 53.2
52.2 55.6
Central Zone

p8

36.3
48.2
48.7
54.3
52.9
55.4
71.5
54.9
73.5
66.4
57.3
54.9

24.9
47.0
55.1
57.5
51.6
54.0
65.6
53.0
51.3
70.9
58.0
61.0

39.6
51.1
52.1
58.6
58.1
61.3
83.4
59.4
84.4
72.9
61.9
58.0

26.3
52.9
59.2
62.8
56.4
60.8
81.2
56.1
58.1
80.7
62.3
66.6

41.5
56.5
60.2
73.4
68.2
75.5
101.4
65.8
101.5
85.7
69.3
65.0

28.3
59.9
66.7
71.2
65.1
70.4
100.0
67.4
65.9
90.6
72.9
80.9

Sampling Position
p10 p11
p12

44.2
67.7
74.2
92.8
84.2
95.1
134.1
82.5
125.3
100.8
84.2
86.9

30.4
77.2
82.8
94.3
77.2
78.5
132.2
77.1
86.6
109.1
92.2
106.7

p13

p15

p16

p17

49.8
56.1 72.3 90.0
85.7 127.5
102.4 124.6
132.7
96.4 134.2
123.4 155.4
164.3
104.6 173.6
175.8
119.4
117.0
120.4
Columnar-3: Peripheral Zone

33.9
35.6 43.8 56.5
128.7 158.0
101.1 152.2
122.3
103.3 114.0
103.7 138.9
170.1
88.1 119.1
120.0
130.2
106.4
133.0
Columnar-3: Peripheral Zone

p14

Tab. 4.7: Summary of statistical data analysis for sample Trunk-1 and Trunk-2

114.0

68.9

p18
100.9

p19

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.2. Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.2. Oil Palm Wood Zoning

The position of wood zoning for each zone along the trunk for sample Trunk-1 and Trunk-2
are presented in Table 4.8 and 4.9, respectively. These tables were generated by transforming
the obtained data in Table 4.7 based on the developed groups of vascular bundles population
and sampling position from central point to the outer part of the trunk to the position of wood
zoning or distance from central point of the trunk (in cm).
Tab. 4.8: The distance oil palm wood zones from central point of Trunk-1 based on vascular
bundles distribution
Height
(m)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Distance from central point (mm)


Inner Zone Central Zone Peripheral Zone
82
159
250
49
137
172
38
137
169
27
126
167
38
137
162
49
126
163
38
115
151
27
126
161
27
126
151
27
115
152
49
126
153
38
126
153

Tab. 4.9: The distance oil palm wood zones from central point of Trunk-2 based on vascular
bundles distribution
Height
(m)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Distance from central point (mm)


Inner Zone Central Zone Peripheral Zone
82
170
237
38
137
172
27
137
169
38
126
155
38
137
162
38
126
163
38
115
151
27
137
161
27
115
151
27
126
152
38
126
153
38
126
153

Based on the above results, the relation between trunk height and distance of wood zoning from
central point of the trunk at transverse section for sample Trunk-1 and Trunk-2 were presented
in two dimensional view as shown in Figure 4.17 and 4.18, respectively.

73

4.2. Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

250

Inner Zone
Central Zone
Perpheral Zone

Distance from central point (mm)

200

150

100

50

6
Trunk Height (m)

10

12

Fig. 4.17: Relation between trunk height and distance of wood zoning from central point of the
trunk at transverse section for sample Trunk-1

250

Inner Zone
Central Zone
Perpheral Zone

Distance from central point (mm)

200

150

100

50

6
Trunk Height (m)

10

12

Fig. 4.18: Relation between trunk height and distance of wood zoning from central point of the
trunk at transverse section for sample Trunk-2

74

4.2. Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

According to this experiment, it can be summarized that the distribution of vascular bundles
was increased from central point of the trunk toward the bark. Three different wood zoning
were dened, i.e. inner zone (IZ), central zone (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ). The average
population of vascular bundles at inner, central and peripheral zone were approx. 26; 46 and
97 vb/cm2 , respectively. Furthermore, by transforming the population of vascular bundles into
their positions, it can be stated that the position of inner, central and peripheral zone at the
transverse section was approx. 39 mm ranging from 27 to 49 mm; 131 mm ranging from 115
to 137 mm and 166 mm ranging from 151 to 172 mm from the central point of the trunk,
respectively.
Finally, the performance of oil palm wood zoning, both sample Trunk-1 and Trunk-2 are presented in three dimensional views. This was generated using computer language program,
called FORTRAN. The resulted oil palm wood zoning is presented in Figure 4.19. This gure
was showed the position and distance for each oil palm wood zoning, e.g. inner, central and
peripheral zone over the transverse section based on their coordinate from the central point.

Oil Palm Wood Zoning

12

0
-2.5

-2 -1.5

-1 -0.5

Inner Zone

0 0.5

1 1.5

2.5
1.5 2
0.5 1
0
-1 -0.5
2 2.5 -2.5 -2 -1.5

Central Zone

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.19: Position and distance of oil palm wood zoning based on their coordinates from central
point of the trunk in 3D-view

75

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

4.3 Properties of Oil Palm Wood


Several physical properties of oil palm trunk were investigated in this study, e.g. moisture,
density and volumetric shrinkage. The moisture content of wood was measured on the basic of
trunk height and wood zoning factors at green condition after felling the trees and also at dry
condition after drying the obtained lumber in the local drying company. Further, the density
of oil palm wood was determined similar to the experimental design in moisture measurement.
The shrinkage was also investigated to study the dimensional changes of the wood after drying
process. It was only observed in volumetric shrinkage, due to the irregular shape of dried-wood
specimen.
Mechanical properties of oil palm wood were discussed in detail for untreated-wood (UW) and
treated wood with bioresin (WB) on the basic of their position along the trunk and different
wood zoning (inner, central and peripheral zone). Whilst, the machinery properties were also
carried out to investigate the machining features of oil palm wood based on the free surface
defect of wood. Several testings were conducted including cross cutting, planning, shaving and
moulding, and boring test.
4.3.1 Physical Properties of Oil Palm Wood
In order to understand the physical behaviors and performances of oil palm wood, it is necessary
to consider rst some of the basic properties of wood which are affecting to its oil palm wood
properties. In this section, some of importance physical properties of oil palm wood were
investigated and discussed, such as moisture content, density and volumetric shrinkage. All
of properties studied was investigated on the basic of its position along the trunk (trunk height
factor) and trunk depth or refer to its wood zoning.
4.3.1.1 Moisture Content of Oil Palm Wood
Wood is formed in an essentially water-saturated environment in the living tree, and the cell wall
remains in this state until the water ow from the roots is interrupted, such as by felling the tree.
The wood then begins to lose most of its moisture by drying, resulting in change in most of its
properties. Skaar [89] stated that the wood moisture content at the time of felling or harvesting is
called the green moisture content. It may change between the time of felling and processing into
lumber or other products depending on exposure time, climatic conditions, kind, age, and size
of the tree, and on whether or not foliage is left on the tree for some time after felling. Relating
to the oil palm wood, water is one of the highest content of wood components. According to
the investigation in this study, the obtained result showed that the moisture content (MC) of oil
palm wood in green condition (after felling) can be reached more than 500% with total average
of about 304%, ranging from 123 to 531% (Figure 4.20). The complete data of moisture content
of each zone is presented in Table D.1, D.2 and D.3, respectively (see Appendix D).
It is possible because the moisture content is expressed as percentage of the dry weight of
the wood, and not of the total weight. Therefore, it is possible to have moisture content of
well over 100%. Due to the oil palm wood zoning, the obtained result can be stated that the
moisture content was gradually increased from the bottom to the top of the trunk height and
it decreased from the central point to the outer part of the trunk. The inner zone has higher
76

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

550

MC-IZ 367.6(285-490)
MC-CZ 312.9(185-531)
MC-PZ 232.5(123-384)

500

Moisture Content (%)

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100

6
Trunk Height (m)

10

12

Fig. 4.20: Moisture content of oil palm wood at different zones in green condition (specimen
size 50 mm x 50 mm x 50 mm; replication=6 for height 1 to 11 m and 3 times for
height 12 m; total specimen=207)

moisture content compared to the other two zones. These ndings were in agreement with the
result from Killmann and Choon in 1985 [65]. The average MC of oil palm wood at IZ, CZ
and PZ were approx. 368, 312 and 232%, respectively. Looking at the transverse section of
the trunk, this trends also logically accepted, due to the distribution of the vascular bundles,
where from inner zone to peripheral zone, the population of vascular bundles was drastically
increased from 26.2 to 97.5 vb/cm2 (see Table 4.6), respectively. In addition, Skaar [89] stated
that the green moisture content of wood varies considerably among kinds of trees, between
heartwood and sapwood in the same tree, and even between logs cut from different heights
in the tree. Therefore, the nding in this oil palm wood investigation resulted that it is also
in conformity with Skaars statement. Specically, in oil palm, it was happened not only at
different trunk height, but also at the same height, the moisture content looking at transverse
section was varies between one wood zone to the others. The MC at inner zone was one and
half greater than peripheral zone, ranging from 123 to 384%. Whilst, the range of MC at central
zone was almost covering the other two zones, ranging from 185 to 531%.
Additionally, the moisture content of the frond and leaves were tabulated and analyzed from
43 sample of fronds and divided into three parts for each sample. Therefore, there were 129
samples for frond and also for leaves. The mean values for frond and leaves of oil palm were
233.5% (range 178.9 to 291.6) and 29.9%, ranging from 7.31 to 67.18%, respectively. The
average moisture content of oil palm root in green condition was very low. It was about 4.9%,
ranging from 3.6 to 6.3%. The complete data of moisture content of frond, leaves and root are
presented in Table D.4 and D.5, D.6, respectively (see Appendix D).
Regarding to investigate the wood properties of oil palm, all the specimens were tested in dry
77

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

condition with the MC value below 12%. The moisture content of dried wood specimens at
different zones and heights is presented in Table 4.10. All the moisture values were in agreement with the ASTM and DIN standard requirement for physical, mechanical and machinery
properties investigations.
Tab. 4.10: Moisture content of oil palm wood after drying in kiln dryer at local drying company
Moisture content of dried specimen (%, average)
Inner Zone
Central Zone
Peripheral Zone
1
8.925 (8.305-9.453) 7.167 (6.818-7.497)
8.900 (8.777-8.969)
3
8.469 (8.193-9.085) 7.087 (6.621-7.663)
8.846 (8.521-8.985)
5
9.074 (8.524-9.325) 6.657 (3.338-7.896)
9.371 (8.918-10.619)
7
9.105 (8.881-9.264) 6.205 (3.602-6.914)
8.922 (8.917-8.952)
9
7.584 (4.727-9.555) 6.590 (6.451-6.875) 11.162 (10.813-11.541)
Average 8.631 (4.727-9.555) 6.741 (3.602-7.896)
9.440 (8.521-11-541)
Note: Specimen 50mm x 50mm x 35mm; replication=5; total specimen=75;
target MC <12%
Height

4.3.1.2 Density of Oil Palm Wood


Specic gravity and wood density are expressions of how much wood substance is present in
given volume of wood. Zobel and Buijtenen [98] stated in their reviewed that wood specic
gravity is the ratio of the weight of a given volume of wood to the weight of an equal volume
of water at 4 C, therefore, it is a unitless measure. Whilst, wood density is a ratio of the dry
weight of wood to its volume. It is measured in unit such as kilogram per cubic meter or pound
per cubic foot. Referring to this denition, the oil palm wood density was determined at dry
condition. In this experiment, the specimen was dried at kiln drying until achieving the moisture
content less than 12%. The density of oil palm wood at three different zones at various trunk
height is presented in Figure 4.21. According to the obtained results in Table D.7, D.8 and D.9
(see Appendix D.1), the summarized wood density at inner zone and central zone of oil palm
wood were about 0.18 g/cm3 , ranging from 0.16 to 0.19 and 0.20 g/cm3 , ranging from 0.17 to
0.23, respectively. Whilst, the density at peripheral zone was higher compared to the other two
zones. It was about 0.40 g/cm3 , ranging from 0.37 to 0.43.
Concerning to the density distribution of oil palm wood at transverse section, the relation between wood density and wood zoning of oil palm is expressed in Figure 4.22. The density
values were gradually increasing from the inner zone to the peripheral zone. This trend was
similar for all positions of the trunk height. Based on this performance, the relation between
wood zoning and density was expressed by the following trend-line:
y = 0.085x2 0.235x + 0.328; R2 = 0.961

(4.3)

Referring to the above equation, the relation between wood zoning and density value was highly
signicant, which expressed by the high value of correlation coefcient (R=0.98). This was also
indicated to the fact that wood zoning of oil palm at transverse section confers very signicant
inuence to the wood density. The differences of density value at one zone to the others were
depended on its position over the transverse section. This result also in agreement with the
results of determination of oil palm zone which was explained in Section 4.1.2.
78

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

0.45

Density-IZ 0.18(0.16-0.19)
Density-CZ 0.20(0.17-0.23)
Density-PZ 0.40(0.37-0.43)

0.4

Density (g/cm3)

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

5
6
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.21: Density of dried wood of oil palm at three different zones at moisture content below
12% (specimen 30 mm x 30 mm x 30 mm; replication=10; total specimen=150)

0.45

0.4

H1
H3
H5
H7
H9

Density (g/cm3)

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1
Inner Zone

Central Zone
Oil palm wood zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.22: Relation between density and oil palm wood zoning at various trunk height

79

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Regarding the relation between density and wood structure, Tsoumis [93] explained that the
density of wood is a measure of the quantity of cell-wall material contained in a certain volume,
and is an index of void volume. Kollmann and Cot [68] calculated this relationship through
the following formula:


ro
C = 1
x 100
(4.4)
rw
Where, C=proportion of void volume (% of total volume); ro =oven-dry density (g/cm3 ) and
rw =density of cell-wall material (g/cm3 ).
If rw = 1.503 , the relationship becomes: C (%) = 100 66.7ro . Void volume varies from
95% in very light woods to about 10% in very heavy woods. Tsoumis [93] further stated that
differences in density and void volume derive from anatomical differences, such as differences
in cell types (tracheid, vessel members, parenchyma cells) and their quantitative distribution,
thickness of cell walls and size of cell cavities.
Referring to the above statement of Tsoumis, the obtained result of oil palm wood density
distribution was in agreement, where the density was gradually increase from the inner zone to
the peripheral zone. This is caused of the differences in distribution and quantity of vascular
bundles from the central point to the outer part of the trunk. According to the Eq. 4.4, if the
average oven-dry density of oil palm wood 0.26 g/cm3 , the void volume of oil palm wood was
about 82.67%, hence the oil palm wood is a very light wood species.
Furthermore, regarding to analysis the relation between wood zoning and the trunk height affecting to the wood density of oil palm, statistical analysis was carried out using the randomized
complete factorial design analysis. The condition of this analysis runs at 3 different wood zoning (inner, central and peripheral) and 5 different trunk height (1; 3; 5; 7; and 9 meter), with
10 times replication for each variable combination, thus, there were totaly 150 samples. These
two factors were then analyzed to observe their relation affecting to the density of wood as a
response. The statistical analysis results are divided into three parts (see Appendix E.1), i.e.:
1. Univariate analysis of wood density variance including post hoc test of homogeneous
subsets for wood zoning and trunk height,
2. One way analysis of wood density variance including post hoc test of homogeneous for
each zone at various trunk height positions,
3. Regression analysis of wood density based on wood zoning and trunk height.
On the basic of data in Table E.1, the univariate analysis test of variance between subject effect
was examined to investigate the inuence of wood zoning, trunk height and also interaction
between them to density value of the oil palm wood. The result showed that both wood zoning
and trunk height factors were signicantly different at level 0.05 in affecting to density of wood,
but their interaction was not signicant. The probability of those factors and their interaction
were about 4.09x1056 and 4.1x1003 ; and 9.02x1002 , respectively. According to post hoc
test result, the data populations of density value were grouped into one subset based on their
similarity. According the obtained Duncans test in Table E.2, there are three different subsets
3

The density of the material that constitutes the cell walls is practically constant, about 1.50 g/cm3 on the basis
of oven-dry weight (mass) and volume [93]

80

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

for wood density, which were done on the basic of wood zoning. It was indicated to the fact
that wood density between one zone to the others was signicantly different at level 0.05. The
average value of wood density in subsets 1, 2 and 3 were about 0.18; 0.20 and 0.40 g/cm3 ,
respectively. Whilst, based on trunk height (Table E.3), it was only grouped into two subsets,
but the second subset was still possible to separate into two groups, i.e. wood density value at
trunk height 1 to 3 meter and 5 to 7 meters. These subsets were also statistically signicant at
level 0.05.
Further, the analysis was continued to investigate the inuence of each factor, both wood zoning
and trunk height in affecting to wood density of oil palm. This was done through the one way
analysis of variance, including post hoc test of homogeneous test. The results in Table E.4
showed that the distribution of mean value of wood density at various trunk height (1, 3, 5,
7 and 9 meter) in inner zone (IZ) was similar to distribution in central zone (CZ). Both of
them were divided into three subsets and also signicantly different at level 0.05. Whilst, this
distribution within various trunk height in peripheral zone (PZ) was not signicantly different.
The probability was about 0.222 or p > 0.05.
By applying the above results, the classication of wood density was conducted on the basic of
their similarity values and also referred to the statistical analysis results. Classication of wood
density of oil palm is presented in Figure 4.23.
In order to examine the above relation, regression analysis for factorial design was also done
through the linear regression analysis. The results of this test are presented in Table E.5, E.6, E.7
and E.8 (see Appendix E.2). The average density of oil palm wood was about 0.26 g/cm3 with
standard deviation 0.10 at total sample size 150. This regression was conducted to investigate
how well the wood zoning and trunk height predict the wood density value of oil palm. The
results were statistically signicant with probability less than 0.05 (1.42x1038 ). The identied
equation to understand this relationship was expressed in the following equation:
= 0.67 + 0.108Z 0.005H

(4.5)

Where, is wood density; Z=wood zoning and H=trunk height (m).


The adjusted R-squared value was 0.69. This indicated that 69% of the variance in wood density
of oil palm was explained by the wood zoning and trunk height, and the remaining value is
explained by another factor. According to the model summary in Table E.6, the correlation
coefcient value was approx. 0.83, therefore, its statistically signicant association between
dependent variable (wood density) and predictors (constant, trunk height and wood zoning). It
means that the dependency of wood density value to the location or position over the transverse
section was very high and this can be stated that the oil palm wood zoning become an important
factor with regards to the density of oil palm wood, and the next factor was trunk height.
Generally, it can be stated that the oil palm wood density at transverse section was gradually
increased from the inner zone to the peripheral zone, but it was slightly decreased from the
bottom to the top of the trunk. The inuence of wood zoning factor to the wood density of
oil palm was higher than the trunk height. The variances analysis of density value populations
based on wood zoning and trunk height were statistically different at level 0.05.

81

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

8
0.38 0.21 0.19

0.35 - 0.40

PZ

0.18

0.18

0.26 - 0.60

0.21 0.19

0.20 - 0.23

0.37

0.18 - 0.20

0.17 - 0.19

0.17 - 0.19

Trunk Height (m)

CZ

range
density

0.35 - 0.41

0.38 0.17 0.16

IZ

0.16 - 0.17

IZ

0.19 - 0.23

CZ

0.17 - 0.20

PZ

10

0.14 - 0.17

central point
average
density

0.42

0.20

0.32 - 0.57

0.17 - 0.22

0.43

0.23

0.39 - 0.52

0.18 - 0.34

Fig. 4.23: Classication of wood density distribution of oil palm along the trunk. The average
values and its ranging density (in g/cm3 ) for each zone are presented in left- and
right-side from the central point, respectively

82

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion


4.3.1.3 Volumetric Shrinkage of Oil Palm Wood

Normally, wood only shrinks when water is lost from the cell walla and it shrinks by an amount
that is proportional to the moisture lost below bre saturation point. Walker et al. [95] stated
that the amount of shrinkage depends on the basic density of the wood. Ideally, the volumetric shrinkage is measured at around 20-25% and again around 8-12% moisture content. The
volumetric shrinkage to the oven-dry state is determined by measuring the green and oven-dry
volume (see Equation 3.3).
The term of shrinkage in this study is referring to the volumetric shrinkage, due to the irregular
shape of the specimen after oven-dry process. According to the shrinkage test of oil palm wood
at various zones and height in this study, the results which are presented in Table D.10, D.11
and D.12 (see Appendix D.3) showed that the shrinkage value varies between 10.3% and 22.8%.
Shrinkage properties of oil palm wood was gradually increased from the bottom to the top of
the trunk, as shown in Figure 4.24.
24

Inner Zone
Central Zone
Peripheral Zone

22

Volumetric shrinkage (%)

20

18

16

14

12

10

2.5

3.5

4
Height (m)

4.5

5.5

Fig. 4.24: Volumetric shrinkage of oil palm wood along the trunk

The shrinkage in central zone was about 19.6% ranging from 13 to 23%, whilst the shrinkage
value in inner and peripheral zone were about 16.7% (range 11 to 20%) and 16.8% (range 10
to 23%), respectively. Looking at transverse section, the shrinkage of oil palm wood in central
zone was higher compared to inner and peripheral zones. This can be explained based on the
following conditions:
according to the presence of vascular bundle which is referring to the result in Section
4.1.2, the number of vascular bundles per unit area increases from inner zone to the peripheral zone,
83

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

the result in Section 4.1.2.1 mentioned that the vascular bundle in peripheral zone mainly
contains one or two wide vessels and two or three vessels with similar width in the inner
and central zones.
Hence, the higher value of shrinkage properties in central zone comparing to inner zone was
logically accepted, because although the vessel width of vascular bundle in both area are similar,
but the number of vascular bundles in central zone was higher than inner zone. Whilst, the
similar case was also happened between central and peripheral zone. In this condition, the
higher value in central zone was accepted to the fact that although the number of vascular
bundle in peripheral zone was higher than central zone, but the presence of vessels in this area
was fewer than central zone. The above condition of shrinkage properties of oil palm wood at
various trunk height was illustrated in Figure 4.25.
24

H-2
H-3
H-5
H-6

22

Volumetric shrinkage (%)

20

18

16

14

12

10
Inner Zone

Central Zone

Peripheral Zone

Oil palm wood zoning

Fig. 4.25: Volumetric shrinkage of oil palm wood at various wood zoning and trunk height

84

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

4.3.2 Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Wood


The mechanical properties of wood are measures of its resistance to exterior forces which tend
to deform its mass. The resistance of wood to such forces depend on their magnitude and
the manner of loading (bending, compression, shear, tension, etc.). Due to the mechanical
properties, Tsoumis [93] stated that wood exhibits different mechanical properties in different
growth directions (axial, radial, tangential), therefore, it is mechanically anisotropic. According
to Bowyer et al. [15], mechanical properties are usually the most important characteristics of
wood product to be used in structural applications. A structural application is any use for which
strength is one of the primary criteria for selection of the material. Structural uses of wood
product include oor joint and rafters, structural panel roof, wall sheathing, sub ooring, and
etc.
Regarding the mechanical properties of oil palm wood, several mechanical properties were
tested in this study, including static bending (modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of
rupture (MOR)), compression parallel to grain, shear parallel to grain, tension parallel and
perpendicular to grain, hardness, cleavage and nail withdrawal. The testing was carried out
on the basis of ASTM Standard for the mechanical properties evaluation. Due to the limited
availability material of oil palm wood, the testings were conducted through the secondary test
of specimen dimension. The dimension, condition, position and number of specimen and type
of testing is presented in Table 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5 (see Section 3.1.2), respectively.
The analysis of mechanical properties of oil palm wood was particularly investigated the effect of wood zoning and trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration. Treatment using bioresin was divided into two experiments, i.e. heat technique and chemical technique (using acetone as organic solvent of bioresin). Therefore, the oil palm wood specimens
were grouped into three groups based on their applied treatments i.e. specimen without treatment/control or untreated wood, treated wood with bioresin using heat technique and treated
wood with bioresin using chemical (acetone) technique. Static bending (MOE and MOR),
shear parallel to grain and hardness tests were carried out under the following factors:
1. Untreated wood (UW)
Wood zoning: inner (IZ), central (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ)
Trunk height: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 meter above DBH
2. Treated wood with bioresin using heat technique (WBH)
Wood zoning: inner (IZ), central (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ)
Trunk height: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 meter above DBH
Impregnation time: 150 and 300 seconds
3. Treated wood with bioresin using chemical technique (acetone) (WBA)
Wood zoning: inner (IZ), central (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ)
Trunk height: 3, 5 and 7 meter above DBH
Impregnation time: 24 and 48 hours
Bioresin concentration: 10 and 20%
85

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Further, the investigation of compression strength parallel to grain, tension strength parallel and
perpendicular to grain, cleavage strength and nail withdrawal resistance were conducted under
the similar factor, but the testings were run only for oil palm wood material which was taken
from peripheral zone.
In addition, due to the original unit of force during the testing material, all the force-unit for
mechanical testing is in kilogram-force, for example unit for modulus of elasticity in kg/cm2 ,
but in order to have the value in N/mm2 , the force value can be converted into International
System of Unit (e.g. Newton (N)) by considering to the gravity-value, i.e. 9.807 [95].
4.3.2.1 Static Bending Strength
The static bending strength refers to tests performed in which a bending stress is applied to
the specimen to determine the stiffness, or modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the specimen as
well as the amount of force required to cause the specimen to fail, expressed as the modulus of
rupture (MOR). The specimen size is dependent on the testing standard used, the material type,
the original site and intended end-use of the material being tested. According to the ASTM
Standard [3] the static bending test of wood is calculated by use of its relationship with beam
size, span, load and deection. The illustration of this test is presented in Figure 4.26.
F

xxxxx
x
x
x
d
x
x
xxxxx
x

xxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxx

xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxx

ls

Fig. 4.26: Static bending strength test for determining modulus of elasticity and modulus of
rupture (F=load; l=length of specimen; ls=length between specimen support of the
span; d=thickness or depth of specimen; a=deection

Based on the above testing method, Hoffmann et al. [57] stated that in order to determine the
modulus of elasticity, the specimen is supported at two points the span length (ls ) and the load
F is applied in the centre of the span. The deformation during the loading process enabled the
calculation of modulus of elasticity according to the following equation:
M OE =

Fp .ls3
4.b.d3 .a

(4.6)

Where, MOE=modulus of elasticity (N/mm2 ); Fp =load at proportional limit (N); ls =length


between specimen support of the span (mm); b=width of specimen (mm); d=thickness or depth
of specimen (mm) and a=deection of the neutral plane at the proportional limit measured at
half span (mm).
86

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Bending strength of wood is usually expressed in term of the modulus of rupture (MOR). The
MOR is calculated from the maximum load or load at failure in a bending test, using the same
testing procedure for determining the MOE. Bowyer et al. [15] calculated the MOR using the
classic exure formula:
Bs =

M.c
I

(4.7)

Where, M=maximum moment; c=the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme bre (usually
half of the depth) and I=moment of inertia.
Further he stated that when using a test specimen with rectangular cross section, the exure
formula reduce to the Equation 4.8. This equation is valid only when rectangular beam is freely
supported at both ends and is loaded at the center of the span.
M OR =

(1.5).P.L
b.d2

(4.8)

Where, P=breaking (maximum) load (N ); L=distance between supports (span) (m); b=width of
the beam (m) and d=depth of beam (m).
4.3.2.1.1 The effect of wood zoning and trunk height on the static bending strength (modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of oil palm wood (untreated
specimen)
In order to investigate the static bending of oil palm wood, the analysis of the obtained data was
conducted to examine the effect of wood zoning (inner, central and peripheral zone) and trunk
height (1, 3, 5, 7 and 7 m) to the modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture. The total number
of specimen with 3 replications for control (untreated wood), treated wood with bioresin and
treated wood with acetone was 333 pieces. The complete data of static bending test is presented
in Table F.1 (see Appendix F.1). The summarized result of static bending test including MOE
and MOR strengths for control specimens is presented in Table 4.11 and 4.12, respectively.
Modulus of Elasticity (MOE)
According to the obtained results of static bending test which is summarized in Table 4.11, looking at the transverse section of oil palm wood, it showed that the average modulus of elasticity
at inner (IZ), central (CZ) and peripheral (PZ) zones were approx. 10650, 26297 and 55913
kg/cm2 , respectively.
The MOE value at central zone was two times higher than at inner zone and it was two times
lower than at peripheral zone, therefore, it can be stated that the MOE strength at peripheral zone
was strongest compared to the others zone. This was logically accepted due to the presence of
vascular bundles decrease from outer to inner part of the trunk as shown in Figure 4.16 (see
Section 4.1.2). The distribution of MOE values for untreated wood at various wood zoning
is presented in Figure 4.27. From this gure, it showed that the MOE of oil palm wood was
increased from the inner to peripheral zone.
Looking at longitudinal section, this mechanical property was decreasing from the bottom to the
top of the trunk. This trends was also accepted to the fact that the presence of vascular bundles
decrease gradually from the bottom to the top of the trunk as shown in Figure 4.17 or 4.18
(see Section 4.1.2). The average value of MOE at various height 1; 3; 5; 7 and 9 meter were
87

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Tab. 4.11: Summary data of modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood at various wood zoning and
trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table F.1 (see Appendix
F.1))
Height
Wood Zoning
(m)
IZ
CZ
PZ
Modulus of Elasticity (MOE, kg/cm2 )
1
10175.006 53509.091 70022.520
3
13010.453 30924.164 65774.347
5
11149.181 18550.750 69237.489
7
9458.445 15554.737 34178.921
9
9457.813 12946.145 40353.154
Average 10650.180 26296.977 55913.286

Average
44568.872
36569.655
32979.140
19730.701
20919.038
30953.481

100000
90000

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-Control

80000

MOE (kg/cm2)

70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0

Inner Zone

Central Zone
Trunk Height (m)

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.27: Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood (control
specimen)

88

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

about 44569; 36570; 32979; 19730 and 20919 kg/cm2 , respectively. The distribution of MOE
values of oil palm wood based on both its position along the trunk and various wood zoning is
presented in Figure 4.28.
100000

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-Control

90000
80000

MOE (kg/cm2)

70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0

Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.28: Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood (control specimen)

Based on the statistical analysis test of between subject effects (Table G.3, see Appendix G.1),
it showed that the factors of wood zoning and trunk height and also interaction between them
were inuencing signicantly different at level 0.05 to the modulus of elasticity. Further, the
post hoc test using Duncan analysis was resulted that the wood zoning and trunk height factors
were then divided into three subsets as shown in Table G.4 and Table G.5 (Appendix G.1),
respectively. The MOE value at 3 and 5 meter was classied in one subset as well as at 7 and 9
meter. Generally, the statistical analysis result can be concluded that the utilization of oil palm
wood due to the needs of modulus of elasticity property, it is very important to use the wood
separately concerning wood zoning and trunk height of the oil palm trunk practically.
Furthermore, concerning the wood zoning individually, the distribution of MOE values along
the trunk for each wood zoning was analyzed consider to the allocation of oil palm wood uses for
every zone. At inner zone (IZ), the MOE values along the trunk was not signicantly different
at level 0.05 with the probability of about 0.140 (p>0.05). This can be shown in Table G.8,
where the post hoc test result of MOE values was classied into one subset only. At central
zone (CZ), the trunk height was affecting signicantly to the value of MOE with the probability
less than 0.05 (1.14x104 ), therefore, the post hoc test resulted that the MOE values were then
classied into three subsets based on their positions along the trunk as shown in Table G.11.
Whilst, at peripheral zone (PZ), the trunk height also affected statistically signicant at level
0.05, but the MOE values were classied into only two subsets, as shown in Table G.14, because
the probability (p = 2.66x104 ) at this zone was lower than at central zone. In other words, it
89

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

can be mentioned that both populations (at CZ and PZ) of MOE values have different variance
based on Levenes test, but the variance data at CZ was more signicant than at PZ, statistically.
Idealy, in practice, the oil palm wood based on MOE property at IZ has no signicantly different
along the trunk, but at CZ, the wood shall be used separately between 1 to 3 m and >3 to 7 m
and >7 to 9 m in height. At PZ, the wood can be used separately from 1 to 5 m and >5 to 9 m
in height.

90

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Modulus of Rupture (MOR)


Beside the modulus of elasticity, the wood strength when the specimen reached the breaking
point and then it was not able to recovery its shape, where the load achieves its maximum
value, its called modulus of rupture (MOR). This mechanical property is one of the important
parameter which usually used for engineering purposes. Relating to the result test of MOR of oil
palm wood at different wood zones and various trunk height, the summarized data is presented
in Table 4.12.
Tab. 4.12: Summary data of modulus of rupture (MOR) of oil palm wood at various wood zoning and trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table F.1 (see Appendix F.1))
Height
Wood Zoning
(m)
IZ
CZ
PZ
Modulus of Rupture (MOR, kg/cm2 )
1
79.664 366.238 494.219
3
92.348 216.929 496.136
5
92.512 145.447 547.399
7
80.072 119.765 264.019
9
76.830
94.269 283.407
Average 84.285 188.530 417.036

Average
313.374
268.471
261.786
154.619
151.502
229.950

Based on the above table, the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood was gradually increasing
from inner to peripheral zone (Figure 4.29), like MOE values, the MOR values at central zone
(189 kg/cm2 ) was also two times higher than at inner zone (84 kg/cm2 ) and two times lower in
comparison to peripheral zone (417 kg/cm2 ). The distribution of MOR value of oil palm wood
for each wood zone is presented in Figure 4.30.
On the basic of trunk height factor, the MOR value of oil palm wood was decreasing along
the trunk as shown in Figure 4.30. The average values of MOR at various height (1 to 9 m)
were about 313; 268; 261; 155 and 152 kg/cm2 , respectively. This trend was also similar like
MOE value distribution. Further, in order to investigate the effect of trunk height to this static
bending strength, the statistical analysis was carried out to examine the distribution of MOR
values along the trunk. The statistical analysis results showed that the population of MOE data
was signicantly different at level 0.05 (p = 4.39x109 ) based on Levenes test (Table G.16).
According to the test between-subject effects, the wood zoning and trunk height factors and
interaction between them were statistically different at level 0.05. Further, the post hoc test
showed that the wood zoning factor was classied into three subsets based on the region at
transverse section (Table G.18), and only two subsets classication for trunk height factor as
shown in Table G.19.
Individually, the oil palm wood at inner zone was classied into only one subset (Table G.22),
it means that no different in MOR value along the trunk at this region. Whilst, at central and
peripheral zones, the oil palm wood can be classied into two subsets (Table G.25 and G.28).
At central zone, the rst subset was only 1 to 3 m and the second subset was from 3 to 9 m. But
at peripheral zone, the classication goes from 1 to 5 m as rst subset, and more than 5 to 9 m
as second subset.
Generally, the static bending strength of oil palm wood (MOE and MOR) was increasing from
inner to peripheral zone and the similar trend also happened from the bottom to the top along the
91

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

900
800

MOR-IZ
MOR-CZ
MOR-PZ
MOR-Control

700

MOR (kg/cm2)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0

Inner Zone

Central Zone
Trunk Height (m)

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.29: Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood (control specimen)

900
MOR-IZ
MOR-CZ
MOR-PZ
MOR-Control

800
700

MOR (kg/cm2)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.30: Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood (control specimen)

92

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

trunk, but individually, each zone has specic classication of static bending properties based
on its height position, therefore, it shall be taken into consideration to use the oil palm wood
separately based on this mechanical properties.
4.3.2.1.2 The effect of wood zoning, trunk height and impregnation time on the static
bending strength (modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR)) of oil
palm wood impregnated with bioresin
In this section, the investigation of oil palm wood was done to evaluate the effect of wood zoning, trunk height and impregnation time of bioresin to the static bending strength, both MOE and
MOR. The experiment of bioresin impregnation treatment was conducted under three different
wood zoning (IZ, CZ and PZ), various trunk height (1, 3, 5, 7, 9 m) and two impregnations
time i.e. 150 and 300 seconds at temperature of bioresin 180 C. This impregnation time conditions were chosen based on preliminary result of this study. The analysis of this experiment
was focusing on how the bioresin impregnation using high temperature technique (180 C) able
to improve the static bending properties in comparison to the untreated wood (control). This
bioresin was extracted from pine (Pinus merkusii) in Aek Nauli Plantation, North Sumatra. The
complete experimental data of static bending test is presented in Table F.2, F.3, F.4, F.5, F.6
and F.7 (see Appendix F.1). The summarized result of this mechanical properties test from the
above mentioned tables is presented in Table 4.13 and 4.14.
Modulus of Elasticity (MOE)
According to the obtained data of modulus of elasticity which is presented in Table 4.13, the average MOE values of oil palm wood that treated with bioresin for 150 seconds was about 40572
kg/cm2 . Although by shifting the impregnation time into 300 seconds, the MOE value was
almost not signicantly different (38599 kg/cm2 ), indeed lower than 150 seconds. It could be
occurred probably because of high heat ow through the wood structural component (vascular
bundles) and within this period of treatment, the structural ability of wood was degraded. Generally, on the basic of wood zoning, a gradually increase in modulus of elasticity is indicated
from inner to peripheral zone as shown in Figure 4.31 and 4.32, but it was decreasing from the
bottom to the top of trunk height (Figure 4.33 and 4.34).
Tab. 4.13: Summary data of modulus of elasticity (MOE) of oil palm wood impregnated with
bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds at various wood zoning and trunk height
Static Bending
(kg/cm2 )
MOE

Impregnation
Time (s)
150

300

Height
(m)
1
3
5
7
9
Average
1
3
5
7
9
Average

IZ
14335.560
15702.333
12532.105
11216.960
11962.175
13149.827
19592.828
18589.557
14516.546
12591.543
12338.378
15525.770

Wood Zoning
CZ
61829.171
38897.162
33333.580
23730.273
18768.530
35311.743
63250.153
38071.137
27629.157
25149.916
22284.451
35276.963

PZ
88138.881
60354.702
80277.596
68645.788
68852.282
73253.850
71181.042
50001.564
88756.743
55967.555
59061.121
64993.605

Average
54767.871
38318.066
42047.760
34531.007
33194.329
40571.807
51341.341
35554.086
43634.148
31236.338
31227.983
38598.779

93

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

120000

100000

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-Bioresin150

MOE (kg/cm2)

80000

60000

40000

20000

Inner Zone

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.31: Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood impregnated
with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds

110000
100000

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-Bioresin300

90000
80000

MOE (kg/cm2)

70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0

Inner Zone

Central Zone

Peripheral Zone

Wood Zoning

Fig. 4.32: Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood impregnated
with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds

94

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

120000

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-Bioresin150

100000

MOE (kg/cm2)

80000

60000

40000

20000

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.33: Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood impregnated
with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds

110000

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-Bioresin300

100000
90000
80000

MOE (kg/cm2)

70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0

Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.34: Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood impregnated
with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds

95

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Based on the statistical analysis, almost all factors, both individually or interaction between
them were signicantly different at level 0.05 (Table G.30). The wood zoning was affecting
signicantly to the MOE values of the treated wood as well as trunk height factor. The post hoc
test showed that both wood zoning and trunk height were classied into three subsets (Table
G.31 and G.32). In this study, the treated wood can be used by grouping their position along
the trunk, i.e up to 1 m; >1 to 5 m and >5 to 9 m on the basic of their modulus of elasticity
strength.
Focusing on individual zone, at inner zone, the MOE values based on their positions were
classied into three subsets, i.e. 1 to 3 m; >3 to 7 m and >7 to 9 m (Table G.37). At central
zone, the MOE values distribution was more signicant, in this region they classied into four
subsets, i.e. up to 1 m; >1 to 3 m; >3 to 5 m; >5 to 9 m (Table G.42), but at peripheral zone,
this factor was grouped into two subsets only, i.e. 1 to 5 m and >5 to 9 m (Table G.47).
Concerning to the impregnation time factor, it can be stated that the bioresin treatment using
high temperature technique, both at 150 and 300 seconds was signicantly different at level 0.05
in comparison to the untreated wood (30953 kg/cm2 ) as shown in Table G.33. By dening
the effect of impregnation time for each zone, it can be stated that at inner and peripheral
zones, this factor was affecting signicantly different at level 0.05, it means that the bioresin
treatment enable to improve the MOE property of oil palm wood compare to the untreated wood.
Impregnating bioresin about 300 seconds resulted the highest value of MOE (Table G.38 and
G.48). Further, at central zone, the impregnation time was affecting signicantly different in
comparison to the untreated wood, but no signicant between treated woods those impregnating
with bioresin for 150 and 300 seconds as shown in Table G.43.
Modulus of Rupture (MOR)
The experimental data of MOE strength of treated wood with bioresin as shown in Table 4.14
below. It can be mentioned generally that the average value of MOE for 150 and 300 seconds
of impregnation time were about 275 and 279 kg/cm2 , respectively.
Tab. 4.14: Summary data of modulus of rupture (MOR) of oil palm wood impregnated with
bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds at various wood zoning and trunk height
Static Bending
(kg/cm2 )
MOR

Impregnation
Time (s)
150

300

Height
(m)
1
3
5
7
9
Average
1
3
5
7
9
Average

IZ
104.532
105.267
105.786
94.306
96.493
101.277
143.807
131.469
111.351
93.182
105.674
117.097

Wood Zoning
CZ
PZ
388.128 524.302
248.724 401.396
215.085 497.454
166.271 519.143
150.662 509.991
233.774 490.457
420.857 481.079
252.386 357.201
191.675 639.572
192.587 416.238
165.673 476.791
244.636 474.176

Average
338.987
251.796
272.775
259.907
252.382
275.169
348.581
247.019
314.199
234.003
249.379
278.636

Referring to the analysis of statistic (Table G.53), these value was not signicantly different,
but they were signicantly different in comparison with the untreated wood (230 kg/cm2 ) at
level 0.05. The wood zoning and trunk height factors were also affecting signicantly to the
96

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

modulus of elasticity, as shown in Table G.51 and G.52, where both factors were classied into
three subsets based on their variations during the experiment.
As modulus of elasticity, the obtained MOR strength also different responses for each zone and
different classications based on their position along the trunk. At inner zone, the impregnation
time factor was affected signicantly comparing to the untreated wood and also between treated
woods within 150 and 300 seconds (Table G.58). But on the basic of trunk height factor, the
MOR values at central and peripheral zones were more signicant different statistically than at
inner zone (Table G.57, G.62 and G.67). Therefore, it can be mentioned that in order to utilize
the treated oil palm woods with bioresin, referring to their modulus of rupture property, it shall
be taken into consideration to use these woods separately depends on their zones and positions
along the trunk. The obtained data of MOR values resulted the similar distribution trends like
MOE values above. The MOR strength of treated woods decrease with the trunk height and
toward the central point of the trunk, as shown in Figure 4.35, 4.36, 4.37 and 4.38, respectively.
800
MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOR-Bioresin150

700

600

MOR (kg/cm2)

500

400

300

200

100

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.35: Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood impregnated
with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds

97

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

800
MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOR-Bioresin300

700

600

MOR (kg/cm2)

500

400

300

200

100

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.36: Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood impregnated
with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds

800

700

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOR-Bioresin150

600

MOR (kg/cm2)

500

400

300

200

100

Inner Zone

Central Zone

Peripheral Zone

Wood Zoning

Fig. 4.37: Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood impregnated
with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds

98

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

800

700

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOR-Bioresin300

600

MOR (kg/cm2)

500

400

300

200

100

Inner Zone

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.38: Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood impregnated
with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds

99

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

4.3.2.1.3 The effect of wood zoning, trunk height, impregnation time and acetone concentration on the static bending strength (modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of
rupture (MOR) of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone
In this experiment, the oil palm wood was treated with bioresin soluble in acetone in various
concentration (10 and 20%) and impregnation time (24 and 48 hours). The treatment was
conducted under the condition that had achieved in preliminary experiment. The complete data
of static bending strength (MOE and MOR) is presented in Table F.8, F.9, F.10 and F.11 (see
Appenx F.1). The summarized data of these tables is presented in Table 4.15 and 4.16.
Modulus of Elasticity (MOE)
According to the obtained data of modulus elasticity test (Table 4.15), it was identied that the
average value of MOE from inner to peripheral zone was gradually increased. The trend of
this distribution was similar for all condition of the applied treatment as shown in Figure 4.39.
Further, based on the statistical analysis, the wood zoning factor was affecting signicantly
different at level 0.05 (Table G.71). It means that each region of the trunk at transverse section
has signicantly different MOE value from one zone to the others. It also can be stated that in
order to utilize this wood, it necessary to use them separately.
Looking at longitudinal direction of the trunk, the MOE values can be statistically classied into
two subsets, i.e. up to 5 m and more than 5 m, as shown in Table G.72. Generally, the MOE
values of oil palm wood were slightly decreased from the bottom to the top of the trunk. This can
be seen in Figure 4.40. Furthermore, the effect of impregnation time and acetone concentration
factors were not signicantly different, therefore these factors only grouping into one subset
only, as shown in Table G.73 and G.74. Hence, the condition at impregnation time for 24 hours
and acetone concentration of about 10% can be used to apply the bioresin treatment.
Focusing the wood zoning individually, it can be statistically stated that at inner zone, the oil
palm wood can be used classied into two subsets utilization, i.e. up to 5 m and more than 5 m
(Table G.78). The MOE value at less than 5 m height was higher in comparison to the wood at
position more than 5 m. Due to the bioresin impregnation, the impregnation time and acetone
concentration (Table G.73 and G.74) was resulted no signicantly different comparing to the
untreated wood. It means that the untreated oil palm wood at inner zone was still better than the
treated wood with bioresin soluble in acetone at any conditions of treatment. Looking at central
and peripheral zone, the MOE values distribution was also similar to the inner zone.

100

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Tab. 4.15: Summary data of static bending strength test (MOE and MOR) of oil palm wood at
various wood zoning and trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration
10% and 20% for 24 and 48 hours
Static Bending
(kg/cm2 )
MOE

Impregnation
Time (h)
24

Concentration
(%)
10

20

48

10

20

Height
(m)
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average

IZ
15851.177
12300.532
11274.194
13141.968
16886.508
12622.515
8311.066
12606.696
9076.759
9954.369
10186.210
9739.113
17553.167
14490.473
9738.843
13927.495

Wood Zoning
CZ
32284.296
33522.713
30836.314
32214.441
29565.485
23440.073
14236.400
22413.986
25345.734
23206.745
15365.579
21306.020
36620.855
30710.259
20366.725
29232.613

PZ
63307.259
53375.037
67950.988
61544.428
64292.232
63579.297
39920.264
55930.598
57030.824
51149.652
38577.785
48919.420
74737.165
54125.019
69043.157
65968.447

Average
37147.577
33066.094
36687.165
35633.612
36914.742
33213.962
20822.577
30317.093
30484.439
28103.589
21376.525
26654.851
42970.396
33108.584
33049.575
36376.185

101

(c) T2K1

102

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

70000

80000

90000

100000

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

Inner Zone

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-T2K2

Inner Zone

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-T2K1

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Peripheral Zone

MOE (kg/cm2)
MOE (kg/cm2)

70000

(a) T1K1

MOE (kg/cm2)

MOE (kg/cm2)

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

70000

80000

90000

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

70000

80000

90000

100000

Inner Zone

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-T1K2

Inner Zone

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-T1K1

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Peripheral Zone

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

(b) T1K2

(d) T2K2

Fig. 4.39: Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood impregnated
with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time

(c) T2K1

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

70000

80000

90000

100000

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-T2K2

5
Trunk Height (m)

5
Trunk Height (m)

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-T2K1

MOE (kg/cm2)
MOE (kg/cm2)

70000

(a) T1K1

MOE (kg/cm2)

MOE (kg/cm2)

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

70000

80000

90000

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

70000

80000

90000

100000

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-T1K2

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOE-T1K1

5
Trunk Height (m)

5
Trunk Height (m)

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

(b) T1K2

(d) T2K2

Fig. 4.40: Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood impregnated
with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time

103

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion


Modulus of Rupture (MOR)

The experimental data in Table 4.16 showed that the modulus of rupture property was decreased
toward the central point of the trunk at transverse section view. This trend can be clearly seen
in Figure 4.41. On the other factor, this mechanical property was also slightly decrease along
the trunk as shown in Figure 4.42.
According to the statistical analysis, the wood zoning and trunk height factors were affecting
signicantly different at level 0.05. Similar to the MOE property, based on the obtained result
of MOR value, it necessary to use the oil palm wood separately based on their positions both
at transverse section and longitudinal direction as consider to statistical analysis in Table G.95
and G.96.
Tab. 4.16: Summary data of static bending strength test (MOE and MOR) of oil palm wood at
various wood zoning and trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration
10% and 20% for 24 and 48 hours
Static Bending
(kg/cm2 )
MOR

Impregnation
Time (h)
24

Concentration
(%)
10

20

48

10

20

104

Height
(m)
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average

IZ
119.244
105.782
103.313
109.446
138.655
103.030
69.867
103.851
77.627
84.619
90.116
84.121
129.374
126.956
95.193
117.174

Wood Zoning
CZ
PZ
216.156 523.275
237.977 396.206
132.984 576.335
195.706 498.605
200.681 503.431
182.079 443.046
117.812 298.334
166.858 414.937
203.976 411.429
177.504 356.788
128.040 315.670
169.840 361.295
243.919 590.759
196.636 390.965
160.141 585.745
200.232 522.490

Average
286.225
246.655
270.877
267.919
280.922
242.718
162.004
228.548
231.011
206.304
177.942
205.085
321.351
238.186
280.360
279.965

(c) T2K1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Inner Zone

MOR-IZ
MOR-CZ
MOR-PZ
MOR-T2K2

Inner Zone

MOR-IZ
MOR-CZ
MOR-PZ
MOR-T2K1

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Peripheral Zone

MOR (kg/cm2)
MOR (kg/cm2)

500

(a) T1K1

MOR (kg/cm2)

MOR (kg/cm2)

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Inner Zone

MOR-IZ
MOR-CZ
MOR-PZ
MOR-T1K2

Inner Zone

MOR-IZ
MOR-CZ
MOR-PZ
MOR-T1K1

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Peripheral Zone

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

(b) T1K2

(d) T2K2

Fig. 4.41: Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood impregnated
with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time

105

(c) T2K1

106

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

5
Trunk Height (m)

5
Trunk Height (m)

MOR-IZ
MOR-CZ
MOR-PZ
MOR-T2K2

MOR-IZ
MOR-CZ
MOR-PZ
MOR-T2K1

MOR (kg/cm2)
MOR (kg/cm2)

500

(a) T1K1

MOR (kg/cm2)

MOR (kg/cm2)

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

5
Trunk Height (m)

5
Trunk Height (m)

MOE-IZ
MOE-CZ
MOE-PZ
MOR-T1K2

MOR-IZ
MOR-CZ
MOR-PZ
MOR-T1K1

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

(b) T1K2

(d) T2K2

Fig. 4.42: Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood impregnated
with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

4.3.2.2 Shear Strength Parallel to Grain


In this study, the strength in shear was only tested in parallel to grain, it called shear parallel
to grain or simply shear parallel. The longitudinal shearing stress is present when wood is
stressed in bending, although strength in transverse shear acting on cross section is three to
four times greater than in axial shear (Bowyer, et al [15]), but Kollmann and Ct [68] stated
that this property is no practical importance, since wood fails rst axial or rolling shear than in
transverse shear. Therefore, under the inuence of shearing loads in axial direction, hence the
experimental in this study was gathered the information about the shear parallel to grain. The
oil palm wood was tested based on various treatment, such as bioresin treatment and bioresin
soluble in acetone treatment and in comparison with untreated wood. The experiment was
designed under various wood zoning (inner (IZ), central (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ)) and
ve different trunk height positions (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 m). Two various impregnation time for
each bioresin treatments (150 and 300 seconds for high temperature technique; 24 and 48 hours
for bioresin soluble in acetone) and two acetone concentrations were applied. Total number
of specimen with 3 to 5 replications was 333 pieces. The testing of this mechanical property
was conducted based on ASTM standard D 143-94 [3] with the secondary dimension of the
specimen. The complete data of shear parallel to grain test was presented in Appendix F.2. The
summarized results of this test for untreated (control), treated wood with bioresin and treated
with bioresin soluble in acetone were presented in Table 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, respectively.
4.3.2.2.1 The effect of wood zoning and trunk height on the shear strength parallel to
grain of oil palm wood (untreated specimen)
According to the obtained results of shear parallel test which is summarized in Table 4.17, this
mechanical property was increased from inner to peripheral zone as also shown in Figure 4.43.
Due to the wood zoning factor, the average values of shear parallel at IZ, CZ and PZ zone were
about 14.1, 14.3 and 24.7 kg/cm2 , respectively.
Tab. 4.17: Summary data of shear strength of oil palm wood at various wood zoning and trunk
height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table F.12 (see Appendix F.2))
Height
Wood Zoning
(m)
IZ
CZ
PZ
Shear Strength (kg/cm2 )
1
16.7432 22.0374 35.8546
3
20.5406 14.9222 27.9807
5
14.5236 15.3130 30.7017
7
8.6042 10.5225 15.8266
9
10.0202
8.7913 13.2367
Average 14.0864 14.3173 24.7201

Average
24.8784
21.1478
20.1794
11.6511
10.6827
17.7079

It can be identied that the values at IZ and CZ were similar, therefore, these values were then
classied into the same subset (Table G.120), statistically. At PZ, the shear parallel strength
was approx. 71% greater than value at IZ and CZ. The tests of between-subject effects showed
that the whole factors (wood zoning and trunk height) were signicantly different at level 0.05,
but their interaction was not signicant different. It can be seen that the probability values of
wood zoning and trunk height were about 8.02x106 and 8.67x106 (p < 0.05), respectively,
and for their interaction, it was about 0.356 (p > 0.05) (Table G.119). The average value of
107

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

70

60

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-Control

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

50

40

30

20

10

Inner Zone

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.43: Inuence of wood zoning to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
(control specimen)

shear parallel to grain for untreated wood was about 17.7 kg/cm2 . At longitudinal direction,
the shear parallel strength based on its trunk height was decreased from the bottom to the top
of the trunk as also shown in Figure 4.44. The highest value was at 1 meter (24.9 kg/cm2 ) and
the lowest value was at 9 meter (10.6 kg/cm2 ). Statistical analysis of this factor showed that
the oil palm wood was grouped into two subsets (Table G.121), i.e. 1 to 5 m and >5 to 9 m,
respectively.
Concerning to analysis shear parallel value distribution for each zone, the factorial analysis design using the univariate analysis of variance was used. The result showed that the specimen
from all position along the trunk at IZ was signicantly different at level 0.05 with the probability value of about 2.499x105 (p<0.05), therefore, this factor was then classied into three
subset, as shown in Table G.124. At CZ, the distribution of shear parallel strength was also
signicantly different. The probability value was about 6.62x104 (p<0.05). In this zone, trunk
height factor was also grouped into three subsets starting up to 1 m, 3 to 7 m and 7 to 9 m
(Table G.127). Whilst, the distribution of shear parallel strength at peripheral zone was only
classied into two subsets (Table G.130), up to 5 meter and more than 5 meter. The distribution
of shear parallel to grain strength for all zones along the trunk is presented in Figure 4.44.
Generally, the oil palm wood based on its wood zoning can be used by grouping them into two
groups, where wood from inner and central zone can be used together, but it shall be taken
into consideration with regard to the wood near the central point. The wood from peripheral
zone shall be used separately with the others zone. Due to the greater different of shear parallel
strength at this zone, it can be used for structural purposes. Concerning its position along the
trunk, the wood shall be classied into two or three groups of height positions, but this also
must be consider to their zones.
108

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

70

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-Control

60

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

50

40

30

20

10

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.44: Inuence of trunk height to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
(untreated specimen)

4.3.2.2.2 The effect of wood zoning, trunk height and impregnation time on the shear
strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin
After treating the oil palm wood with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds, the treated
wood was visually more compact and rigid compare to untreated wood. This was predict because the bioresin reserved into the wood and lled the wood components, such as vascular
bundles. The summarized of this experiment is presented the following table:
Tab. 4.18: Summary data of shear strength of oil palm wood at various wood zoning and trunk
height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds
Impregnation Height
Time (s)
(m)
Shear Strength (kg/cm2 )
150
1
3
5
7
9
Average
300
1
3
5
7
9
Average

IZ

Wood Zoning
CZ

PZ

21.5722
20.5419
16.4848
12.6082
16.7295
17.5873
19.1570
21.2768
17.5122
12.0721
14.4452
16.8927

34.4337
21.1338
14.3375
13.6124
12.6504
19.2336
29.4653
19.2529
17.0150
13.0550
14.5811
18.6738

26.3317
36.9116
31.2461
21.5723
19.8787
27.1881
29.6796
19.0619
21.8845
16.7171
22.8475
22.0381

Average
27.4459
26.1957
20.6895
15.9310
16.4195
21.3363
26.1006
19.8639
18.8039
13.9481
17.2912
19.2015

109

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

In the above table, it can be observed that the shear parallel to grain strength of the treated
wood (21.3 kg/cm2 ) was higher compared to the untreated wood (17.7 kg/cm2 ). This was
logically accepted to the fact that bioresin lled cell cavities of wood during the impregnation
process. Further, this material was then getting harden until reach its room temperature. Shear
parallel strength value was increased from the inner zone to peripheral zone for both 150 and
300 impregnation time, as shown in Figure 4.45 and 4.46. In this gure, it also can be observed
that by improving the impregnation time, the shear parallel strength was not increasing, indeed,
it is slightly lower than 150 seconds. This occur might be because of the negative effect of
high temperature during the process. The heat caused a reduction of wood ability to endure its
structural property.
90
80

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-Bioresin150

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Inner Zone

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.45: Inuence of wood zoning to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds

Regarding the trunk height factor, this mechanical property was slightly decrease from bottom
part to the top part of trunk for both conditions of impregnation time. This can be easily identied in Figure 4.47 and 4.48. The average value of shear parallel for 150 and 300 seconds were
about 21.3 (15.9-27.4) and 19.2 (13.9-26.1) kg/cm2 , respectively.
Referring to the statistical analysis result which is presented in Table G.132, it can be observed
that all tested factors (wood zoning, trunk height and impregnation time) were signicantly
different at level 0.05 in affecting to shear parallel strength, but their interactions were not
signicant. Further, Levenes test (Table G.131) showed that its probability of about 1.99x109 ,
it means that the populations data of shear parallel strength were providing a different variances.
Therefore in post hoc test by using Duncans test resulted that the wood zoning was classied
into two subset (Table G.133), where IZ and CZ were in one subset. This result was accepted to
the fact that the mean value in IZ and CZ was similar, i.e. 16.2 and 17.4 kg/cm2 , respectively.
The other subset was peripheral zone with mean value of about 24.6 kg/cm2 .
110

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

55
50
45

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-Bioresin300

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

Inner Zone

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.46: Inuence of wood zoning to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds

90

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-Bioresin150

80

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.47: Inuence of trunk height to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds

111

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

55

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-Bioresin300

50
45

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.48: Inuence of trunk height to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds

Whilst, the trunk height factor was also affecting signicantly different at level 0.05 to shear
parallel to grain strength. The obtained Duncans test in Table G.134 showed that these mechanical property values were grouped into three subsets, i.e. 1 to 3 m, >3 to 7 m and >7 to 9
m.
Furthermore, in order to investigate the shear parallel strength of the treated wood based on its
wood zoning individually, the statistical analysis was conducted by using univariate analysis.
According to the obtained data, the tested factors (trunk height and impregnation time) were
examined in affecting to the shear parallel strength. It can be observed that at IZ and CZ,
the distributions of shear parallel value were similar. At these wood zones, the trunk height
was classied into three subsets (Table G.139 and G.144) and impregnation time factor was
classied into two subsets, as shown in Table G.140 and G.145. Whilst, trunk height factor at
PZ (Table G.149) was also affecting to the shear parallel strength, but only classied into two
subsets (1 to 5 m and >5 to 9 m), indeed the impregnation time was classied into one subset
only (Table G.150).
At inner zone, the oil palm wood based on its position along the trunk can be divided from 1 to
3 m, >3 to 5 m and 7 to 9 m as well as at CZ, but at PZ was up to 5 meter and more than 5 meter
height. Due to the affecting of impregnation time, at IZ and CZ, this factor was signicantly
different at level 0.05 in affecting shear parallel strength, in comparison to untreated wood, but
it was not signicant at PZ.

112

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3.2.2.3 The effect of wood zoning, trunk height, impregnation time and acetone concentration on the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone
In this experiment, the oil palm wood was treated with bioresin soluble in acetone at various
impregnation time (24 and 48 hours) and various percentage of bioresin in acetone (10 and
20%). The specimens were also taken from various wood zoning (inner (IZ), central (CZ) and
peripheral zone (PZ)) and various trunk height (3, 5 and 7 m). On the basic of data in Table
4.19, the shear parallel to grain strength of treated wood at various conditions of treatment were
almost similar from one condition to the others, where the average values were ranging from
13.6 to 24.5 kg/cm2 . Looking at transverse section view, this strength was gradually increased
from central point to the outer part of the trunk, as shown in Figure 4.49. The average values
at various condition (T1K1; T1K2; T2K1; T2K2) were about 19 (13.8-21.8); 19.5 (13.7-23.8);
19.2 (14.8-24.5) and 18.1 (13.7-22.8) kg/cm2 , respectively. Whilst, at longitudinal direction,
the shear strength parallel to grain was slightly decreased from the bottom to the top of the trunk
for all experiment conditions, as shown in Figure 4.50.
Tab. 4.19: Summary data of shear strength of oil palm wood at various wood zoning and trunk
height and impregnated with acetone at concentration 10% and 20% for 24 and 48
hours
Impregnation
Time (h)
24

Concentration
(%)
10

20

48

10

20

Height
(m)
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average

IZ
18.4062
16.6089
12.1584
15.7245
20.6957
14.8203
10.4412
15.3191
16.4222
14.8203
12.0313
14.4246
18.1548
13.8742
9.5766
13.8685

Wood Zoning
CZ
PZ
19.4316 27.6746
15.3902 31.7072
8.5646 20.9564
14.4621 26.7794
20.2429 30.3246
14.3123 33.8319
11.9689 18.5829
15.5081 27.5798
19.3634 37.7687
13.9863 26.1213
11.4416 20.7875
14.9304 28.2258
16.2469 33.9341
11.6298 27.9350
11.1766 20.2958
13.0178 27.3883

Average
21.8374
21.2354
13.8931
18.9887
23.7544
20.9882
13.6643
19.4690
24.5181
18.3093
14.7535
19.1936
22.7786
17.8130
13.6830
18.0915

Further, the statistical analysis result based on its wood zoning showed that the values at IZ and
CZ were classied in one subsets or in other word that the shear parallel strength at these zones
are similar. Whilst, at PZ, it was signicantly different at level 0.05 compare to IZ and CZ in
affecting this strength (Table G.153). Due to the trunk height factor, the distribution of shear
parallel strength was slightly decrease toward the trunk height and it was classied into two
groups, starting up to 5 m and more than 5 m height in order to use this treated wood (Table
G.154). The impregnation time and percentage of bioresin in acetone factors were not affecting
signicantly to the shear parallel strength, and the obtained values were also not signicant in
comparison to the untreated wood (Table G.155 and G.156).
Concerning to the analysis of wood zoning factor individually, it can be identied that shear
parallel strengths based on their positions along the trunk at IZ, CZ and PZ were statistically
signicant at level 0.05, where each position ( 3, 5 and 7 m) resulted different values of this me113

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Peripheral Zone
Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

Central Zone
Wood Zoning
Inner Zone
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-T2K2
45

40

Central Zone
Inner Zone
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-T2K1
45

Wood Zoning

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

50

Peripheral Zone

(b) T1K2

Peripheral Zone

(a) T1K1

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

(c) T2K1

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

50

45

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-T1K2

Inner Zone

Wood Zoning

10

20

25

30

35

15

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

40

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-T1K1

Inner Zone

Central Zone

Peripheral Zone

chanical property in positive impact. Whilst, the impregnation time and percentages of bioresin
in acetone were not affecting signicantly to the shear parallel strength. These can be observed
at table tests of between-subject effect (Table G.159, G.165 and G.171), where all probability
values were more than 0.05. It means that the distribution of population data of variance were
equal between one to the others condition of treatment.

(d) T2K2

Fig. 4.49: Inuence of wood zoning to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
impregnated with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time

114

10

15

20

5
Trunk Height (m)

5
Trunk Height (m)

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-ACET2K2

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-ACET2K1

(a) T1K1

25

30

35

40

45

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)


Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

(c) T2K1

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

Shear strength || (kg/cm2)

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

5
Trunk Height (m)

5
Trunk Height (m)

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-ACET1K2

Shear-IZ
Shear-CZ
Shear-PZ
Shear-ACET1K1

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

(b) T1K2

(d) T2K2

Fig. 4.50: Inuence of trunk height to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
impregnated with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time

115

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

4.3.2.3 Hardness Strength


Hardness is related to the strength of wood in abrasion and scratching with various objects,
as well as to the difculty or ease of working wood with tools and machines. It is a measure
of the wearing ability of wood and is an important consideration in the use of wood for oor,
furniture, sport items, paving blocks, bearings and rollers. Kollmann [67] stated his ndings
with regards to hardness that the resistance of wood to the entrance of foreign bodies in its mass
is higher up to about double in the axial direction than sidewise, but the difference between
radial and tangential surface is seldom important. Generally, hardness dened as resistance to
indentation, measured by the load required to embed a 11.28 mm ball to one-half its diameter.
Values presented are the average of radial and tangential penetrations [94].
Relating to the hardness strength of oil palm wood, the experiment was designed to investigate
the effect of various wood zoning (inner (IZ), central (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ)) and various
trunk height (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 m) with two kinds of bioresin treatments (high temperature and
chemical techniques) which were conducted at various impregnation time and concentration of
bioresin to the hardness strength. The specimen was produced referring to ASTM Standard D
143-94 [3] with the sample size of 50 mm x 50 mm x 150 mm and 3 replications for each
condition, therefore, there were 333 pieces of specimen. The testing was carried out at two side
points of hardness test. According to the above mentioned experimental design, the complete
data is presented in Table F.19, F.20, F.21, F.22, F.23 (see Appendix F.3) and the summarized of
untreated, bioresin with heat technique and bioresin soluble in acetone are presented in Table
4.20, 4.21 and 4.22, respectively. Further, the data analysis in this study is divided into three
part on the basic of the applied treatments.
4.3.2.3.1 The effect of wood zoning and trunk height on the hardness strength of oil palm
wood (untreated specimen)
In order to investigate the effect of wood zoning and trunk height to the hardness test of untreated wood, the obtained data in Table 4.20 showed that the general mean value of hardness
strength was approx. 137.2 kg with the average value from inner to peripheral zone were about
81.4, 110 and 220 kg, respectively. It can be observed that the hardness strength at PZ was
almost two times greater than at CZ. Hardness property of the untreated wood was gradually
decreased toward the central point of the trunk at transverse sectional view and the uctuation
of distribution of this mechanical property also observed from the bottom to the top of oil palm
trunk. The effect of wood zoning and trunk height to the hardness strength can be seen in Figure
4.51 and 4.52.
Furthermore, according to the statistical analysis of the obtained data, it can be stated than the
untreated wood of oil palm at IZ and CZ were not signicantly different at level 0.05 to the
hardness strength, both of them was signicant compare to the average value at PZ. This can be
seen in Table G.178. The effect of trunk height was also almost not signicant different at the
same level of analysis, statistically, because the hardness strength was almost similar along the
trunk except at 9 meter height, as shown in Table G.179.
Looking at individual zone of oil palm wood, the effect of trunk height at IZ and CZ were
similar. They were not signicantly different each other at level 0.05 (Table G.182 and G.185).
This can be observed on the probability values at these wood zones, which were approx. 0.807
(IZ) and 0.052 (CZ) or both values are less than 0.05 (Table G.180 and G.183). At PZ, the trunk
116

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

height was affecting to hardness strength signicantly different at level 0.05, where the obtained
values were classied into two subsets, i.e. 1 to 3 m and 5 to 9 m (Table G.188).
Tab. 4.20: Summary data of hardness strength of oil palm wood at various wood zoning and
trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table F.19 (see Appendix
F.3))
Height
Wood Zoning
(m)
IZ
CZ
PZ
Hardness Strength (kg)
1
74.70 134.10 138.50
3
71.40 100.30 226.90
5
79.90 100.70 278.40
7
80.60 101.10 182.90
9
100.30 113.40 274.90
Average
81.38 109.92 220.32

Average
115.77
132.87
153.00
121.53
162.87
137.21

Generally, it can be stated that on the basic of hardness strength, the untreated wood of oil palm
shall be separated based on its wood zoning and trunk height. According to wood zoning, the
wood at IZ and CZ can be used together, because at these wood zones provide similar hardness
strength, but shall be separated with wood from PZ. Further, based on trunk height factor, the
trunk almost does not need to separate up to 7 m height.
500
450

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness-Control

Hardness strength (kg/cm2)

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50

Inner Zone

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.51: Inuence of wood zoning to the hardness strength of oil palm wood (untreated specimen)

117

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

500

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness-Control

450

Hardness strength (kg/cm2)

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.52: Inuence of trunk height to the hardness strength of oil palm wood (untreated specimen)

4.3.2.3.2 The effect of wood zoning, trunk height and impregnation time on the hardness
strength of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin
In this section, the tested factors (wood zoning, trunk height and impregnation time) were investigated to examined their effect to the hardness strength of treated oil palm wood with bioresin
using high heat technique. The summarized average data of hardness strength is presented in
Table 4.21.
Tab. 4.21: Summary data of hardness strength of oil palm wood at various wood zoning and
trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds
Impregnation Height
Time (s)
(m)
Hardness Strength (kg)
150
1
3
5
7
9
Average
300
1
3
5
7
9
Average

118

IZ
87.3
78.6
83.2
88.9
95.5
86.70
84.2
94.4
83.3
90.4
87.0
87.86

Wood Zoning
CZ
PZ
146.5
118.3
109.2
117.9
131.2
124.62
168.2
123.0
102.1
112.4
139.9
129.12

159.3
246.1
221.9
258.7
244.2
226.04
184.7
189.9
207.0
188.6
279.7
209.98

Average
131.03
147.67
138.10
155.17
156.97
145.79
145.70
135.77
130.80
130.47
168.87
142.32

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Based on the above table, it can be observed that the average values of hardness strength of
wood after treating with bioresin for 150 seconds at various wood zoning (IZ, CZ and PZ) were
about 86.7, 124.6 and 226 kg, respectively, and after treating for 300 seconds were about 87.9,
129.1 and 210 kg, respectively. The distribution of this property was gradually increased from
inner to peripheral zone, as shown in Figure 4.53 and 4.54. Statistically, wood zoning factor
was resulting signicantly different of hardness strength values for each zone, therefore, they
classied into three subsets, as shown in Table G.191.
Whilst, based on impregnation time factor, the average hardness strength after treating for 150
and 300 seconds were about 146 and 142 kg, respectively. These values were similar, and it
means that the impregnation time was not affecting signicantly to the hardness strength. This
can be proofed using statistical analysis, where according to Table G.190, the probability of this
factor was approx. 0.543 (p > 0.05) and further this factor was also classied only one subset,
where both impregnation time conditions were not affecting signicantly to hardness strength
in comparison to untreated wood as shown in Table G.193.
According to its position along the trunk, the hardness strength was uctuated along the trunk,
but from the whole positions, the treated wood for 150 seconds was better than 300 seconds, as
shown in Figure 4.55 and 4.56. Based on statistical analysis, this factor was affecting significantly different with the probability of approx. 0.019 (p < 0.05), therefore, it was classied
into two subsets, i.e. up to 7 meter and more than 7 meter height (Table G.192).
Looking at wood zoning individually, the hardness strength of treated wood with bioresin for
150 and 300 seconds at IZ were not signicantly different compare to untreated wood (Table
G.198) and based on its position along the trunk, this wood has equal values up to 7 m, as
shown in Table G.197. At CZ, this mechanical property was signicantly different compare
to the untreated wood (Table G.202) and the woods were classied into three subset of trunk
height, i.e. up to 1 m, 1 to 5 m and >5 to 9 m, respectively. At PZ, the treated wood with
bioresin at any conditions of impregnation time (Table G.208) were not different signicantly
compare to the untreated wood, similar to the woods at IZ. The trunk height factor at this region
was signicant, therefore the obtained values were then grouped into two subsets, i.e. up to 1
m and >1 to 9 m height, as shown in Table G.207.
According to the above mentioned results, it can be generally stated that the hardness strength of
oil palm wood at peripheral zone was higher compare to the others zone as shown in Figure 4.55
and 4.56. The impregnation time factor resulted signicant different of hardness strength only
at central zone in comparison to the untreated wood. The trunk height factor almost not affects
to this property, but the wood zoning was signicantly different at level 0.05 to the hardness
strength, therefore, it can be stated that the oil palm wood shall be used separately based on its
wood zoning.

119

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

500
450

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness Bioresin150

Hardness strength (kg/cm2)

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50

Inner Zone

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.53: Inuence of wood zoning to the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated with
bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds

350

Hardness strength (kg/cm2)

300

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness Bioresin300

250

200

150

100

50

Inner Zone

Central Zone

Peripheral Zone

Wood Zoning

Fig. 4.54: Inuence of wood zoning to the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated with
bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds

120

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

500
450

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness Bioresin150

Hardness strength (kg/cm2)

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.55: Inuence of trunk height to the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated with
bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds

350

Hardness strength (kg/cm2)

300

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness Bioresin300

250

200

150

100

50

Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.56: Inuence of trunk height to the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated with
bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds

121

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3.2.3.3 The effect of wood zoning, trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration on the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone
The hardness strength of oil palm wood treated with bioresin soluble in acetone at various
concentration were conducted to investigate the quality of this wood in comparison to untreated
wood of oil palm and also to proof the applied treatment. According to the summarized data in
Table 4.22 and statistical analysis in Table G.210, it can be mentioned that from the all tested
factors, only wood zoning was affecting to the hardness strength signicant different statistically
(Table G.211). The probability of this factor was approx. 9.91x1022 . The interactions between
factors were also not signicant different at level 0.05. The average values of this mechanical
property at IZ, CZ and PZ were about 90.3, 116.3 and 253.4 kg, respectively. The value at PZ
was more than two times greater than at CZ. The lowest value was at IZ, as shown in Figure
4.57. Based on Table G.214, the treated wood with 20% bioresin was resulting signicant value
compare to the untreated wood in affecting hardness strength.
Tab. 4.22: Summary data of hardness strength of oil palm wood at various wood zoning and
trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration 10% and 20% for 24 and
48 hours
Impregnation
Time (h)
24

Concentration
(%)
10

20

48

10

20

Height
(m)
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average

Wood Zoning
IZ
CZ
PZ
97.83 127.33 262.67
100.67 115.50 224.67
89.50 127.67 246.67
96.00 123.50 244.67
86.50 118.67 305.00
85.83 128.67 161.50
97.50 105.67 288.67
89.94 117.67 251.72
87.83 119.17 249.33
93.67 101.00 199.17
89.17 116.50 302.17
90.22 112.22 250.22
100.50 137.67 308.67
106.33 124.67 304.17
90.83 128.50 257.50
99.22 130.28 290.11

Average
162.61
146.94
154.61
154.72
170.06
125.33
163.94
153.11
152.11
131.28
169.28
150.89
182.28
178.39
158.94
173.20

The investigation on their wood zoning individually, it can be observed that at inner and central
zone, the impregnation time (Table G.219 and G.225) and bioresin concentration (Table G.220
and G.226) were affecting signicantly different at level 0.05 to hardness strength in comparison
to the untreated wood, but the trunk height was contrary. At peripheral zone, the impregnation
time, trunk height and bioresin concentration were not affecting signicantly to the hardness
strength. Although, the all tested factors were not signicantly different, but the hardness value
at this zone was higher compered to the others zone, as observed in Table 4.22.

122

50

100

150

200

Inner Zone

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness T2K2

Inner Zone

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness T2K1

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Peripheral Zone

(a) T1K1

250

300

350

400

450

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Hardness strength (kg/cm2)


Hardness strength (kg/cm2)

(c) T2K1

Hardness strength (kg/cm2)

Hardness strength (kg/cm2)

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Inner Zone

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness T1K2

Inner Zone

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness T1K1

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Central Zone
Wood Zoning

Peripheral Zone

Peripheral Zone

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

(b) T1K2

(d) T2K2

Fig. 4.57: Inuence of wood zoning to the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated with
acetone at various concentration and impregnation time

123

124

50

100

150

200

5
Trunk Height (m)

5
Trunk Height (m)

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness T2K2

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness T2K1

(a) T1K1

250

300

350

400

450

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Hardness strength (kg/cm2)


Hardness strength (kg/cm2)

(c) T2K1

Hardness strength (kg/cm2)

Hardness strength (kg/cm2)

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

5
Trunk Height (m)

5
Trunk Height (m)

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness T1K2

Hardness-IZ
Hardness-CZ
Hardness-PZ
Hardness T1K1

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

(b) T1K2

(d) T2K2

Fig. 4.58: Inuence of trunk height to the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated with
acetone at various concentration and impregnation time

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion


4.3.2.4 Compression Strength Parallel to Grain

In this section, the study were conducted to investigate the compression parallel to grain strength
of oil palm wood. The experiment runs in three different treatments including untreated wood
which was then used as control, bioresin treatment using heat treatment and chemical (acetone).
The specimen was taken from peripheral zone only, but from various trunk height, due to the
limited amount of material. Like the others testing, this mechanical property was also tested
based on ASTM Standard D 143-94 [3]. The dimension of specimen was 25 mm x 25 mm
x 100 mm with total number of specimen 111 pieces. The obtained data was examined using
statistical analysis to dene the effect of trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration to the compression parallel to grain strength of oil palm wood. According to the testing
result, the complete data is presented in Table F.24, F.25 and F.26 (see Appendix F.4) and the
summaries of these tables are presented in Table 4.23, 4.24 and 4.25, respectively.
4.3.2.4.1 The effect of trunk height on the compression strength parallel to grain of oil
palm wood at peripheral zone (untreated specimen)
In order to investigate the effect of trunk height to compression parallel strength, the data in
Table 4.23 showed that the average value from whole specimen test was about 197 kg/cm2 ,
ranging from 170 to 236 kg/cm2 . It can be observed that the distribution of compression
parallel strength along the trunk was uctuating from the bottom to the top of the trunk (Figure
4.59), but generally it was gradually increased.
Tab. 4.23: Summary data of compression strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone at various trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table
F.24 (see Appendix F.4))
Height
(m)
1
3
5
7
9
Average

Compression Parallel to Grain


kg/cm2
180.2 (113.8-290.1)
174.3 (90.20-311.3)
222.7 (186.3-234.4)
169.8 (118.2-194.3)
236.1 (205.7-275.1)
196.6 (180.2-236.1)

On the basic of statistical analysis, it can be observed that the trunk height factor was not
signicantly different at level 0.05 in affecting to compression parallel strength, therefore the
compression parallel values from all analyzed position of height were classied into only one
subset. This can be seen in Table G.236 with the probability based on Levenes test in Table
G.234 of approx. 0.153 (p > 0.05). It means that in the utilization of oil palm wood which is
taken from peripheral zone, this wood doesnt need to separate along the trunk.

125

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

350

Distribution
Compression Control

Compression strength (kg/cm2)

300

250

200

150

100

50

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.59: Inuence of trunk height to the compression strength parallel to grain of oil palm
wood at peripheral zone (control specimen)

4.3.2.4.2 The effect of trunk height and impregnation time on the compression strength
parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with bioresin
Based on the obtained data from Table 4.24, it can be observed that the distribution of compression parallel strength along the trunk was similar to the untreated wood, it was uctuating
(Figure 4.60).
Tab. 4.24: Summary data of compression strength parallel to grain of peripheral zone of oil
palm wood at various trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150
and 300 seconds
Height
(m)
1
3
5
7
9
Average

Compression Parallel to Grain (kg/cm2 )


Bioresin 150
Bioresin 300
254.7765
283.6408
276.0596
209.3798
347.4287
327.4083
176.6811
187.4757
235.1590
279.4569
258.0210
257.4723

Due to the impregnation time, the experimental results showed that the average values of treated
wood for 150 and 300 seconds were about 258 and 257.5 kg/cm2 , respectively. These values
were similar and on the basic of statistical analysis, it can be examined that they were not
signicantly different in affecting the compression parallel to grain, but they were signicantly
different comparing to the untreated wood, therefore between treated and untreated wood were
classied in separated subsets (Table G.241) with probability of approx. 0.031 (p < 0.05).
126

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Concerning the trunk height factor, it can be examined that this factor was affecting signicantly
different at level 0.05 to the compression parallel strength with the probability value of approx.
0.013 (p < 0.05), as observed in Table G.239. By applying this result, the oil palm wood which
is taken from peripheral zone can be used separately from 1 to 5 m and >5 to 9 m (Table G.240).
700

Distribution at T1
Distribution at T2
Compression Bioresin150
Compression Bioresin300

Compression strength (kg/cm2)

600

500

400

300

200

100

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.60: Inuence of trunk height to the compression strength parallel to grain of peripheral
zone of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds

127

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3.2.4.3 The effect of trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration on the
compression strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated
with acetone
In this section, the study was conducted to investigate the effect of trunk height, impregnation
time and bioresin concentration to the compression parallel strength of oil palm wood at peripheral zone. The obtained data is presented in Table 4.25. It can be observed that the highest value
of compression parallel strength was achieved at position 5 meter height for all conditions of
treatment, as shown in Figure 4.61. It also can be identied that the testing results were similar,
this indicated to the fact that the effect of tested factors were signicant only in certain condition
and position along the trunk.
Tab. 4.25: Summary data of compression strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone at various trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration 10%
and 20% for 24 and 48 hours
Impregnation
Time (h)
24

Concentration
(%)
10

20

48

10

20

Height
(m)
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average

Compression Parallel to Grain


kg/cm2
219.8190
272.8400
244.7096
245.7895
235.5117
297.1607
157.8490
230.1738
122.6696
214.4847
141.0407
159.3984
192.5982
218.7838
189.0169
200.1329

The statistical analysis results enable to explain how these factors affecting the compression parallel strength. According to the tests between subjects effect (Table G.244), the trunk height and
impregnation time factors were signicantly different in affecting compression parallel strength,
but the bioresin concentration factor (10 and 20%) and interaction between factors were affecting not signicantly different at level 0.05. Further, the trunk height factor was classied into
two subsets, where the treated wood at position 5 meter can be separated with the others (Table
G.245). Whilst, the impregnation time was affecting signicantly comparing to the untreated
wood for specimen which treated for 24 hours (Table G.246). The bioresin concentration in
acetone was not affecting to the compression parallel strength signicantly (Table G.247).

128

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

450

Distribution T1K1
Distribution T1K2
Distribution T2K1
Distribution T2K2
Compression T1K1
Compression T1K2
Compression T2K1
Compression T2K2

Compression strength (kg/cm2)

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.61: Inuence of trunk height to the compression strength parallel to grain of peripheral
zone of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone

129

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion


4.3.2.5 Tension Strength Parallel to Grain

Relating to tension strength, Kollmann and Cot [68] stated that the strength of wood in tension
shows considerable differences if loading is axial (parallel to grain) or transverse. Strength in
axial tension is much higher up to 50 times and more. In transverse direction, the inuence of
radial or tangential loading is not consistent. Further, it has been observed that cell length is
related to the axial tensile strength of wood that wood with longer cells (in general, softwoods
in comparison to hardwoods) posses a higher strength [15]. This may be attributed to the relationship between cell length and microbrillar arrangement. It also has been found that within
a species, the angle between microbrils and cell length is smaller in longer cells and larger in
shorter ones.
The study of this mechanical property in oil palm wood, several conditions of treatment were
applied for the wood which is only taken from peripheral zone (PZ) at various height, due to
the limited amount of material. The experiment was carried out in order to compare the tension strength between the untreated and treated woods at various factors, such as trunk height,
impregnation time and bioresin concentration. All specimens were tested referring to ASTM
Standard D 143-94 [3] with the specimen size 460 mm in length and total specimen 111 pieces.
The complete data of tension parallel to grain strength is presented in Table F.27, F.28 and F.29
(see Appendix F.5). Further, the summarized of these data including untreated wood, treated
wood with heat technique and treated wood with chemical are presented in Table 4.26, 4.27 and
4.28, respectively.
4.3.2.5.1 The effect of trunk height on the tension strength parallel to grain of oil palm
wood at peripheral zone (untreated specimen)
According to tension strength data in Table 4.26, it can be identied that the average value
of untreated wood was about 284 kg/cm2 and also observed that this mechanical property
decreases along the trunk, as shown in Figure 4.62.
Tab. 4.26: Summary data of tension strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral
zone at various trunk height for untreated specimen (data is extracted from Table
F.27 (see Appendix F.5))
Height
(m)
1
3
5
7
9
Average

Tension Parallel to Grain


kg/cm2
387.1557
401.0264
326.7500
241.8401
63.4003
283.8345

According to the statistical analysis, it can be stated that the trunk height factor was affecting
signicantly to the tension parallel strength at level 0.05 with the probability from Levenes test
of approx. 0.036 (Table G.249), therefore, based on post hoc test, the untreated wood along the
trunk can be classied into two subsets (Table G.251) due to its utilization, i.e. from 1 to 7 m
and >7 to 9 m height.

130

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

600

Distribution
Tension || Control

Tension strength || (kg/cm2)

500

400

300

200

100

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.62: Inuence of trunk height to the tension strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood at
peripheral zone (control specimen)

4.3.2.5.2 The effect of trunk height and impregnation time on the tension strength parallel
to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with bioresin
In this section, the study was conducted to investigate the inuence of bioresin treatment in
comparison to the untreated wood in various conditions of treatment. Trunk height and impregnation time factors were analyzed in order to observe their effect to the tension parallel strength
of oil palm wood at peripheral zone.
Tab. 4.27: Summary data of tension strength parallel to grain of peripheral zone of oil palm
wood at various trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and
300 seconds
Height
(m)
1
3
5
7
9
Average

Tension Parallel to Grain (kg/cm2 )


Bioresin 150
Bioresin 300
455.2273
335.0430
319.0885
254.9693
318.5656
252.0984
242.9826
320.6868
238.0049
118.7771
314.7738
256.3149

According to the obtained data in Table 4.27, the average values of this mechanical property of
treated wood with bioresin for 150 and 300 seconds at various trunk height were 315 kg/cm2 ,
ranging from 238 to 455 kg/cm2 and 256 kg/cm2 , ranging from 119 to 335 kg/cm2 , respectively. Based on these data, it can be observed that tension parallel strength of wood treated
for 150 seconds was higher than 300 seconds. This might be occurred because inuence of
131

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

high heat at temperature 180 C to the wood component, such as vascular bundles. It can be
predicted that more than 150 seconds impregnation, the structural properties of oil palm wood
was decreased, due to the negative impact of high heat during process of the bioresin treatment.
Further, looking at longitudinal direction of the trunk, the tension parallel strength was uctuating, but generally its gradual decreased from the bottom to the top of the trunk, as shown in
Figure 4.63.
700

Distribution at T1
Distribution at T2
Tension || Bioresin150
Tension || Bioresin300

600

Tension strength || (kg/cm2)

500

400

300

200

100

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.63: Inuence of trunk height to the tension strength parallel to grain of peripheral zone
of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds

Based on statistical analysis in Table G.254, only trunk height factor which was affecting signicantly to the tension parallel to grain strength at level 0.05. The values along the trunk were
classied into three subsets (Table G.255), i.e. from 1 to 3 m, 5 to 7 m and >7 m, respectively.
Whilst, based on the impregnation time factor, these mechanical property values were not signicantly different in comparison to the untreated wood and also between treated woods (150
and 300 seconds), as shown in Table G.256.

132

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3.2.5.3 The effect of trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration on the
tension strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with
acetone
According to the obtained data in Table 4.28, the average and range values of tension parallel
strength at the following conditions T1K1, T1K2, T2K1 and T2K2 were about 654 (621-703),
662 (486-942), 705 (478-824) and 488 (456-517) kg/cm2 , respectively. It can be observed that
this mechanical property was decreased along the trunk, as shown in Figure 4.64.
Tab. 4.28: Summary data of tension strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral
zone at various trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration 10% and
20% for 24 and 48 hours
Impregnation
Time (h)
24

Concentration
(%)
10

20

48

10

20

Height
(m)
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average

Tension Parallel to Grain


kg/cm2
702.6314
621.3023
638.1536
654.0291
942.3928
556.6648
485.6372
661.5649
823.7600
811.9820
477.9031
704.5484
490.0207
517.4120
455.7746
487.7358

According to the statistical analysis, the trunk height factor was affecting signicantly different
to tension parallel strength as well as impregnation time and bioresin concentration. Based on
trunk height, the obtained values were classied into three subsets (Table G.260), therefore,
the treated wood can be used separately from up to 3 m, >3 to 5 m and >5 m. The value
of tension parallel to grain based on 24 hours impregnation time factor was not signicant
compared to treated wood which was impregnated for 48 hours, but both of them was signicant
in comparison to the untreated wood (Table G.261). It means that this factor was affecting
signicantly to tension parallel strength generally. Concerning the bioresin concentrations, it
can be stated that this factor was affecting signicantly different at level 0.05 for all variation of
bioresin concentration soluble in acetone (Table G.262) and also in comparison to the untreated
wood.

133

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

1100

Distribution T1K1
Distribution T1K2
Distribution T2K1
Distribution T2K2
Tension || T1K1
Tension || T2K1
Tension || T2K1
Tension || T2K2

1000

Tension strength || (kg/cm2)

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.64: Inuence of trunk height to the tension strength parallel to grain of peripheral zone
of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone

134

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion


4.3.2.6 Tension Strength Perpendicular to Grain

Concerning to tension perpendicular to grain, Barrett [12] stated in his study on the effect of
size on tensile strength perpendicular to grain of Douglas-r that this mechanical property in
all structural species is low, usually less than 1000 psi, even for small clear specimens. Tensile
strength perpendicular to grain characteristically exhibits a high variability, a fact recognized
by design code requirements that mean tensile strength perpendicular to grain be reduced by a
larger percentage than any other strength property in the calculation of allowable stress. This
was parallel to the formerly study by Kollmann and Cot [68] who mentioned that strength in
axial tension is much higher up to 50 times and more than tension in perpendicular to grain.
Concerning to oil palm wood properties, this study was conducted to investigate tension perpendicular to grain. Three factors were tested including trunk height, impregnation time and
bioresin concentration in affecting this mechanical property. The specimen was taken from peripheral region of oil palm wood based on its view on transverse section and the experiment
was conducted based on the condition which is explained in Chapter 3, Section 3.2.3.2. Statistical analysis is carried out to examine the effect of those factors and comparison between the
untreated and treated woods. According to the obtained data, the complete results of tension
perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood are presented in Table F.30, F.31 and F.32, whilst the
summary of these data was presented in Table 4.29, 4.30 and 4.31.
4.3.2.6.1 The effect of trunk height on the tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil
palm wood at peripheral zone (untreated specimen)
According to the obtained experimental data in Table 4.29, it can be observed that tension
perpendicular to grain strength of oil palm wood at peripheral zone was about 3.56 kg/cm2 ,
ranging from 2.61 to 4.47. Based on its distribution along the trunk, it can be stated that this
mechanical property value was gradually decreased from base part to the tip of the trunk, as
shown in Figure 4.65. The average value of tension perpendicular to grain was 79 times lower
in comparison to the tension parallel to grain. It is attributed to the fact that this value was in
agreement with Kollmann and Cots [68] result.
Tab. 4.29: Summary data of tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone at various trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table
F.30 (see Appendix F.6))
Height
(m)
1
3
5
7
9
Average

Tension Perpendicular to Grain


kg/cm2
4.3160
4.4653
3.6728
2.6120
2.7210
3.5574

Further, based on the statistical analysis, the effect of trunk height to the tension perpendicular
to grain of oil palm wood was not signicantly different at level 0.05 for all tested positioned
(1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 meter). This can be observed in Table G.264, where the probability of this
factor using Levenes test was approx. 0.68 (p > 0.05), therefore, the all value was classied
into only one subset as shown in Table G.266.
135

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Distribution
Tension Control

Tension strength perpendicular (kg/cm2)

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.65: Inuence of trunk height to the tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil palm
wood at peripheral zone (control specimen)

4.3.2.6.2 The effect of trunk height and impregnation time on the tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with bioresin
The average values of tension perpendicular to grain after treating with bioresin for 150 and 300
seconds were about 5.32 g/cm2 ranging from 3.37 to 10.1, and 4.04 g/cm2 ranging from 2.1 to
5.8, respectively (Table 4.30).
Tab. 4.30: Summary data of tension strength perpendicular to grain of peripheral zone of oil
palm wood at various trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150
and 300 seconds
Height
(m)
1
3
5
7
9
Average

Tension Perpendicular to Grain (kg/cm2 )


Bioresin 150
Bioresin 300
3.3783
3.9630
10.0880
4.1724
4.8747
5.7795
3.7313
4.1423
4.5048
2.1488
5.3154
4.0412

Distribution of these data was uctuating from the bottom to the top of the trunk as shown in
Figure 4.66, and it can be observed that the treated wood for 300 seconds was lower than treated
wood for 150 seconds, but both of them were higher in comparison with the untreated wood
(3.56 kg/cm2 ). It means that the bioresin treatment using heat technique inuences positively
in affecting to the tension perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood. This can also be observed
statistically as shown in Table G.269, where the probability of impregnation time factor was
136

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

approx. 0.039 or p < 0.05. In this table also showed that the trunk height factor and their
interaction were signicantly different in affecting tension perpendicular to grain of oil palm
wood. Further, consider to trunk height factor, the experiment resulted that treated oil palm
wood can be used separately from 1 to 5 m and >5 to 9 m (Table G.270).
14

Distribution at T1
Distribution at T2
Tension Bioresin150
Tension Bioresin300

Tension strength perpendicular (kg/cm2)

12

10

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.66: Inuence of trunk height to the tension strength perpendicular to grain of peripheral
zone of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds

4.3.2.6.3 The effect of trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration on the
tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated
with acetone
In this section, the oil palm wood at peripheral zone is treated with bioresin soluble in acetone
and the experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment in affecting to the
tension perpendicular to grain. Hence, several conditions were tested based on various factor,
including trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration. The summarized data of
this trial is presented in Table 4.31. According to this data, it can be observed that the average values of tension perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood at condition T1K1, T1K2, T2K1
and T2K2 were about 4.9, 3.6, 4.9 and 7.2 kg/cm2 , respectively. In comparison to the untreated
wood, this mechanical property of treated wood was higher, thus, it means that the applied treatment affects positively. Based on its positions along the trunk, tension perpendicular strength
was gradually decreased toward the top of the trunk, as shown in Figure 4.67.
To investigate deeper about the inuence of factors those affecting tension perpendicular strength,
the statistical analysis performed that trunk height (Table G.275) and impregnation time (Table
G.276) factors were affecting signicantly different at level 0.05, except bioresin concentration
factor (Table G.277). Looking individually for every factor, the obtained statistical calculation
137

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

showed that treated oil palm wood can be used separately from 3 to 5m and >5 to 7m based on
its position along the trunk.
14

Distribution T1K1
Distribution T1K2
Distribution T2K1
Distribution T2K2
Tension T1K1
Tension T1K2
Tension T2K1
Tension T2K2

Tension strength perpendicular (kg/cm2)

12

10

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.67: Inuence of trunk height to the tension strength perpendicular to grain of peripheral
zone of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone

Tab. 4.31: Summary data of tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone at various trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration 10%
and 20% for 24 and 48 hours
Impregnation
Time (h)
24

Concentration
(%)
10

20

48

10

20

138

Height
(m)
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average

Tension Perpendicular to Grain


kg/cm2
6.3414
4.8468
3.5480
4.9121
4.1771
3.7295
3.0262
3.6443
5.2278
5.4923
3.9236
4.8812
7.8432
8.0555
5.6052
7.1680

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion


4.3.2.7 Cleavage Strength

The resistance of wood to cleavage refers to exterior forces acting in the form of a wedge. Due
to its structure, wood has a low axial resistance to cleavage, i.e easily split. Bowyer et al. [15]
mentioned that this property is an advantage for certain uses, e.g. splitting fuelwood and a
disadvantage for others, e.g. wooden members splitting when nailed or screwed.
This mechanical property was similar to tension perpendicular to grain, but only one side force
is tested with the specimen shape as shown in Figure 3.9j (see Section 3.2.3.2). Regarding to
cleavage strength of oil palm wood, the investigation was carried out to the untreated and treated
wood, including bioresin treatment using heat technique and bioresin soluble in acetone. Due
to the limited material available, the testing runs only for wood which is taken from peripheral
region, with the total number of specimen 111 pieces. This mechanical property is tested on
the basic of ASTM Standard D-143 94 [3]. Referring to the above mentioned test, the complete
data are presented in Table F.33, F.34 and F.35 (see Appendix F.7). Whilst, the summary of
these data are presented in Table 4.32, 4.33 and 4.34, respectively.
4.3.2.7.1 The effect of trunk height on the cleavage strength of oil palm wood at peripheral
zone (untreated specimen)
According to the obtained results in Table 4.32, the cleavage of oil palm wood at peripheral
zone was about 1.7 kg/cm2 , ranging from 1.2 to 2.1. Form this table, it also can be observed
that strength at position 3 and 5 m were higher in comparison to the others position of height,
and this can be easily identied in Figure 4.68. This is attributed to the fact that due to the high
population density of vascular bundles in peripheral zone, particularly at these positions.
Tab. 4.32: Summary data of cleavage strength of oil palm wood at peripheral zone at various
trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table F.33 (see Appendix
F.7))
Height
(m)
1
3
5
7
9
Average

Cleavage Strength
kg/cm2
1.6996
2.1322
2.1039
1.1970
1.4156
1.7097

On the basic of statistical analysis, the effect of trunk height factor showed that it was not really
signicant in affecting the cleavage of oil palm wood. This also can be observed that the trunk
was only divided into two subsets, where in order to use this untreated wood, it shall separate
from 1 to 5 m and >5 to 9 m (Table G.281).

139

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Distribution
Cleavage Control

Cleavage strength (kg/cm2)

2.5

1.5

0.5

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.68: Inuence of trunk height to the cleavage strength of oil palm wood at peripheral zone
(untreated specimen)

4.3.2.7.2 The effect of trunk height and impregnation time on the cleavage strength of oil
palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with bioresin
Data in Table 4.33 showed that the average values of cleavage strength of treated wood with
bioresin for 150 and 300 seconds were about 2.24 kg/cm2 , ranging from 1.95 to 2.80, and 1.91
kg/cm2 , ranging from 1.31 to 2.63, respectively. These values were higher in comparison to the
untreated wood (1.7 kg/cm2 ). It is attributed to the fact that the applied treatment inuences
positively in order to improve the cleavage strength of oil palm wood. Distribution of this
property along the trunk was uctuating, as shown in Figure 4.69 and it also can be observed
that the treated wood with bioresin for 300 seconds lower compare to the other for all positions
of height along the trunk.
Tab. 4.33: Summary data of cleavage strength of peripheral zone of oil palm wood at various
trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds
Height
(m)
1
3
5
7
9
Average

Cleavage Strength (kg/cm2 )


Bioresin 150 Bioresin 300
2.1540
1.8817
2.8046
2.2501
1.9855
2.6316
1.9551
1.3123
2.2937
1.4864
2.2386
1.9124

To investigate more detail about the effect of tested factors, i.e. trunk height and impregnation
time to the cleavage strength of oil palm wood at peripheral zone was carried out using univari140

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

ate analysis. Based in this analysis, it showed that trunk height factor was affecting signicantly
different at level 0.05, where the wood was classied into three subsets, i.e. 1 to 3 m, >3 to 5
m and >5 to 9 m (Table G.285). Whilst, the applied impregnation time of bioresin using heat
technique resulted a positive inuences to the cleavage strength. The obtained results were signicantly different in comparison to the untreated wood, although the values within the treated
wood was not really signicant (Table G.286).
4

Distribution at T1
Distribution at T2
Cleavage Bioresin150
Cleavage Bioresin300

3.5

Cleavage strength (kg/cm2)

2.5

1.5

0.5

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.69: Inuence of trunk height to the cleavage strength of peripheral zone of oil palm wood
impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds

141

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3.2.7.3 The effect of trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration on the
cleavage strength of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with acetone
According to the obtained results in Table 4.34, the average cleavage strength on the following treatment condition T1K1, T1K2, T2K1 and T2K2 were about 2.54, 2.10, 2.49 and 2.09
kg/cm2 , respectively. From this table can also be observed that this mechanical property of
treated wood with 20% bioresin was lower compared to bioresin concentration of 10%. Further, the distribution of these data is presented in Figure 4.70, where the cleavage of oil palm
wood at peripheral zone was gradually decreased toward the tip of the trunk.
Tab. 4.34: Summary data of cleavage strength of oil palm wood at peripheral zone at various
trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration 10% and 20% for 24 and
48 hours
Impregnation
Time (h)
24

Concentration
(%)
10

20

48

10

20

Height
(m)
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average

Cleavage Strength
kg/cm2
2.5315
3.0322
2.0526
2.5388
2.2081
2.1557
1.9264
2.0967
2.8275
2.4118
2.2351
2.4915
2.1976
2.0162
2.0479
2.0872

Statistical analysis results showed that the trunk height factor was affecting signicantly to the
cleavage strength, where its value based on their positions were grouped into two subsets. This
treated wood can be used separately starting up to 5 meter and more than 5 meter, as shown in
Table G.290. The impregnation time factor (Table G.291) was also resulted a positive impact in
order to improve the cleavage strength of oil palm wood. In comparison to the untreated wood,
the treated wood was performing signicantly different at level 0.05. Further, the bioresin
concentration factor affects signicantly different, therefore the obtained values were classied
into two subsets (Table G.292).

142

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Distribution T1K1
Distribution T1K2
Distribution T2K1
Distribution T2K2
Cleavage T1K1
Cleavage T1K2
Cleavage T2K1
Cleavage T2K2

Cleavage strength (kg/cm2)

3.5

2.5

1.5

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.70: Inuence of trunk height to the cleavage strength of peripheral zone of oil palm wood
impregnated with acetone

4.3.2.8 Nail Withdrawal Resistance


Resistance of a nail to direct withdrawal from a piece of wood is intimately related to the
density or specic gravity of the wood, the diameter of the nail, and the depth it has penetrated.
The surface condition of the nail and the type of shank and point it has will also inuence the
withdrawal resistance. This mechanical property of wood was tested on the peripheral region
of oil palm wood based on the ASTM Standard D 143-94 [3]. Testing was done nails with
diameter of 2.5 mm at ve different positions where nails shall be driven. Generally, nail shall
not be driven closer than 19 mm from the edge or 38 mm from the end of a piece.
The complete data of nail withdrawal test for the untreated wood, treated wood with bioresin
using heat technique and soluble in acetone are presented in Table F.36, F.37 and F.38 (see
Appendix F.8), respectively. Whilst, the average value of nail withdrawal resistance are summarized in Table 4.35 for untreated wood, Table 4.36 for treated wood using heat technique and
Table 4.37 for treated wood using chemical technique, respectively.
4.3.2.8.1 The effect of trunk height on the nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood at
peripheral zone (untreated specimen)
Nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood at peripheral zone in Table 4.35 shows considerable uniformity ranging from 28.5 to 43.8 kg with the average value of about 34.5 kg. The
highest nail withdrawal was occurred at position 3 m height and the lowest was at 1 m height.
Distribution of this mechanical property shows gradually uctuate toward the tip of trunk, as
shown in Figure 4.71. Further, based on statistical analysis, the trunk height factor was affecting signicantly different at level 0.05 (Table G.295), therefore, this untreated wood shall be
143

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

separated into three parts, based on its position along the trunk. Table G.296 shows that the
trunk was classied into three subsets, i.e. up to 1 m, 3 to 5 m and 7 to 9 m.
Tab. 4.35: Summary data of nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood at peripheral zone at
various trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table F.36 (see
Appendix F.8))
Height
(m)
1
3
5
7
9
Average

Nail Withdrawal Strength


(kg)
28.5304
43.8296
37.1552
29.8864
33.0760
34.4955

55

Distribution
Nail Withdrawal Control

Nail Withdrawal Resistance (kg)

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.71: Inuence of trunk height to the nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood at peripheral zone (control specimen)

144

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

4.3.2.8.2 The effect of trunk height and impregnation time on the nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with bioresin
According to the obtained data of nail withdrawal which is summarized in Table 4.36, it can be
observed that the applied treatment of bioresin impregnation using heat technique was resulting
insignicant values in comparison to the untreated wood. The average values of treated woods
those are impregnated for 150 and 300 seconds were about 30.7 and 28.5 kg, respectively, whilst
the untreated wood of about 34.5 kg. The distribution of this mechanical values along the trunk
was uctuating with the highest value at position 3 meter, as shown in Figure 4.72.
Tab. 4.36: Summary data of nail withdrawal resistance of peripheral zone of oil palm wood at
various trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds
Height
(m)
1
3
5
7
9
Average

Nail Withdrawal Strength (kg)


Bioresin 150
Bioresin 300
24.1172
23.2620
42.9260
29.9830
30.6176
29.7584
25.0604
31.9310
30.7858
27.4032
30.7014
28.4675

In order to investigate the inuence of factors those are affecting to nail withdrawal resistance,
the statistics analysis showed that trunk height and impregnation time were affecting signicantly different at level 0.05, but the interaction between them was insignicant (Table G.299).
Based on trunk height factor, nail withdrawal resistance can be classied into three subsets, i.e.
1 to 3 m, 3 to 5 m and >5 m, as shown in Table G.300. Further, the impregnation time factor
was signicantly different in affecting nail withdrawal resistance (Table G.301), but the values
were still lower in comparison to the untreated wood.

145

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

55

Distribution at T1
Distribution at T2
Nail Withdrawal Bioresin150
Nail Withdrawal Bioresin300

50

Nail Withdrawal Resistance (kg)

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.72: Inuence of trunk height to the nail withdrawal resistance of peripheral zone of oil
palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds

4.3.2.8.3 The effect of trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration on the
nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood at peripheral zone impregnated with acetone
Nail withdrawal property of oil palm wood after treating with bioresin soluble in acetone is
summarized in Table 4.37. From this table, the average values of treated wood at the following
conditions of treatment T1K1, T1K2, T2K1 and T2K2 were about 28.8, 43.7, 43.2 and 33.2 kg,
respectively. The distribution of these values was performed in Figure 4.73.
Based on trunk height factor (Table G.305), the nail withdrawal resistance of treated wood
can be classied into two subsets, i.e. up to 3 m and 5 to 7 m. This factor was affecting
signicantly with probability value of approx. 0.07 (Table G.304). This property was gradually
decreased from the bottom to the top of trunk, as shown in Figure 4.73. Impregnation time and
bioresin concentration were affecting insignicant to nail withdrawal (Table G.306 and G.307),
therefore, all value was only classied into on subsets only.

146

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Tab. 4.37: Summary data of nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood at peripheral zone at
various trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration 10% and 20%
for 24 and 48 hours
Impregnation
Time (h)
24

Concentration
(%)
10

20

48

10

20

Height
(m)
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average
3
5
7
Average

Nail Withdrawal Strength


kg
31.1633
33.7523
21.5660
28.8272
60.5587
36.6360
33.9240
43.7062
43.5980
33.1620
52.7933
43.1844
42.3667
32.7887
24.5800
33.2451

100

Distribution T1K1
Distribution T1K2
Distribution T2K1
Distribution T2K2
Nail Withdrawal T1K1
Nail Withdrawal T1K2
Nail Withdrawal T2K1
Nail Withdrawal T2K2

90

Nail Withdrawal Resistance (kg)

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

5
Trunk Height (m)

Fig. 4.73: Inuence of trunk height to the nail withdrawal resistance of peripheral zone of oil
palm wood impregnated with acetone

147

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

4.3.3 Machinery Properties of Oil Palm Wood


One of the signicant characteristics of wood is the facility with which it can be machined and
fabricated. Machining tests are carried out to determined the working qualities and characteristics of wood under a variety of machine operations such as are encountered in commercial
manufacturing practice. Working quality of wood is performed by the presence of wood defects after machining process. These defects can be observed as raised grain, fuzzy grain, torn
grain, chip mark, crushing, tear cut, scratching and surface roughness. Regarding the oil palm
wood, Ho et al. [56] mentioned that lumber from oil palm trunk does not have good machining
properties. It is slightly difcult to very difcult to work with, depending on the machining
process used and gives very rough machined surfaces. The rough surfaces are either due to
raised vascular bundle bres or tearing of the vascular bundles. This makes the nishing process very difcult. Further, Haslett [54] stated that the main defects of oil palm lumber after
drying process are cupping, twisting, collapse, and checks (splits) between vascular bundles
and parenchymatous tissue.
Regarding the above machining conditions of oil palm wood, this study was conducted to improve its properties by applying the bioresin reinforcement techniques. The experiment runs to
evaluate the quality of machining properties of oil palm wood through the observation of wood
defects on the surface specimen (surface defect) after machining process. It was carried out
based on visual investigation which is done by an expert who has good credibility and sufcient experiences in evaluating machinery properties of wood. Therefore, the evaluation was
conducted by a responsible expert from Bogor Agricultural University.
Machining quality of wood was expressed by the percentage of surface defects area of the wood
specimen. It was examined through the visual observation of the surface defect. The defect was
calculated by measuring the area of surface defect on the wood quantitatively through length
by width of defects exist. Further, the area of defect was expressed in percent by comparing
with the area of the wood surface specimen. The tested specimen was then classied based
on the classication of machining quality of wood, as presented in Table 4.38. The testings
were conducted referring to ASTM Standard D 1666-90 [7], including cross cutting, planning,
shaving, moulding and boring for untreated wood (UW) and treated wood with bioresin using
heat technique 150 seconds (WBH).
Tab. 4.38: Classication of machining quality of wood
Class Percentage of Surface Defects (%)*
Machining Quality
I
0 - 20
very good
II
21 - 40
good
III
41 - 60
fair
IV
61 - 80
poor
V
81 - 100
very poor
*) It was calculated on the basic of the area of surface defects of wood after machining process.

According to this experiment, several wood defects has been observed on the oil palm wood,
such as chipped grain, fuzzy grain and burl. The description of these defects was examined as
the following defect condition:
Chipped grain, shallow dent on the surface of specimen due to the loose of a group of
bres.
148

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Fuzzy grain, the appearance of individual bre on the surface of specimen due to lack of
bre cut by the knife of cutting tool.
Burl, a localized severe distortion of the grain.
The complete data of machinery properties of oil palm wood, both untreated and treated wood
at various positions along the trunk after cross cutting, planning, shaving, moulding and boring
are presented in Table 4.39, 4.40, 4.41, 4.42 and 4.43, respectively.
4.3.3.1 Cross Cutting
Cross cutting test is one of working process in order to determined the machining quality of oil
palm wood. This test was carried out under the condition of spindle speed 450 rpm, velocity 2
m.min1 with cutting width and thick of about 100 and 20 mm. According to the obtained data
in Table 4.39 can be calculated that average values of UW and WBH at IZ, CZ and PZ were
about 31.7 and 30.0%; 18 and 16.7%; 13.0 and 12.0%, respectively. Distribution of surface
defects after cross cutting process at various wood zoning can be seen in Figure 4.74.
Tab. 4.39: Percentage of the surface defects of untreated and treated oil palm wood at various
wood zoning for different height positions after cross cutting process
Wood
Zoning
Inner

Central

Peripheral

Replition
1
2
3
Average
1
2
3
4
5
Average
1
2
3
4
5
Average

Percentage of surface defects of wood (%)


Untreated Wood
Treated Wood
Trunk Height
Trunk Height
1m
3m
5m
1m
3m
5m
50
25
30
30
35
30
30
25
40
30
30
35
25
20
40
25
25
30
35,0 23,3 36,7 28,3 30,0 31,7
30
30
30
20
25
35
30
30
20
25
30
35
30
30
30
25
30
30
40
25
30
25
25
30
40
25
20
25
30
30
22,0 16,0 16,0 15,0 17,0 18,0
15
15
20
15
20
25
20
25
20
15
30
30
15
25
25
25
20
25
10
20
10
10
25
25
25
25
40
15
15
20
10,0 14,0 15,0 10,0 12,0 14,0

It can be observed that the surface defects gradually decrease from inner to peripheral zone
for UW and WBH. It means that working quality of oil palm wood was increased from inner
to peripheral zone. Generally, based on classication table, the machining quality in cross
cutting was good (20.9%) for untreated wood and very good (19.5%) for treated wood which
is reinforced using bioresin. In other word, it can be stated that the bioresin reinforcement
technique inuenced positively in order to improve machining properties of oil palm wood.

149

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

32

Cross cutting UW
Cross cutting WBH

30
28

Surface defect (%)

26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
Inner Zone

Central Zone
Oil palm wood zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.74: Distribution of surface defect of oil palm wood after cross cutting test at various wood
zoning for untreated and treated wood

4.3.3.2 Planning
In order to investigate the planning test of oil palm wood, the experiment was carried out using
Thicknezer Machine under condition of spindle speed 3000 rpm, velocity 2 m.min1 with
planing thickness 2 mm. Based on data in Table 4.40, it can be calculated that the average
values of planning test of UW and WBH at IZ, CZ and PZ were about 48.3 and 40.6%; 28.7
and 24.3%; 20.3 and 19.0%, respectively.
Referring to Table 4.40, working quality in planning test was increased from inner to peripheral
zone for UW and WBH. Further, the treated wood was better than untreated wood, where the
surface defect decreased from 32.4 to 27.9%. Distribution of surface defects percentage of
oil palm wood can be seen in Figure 4.75. From the results nding in this test, it can be
concluded that machining quality of oil palm wood was ranging from fair at IZ to very good
at PZ. Bioresin treatment was inuencing positively to reduce the percentage of surface defects
of oil palm wood in planning process, although the reduction still not really signicant, but it is
initially good to improve the apply treatment.

150

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Tab. 4.40: Percentage of the surface defects of untreated and treated oil palm wood at various
wood zoning for different height positions after planning process
Wood
Zoning
Inner

Central

Peripheral

Replition
1
2
3
Average
1
2
3
4
5
Average
1
2
3
4
5
Average

Percentage of surface defects of wood (%)


Untreated Wood
Treated Wood
Trunk Height
Trunk Height
1m
3m
5m
1m
3m
5m
50
50
50
40
40
45
25
50
60
40
35
40
50
40
60
40
35
50
41,7 46,7 56,7 40,0 36,7 45,0
40
40
50
25
25
45
30
40
60
35
35
45
40
45
60
35
30
40
45
40
60
40
35
45
40
50
50
50
40
50
25,0 27,0 34,0 25,0 21,0 27,0
40
10
40
30
20
35
10
25
45
10
20
20
30
60
30
40
20
30
20
30
15
50
40
25
40
20
60
10
25
45
18,0 22,0 21,0 20,0 17,0 20,0

50

Planning UW
Planning WBH

45

Surface defect (%)

40

35

30

25

20

15
Inner Zone

Central Zone
Oil palm wood zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.75: Distribution of surface defect of oil palm wood after planning test at various wood
zoning for untreated and treated wood

151

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

4.3.3.3 Shaving and Moulding


Shaving and moulding tests of oil palm wood were conducted using Shaper Machine under the
condition of spindle speed 5500 rpm, velocity 2 m.min1 with grove with and thickness of 12
and 10 mm, respectively. The groove and moulding were made parallel to grain. The results of
shaving and moulding test are presented in Table 4.41 and 4.42.
Shaving Test
According to the obtained results, shaving property of oil palm wood which was evaluated by
the quality of groove shape, it can be identied that this property was increase from inner to
peripheral zone for both UW and WBH. The average value of UW and WBH at IZ, CZ and PZ
were about 40.6 and 38.9%; 22.0 and 21.0%; 14.3 and 13.3%, respectively. The distribution of
these values can be seen in Figure 4.76.
Tab. 4.41: Percentage of the surface defects of untreated and treated oil palm wood at various
wood zoning for different height positions after shaving process
Wood
Zoning
Inner

Central

Peripheral

Replition
1
2
3
Average
1
2
3
4
5
Average
1
2
3
4
5
Average

Percentage of surface defects of wood (%)


Untreated Wood
Treated Wood
Trunk Height
Trunk Height
1m
3m
5m
1m
3m
5m
40
40
50
30
40
50
30
40
50
30
40
45
25
40
50
30
35
50
31,7 40,0 50,0 30,0 38,3 48,3
25
45
40
20
30
35
30
30
35
30
30
40
25
30
60
25
30
45
40
25
50
30
25
45
30
30
40
45
30
40
19,0 17,0 30,0 20,0 17,0 26,0
10
20
40
25
25
25
30
20
20
20
15
25
35
20
25
15
25
30
20
25
10
20
20
20
10
30
40
20
20
30
13,0 15,0 15,0 11,0 13,0 16,0

Referring to classication table, working quality in shaving test at IZ for untreated wood was
classied into Class III (fair, 40.6%) and increased after treating with bioresin to Class II (good,
38.9%). Whilst, machining qualities for UW and WBH were Class II (good) and Class I (very
good) at both CZ and PZ. Surface defects of wood at CZ was one and half times greater than PZ
and two times smaller compare to IZ. Concerning to trunk height, this property was generally
decreased from bottom to the top of trunk.

152

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

45

Shaving UW
Shaving WBH

40

Surface defect (%)

35

30

25

20

15

10
Inner Zone

Central Zone
Oil palm wood zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.76: Distribution of surface defect of oil palm wood after shaving test at various wood
zoning for untreated and treated wood

Moulding Test
The moulding test result in Table 4.42 showed that the average values of UW and WBH at IZ,
CZ and PZ were about 42.2 and 41.1%; 23.3 and 22.7%; 17.0 and 16.3%, respectively. From
these calculated values, it can be stated that the working quality of oil palm wood in moulding
test was similar for UW and WBH, with surface defects of about 27.5% and 26.7%. but this
property was decreased from inner to peripheral zone (Figure 4.77). Based on classication
table of machining quality, the oil palm wood at IZ, CZ and PZ were fair, good and very good,
respectively.

153

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

Tab. 4.42: Percentage of the surface defects of untreated and treated oil palm wood at various
wood zoning for different height positions after moulding process
Wood
Zoning
Inner

Central

Peripheral

Replition
1
2
3
Average
1
2
3
4
5
Average
1
2
3
4
5
Average

Percentage of surface defects of wood (%)


Untreated Wood
Treated Wood
Trunk Height
Trunk Height
1m
3m
5m
1m
3m
5m
50
40
40
40
40
40
50
40
50
45
45
40
20
40
50
30
40
50
40,0 40,0 46,7 38,3 41,7 43,3
20
40
40
25
25
35
20
40
40
30
30
45
30
30
40
25
25
40
40
30
50
35
30
45
50
40
40
45
35
60
24,0 20,0 26,0 21,0 18,0 29,0
50
35
30
20
20
30
20
25
20
30
20
35
25
25
20
30
35
30
20
45
20
30
20
25
10
50
40
20
35
20
11,0 24,0 16,0 16,0 18,0 15,0

45

Moulding UW
Moulding WBH

40

Surface defect (%)

35

30

25

20

15
Inner Zone

Central Zone
Oil palm wood zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.77: Distribution of surface defect of oil palm wood after moulding test at various wood
zoning for untreated and treated wood

154

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

4.3.3.4 Boring
Making a hole on wood or boring process is one of an important and very often regarding wood
working activity or in term of wood uses as material. According to boring test result in Table
4.43, the working quality of oil palm wood in boring test was varies from fair at inner to very
good for wood from peripheral zone. The average values of untreated and treated woods which
is calculated on the basic of its zone from central point to the outer part of trunk were about 47.8
and 44.4%; 25.3 and 22.0%; 20.7 and 17.3%, respectively. Surface defects of wood at IZ was
almost achieved 50% area. This is attributed to the fact that the number of vascular bundles in
this zone was fewer in comparison to the others zone. The distribution of surface defects after
boring process is presented in Figure 4.78.
Tab. 4.43: Percentage of the surface defects of untreated and treated oil palm wood at various
wood zoning for different height positions after boring process
Wood
Zoning
Inner

Central

Peripheral

Replition
1
2
3
Average
1
2
3
4
5
Average
1
2
3
4
5
Average

Percentage of surface defects of wood (%)


Untreated Wood
Treated Wood
Trunk Height
Trunk Height
1m
3m
5m
1m
3m
5m
50
45
60
25
45
60
35
40
60
45
50
50
30
50
60
45
50
30
38,3 45,0 60,0 38,3 48,3 46,7
25
45
40
25
25
35
40
40
45
25
40
40
40
40
40
35
30
45
30
40
40
40
25
40
50
50
50
30
35
50
24,0 26,0 26,0 21,0 18,0 27,0
20
30
45
20
25
30
10
40
45
20
35
30
20
30
50
20
20
35
10
40
40
30
30
30
30
40
50
25
25
45
12,0 22,0 28,0 15,0 15,0 22,0

155

4.3. Properties of Oil Palm Wood

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

50

Boring UW
Boring WBH

45

Surface defect (%)

40

35

30

25

20

15
Inner Zone

Central Zone
Oil palm wood zoning

Peripheral Zone

Fig. 4.78: Distribution of surface defect of oil palm wood after boring test at various wood
zoning for untreated and treated wood

156

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.4. Evaluation of Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques

4.4 Evaluation of Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques


As mentioned in the previous chapters, bioresin reinforcement was applied to improve the physical, mechanical and machinery properties of oil palm wood. Bioresin which was derived from
pine resin was used as ller and binding agent. This material was glassy solid, semi transparent, and soluble in many organic solvents. It was brittle at room temperature (27 C), but melts
at stove-top temperature with softening point starting at 75 C. Preliminary study of bioresin
reinforcement resulted that the proper condition of bioresin for treating the oil palm wood was
at temperature of about 180 C, where the bioresin enables to penetrate into wood and return to
solid and thermoset stages until the room temperature was achieved. Furthermore, based on the
bioresin feature that soluble in many organic solvents, the acetone was selected as solvent in
this study for conducting the chemical technique of bioresin reinforcement. According to these
conditions, therefore the bioresin reinforcement was applied to improve the wood features of
oil palm using both heat and chemical techniques.
In this section, the heat and chemical techniques of bioresin reinforcement were evaluated.
It was dened by comparing the wood quality of oil palm between the untreated and treated
woods. The wood quality was expressed through the several parameters of wood features,
including physical, mechanical and machinery.
According to the obtained results, the density of oil palm wood after treated with bioresin both
heat and chemical techniques was generally increased more than 70%, as shown in Table 4.44
and 4.45, respectively. From this experiment, it can be observed that an increasing of bioresin
retention was resulted an increasing in wood density. It is logically accepted to the fact that the
bioresin penetrated through the intercellular cavities of oil palm wood, as shown in Figure 4.79.
Tab. 4.44: The improvement of density of oil palm wood after treating with bioresin using heat
technique and retention of bioresin
Sample
Code
IZ-1
IZ-3
IZ-5
IZ-7
IZ-9

Density UW
(g/cm3 )

Density B150
(g/cm3 )

Iv
(%)

Retention B150
(%)

Density B300
(g/cm3 )

Iv
(%)

0.180
0.285
58.56
22.451
0.318
76.85
0.182
0.324
77.68
34.113
0.305
67.36
0.191
0.298
56.55
31.699
0.300
57.64
0.186
0.256
37.27
24.345
0.283
51.55
0.158
0.300
89.26
39.589
0.345 117.88
0.180
0.293
63.01
30.439
0.310
72.82
CZ-1
0.225
0.558 147.71
10.446
0.536 137.87
CZ-3
0.196
0.410 109.24
16.052
0.422 115.73
CZ-5
0.213
0.404
90.02
14.969
0.373
75.65
CZ-7
0.208
0.372
78.73
34.120
0.352
69.01
CZ-9
0.167
0.333
99.92
34.132
0.360 116.19
0.202
0.415 105.95
21.944
0.409 102.66
PZ-1
0.430
0.709
64.69
5.414
0.626
45.45
PZ-3
0.420
0.495
17.91
8.102
0.450
7.25
PZ-5
0.372
0.606
63.06
6.204
0.653
75.68
PZ-7
0.375
0.570
52.04
5.237
0.497
32.79
PZ-9
0.381
0.586
53.76
5.553
0.524
37.60
0.396
0.593
49.96
6.102
0.550
39.12
Density increase after treatment (%)
72.97
71.53
Notes:
- UW=untreated wood; WBH: wood treated with bioresin using heat technique
- B150=wood treated with bioresin for 150 seconds; B300=wood treated with bioresin for 300 seconds
- Iv is improvement value of density after treatment (%)
- Replication for UW specimen is 10 and for WBH specimen is 5
- Data is extracted from Table D.7, D.8, D.9, F.2, F.3, F.4, F.5, F.6 and F.7

Retention B300
(%)
22.657
24.469
39.777
41.326
36.644
32.975
10.211
13.881
16.242
24.766
29.776
18.975
8.448
9.882
5.379
8.260
8.044
8.003

157

158

- Data is extracted from Table D.7, D.8, D.9, F.8, F.9, F.10, F.11

- Replication for UW specimen is 10 and for WBA specimen is 3

- Iv is improvement value of density after treatment (%)

- Bioresin concentration soluble in acetone: K1 = 10%; K2 = 20%

- Chemical technique condition: T1 = impregnation for 24 hours; T2 = impregnation for 48 hours;

- UW=untreated wood; WBA: wood treated with bioresin using chemical technique

Notes:

Tab. 4.45: The improvement of density of oil palm wood after treating with bioresin using chemical technique (WBA)
Sample
Density of oil palm wood
Code
UW
T1K1
Iv
T1K2
Iv
T2K1
Iv
T2K2
Iv
(g/cm3 )
(g/cm3 )
(%)
(g/cm3 )
(%)
(g/cm3 )
(%)
(g/cm3 )
(%)
IZ-3
0.182
0.286
57.01
0.285
56.03
0.263
44.34
0.380 108.05
IZ-5
0.191
0.281
47.31
0.293
54.00
0.310
62.90
0.368 93.04
IZ-7
0.186
0.289
54.96
0.289
55.17
0.325
74.49
0.358 91.89
0.180
0.285
53.10
0.289
55.07
0.300
60.58
0.368 97.66
CZ-3
0.196
0.561 186.79
0.457 133.68
0.394 101.52
0.506 158.67
CZ-5
0.213
0.406
90.99
0.389
82.87
0.404
89.93
0.471 121.68
CZ-7
0.208
0.322
54.71
0.339
62.84
0.354
69.83
0.393 88.70
0.202
0.430 110.83
0.395
93.13
0.384
87.09
0.457 123.02
PZ-3
0.420
0.620
47.80
0.581
38.46
0.646
53.98
0.752 79.31
PZ-5
0.372
0.570
53.17
0.544
46.20
0.684
83.77
0.591 58.84
PZ-7
0.375
0.669
78.49
0.527
40.63
0.535
42.95
0.733 95.74
0.396
0.619
59.82
0.550
41.76
0.622
60.23
0.692 77.97
Density increase after treatment (%)
74.58
63.32
69.30
99.55

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.4. Evaluation of Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.4. Evaluation of Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques

Bioresin

Fig. 4.79: Scanning electron microscopy of bioresin in wood which penetrated through the intercellular cavities. (photo by E. Bucker, 2007)

The average density of treated oil palm woods by applying heat technique for 150 seconds
impregnation time at IZ, CZ and PZ were about 0.29, 0.41 and 0.59 g/cm3 , respectively. In
comparison with the untreated wood, the density was increasing of about 63% at IZ, 106% at
CZ and 50% at PZ with bioresin retention of about 30, 22 and 6%, respectively. Although the
highest retention was achieved at inner zone, but the increasing density was lower compared
to central zone. This was logically accepted due to the higher number of vascular bundles at
central zone compared to inner zone.
The above mentioned condition was similarly occur both in the treated woods using heat technique for 300 seconds and using chemical technique for all conditions of treatment. It can be
stated that an increasing in density at central zone was higher than the others zones and concerning to the bioresin retention, it was increased toward the central point of the trunk. Based on
the obtained results of wood density improvement, the bioresin reinforcement using heat technique for 150 seconds was more efcient compared to 300 seconds impregnation time. Further,
in comparison with chemical technique, the density improvement of oil palm wood using heat
technique was quiet similar. The percentage of density improvement using heat and chemical
techniques were about 72.25 and 76.69%, respectively. According to this result and consider to
the use of chemical substances, the heat technique is a considerably better alternative in order
to apply bioresin reinforcement.
The evaluation of bioresin reinforcement based on the mechanical testing results was gathered
and summarized from the obtained results which already discussed in Section 4.3.2. The summary of mechanical properties of oil palm wood for the untreated wood (UW), the treated wood
with bioresin using heat (WBH) and chemical (WBA) techniques is presented in Table 4.46.

159

160

T1K1

IZ

10650.1796
84.2850
14.0864
81.3800
-

IZ

T1K2

26296.9775
188.5297
14.3173
109.9200
-

UW
CZ

T2K1

55913.2861
417.0360
24.7201
220.3200
196.6277
283.8345
3.5574
1.7097
34.4955

PZ

T2K2

MOE (kg/cm2 )
13141.9675 12606.6963
9739.1125 13927.4946
MOR (kg/cm2 )
109.4462
103.8506
84.1206
117.1744
Shear  (kg/cm2 )
15.7245
15.3191
14.4246
13.8685
96.0000
89.9400
90.2200
99.2200
Hardness (kg/cm2 )
Compression  (kg/cm2 )
Tension  (kg/cm2 )
Tension (kg/cm2 )
Cleavage (kg/cm2 )
Nail Withdrawal (kg)
Notes:
- UW: untreated wood; WBH: wood treated with bioresin using heat technique;
- WBA: wood treated with bioresin using chemical technique;
- Wood zoning: IZ = inner zone; CZ = central zone; PZ = peripheral zone
- Impregnation time for WBH: T1 = 150 seconds; T2 = 300 seconds
- Impregnation time for WBA: T1 = 24 hours; T2 = 48 hours;
- Bioresin concentration soluble in acetone: K1 = 10%; K2 = 20%

MOE (kg/cm2 )
MOR (kg/cm2 )
Shear  (kg/cm2 )
Hardness (kg/cm2 )
Compression  (kg/cm2 )
Tension  (kg/cm2 )
Tension (kg/cm2 )
Cleavage (kg/cm2 )
Nail Withdrawal (kg)

Mechanical
Properties

32214.4410
195.7058
14.4621
123.5000
-

CZ
T1K1

13149.8270
101.2770
17.5873
86.7000
-

IZ
T1

22413.9860
166.8575
15.5081
117.6700
-

T1K2
21306.0195
169.8400
14.9304
112.2200
-

T2K1

35311.7430
233.7740
19.2336
124.6200
-

WBA

15525.7700
117.0970
16.8927
87.8600
-

T2

29232.6131
200.2320
13.0178
130.2800
-

T2K2

35276.9630
244.6360
18.6738
129.1200
-

Bioresin Reinforcement Technique


WBH
CZ
T2
T1

PZ
61544.4279
498.6049
26.7794
244.6700
245.7895
654.0291
4.9121
2.5388
28.8272

T1K1

73253.8500
490.4570
27.1881
226.0400
258.0210
314.7738
5.3154
2.2386
30.7014

PZ
T1

55930.5979
414.9370
27.5798
251.7200
230.1738
661.5649
3.6443
2.0967
43.7062

T1K2

64993.6050
474.1760
22.0381
209.9800
257.4723
256.3149
4.0412
1.9124
28.4675

T2

Tab. 4.46: Summary of mechanical properties for the untreated wood and the treated wood of oil palm

T2K1
48919.4203
361.2954
28.2258
250.2200
159.3984
704.5484
4.8812
2.4915
43.1844

T2K2
65968.4467
522.4899
27.3883
290.1100
200.1329
487.7358
7.1680
2.0872
33.2451

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.4. Evaluation of Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.4. Evaluation of Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques

According to the results in Table 4.46, bioresin reinforcement generally increases the mechanical properties of oil palm wood, both treated using heat and chemical techniques. Further, to
dene the changing of wood strength after treatment, it was dened by calculating the improvement value of mechanical properties, which is expressed in percent using the following formula:


T W UW
Ivm =
x 100
(4.9)
UW
where, Ivm is percentage of improvement of the mechanical properties of wood after treating
with bioresin using heat or chemical technique in percent; T W is treated wood (WBH or WBA);
and U W is untreated wood.
By applying the equation 4.9, the percentage of mechanical properties improvement of oil palm
wood is presented in Table 4.47. According to this table, most of the tested specimens increase
their strength properties after impregnating with bioresin. It is attributed that the applied techniques was affecting positively in order to improve the mechanical properties of oil palm wood.
Furthermore, to determine the proper technique of bioresin reinforcement, it is necessary to
dene the improvement value (Iv ) in consideration to the statistical analysis results, therefore
the bioresin reinforcement value (Ebr ) was dened and concluded on the basic of improvement
value in Table 4.47 and the obtained statistical results which already discussed in Section 4.3.2.
The Ebr value was ranging from 1 to 1, where 1, if the mechanical properties were significantly different and lower than UW; 0 if insignicant or equal to UW; and 1 if signicantly
different in mechanical properties in comparison to UW. Further, the factor value of bioresin reinforcement which is affecting the wood quality was dened and calculated as the mean value of
Ebr . Due to each factor has different inuence in affecting the mechanical properties of wood,
therefore the factor value of bioresin reinforcement or fbr was also dened. These analysis and
calculation are presented in Table 4.48.
Generally, the experimental test for mechanical properties of oil palm wood based on several
factors which affecting to the quality of tested wood such as wood zoning, trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration through the statistical analysis investigation resulted that
the proper technique of bioresin reinforcement was using heat than chemical (acetone). The
optimum condition of process using heat technique was achieved at impregnation time for 150
seconds at temperature of 180 C with the fbr value of about 0.73. It means that by applying
heat technique and its condition, the mechanical properties of oil palm wood increase signicantly in comparison to the untreated wood, both technically and statistically. Technically, the
heat technique resulted a higher wood strength of oil palm and more simple process in comparison to the chemical technique using acetone as organic solvent. Statistically, according to
the obtained results, the tested specimens resulted a signicantly different of mechanical properties than the untreated wood. In case the use of chemical technique, the optimum condition
of bioresin reinforcement was achieved at 24 hours impregnation time (fbr =0.24) with 10%
bioresin concentration in acetone solvent (fbr =0.17).
The obtained results from the machinery properties tests including cross cutting, planning, shaving and moulding and boring for the treated wood with bioresin using the heat technique resulted
a higher performances in comparison to the untreated wood of oil palm.
In addition, the treated wood of oil palm wood was visually more compact compared to the
untreated wood. The wood surface quality was also better and almost no fuzzy grain was observed after nishing process of the treated specimens, unlike the untreated wood, this wood
161

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.4. Evaluation of Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques

defect commonly exists. It was attributed to the fact that the bioresin penetrated into the wood
through the intercellular cells and this material immediately harden after impregnation process,
furthermore, the thermosetting condition between wood components and bioresin was achieved.

162

WBAT1K1

23.47
20.16
24.85
6.54
-

WBHT1

IZ

WBAT1K2

45.78
38.93
19.92
7.96
-

WBHT2

CZ
WBAT2K1

34.28
24.00
34.34
13.37
-

31.01
17.61
9.98
2.60
31.22
10.90
49.42
30.94
-11.00

WBHT1

WBAT2K2
10.07
19.56
8.33
11.05
25.00
130.43
38.08
48.50
-16.43

WBAT1K1

UW vs WBA (%)

34.15
29.76
30.43
17.47
-

UW vs WBH (%)
CZ
WBHT1
WBHT2

MOE
22.50
-14.77
-18.98
11.16
MOR
3.81
-11.50
-9.91
6.21
Shear 
1.01
8.32
4.28
-9.08
Hardness
12.35
7.05
2.09
18.52
Compression 
Tension 
Tension
Cleavage
Nail Withdrawal
Notes:
- UW: untreated wood; WBH: wood treated with bioresin using heat technique;
- WBA: wood treated with bioresin using chemical technique;
- Wood zoning: IZ = inner zone; CZ = central zone; PZ = peripheral zone
- Impregnation time for WBH: T1 = 150 seconds; T2 = 300 seconds
- Impregnation time for WBA: T1 = 24 hours; T2 = 48 hours;
- Bioresin concentration soluble in acetone: K1 = 10%; K2 = 20%

Mechanical
Properties

MOE
MOR
Shear 
Hardness
Compression 
Tension 
Tension
Cleavage
Nail Withdrawal

Mechanical
Properties
PZ

0.03
-0.50
11.57
14.25
17.06
133.08
2.44
22.64
26.70

WBAT1K2

16.24
13.70
-10.85
-4.69
30.94
-9.70
13.60
11.86
-17.47

WBHT2

PZ
-12.51
-13.37
14.18
13.57
-18.93
148.23
37.21
45.73
25.19

WBAT2K1

23.40
29.85
11.63
17.97
-

WBAT1K1

17.98
25.29
10.79
31.68
1.78
71.84
101.49
22.08
-3.62

WBAT2K2

18.37
23.21
8.75
10.52
-

-8.55
-0.20
2.40
10.86
-

UW vs WBA (%)
IZ
WBAT1K2 WBAT2K1
30.77
39.02
-1.55
21.92
-

WBAT2K2

Tab. 4.47: The percentage of mechanical properties improvement Ivm after treating the oil palm wood with bioresin using heat (WBH) and
chemical (WBA) techniques in comparison with the untreated wood (UW)

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.4. Evaluation of Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques

163

164
T1

T2

T2

1
1
1
0
3
0.75

Heat

1
1
1
0
3
0.75

T1

IZ
1
1
1
1
4
1.00

1
1
1
1
4
1.00

WBH
CZ
T1
T2
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
-1
4
0.44

T1

T2
1
1
-1
-1
1
-1
1
1
-1
1
0.11

PZ

T1

0
0
-1
1
0
0.00

T1
0
0
-1
1
0
0.00

K1

Chemical
T2
K1

-1
0
-1
1
-1
-0.25

T2

IZ

K2

0
0
-1
1
0
0.00

K2
1
0
0
1
2
0.50

T1

Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques

1
0
0
1
2
0.5
1
0
0
1
2
0.50

WBA
CZ
T2
K1
K2
1
0
0
1
2
0.5

fbr value
0.73 0.62
0.24
0.08
0.17 0.13
Notes:
- UW: untreated wood; WBH: wood treated with bioresin using heat technique;
- WBA: wood treated with bioresin using chemical technique;
- Wood zoning: IZ = inner zone; CZ = central zone; PZ = peripheral zone
- Impregnation time for WBH: T1 = 150 seconds; T2 = 300 seconds
- Impregnation time for WBA: T1 = 24 hours; T2 = 48 hours;
- Bioresin concentration soluble in acetone: K1 = 10%; K2 = 20%
- Bioresin reinforcement value based on statistical analysis (Ebr ) is ranging from -1 to 1 ( =almost equal to UW),
where 1 = signicantly different but lower than UW; 0 = insignicantly different; and 1 = signicantly different in comparison to UW
- fbr = factor value of bioresin reinforcement which affecting the quality of wood, the value ranging from -1 to 1

MOE
MOR
Shear Parallel
Hardness
Compression Parallel
Tension Parallel
Tension Perpendicular
Cleavage
Nail Withdrawal
SUM
Average value
Summary
Technique
Factor

Mechanical
Properties
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
-1
2
0.22

T1
-1
-1
0
0
-1
1
1
1
0
0
0.00

T2

K1
0
-1
0
0
0
1
0
1
-1
0
0.00

PZ
-1
-1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
-1
-0.11

K2

Tab. 4.48: Bioresin reinforcement technique evaluation based on the improvement of mechanical properties through the statistical analysis in
comparison with the untreated wood of oil palm

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.4. Evaluation of Bioresin Reinforcement Techniques

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

4.5. Proving Hypothesis and Research Outlook

4.5 Proving Hypothesis and Research Outlook


4.5.1 Proving Hypothesis
Based on the proposed research hypotheses which mentioned in Section 1.4, two hypothesists
(concerning to experimental factors and bioresin reinforcement) were proven and summarized
by referring and evaluating from the obtained results in Chapter 4. Thereby the mathematical
analysis and the various statistical analysis which included homogeneity test, Levenes test of
equality, test of between subjects effect, analysis of variance, regression analysis, and several
post-hoc test, e.g. least signicant different, Duncans test and Thamhanes test were used to
examine and analysis the obtained data from eld and laboratory.
According to the statistical analysis results of the experimental factors those affecting the physical, mechanical and machinery properties of oil palm wood, the wood zoning factor has very
signicant effect to the wood properties of oil palm at probability level 0.05. Therefore, it is
recommended to use the oil palm wood separately based on wood zoning (inner, central and
peripheral zone). It was further observed that the trunk height factor had also signicant effect
for the most tested wood properties. Hence, this factor has to be taken into consideration. Based
on this information, the wood zoning and trunk height variations were the important factors in
affecting the wood properties of oil palm or the null hypothesis was therefore rejected.
Regarding to the bioresin reinforcement, the obtained statistical analysis and in combination
with the mathematical analysis showed that the physical, mechanical and machinery properties
of oil palm wood can be improved by applying the bioresin reinforcement, particularly using
heat technique as well as chemical technique. Referring to this information, the bioresin reinforcement was able to improve the wood properties of oil palm, therefore the null hypothesis
was therefore rejected.
4.5.2 Research Outlook
Due to the high availability of the oil palm wood, this material potentially good for substituting
the wood from forest by improving its wood quality which naturally has several disadvantages,
such as susceptible to fungal attack, high variability in physical properties along the trunk height
and depth as well as mechanical and machinery properties. But, this wood also has many
advantages, beside the large amount available throughout the year, oil palm wood has relatively
straight-trunk and without branching, and also good accessibility for harvesting operation.
Referring to the ndings in this study which eliminated the above mentioned disadvantages of
oil palm wood, the treated wood of oil palm using bioresin has signicantly different in wood
properties in comparison with the untreated wood. It was very compact in formation and more
homogeny in properties. Therefore, the oil palm wood has a very good prospect for furniture,
panel based products and the structural material purposes as well.

165

5 Conclusions and Recommendations


5.1 Conclusions
The overall objectives of this research was concentrated on the experimental investigations of
the wood anatomical structures, the wood zoning determination and the bioresin reinforcement
of oil palm wood. The wood material is taken from 27 years old oil palm tress belongs to species
Elaeis guineensis Jacq, variety of DxP.
Valuable scientic knowledge of the anatomy of oil palm wood was gathered through the microscopic and macroscopic investigations using both light microscopy and scanning electron
microscopy. The wood zoning at transverse section of oil palm trunk was dened and examined
through the eld and laboratory investigations, follow by mathematical and statistical analysis.
This was carried out due to very heterogenic of wood properties both along the trunk height and
depth of oil palm, therefore, the aim of this experiment was to improve the homogeneity of the
produced oil palm lumbers. Whilst, the bioresin reinforcement both using heat and chemical
techniques was conducted to improve the physical, mechanical and machinery properties of oil
palm wood based on the several factors those affecting wood quality, e.g. wood zoning, trunk
height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration.
On the basic of the above mentioned experimental investigations, the obtained research results
were summarized and concluded as follow:
5.1.1 Anatomical Characteristics of Oil Palm Wood
According to the visual observation, the trunk shape of oil palm at transverse section is normally circular and two parts might be distinguished, e.g. main part of the trunk and cortex and
bark. The main part of the trunk can be divided into three wood zoning, i.e. inner, central and
peripheral zone. The quantitatively investigation about wood zoning is also investigated, as described in Section 4.2. Cortex consists of brous material and ground parenchymatous tissue.
The cortex wide was approx. 25 mm ranging from 15 to 31. Three different wood surfaces can
be observed from a piece of oil palm wood, such as cross surface, tangential surface and radial
surface. At transverse section of the trunk, no pith was observed, and the main part of the trunk
was commonly darker colour in peripheral part than that the inner part. In green condition, the
oil palm wood colour was yellowish and brownish in dry condition.
Based on microscopic investigation, the wood structure of oil palm was arranged in the different structure in comparison with common wood, where bre and vessel components arrange in
form of the vascular bundles system. This vascular bundle was surrounded by parenchymatous
ground tissues, therefore this wood material is not comparable to the wood which produced from
both dicotyledons and gymnosperms species which is normally developed from the secondary
xylem. This ndings is in agreement with Parthasarathy and Klotz [82], who investigated the
anatomical aspects of some monocotyledons species. The vascular bundles direction at peripheral zone were toward the central point, whilst at central and inner zones were in random
167

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1. Conclusions

direction. One or two large vessels were distinguished in peripheral zone and two or three vessels in central and inner zone. These large vessels were predicted as main component which
responsible for transporting the nutrient. The number of vascular bundles toward the central
point was decreased signicantly. Therefore, refer to this ndings, it is necessary to use the oil
palm wood separately based on the trunk depth.
From scanning electron microscopy, the bre structure in vascular bundle system was arranged
similarly to the common wood, which attached each others in very compact formation. The bre
composes lumen, cell walls, and pits. The bres have closed end, mostly pointed with the bre
length of about 2 mm, ranging from 1.9 to 2.1 mm. The lumen diameter and wall thickness
were about 12.5 m and 6.8 m, respectively. Several types of bre-form at transverse section
were also observed, e.g. spherical, triangular and rectangular forms. The companion cells were
also identied as well as the existence of pits on cell wall. The bre-wall layers at transverse
sectional view were distinguishable as primary and secondary layers. The intercellular layer,
like mortar cement brick between walls which namely middle lamella was also found.
From isolated metaxylem tracheary element, the simple perforation plates occupy the nearly
transverse end walls. The cell wall in this element was net-like form with the end walls closely
spaced bars on very oblique end walls.
Parenchyma cells of oil palm wood were mostly in the form of spherical cell with the thinwalled and brick-like in formation, but in narrow space or area between one vascular bundle to the others, this cell was commonly as elongated cell and oval-cell shapes. Physically,
parenchyma cell was like spongy, moist in green condition, very lightweight and easily to separate one cell to the others and it was very hygroscopic, where easy to evaporate when temperature is rising and also easily to absorb the moist in high humidity condition. This behaviour
answered why the moisture content of dried-wood of oil palm still unstable.

5.1.2 Wood Zoning Determination


The wood zoning of oil palm trunk was determined due to great variation of oil palm wood
properties, such as density, moisture, and mechanical properties along the trunk height and
depth. This condition caused many difculties in wood working processes. Therefore, the aim
of this experiment was to improve the homogeneity of lumber produced from oil palm trunk
which later uses for manufacturing the wood specimens. This wood zoning was dened on the
basic of vascular bundles distribution and population over the transverse section. The population
was dened by calculating the number of vascular bundles per certain unit area. The vascular
bundles were counted manually, whilst the recorded data was calculated and analyzed through
the mathematical and statistical analysis.
According to the obtained results, it can be stated that the distribution of vascular bundles was
increased from central point of the trunk toward the bark. Three different wood zoning were dened, i.e. inner zone (IZ), central zone (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ). The average population
of vascular bundles at inner, central and peripheral zone were approx. 26; 46 and 97 vb/cm2 ,
respectively. Furthermore, by transforming the population of vascular bundles into their positions, it can be stated that the position of inner, central and peripheral zone at the transverse
section was approx. 39 mm ranging from 27 to 49 mm; 131 mm ranging from 115 to 137 mm
and 166 mm ranging from 151 to 172 mm from the central point of the trunk, respectively.
168

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1. Conclusions

5.1.3 Physical Properties


Three physical properties of oil palm wood were investigated in this study, including moisture
content (MC), density and volumetric shrinkage. The moisture content of oil palm wood in
green condition can be reached more than 500% with the average of about 304%, ranging from
123 to 531%. Due to the trunk height and wood zoning factors, the moisture content was
gradually decreased from the bottom to the top of the trunk and it decreased from central point
toward the outer part of the trunk, respectively. This wood property at inner zone was higher
compared to MC at central and peripheral zone. The average MC at inner zone was one and half
times greater than peripheral zone, whilst the range of MC at central zone was almost covering
the other two zones, ranging from 185 to 531%.
The density of oil palm wood at inner and central zone were about 0.18 g/cm3 , ranging from
0.16 to 0.19, and 0.20 g/cm3 , ranging from 0.17 to 0.23, respectively. Whilst, the density at
peripheral zone was higher compared to the other two zones. It was about 0.40 g/cm3 , ranging
from 0.37 to 0.43. According to the statistical analysis, it can be stated that the oil palm wood
density at transverse section was gradually increased from inner to peripheral zone, but it was
slightly decreased from the bottom to the top of the trunk. The inuence of wood zoning factor
to the wood density of oil palm was higher than the trunk height factor. Due to the utilization
of oil palm wood, it is necessary to use this material separately based on their wood zoning.
The volumetric shrinkage of oil palm wood was gradually decreased from the bottom to the
top of the trunk and it varies between 10.3% and 22.8%. Looking at transverse section, the
shrinkage of oil palm wood in central zone was higher compared to inner and peripheral zones.
The shrinkage in central zone was about 19.6% ranging from 13 to 23%, whilst the shrinkage
value in inner and peripheral zone were about 16.7% (range 11 to 20%) and 16.8% (range 10 to
23%), respectively.
5.1.4 Mechanical Properties
Several mechanical properties of oil palm wood with and without bioresin reinforcement were
investigated on the basic of wood zoning, trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin concentration factors. Static bending strength (modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture), shear
strength parallel to grain, hardness strength, compression strength parallel to grain, tension parallel and perpendicular to grain, cleavage strength and nail withdrawal resistance were tested
referring to the ASTM Standard.
According to the obtained experimental results and statistical analysis, it can be stated that the
oil palm wood treated with bioresin using heat technique resulted a higher mechanical strength
in comparison to the untreated wood and the treated wood using chemical technique. Further,
wood zoning factor at transverse section was very important factor in affecting the mechanical
properties of oil palm wood. It is selected as the primary factor in order to utilize the oil palm
wood, because most of statistical analysis for all mechanical testings were signicantly different
compared to the untreated wood. In addition, the visual investigation also performed that this
treated wood has a better wood surface and more compact. Therefore, it can be concluded that
to use the oil palm wood, it is necessarily to separate this wood into inner (IZ), central (CZ)
and peripheral zone (PZ). The next factor that must be taken into consideration is trunk height.
This factor also resulted a signicantly effect for most of mechanical testings. Generally, it is
necessary to use the oil palm trunk separately between up to 5 m and more than 5 m height.
169

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1. Conclusions

Concerning to the bioresin reinforcement process, the optimum impregnation time is achieved
in 150 seconds.
5.1.5 Machinery Properties
Machining tests are carried out to determined the working qualities and characteristics of wood
under a variety of machine operations such as are encountered in commercial manufacturing
practice. Working quality of wood is performed by the presence of wood defects after machining process. Further, machining quality of wood was expressed by the percentage of surface
defects area of the wood specimen. It was examined through the visual observation of the surface defect. The testings were conducted referring to ASTM Standard D 1666-90 [7], including
cross cutting, planning, shaving, moulding and boring for untreated wood (UW) and treated
wood with bioresin using heat technique 150 seconds (WBH).
Several wood defects has been observed on the oil palm wood, such as chipped grain, fuzzy
grain and burl. Generally, the machining quality of the untreated wood of oil palm was increased
from poor or fair quality to good or very good quality after treating with bioresin using heat
technique. It is attributed to the fact that bioresin reinforcement was inuencing positively to
reduce the percentage of surface defects.
5.1.6 Bioresin Reinforcement
Bioresin reinforcement was applied to improve the physical, mechanical and machinery properties of oil palm wood. This was done using the bioresin which was derived from pine resin. This
material was glassy solid, semi transparent, and soluble in many organic solvent. It was brittle
at room temperature (27 C), but melts at stove-top temperature with softening point starting
at 75 C. The proper condition of bioresin for treating the oil palm wood was at temperature
of about 180 C, where the bioresin enables to penetrate into wood through the intercellular
cavities and back into solid and thermoset stages until the room temperature was achieved.
Furthermore, based on the bioresin feature that soluble in many organic solvent, the acetone
was selected as solvent in this study for conducting the chemical technique of bioresin reinforcement. According to these conditions, therefore the bioresin reinforcement was applied and
investigated in order to improve the wood features of oil palm using both heat and chemical
techniques. Two experimental conditions of heat technique (150 and 300 seconds impregnation
time) and four experimental conditions of chemical techniques (24 and 48 hours impregnation
time; 10 and 20% bioresin concentration) were investigated in this study.
The experimental test for wood properties of oil palm based on several factors which affecting to
the quality of tested wood such as wood zoning, trunk height, impregnation time and bioresin
concentration through the statistical analysis investigation resulted that the proper technique
of bioresin reinforcement was using heat than chemical (acetone). The optimum condition of
process using heat technique was achieved at impregnation time for 150 seconds at temperature
of 180 C with the fbr value of about 0.73. By applying the heat technique and its condition, the
wood properties of oil palm wood increase signicantly in comparison to the untreated wood,
both technically and statistically.
Generally, the density of oil palm wood after treated with bioresin both heat and chemical techniques was generally increased more than 70%. An increasing of bioresin retention was resulted
170

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Recommendations

5.2. Recommendations

an increasing in wood density. The bioresin penetrated through the intercellular cavities of oil
palm wood. Most of the mechanical properties of oil palm wood also increases signicantly after treating with the bioresin using heat technique through the above mentioned condition of the
process. The machinery properties tests including cross cutting, planning, shaving and moulding and boring for the treated wood with bioresin using the heat technique resulted a higher
performances in comparison to the untreated wood of oil palm. The treated wood of oil palm
was visually more compact compared to the untreated wood. The wood surface quality was
also better and almost no fuzzy grain after nishing process, unlike the untreated wood which
commonly exists.

5.2 Recommendations
Based on the analysis of the results and discussions obtained in this research, the following
recommendations have been proposed by the author to help in:
Improving the technology of oil palm wood processing and utilization.
Developing the technology of bioresin reinforcement of oil palm wood, particularly to
increase the penetration of bioresin using vacuum and high pressure condition and explore
the proper organic or anorganic solvents.
5.2.1 Recommendations for improving the oil palm wood processing and utilization
In order to improve the oil palm wood processing and utilization, at least two important factors
should be taken into consideration, i.e. wood zoning and trunk height. Wood zoning is very
important factor in order to reduce the heterogeneity of wood properties toward the central
point of the trunk. Whilst, by considering to the trunk height, the variation of wood properties
along the trunk could be minimized. Therefore, according to the ndings in this study, it is
recommended to use the oil palm wood separately based on the wood zoning (inner, central and
peripheral zone) to improve the homogeneity of the produced lumber or timber. Consider to
trunk height factor, the trunk was recommended to be cut into several lengths, such as up to 5
m and more than 5 m.
The treated wood of oil palm using bioresin has very compact in formation and homogeny in
properties, therefore it has very good prospect for furniture, panel based products as well as
structural material. But using this treated wood in high temperature condition (e.g. > 60 C), it
has to be taken into consideration due to the softening point of bioresin starting at 75 C. Thus,
regarding this aspect, it is highly recommended to investigate the behavior of this treated wood
in high temperature condition for achieving a proper allocation of the utilization purposes of oil
palm wood.
5.2.2 Recommendations for developing the bioresin reinforcement of oil palm wood
Regarding to develop the bioresin reinforcement of oil palm wood technology, it is necessary to
do the research concerning to increase the retention and penetration of the bioresin, particularly
to penetrate the bioresin into parenchymatous ground tissue which have many pits on their cellwalls, for example by using the vacuum and high pressure conditions.
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179

List of Figures

181

List of Figures

1.1
1.2
1.3

Push-felled and burn replanting method of the oil palm plantation . . . . . . .


Push-felled and windrow replanting method of the oil palm plantation . . . . .
Under-planting method of the oil palm replanting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4
4
5

2.1

Development of the mature area of oil palm plantation in Indonesia and Malaysia
period 2000 to 2005 (Data calculated from Oil World, 2006 [76]) . . . . . . .
Rosin basic structure monomer of the abietic acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12
26

2.2
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

3.8
3.9

4.1
4.2
4.3

4.4
4.5

182

Location of the research study where the oil palm trees collected . . . . . . . .
Glassy solid and semi-transparent bioresin which derived from pine resin Pinus
merkusii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lumbering process and trunk disks of oil palm trunk using chainsaw . . . . . .
Oil palm wood specimen outline for evaluating its wood characters and properties
Research frame of oil palm wood investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wood-disk samples for determining the wood zoning of oil palm at transverse
sectional view, where ht is trunk height and hm is merchantable height . . . . .
Position of sampling series for dening the distribution and population of vascular bundles at transverse sectional view (where, Rm is sampling series along
the average radius of the wood disk sample; Smn is number of vascular bundle
at the sampling series m and sampling position n); Db is trunk diameter with
bark; and Df b is trunk diameter without bark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manually counting of vascular bundles at transverse section of wood-disk using
special ruler with spherical-holes line and using help of a magnifying glass . .
Specimen shape and dimension made from oil palm wood for investigating
the physical and mechanical properties. Specimen a. moisture; b. density; c.
shrinkage; d. static bending; e. shear  to grain; f. hardness; g. compression
 to grain; h. tension  to grain; i. tension to grain; j. cleavage; and k. nail
withdrawal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil palm trunk at transverse section consists of the main part of the trunk and
the cortex and bark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vascular bundles orientation at cross surface view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wood surface of oil palm wood structure at various sectional view, (a) wood
view at cross surface; (b) wood view at tangential surface; (c) wood view at
radial surface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vascular bundles with one large vessel (gure a) and three large vessels (gure
b) at transverse section under light microscopy view . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structure of vascular bundle of oil palm wood at transverse section detail with
the existence of parenchymatous ground tissue, vessels, bres and phloem
(photo by E. Bucker, 2005) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29
31
32
33
38
41

41
42

48
54
56

57
58

58

List of Figures
4.6
4.7

4.8

4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14

4.15

4.16

4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20

4.21

4.22
4.23

4.24
4.25

Vascular bundle structure of oil palm wood with detail view of parenchyma
cells, vessel and arrangement of bres at longitudinal direction view . . . . . .
Scanning electron microscopy of bre structure at transverse sectional view.
The bres vary in sizes and also shapes, e.g. spherical, triangular and rectangular. Companion cells was found as well as primary and secondary walls fairly
distinguishable (photo by E. Bucker, 2005) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scanning electron microscopy of cell-wall layers at transverse sectional view
with distinguishable primary and secondary layers, and intercellular layer, like
mortar cement brick between walls which called middle lamella (photo by E.
Bucker, 2005) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fibres structure and arrangement at transverse section under light microscopy
views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Light microscope view of connected endwise of large vessels of vascular bundle from oil palm wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Light microscope view of isolated wide metaxylem elements of vascular bundle
from oil palm wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vascular bundle with three large vessels at transverse sectional view . . . . . .
Scanning electron microscopy of parenchyma cells with pits distribution on the
primary cell-wall at transverse sectional view (photo by E. Bucker) . . . . . .
Relation between sampling position from central point to the outer part and
population of vascular bundles of sample Trunk-1 at different height along the
trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relation between sampling position from central point to the outer part and
population of vascular bundles of sample Trunk-2 at different height along the
trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relation between sampling position from central point to the outer part and
average value of vascular bundles population at different height along the trunk
for sample Trunk-1 and Trunk-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relation between trunk height and distance of wood zoning from central point
of the trunk at transverse section for sample Trunk-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relation between trunk height and distance of wood zoning from central point
of the trunk at transverse section for sample Trunk-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Position and distance of oil palm wood zoning based on their coordinates from
central point of the trunk in 3D-view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moisture content of oil palm wood at different zones in green condition (specimen size 50 mm x 50 mm x 50 mm; replication=6 for height 1 to 11 m and 3
times for height 12 m; total specimen=207) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Density of dried wood of oil palm at three different zones at moisture content below 12% (specimen 30 mm x 30 mm x 30 mm; replication=10; total
specimen=150) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relation between density and oil palm wood zoning at various trunk height . .
Classication of wood density distribution of oil palm along the trunk. The
average values and its ranging density (in g/cm3 ) for each zone are presented
in left- and right-side from the central point, respectively . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumetric shrinkage of oil palm wood along the trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumetric shrinkage of oil palm wood at various wood zoning and trunk height

59

60

61
62
63
64
64
65

68

69

70
74
74
75

77

79
79

82
83
84
183

List of Figures
4.26 Static bending strength test for determining modulus of elasticity and modulus
of rupture (F=load; l=length of specimen; ls=length between specimen support
of the span; d=thickness or depth of specimen; a=deection . . . . . . . . .
4.27 Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood (control
specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.28 Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood (control
specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.29 Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood (control
specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.30 Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood (control
specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.31 Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.32 Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.33 Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.34 Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.35 Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.36 Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.37 Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.38 Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.39 Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time . . . . . . .
4.40 Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time . . . . . . .
4.41 Inuence of wood zoning to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time . . . . . . .
4.42 Inuence of trunk height to the modulus of rupture of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time . . . . . . .
4.43 Inuence of wood zoning to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm
wood (control specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.44 Inuence of trunk height to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
(untreated specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.45 Inuence of wood zoning to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm
wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds . . . . . . . . . . .
4.46 Inuence of wood zoning to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm
wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . .
4.47 Inuence of trunk height to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.48 Inuence of trunk height to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
184

86
88
89
92
92
94
94
95
95
97
98
98
99
102
103
105
106
108
109
110
111
111
112

List of Figures
4.49 Inuence of wood zoning to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm
wood impregnated with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time
4.50 Inuence of trunk height to the shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
impregnated with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time . . .
4.51 Inuence of wood zoning to the hardness strength of oil palm wood (untreated
specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.52 Inuence of trunk height to the hardness strength of oil palm wood (untreated
specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.53 Inuence of wood zoning to the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.54 Inuence of wood zoning to the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.55 Inuence of trunk height to the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated
with bioresin at 180 C for 150 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.56 Inuence of trunk height to the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated
with bioresin at 180 C for 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.57 Inuence of wood zoning to the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time . . . . . . .
4.58 Inuence of trunk height to the hardness strength of oil palm wood impregnated
with acetone at various concentration and impregnation time . . . . . . . . . .
4.59 Inuence of trunk height to the compression strength parallel to grain of oil
palm wood at peripheral zone (control specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.60 Inuence of trunk height to the compression strength parallel to grain of peripheral zone of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150
and 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.61 Inuence of trunk height to the compression strength parallel to grain of peripheral zone of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.62 Inuence of trunk height to the tension strength parallel to grain of oil palm
wood at peripheral zone (control specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.63 Inuence of trunk height to the tension strength parallel to grain of peripheral
zone of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300
seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.64 Inuence of trunk height to the tension strength parallel to grain of peripheral
zone of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.65 Inuence of trunk height to the tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil
palm wood at peripheral zone (control specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.66 Inuence of trunk height to the tension strength perpendicular to grain of peripheral zone of oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150
and 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.67 Inuence of trunk height to the tension strength perpendicular to grain of peripheral zone of oil palm wood impregnated with acetone . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.68 Inuence of trunk height to the cleavage strength of oil palm wood at peripheral
zone (untreated specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.69 Inuence of trunk height to the cleavage strength of peripheral zone of oil palm
wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds . . . . . .
4.70 Inuence of trunk height to the cleavage strength of peripheral zone of oil palm
wood impregnated with acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114
115
117
118
120
120
121
121
123
124
126

127
129
131

132
134
136

137
138
140
141
143
185

List of Figures
4.71 Inuence of trunk height to the nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood at
peripheral zone (control specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.72 Inuence of trunk height to the nail withdrawal resistance of peripheral zone of
oil palm wood impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds . .
4.73 Inuence of trunk height to the nail withdrawal resistance of peripheral zone of
oil palm wood impregnated with acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.74 Distribution of surface defect of oil palm wood after cross cutting test at various
wood zoning for untreated and treated wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.75 Distribution of surface defect of oil palm wood after planning test at various
wood zoning for untreated and treated wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.76 Distribution of surface defect of oil palm wood after shaving test at various
wood zoning for untreated and treated wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.77 Distribution of surface defect of oil palm wood after moulding test at various
wood zoning for untreated and treated wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.78 Distribution of surface defect of oil palm wood after boring test at various wood
zoning for untreated and treated wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.79 Scanning electron microscopy of bioresin in wood which penetrated through
the intercellular cavities. (photo by E. Bucker, 2007) . . . . . . . . . . . . .

List of Appendix Figures


B.1

186

144
146
147
150
151
153
154
156
159
202

Position of the spherical form of samplings at transverse sectional view of the


trunk for dening the representative number of sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

List of Tables

187

List of Tables
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11

4.12

4.13

188

Development of estate area and production of crops from 1995 to 2006 (comparison between oil palm and rubber) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The oil palm mills in Indonesia, 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The availability of oil palm wastes from 1994 to 1999 in Indonesia . . . . . .
Major rosin producing countries between 1990 and 1993 . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparison of bre dimension between oil palm, rubberwood and douglas r)
Specication of rosin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Variety composition at the sampling area of oil palm plantation . . . . . . . .
General data measurement of the length and diameter of the selected oil palm
trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specimen of oil palm trunk for the untreated wood (control) . . . . . . . . .
Specimen of oil palm trunk for bioresin reinforcement using heat technique
experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specimen of oil palm trunk for bioresin reinforcement using chemical technique experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cortex width of oil palm trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fiber dimension of oil palm wood in comparison to EFB and OPF bres . . .
Number of samples per sample disk of sample along the trunk and distance of
one samplings set to another (see Figure 3.7 for illustration) . . . . . . . . . .
Descriptive of statistical groups analysis of Trunk-1 and Trunk-2 . . . . . . .
Independent sample test for population of vascular bundles based on equal
variances assumed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary of statistical data analysis for sample Trunk-1 and Trunk-2 . . . . .
Summary of statistical data analysis for sample Trunk-1 and Trunk-2 . . . . .
The distance oil palm wood zones from central point of Trunk-1 based on
vascular bundles distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The distance oil palm wood zones from central point of Trunk-2 based on
vascular bundles distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moisture content of oil palm wood after drying in kiln dryer at local drying
company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of modulus of elasticity of oil palm wood at various wood
zoning and trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table F.1
(see Appendix F.1)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of modulus of rupture (MOR) of oil palm wood at various
wood zoning and trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from
Table F.1 (see Appendix F.1)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of modulus of elasticity (MOE) of oil palm wood impregnated
with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds at various wood zoning and
trunk height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12
14
15
18
22
26
30
30
34
35
36
55
62
66
67
67
71
72
73
73
78

88

91

93

List of Tables
4.14

4.15

4.16

4.17

4.18
4.19

4.20

4.21

4.22

4.23

4.24

4.25

4.26

4.27

4.28

4.29

Summary data of modulus of rupture (MOR) of oil palm wood impregnated


with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds at various wood zoning and
trunk height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of static bending strength test (MOE and MOR) of oil palm
wood at various wood zoning and trunk height and impregnated with acetone
at concentration 10% and 20% for 24 and 48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of static bending strength test (MOE and MOR) of oil palm
wood at various wood zoning and trunk height and impregnated with acetone
at concentration 10% and 20% for 24 and 48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of shear strength of oil palm wood at various wood zoning
and trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table F.12 (see
Appendix F.2)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of shear strength of oil palm wood at various wood zoning and
trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300 seconds
Summary data of shear strength of oil palm wood at various wood zoning and
trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration 10% and 20% for
24 and 48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of hardness strength of oil palm wood at various wood zoning
and trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table F.19 (see
Appendix F.3)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of hardness strength of oil palm wood at various wood zoning
and trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300
seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of hardness strength of oil palm wood at various wood zoning
and trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration 10% and 20%
for 24 and 48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of compression strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood at
peripheral zone at various trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted
from Table F.24 (see Appendix F.4)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of compression strength parallel to grain of peripheral zone of
oil palm wood at various trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C
for 150 and 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of compression strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood
at peripheral zone at various trunk height and impregnated with acetone at
concentration 10% and 20% for 24 and 48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of tension strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone at various trunk height for untreated specimen (data is extracted
from Table F.27 (see Appendix F.5)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of tension strength parallel to grain of peripheral zone of oil
palm wood at various trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C
for 150 and 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of tension strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood at peripheral zone at various trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration 10% and 20% for 24 and 48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood at
peripheral zone at various trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted
from Table F.30 (see Appendix F.6)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

101

104

107
109

113

117

118

122

125

126

128

130

131

133

135
189

List of Tables
4.30

4.31

4.32

4.33

4.34

4.35

4.36

4.37

4.38
4.39
4.40
4.41
4.42
4.43
4.44
4.45
4.46
4.47

4.48

190

Summary data of tension strength perpendicular to grain of peripheral zone of


oil palm wood at various trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C
for 150 and 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood
at peripheral zone at various trunk height and impregnated with acetone at
concentration 10% and 20% for 24 and 48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of cleavage strength of oil palm wood at peripheral zone at
various trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table F.33
(see Appendix F.7)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of cleavage strength of peripheral zone of oil palm wood at
various trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150 and 300
seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of cleavage strength of oil palm wood at peripheral zone at
various trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration 10% and
20% for 24 and 48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood at peripheral
zone at various trunk height for control specimen (data is extracted from Table
F.36 (see Appendix F.8)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of nail withdrawal resistance of peripheral zone of oil palm
wood at various trunk height and impregnated with bioresin at 180 C for 150
and 300 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary data of nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood at peripheral
zone at various trunk height and impregnated with acetone at concentration
10% and 20% for 24 and 48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Classication of machining quality of wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage of the surface defects of untreated and treated oil palm wood at
various wood zoning for different height positions after cross cutting process .
Percentage of the surface defects of untreated and treated oil palm wood at
various wood zoning for different height positions after planning process . . .
Percentage of the surface defects of untreated and treated oil palm wood at
various wood zoning for different height positions after shaving process . . .
Percentage of the surface defects of untreated and treated oil palm wood at
various wood zoning for different height positions after moulding process . .
Percentage of the surface defects of untreated and treated oil palm wood at
various wood zoning for different height positions after boring process . . . .
The improvement of density of oil palm wood after treating with bioresin
using heat technique and retention of bioresin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The improvement of density of oil palm wood after treating with bioresin
using chemical technique (WBA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary of mechanical properties for the untreated wood and the treated
wood of oil palm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The percentage of mechanical properties improvement Ivm after treating the
oil palm wood with bioresin using heat (WBH) and chemical (WBA) techniques in comparison with the untreated wood (UW) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bioresin reinforcement technique evaluation based on the improvement of
mechanical properties through the statistical analysis in comparison with the
untreated wood of oil palm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

136

138

139

140

142

144

145

147
148
149
151
152
154
155
157
158
160

163

164

List of Tables

List of Appendix Tables

202

A.1

Chronology of Indonesian forest policy period 1945-1992 . . . . . . . . . . . 202

B.1

Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-1; -2 and -3 from sample Trunk-1
at different height positions (continue to the next page) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-4; -5 and -6 from sample Trunk-1
at different height positions (continue to the next page) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-7; -8 and -9 from sample Trunk-1
at different height positions (continue to the next page) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-10; -11 and -12 from sample
Trunk-1 at different height positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-1; -2 and -3 from sample Trunk1 at different height positions (continue to the next page) . . . . . . . . . . .
Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-4; -5 and -6 from sample Trunk1 at different height positions (continue to the next page) . . . . . . . . . . .
Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-7; -8 and -9 from sample Trunk1 at different height positions (continue to the next page) . . . . . . . . . . .
Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-10; -11 and -12 from sample
Trunk-1 at different height positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-1; -2 and -3 from sample Trunk-2
at different height positions (continue to the next page) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-4; -5 and -6 from sample Trunk-2
at different height positions (continue to the next page) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-7; -8 and -9 from sample Trunk-2
at different height positions (continue to the next page) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-10; -11 and -12 from sample
Trunk-2 at different height positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-1; -2 and -3 from sample Trunk2 at different height positions (continue to the next page) . . . . . . . . . . .
Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-4; -5 and -6 from sample Trunk2 at different height positions (continue to the next page) . . . . . . . . . . .
Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-7; -8 and -9 from sample Trunk2 at different height positions (continue to the next page) . . . . . . . . . . .
Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-10; -11 and -12 from sample
Trunk-2 at different height positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B.2
B.3
B.4
B.5
B.6
B.7
B.8
B.9
B.10
B.11
B.12
B.13
B.14
B.15
B.16
C.1
C.2
C.3
C.4
C.5
C.6
C.7
C.8
C.9
C.10

Number and population of vascular bundles of wood disk-1 from sample


Trunk-1 at different positions of sampling over the transverse section . . . . .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H1 . . . . .
Result of homogeneity of variances for wood disk-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Result of ANOVA test for Trunk-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary of statistical data analysis for sample T1WD1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H1 . . . . .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H2 . . . . .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H3 . . . . .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H4 . . . . .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H5 . . . . .

208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
227
227
227
228
228
229
230
230
231
231
191

List of Tables
C.11
C.12
C.13
C.14
C.15
C.16
C.17
C.18
C.19
C.20
C.21
C.22
C.23
C.24
C.25
C.26
C.27
C.28
C.29
C.30
C.31
C.32
C.33

Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H6 .


Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H7 .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H8 .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H9 .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H10
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H11
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H12
Result of homogeneity of variances for Trunk-1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Result of ANOVA test for Trunk-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H1 .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H2 .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H3 .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H4 .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H5 .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H6 .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H7 .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H8 .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H9 .
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H10
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H11
Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H12
Result of homogeneity of variances for Trunk-2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Result of ANOVA test for Trunk-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D.1

Moisture content of oil palm wood in green condition at inner zone (IZ) along
the trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moisture content of oil palm wood in green condition at central zone (CZ)
along the trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moisture content of oil palm wood in green condition at peripheral zone (PZ)
along the trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moisture content of oil palm frond in green condition . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moisture content of oil palm leaves which attached at frond in green condition
Moisture content of oil palm root in green condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Density of dried wood of oil palm at inner zone (IZ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Density of dried wood of oil palm at central zone (CZ) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Density of dried wood of oil palm at peripheral zone (PZ) . . . . . . . . . . .
Shrinkage of oil palm wood at various trunk height in inner zone (IZ) . . . . .
Shrinkage of oil palm wood at various trunk height in central zone (CZ) . . .
Shrinkage of oil palm wood at various trunk height in peripheral zone (PZ) . .

D.2
D.3
D.4
D.5
D.6
D.7
D.8
D.9
D.10
D.11
D.12
E.1
E.2
E.3
E.4
E.5
E.6
192

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Univariate analysis of variance - test of between-subjects effects . . . . . . .


Post hoc test of homogeneous subsets of oil palm wood zoning based on Duncans test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post hoc test of homogeneous subsets of trunk height based on Duncans test .
Post hoc test of homogeneous subsets of inner, central and peripheral zones
of oil palm wood based on Duncans test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of regression analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model summary of regression analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

232
232
233
233
234
234
235
235
236
236
237
237
238
238
239
239
240
240
241
241
242
242
243
244
245
246
248
249
250
251
252
253
255
256
257
258
258
258
259
260
260

List of Tables
E.7
E.8

ANOVA of regression analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260


Coefcient of regression analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

F.1

Modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of oil palm wood
(control specimen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil
palm wood in inner zone (IZ) treated with bioresin for 150 seconds . . . . . .
Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil
palm wood in central zone (CZ) treated with bioresin for 150 seconds . . . .
Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil
palm wood in peripheral zone (PZ) treated with bioresin for 150 seconds . .
Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil
palm wood in inner zone (IZ) treated with bioresin for 300 seconds . . . . .
Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil
palm wood in central zone (CZ) treated with bioresin for 300 seconds . . . .
Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil
palm wood in peripheral zone (PZ) treated with bioresin for 300 seconds . .
Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil
palm wood treated with 10% acetone for 24 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil
palm wood treated with 20% acetone for 24 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil
palm wood treated with 10% acetone for 48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil
palm wood treated with 20% acetone for 48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood for control specimen . . . .
Shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood treated with bioresin for 150
seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood treated with bioresin for 300
seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood treated with acetone 10% for
24 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood treated with acetone 20% for
24 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood treated with acetone 10% for
48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood treated with acetone 20% for
48 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardness strength of oil palm wood for control specimen . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardness strength of oil palm wood treated with bioresin for 150 seconds . .
Hardness strength of oil palm wood treated with bioresin for 300 seconds . .
Hardness strength of oil palm wood treated with acetone 10% and 20% for 24
hours impregnation time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardness strength of oil palm wood treated with acetone 10% and 20% for 48
hours impregnation time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compression strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood in peripheral zone
(PZ) for control specimen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F.2
F.3
F.4
F.5
F.6
F.7
F.8
F.9
F.10
F.11
F.12
F.13
F.14
F.15
F.16
F.17
F.18
F.19
F.20
F.21
F.22
F.23
F.24

262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
193

List of Tables
F.25

F.32
F.33
F.34
F.35
F.36
F.37
F.38

Compression strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood in peripheral zone


(PZ) treated with bioresin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Compression strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood in peripheral zone
treated with acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Tension strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood in peripheral zone (PZ) for
control specimen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Tension strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood in peripheral zone (PZ)
treated with bioresin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Tension strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood treated with acetone . . . 290
Tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood in peripheral zone
(PZ) for control specimen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood in peripheral zone
(PZ) treated with bioresin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Tension strength perpendicular to grain of oil palm wood treated with acetone 293
Cleavage strength of oil palm wood in peripheral zone (PZ) for control specimen294
Cleavage strength of oil palm wood in peripheral zone (PZ) treated with bioresin295
Cleavage strength of oil palm wood in peripheral zone (PZ) treated with acetone296
Nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood treated with acetone . . . . . . . 297
Nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood treated with bioresin . . . . . . . 298
Nail withdrawal resistance of oil palm wood treated with acetone . . . . . . . 299

G.1
G.2
G.3
G.4
G.5
G.6
G.7
G.8
G.9
G.10
G.11
G.12
G.13
G.14
G.15
G.16
G.17
G.18
G.19
G.20
G.21
G.22
G.23
G.24
G.25
G.26

Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOE-UW . . . .


Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOE-UW . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOE-UW . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Wood Zoning for MOE-UW . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOE-UW . . . . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOE-UW at IZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOE-UW at IZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOE-UW at IZ . . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOE-UW at CZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOE-UW at CZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOE-UW at CZ . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOE-UW at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOE-UW at PZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOE-UW at PZ . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of rupture for MOR-UW . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOR-UW . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOR-UW . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Wood Zoning for MOR-UW . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOR-UW . . . . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOR-UW at IZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOR-UW at IZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOR-UW at IZ . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOR-UW at CZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOR-UW at CZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOR-UW at CZ . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOR-UW at PZ .

F.26
F.27
F.28
F.29
F.30
F.31

194

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300
300
301
301
301
302
302
302
303
303
303
304
304
304
305
305
305
306
306
307
307
307
308
308
308
309

List of Tables
G.27
G.28
G.29
G.30
G.31
G.32
G.33
G.34
G.35
G.36
G.37
G.38
G.39
G.40
G.41
G.42
G.43
G.44
G.45
G.46
G.47
G.48
G.49
G.50
G.51
G.52
G.53
G.54
G.55
G.56
G.57
G.58
G.59
G.60
G.61
G.62
G.63
G.64
G.65
G.66
G.67
G.68
G.69
G.70
G.71
G.72
G.73

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOR-UW at PZ . . . . . . .


Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOR-UW at PZ . . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOE-WBH . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOE-WBH . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Wood Zoning for MOE-WBH . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOE-WBH . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOE-WBH . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOE-WBH at IZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOE-WBH at IZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOE-WBH at IZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOE-WBH at IZ . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOE-WBH at IZ . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOE-WBH at CZ
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOE-WBH at CZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOE-WBH at CZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOE-WBH at CZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOE-WBH at CZ . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOE-WBH at PZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOE-WBH at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOE-WBH at PZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOE-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOE-WBH at PZ . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOR-WBH . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOR-WBH . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Wood Zoning for MOR-WBH . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOR-WBH . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOR-WBH . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOR-WBH at IZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOR-WBH at IZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOR-WBH at IZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOR-WBH at IZ . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOR-WBH at IZ . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOR-WBH at CZ
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOR-WBH at CZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOR-WBH at CZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOR-WBH at CZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOR-WBH at CZ . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOR-WBH at PZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOR-WBH at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOR-WBH at PZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOR-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOR-WBH at PZ . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOE-WBC . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOE-WBC . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Wood Zoning for MOE-WBC . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOE-WBC . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOE-WBC . . . . . . . . .

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309
309
310
310
310
310
311
312
312
312
313
313
314
314
314
315
315
316
316
316
317
317
318
318
318
318
319
320
320
320
321
321
322
322
322
323
323
324
324
324
325
325
326
326
326
327
327
195

List of Tables
G.74
G.75
G.76
G.77
G.78
G.79
G.80
G.81
G.82
G.83
G.84
G.85
G.86
G.87
G.88
G.89
G.90
G.91
G.92
G.93
G.94
G.95
G.96
G.97
G.98
G.99
G.100
G.101
G.102
G.103
G.104
G.105
G.106
G.107
G.108
G.109
G.110
G.111
G.112
G.113
G.114
G.115
G.116
G.117
G.118
G.119
G.120
196

Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for MOE-WBC . . . . . .


Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOR-WBC at IZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOE-WBC at IZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOE-WBC at IZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOE-WBC at IZ . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOE-WBC at IZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for MOE-WBC at IZ . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOR-WBC at CZ
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOE-WBC at CZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOE-WBC at CZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOE-WBC at CZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOE-WBC at CZ . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for MOE-WBC at CZ . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOR-WBC at PZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOE-WBC at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOE-WBC at PZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOE-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOE-WBC at PZ . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for MOE-WBC at PZ . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOR-WBC . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOR-WBC . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Wood Zoning for MOR-WBC . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOR-WBC . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOR-WBC . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for MOR-WBC . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOR-WBC at IZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOR-WBC at IZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOR-WBC at IZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOR-WBC at IZ . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOR-WBC at IZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for MOR-WBC at IZ . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOR-WBC at CZ
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOR-WBC at CZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOR-WBC at CZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOR-WBC at CZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOR-WBC at CZ . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for MOR-WBC at CZ . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for MOR-WBC at PZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for MOR-WBC at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for MOR-WBC at PZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for MOR-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for MOR-WBC at PZ . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for MOR-WBC at PZ . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Shear-UW . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Shear-UW . . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Shear-UW . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Wood Zoning for Shear-UW . . . . . . . . . . . .

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.

327
328
329
329
329
329
329
330
331
331
331
331
331
332
333
333
333
333
333
334
334
334
335
335
335
336
337
337
337
337
337
338
339
339
339
339
339
340
341
341
341
341
341
342
342
342
343

List of Tables
G.121
G.122
G.123
G.124
G.125
G.126
G.127
G.128
G.129
G.130
G.131
G.132
G.133
G.134
G.135
G.136
G.137
G.138
G.139
G.140
G.141
G.142
G.143
G.144
G.145
G.146
G.147
G.148
G.149
G.150
G.151
G.152
G.153
G.154
G.155
G.156
G.157
G.158
G.159
G.160
G.161
G.162
G.163
G.164
G.165
G.166
G.167

Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Shear-UW . . . . . . . . . . . .


Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Shear-UW at IZ . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Shear-UW at IZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Shear-UW at IZ . . . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Shear-UW at CZ . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Shear-UW at CZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Shear-UW at CZ . . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Shear-UW at PZ . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Shear-UW at PZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Shear-UW at PZ . . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Shear-WBH . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Shear-WBH . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Wood Zoning for Shear-WBH . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Shear-WBH . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Shear-WBH . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Shear-WBH at IZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Shear-WBH at IZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Shear-WBH at IZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Shear-WBH at IZ . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Shear-WBH at IZ . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Shear-WBH at CZ
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Shear-WBH at CZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Shear-WBH at CZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Shear-WBH at CZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Shear-WBH at CZ . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Shear-WBH at PZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Shear-WBH at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Shear-WBH at PZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Shear-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Shear-WBH at PZ . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Shear-WBC . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Shear-WBC . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Wood Zoning for Shear-WBC . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Shear-WBC . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Shear-WBC . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Shear-WBC . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Shear-WBC at IZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Shear-WBC at IZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Shear-WBC at IZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Shear-WBC at IZ . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Shear-WBC at IZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Shear-WBC at IZ . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Shear-WBC at CZ
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Shear-WBC at CZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Shear-WBC at CZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Shear-WBC at CZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Shear-WBC at CZ . . . . .

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.

343
344
344
344
345
345
345
346
346
346
347
347
347
347
348
349
349
349
350
350
351
351
351
352
352
353
353
353
354
354
355
355
355
356
356
356
357
358
358
358
358
358
359
360
360
360
360
197

List of Tables
G.168
G.169
G.170
G.171
G.172
G.173
G.174
G.175
G.176
G.177
G.178
G.179
G.180
G.181
G.182
G.183
G.184
G.185
G.186
G.187
G.188
G.189
G.190
G.191
G.192
G.193
G.194
G.195
G.196
G.197
G.198
G.199
G.200
G.201
G.202
G.203
G.204
G.205
G.206
G.207
G.208
G.209
G.210
G.211
G.212
G.213
G.214
198

Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Shear-WBC at CZ . . . . .


Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Shear-WBC at PZ . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Shear-WBC at PZ . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Shear-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Shear-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Shear-WBC at PZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Shear-WBC at PZ . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Hardness-UW . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Hardness-UW . . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Hardness-UW . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Wood Zoning for Hardness-UW . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Hardness-UW . . . . . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Hardness-UW at IZ . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Hardness-UW at IZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Hardness-UW at IZ . . . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Hardness-UW at CZ . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Hardness-UW at CZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Hardness-UW at CZ . . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Hardness-UW at PZ . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Hardness-UW at PZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Hardness-UW at PZ . . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Hardness-WBH . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Hardness-WBH . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Wood Zoning for Hardness-WBH . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Hardness-WBH . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Hardness-WBH . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Hardness-WBH at IZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Hardness-WBH at IZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Hardness-WBH at IZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Hardness-WBH at IZ . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Hardness-WBH at IZ . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Hardness-WBH at CZ
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Hardness-WBH at CZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Hardness-WBH at CZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Hardness-WBH at CZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Hardness-WBH at CZ . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Hardness-WBH at PZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Hardness-WBH at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Hardness-WBH at PZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Hardness-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Hardness-WBH at PZ . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Hardness-WBC . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Hardness-WBC . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Wood Zoning for Hardness-WBC . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Hardness-WBC . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Hardness-WBC . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Hardness-WBC . . . . . .

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.
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.

360
361
362
362
362
362
362
363
363
363
364
364
365
365
365
366
366
366
367
367
367
368
368
368
368
369
370
370
370
371
371
372
372
372
373
373
374
374
374
375
375
376
376
376
377
377
377

List of Tables
G.215
G.216
G.217
G.218
G.219
G.220
G.221
G.222
G.223
G.224
G.225
G.226
G.227
G.228
G.229
G.230
G.231
G.232
G.233
G.234
G.235
G.236
G.237
G.238
G.239
G.240
G.241
G.242
G.243
G.244
G.245
G.246
G.247
G.248
G.249
G.250
G.251
G.252
G.253
G.254
G.255
G.256
G.257
G.258
G.259
G.260
G.261

Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Hardness-WBC at IZ


Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Hardness-WBC at IZ
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Hardness-WBC at IZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Hardness-WBC at IZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Hardness-WBC at IZ . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Hardness-WBC at IZ . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Shear-WBC at CZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Hardness-WBC at CZ
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Hardness-WBC at CZ . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Hardness-WBC at CZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Hardness-WBC at CZ . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Hardness-WBC at CZ . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Hardness-WBC at PZ
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Hardness-WBC at PZ
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Hardness-WBC at PZ . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Hardness-WBC at PZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Hardness-WBC at PZ . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Hardness-WBC at PZ . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Compar-UW . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Compar-UW at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Compar-UW at PZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Compar-UW at PZ . . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Compar-WBH . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Compar-WBH at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Compar-WBH at PZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Compar-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Compar-WBH at PZ . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Compar-WBC at PZ
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Compar-WBC at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Compar-WBC at PZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Compar-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Compar-WBC at PZ . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Compar-WBC at PZ . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Tenpar-UW . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Tenpar-UW at PZ . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Tenpar-UW at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Tenpar-UW at PZ . . . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Tenpar-WBH . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Tenpar-WBH at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Tenpar-WBH at PZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Tenpar-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Tenpar-WBH at PZ . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Tenpar-WBC at PZ .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Tenpar-WBC at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Tenpar-WBC at PZ . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Tenpar-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Tenpar-WBC at PZ . . . . . .

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.

378
379
379
379
379
379
380
381
381
381
381
381
382
383
383
383
383
383
384
384
384
384
386
386
386
387
387
388
389
389
389
389
390
391
391
391
391
392
392
392
393
393
394
395
395
395
395
199

List of Tables
G.262
G.263
G.264
G.265
G.266
G.267
G.268
G.269
G.270
G.271
G.272
G.273
G.274
G.275
G.276
G.277
G.278
G.279
G.280
G.281
G.282
G.283
G.284
G.285
G.286
G.287
G.288
G.289
G.290
G.291
G.292
G.293
G.294
G.295
G.296
G.297
G.298
G.299
G.300
G.301
G.302
G.303
G.304
G.305
G.306
G.307

200

Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Tenpar-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . .


Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Tenper-UW . . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Tenper-UW at PZ . . . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Tenper-UW at PZ . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Tenper-UW at PZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Tenper-WBH . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Tenper-WBH at PZ . . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Tenper-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Tenper-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Tenper-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Tenper-WBC at PZ . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Tenper-WBC at PZ . . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Tenper-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Tenper-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Tenper-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Tenper-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Cleavage-UW . . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Cleavage-UW at PZ . . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Cleavage-UW at PZ . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Cleavage-UW at PZ . . . . . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Cleavage-WBH . . . . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Cleavage-WBH at PZ . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Cleavage-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Cleavage-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Cleavage-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Cleavage-WBC at PZ . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Cleavage-WBC at PZ . . . .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Cleavage-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Cleavage-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Cleavage-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Cleavage-WBC at PZ . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Nail Withdrawal-UW . . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Nail Withdrawal-UW at PZ .
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Nail Withdrawal-UW at PZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Nail Withdrawal-UW at PZ . . . . . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Nail Withdrawal-WBH . . .
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Nail Withdrawal-WBH at PZ
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Nail Withdrawal-WBH at PZ . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Nail Withdrawal-WBH at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Nail Withdrawal-WBH at PZ . . . .
Descriptive statistics of modulus of elasticity for Nail Withdrawal-WBC at PZ
Levenes Test of Equality of Error Variances for Nail Withdrawal-WBC at PZ
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for Nail Withdrawal-WBC at PZ . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Trunk Height for Nail Withdrawal-WBC at PZ . . . . . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Impregnation Time for Nail Withdrawal-WBC at PZ . . . .
Post Hoc Tests - Bioresin Concentration for Nail Withdrawal-WBC at PZ . .

396
397
397
397
397
398
398
398
399
399
400
401
401
401
401
402
403
403
403
403
404
404
404
405
405
406
407
407
407
407
408
409
409
409
409
410
410
410
411
411
412
413
413
413
413
414

Appendixes

201

A Chronology of Indonesian forest policy period 1945-1992


Tab. A.1: Chronology of Indonesian forest policy period 1945-1992
Year

Forest Policy

1945
1961

Adoption of the constitution provisions for sustainable natural resource management


National regreening week program - intended to increase involvement of society
in the conservation of forest, soil and water
Act No. 5 on Basic principles of forestry - establishment of forest management
system in Indonesia
Act No. 33 on forest planning - addresses the provision and establishment
of multipurpose and sustainable use forests
Denition of protected wildlife species added to the list of the Ministry
of Agriculture of 1970 and the Ordonantie of 1931
Guidelines for the Indonesia selective felling system, clear felling with
plantation system and clear felling with natural regeneration, supplemented with
the guidelines for assessment
National soil conservation program - planning and monitoring of soil
conservation, regreening and reforestation activities
Reforestation guarantee deposit fund - requires concession holders to pay a fee
for reforestation
Act NO. 4 Basic provision of the management of living environment
Provides for harmonious relations between man and environment, rational use of resources,
environmentally sound development and protection of the country against adverse impact
of environmental actions in other countries
Establishment of Ministry of Forestry, previously under Ministry of Agriculture
National regreening movement - mobilization of society into nationally organized and
continued activities to conserve forest resources, soil, water and the environment
Ban on export of logs
Act No. 28 on forest protection - to safeguard forest and their function
by preventing and minimizing degradation of forest and forest products
Government Regulation No. 29 on environmental impact assessment - requirement
of an environmental impact assessment for every forestry development activity that may
have an environmental impact
Forest concessionaries village development program - promotion by concessionaries of
sedentary agriculture in their forest village, and employment of villagers
in their industries
Natural production forest silviculture as harmonization of the 1972 guidelines
for the Indonesia selective felling system. Provides three alternatives: selective felling
with replanting system, clear felling with natural regeneration and clear felling with
articial regeneration
Act No. 7 on industrial timber plantation concessionaries. For rehabilitation of
bare lands and degraded forest with plantations of industrial species
Presidential Decree No. 29 on reforestation deposit fund. Collection of deposit
funds for rehabilitation purposes from forest concessionaries, forest product concessionaries
and holder of timber utilization permit
Act No. 5 on conservation of nature and living resources. Assert national
responsibility of all citizens for the conservation and protection of forest
One million trees movement - sets goal of the government to plant one million trees
a year in every province
Act No. 24 on spatial arrangement

1967
1970
1971
1972

1976
1980
1982

1983
1983
1985
1985
1986

1988

1989

1990
1990

1990
1992
1992

202

B Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning


Regarding to develop the oil palm wood zone area by applying the two assumptions that mentioned in Section 3.2.1.2, the spherical form of sampling area was used for mathematical analysis of the vascular bundles distribution over the transverse section at certain height. In case of
spherical form, the samplings is plotted or drawn along the radius of the trunk from the pith to
the outer part of the trunk. The Figure B.1 showed how the sampling area is plotted at transverse
section.
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ds

Dfb

Db

rfb

Fig. B.1: Position of the spherical form of samplings at transverse sectional view of the trunk
for dening the representative number of sampling

The number of sampling is dened as the following mathematical analysis:


If Af b is the area of oil palm trunk without bark at transverse section at a certain height, then it
can be interpretation using the following equation:
Af b = 0.25Df2 b

(B.1)

Further, if Df b is the average diameter of oil palm trunk without bark in cm and rf b is the
average radius of oil palm trunk without bark in cm, therefore:
Df b = 2rf b

(B.2)

If As is area of sampling and ds diameter of sampling, then the total area of all sampling in Af b
by refering to equation B.1 and B.2, it can be dened as the equation below:
As = 0.25d2s

(B.3)

In this case, Ats = ns As ,then,


203

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning




Ats = ns 0.25d2s

(B.4)

Where Ats and ns are total area and total number of samplings respectively.
According to Assumption 1, the total area of all sampling is not less than 10% of the area of
oil palm trunk without bark at transverse section. By applying this assumption, the number of
sampling can be dened by combining equation B.1 and B.4.
Ats 0.1Af b

(B.5)

ns As 0.1Af b




ns 0.25d2s 0.1 0.25Df2 b


0.1 0.25Df2 b
ns
(0.25d2s )
 2 
Df b
ns 0.1
d2s

(B.6)

Based on the obtained formula, the number of sampling defends on the size of sampling diameter. In order to decide the size of sampling diameter, condition of the equipment and human
error during determination of vascular bundles distribution must be taken into consideration.
Therefore, to dene the size of diameter and the number of sampling shall be develop on the
basis of radius of oil palm trunk (rf b ) and the assumption 2. The following operation is presented to clarity the above problem. Refer to equation B.6 and B.3 and also applying assumption
2, the sampling diameter can be dened as:
As = 0.25d2s if As = 1
then,

ds =

As
0.25

1
= 1.128379167096
0.25
Using the obtained value of sampling diameter, the number of sampling along the radius can be
dened as:
ds =

nsr =

rf b
ds

(B.7)

where nsr is the number of sampling along the average radius of the trunk, therefore
nsr =
204

rf b
1.128379167096

(B.8)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning


Applying the obtained (equation B.8), the number of sampling along the trunk (nsr ) value might
consist of decimal. Therefore, it should be modied by rounding-up the calculated value of (nsr )
and also to achieve assumption 1, and then the above equation can be modied into:
nsr =

rf b
n
sr
1.128379167096

(B.9)

where n
sr is rounded up value of (nsr ) value.
Furthermore, using the n
sr value, the new size of diameter (ds ) can be dened as the following
operation:
n
sr =

rf b
ds

(B.10)

rf b
ds =
n
sr

(B.11)

Then, the new area of sampling (As ) can be calculated using the following calculation:
Where,
As = 0.25 d2s

(B.12)

Ats = n
s As

(B.13)



s 0.25 d2s
Ats = n

(B.14)

and

Then,

In this case, n
s is number of sampling at ds . In order to verify whether the total are of samplings
in Af b has achieves the assumption 1 or not, and to determine the position of samplings in Af b ,
applying n
s , ds , and assumption 1, where the total area of all sampling is not less than 10% of
the area of oil palm trunk without bark at certain height, the following mathematical operation
can be used to solve the above problem.
Ats 0.1Af b Assumption 1




n
s 0.25 d2s 0.1 0.25Df2 b


0.1 0.25Df2 b

n
s 
0.25 d2s

Df2 b
n
s 0.1
d2

(B.15)

Focusing at the center point (pith) of the trunk where the sampling begin to be drawn at that
position and to avoid repeating during calculation of all sampling in Af b and also to dene the
205

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning


distribution of all sampling, therefore the number of radius which is formed by drawing several
sets of spherical sampling along the radius is dened as the following equation:
Refer to equation B.10 and if M is the number of sampling sets along the average radius of the
trunk, then
M=

(
ns 1)
(
nsr 1)

(B.16)

In this situation, there are two alternative ways, whether the M value must be rounded-up or
rounded-down to achieve the Assumption 1. Further, if Atsr is the total area of sampling at ds
along the radius rf b , then
Atsr = n
sr As

(B.17)

Concerning to the position of sampling, the area of sampling at pith position (Ap ) is drawn as a
center point for all sampling set at transverse section of the trunk. Therefore, the total area of
sampling along the radius except at Ap can be dene as the following equation:
where, Ap = As and Atsr = Atsr As then
Atsr = As (
nsr 1)

(B.18)

The following mathematical operation is to verify the total area of sampling with ds and n
s has
achieved the assumption 1 or not.
If Ats = M Atsr + As and assumption 1 with the above condition is Ats 0.1Af b , then
Ats 0.1Af b


M Atsr + As 0.1Af b


M As (
nsr 1) + As 0.1Af b
M



 




2
2

0.25 ds (
nsr 1) + 0.25 ds 0.1 0.25Df2 b



 
0.1 0.25Df2 b 0.25 d2s


M
0.25 d2s (
nsr 1)



0.25 0.1Df2 b d2s




M
2
2

0.25 ds n
sr ds

0.1Df2 b d2s
M
sr d2
d2 n
s

206

(B.19)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning


Test M value:


nsr 1) + As 0.1Af b
M As (

(B.20)

If the rounded-down of M value is more than or equal to 10% of the area of oil palm
trunk without bark at transverse section at certain height, so the rounded-down of M is
already achieved the assumption 1.
If the rounded-down of M value is less than 10% of the area of oil palm trunk without
bark at transverse section at certain height, then the M value must be rounded-up.
Furthermore, the position of all spherical sampling at transverse section is drawn and arranged
in line along the average radius of oil palm trunk. One set of spherical sampling except the
sampling at pith point is the area of sampling for each M , therefore the position of M can be
determined using the equation below:
m =

3600
M

(B.21)

Where m is a distance between one set or series of the sampling to the others.
In advance, the percentage of sampling can be modied depends on the requirement of the
experimental objective. Therefore, the equation for determining M value can be modied into
the following equation:
In case the spherical sampling form:

f Df2 b d2s
M
d2 n
sr d2
s

(B.22)

In case the square sampling form:


0.25f Df2 b ls2
M
l2 (
nsr 1)

(B.23)

Where f is percentage of sampling (%).


Using the above mathematical analysis, the calculation of the obtained data of two selected
trunk which were divided into 24 oil palm wood disk samples are presented in Table 4.3 (see
Section 4.1.2). In this table, the representative number of sampling; number of sampling for
each series; and distance of one sampling series to another were denitely dened.
The complete data of number and population of vascular bundles for sample Trunk-1 (incl.
wood disk-1 to wood disk-12) are presented in Table B.1; B.2; B.3; B.4 and B.5; B.6; B.7;
B.8, respectively. Whilst, the complete data of number and population of vascular bundles for
sample Trunk-2 (incl. wood disk-1 to wood disk-12) are presented in Table B.9; B.10; B.11;
B.12 and B.13; B.14; B.15; B.16, respectively.

207

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-1
1
16
2
17
3
19
4
16
5
14
6
18
7
17
8
15
9
18
10
17
11
19
12
14
Wood disk-2
1
17
2
17
3
16
4
16
5
20
6
18
7
20
8
22
Wood disk-3
1
28
2
22
3
31
4
24
5
21
6
28
7
34
8
30

208
p3
16
19
11
17
16
14
17
19
14
16
18
18
15
23
22
16
21
17
19
23
23
22
27
31
27
28
25
29

p2
14
16
13
18
14
19
20
14
19
12
14
16
15
21
19
17
18
19
19
24
24
24
25
28
25
27
28
29

25
26
32
25
30
32
35
41

16
20
20
14
19
19
21
22

16
16
16
16
17
18
18
14
17
15
15
15

p4

25
25
28
29
27
35
30
40

13
21
22
21
22
24
21
24

10
15
16
14
16
18
17
15
15
16
20
20

p5

27
28
31
25
33
40
37
43

14
26
21
20
24
23
23
25

11
11
16
14
17
15
19
17
16
15
17
17

p6

25
30
35
37
29
42
41
43

17
25
26
27
30
25
26
33

15
16
13
17
18
20
15
19
16
13
18
17

p7

30
32
39
37
38
47
43
47

19
26
23
28
31
25
26
32

17
15
19
22
20
16
16
19
19
17
17
16

p8

29
35
38
40
40
41
48
48

22
27
28
34
30
31
35
35

15
20
23
23
20
20
21
21
23
15
18
20

35
36
45
41
40
51
49
49

28
30
37
36
41
33
45
45

17
21
21
18
21
19
17
26
18
18
17
22

33
45
47
45
41
53
55
53

41
35
39
45
47
34
42
49

17
22
22
21
20
22
17
22
22
23
18
22

36
54
50
46
54
61
57
61

43
44
43
53
51
41
52
49

18
27
27
20
26
23
19
21
22
21
21
22

59
62
52
62
68
70
71
76

56
62
62
66
55
67
54
63

23
25
27
21
27
23
21
27
22
23
21
26

Number of vascular bundles


p9 p10 p11 p12 p13

71
65
97
74
82
73
81
92

106
103
99
108
88
103
84
117

25
26
29
29
29
27
27
26
23
24
25
29

p14

90
110
105
117
142
126
102
164

0
0
0
0
88
0
160
0

23
24
30
29
34
20
28
35
26
27
26
33

p15
28
29
43
34
41
32
31
47
27
38
29
34

p16
36
53
70
51
56
41
34
49
29
36
35
42

p17
55
63
0
34
54
51
56
68
38
51
50
75

p18
0
0
0
0
0
0
75
82
76
80
83
0

p19

Tab. B.1: Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-1; -2 and -3 from sample Trunk-1 at different height positions (continue to the next page)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-4
1
17
2
20
3
23
4
28
5
24
6
23
7
28
8
25
9
27
Wood disk-5
1
21
2
14
3
19
4
20
5
25
6
24
7
20
8
22
Wood disk-6
1
23
2
25
3
21
4
25
5
20
6
20
7
23
8
22
p3
17
21
35
35
28
26
36
24
31
20
21
17
24
28
23
16
20
27
19
23
21
18
23
21
22

p2
15
20
30
30
23
25
33
23
27
21
16
17
21
27
21
18
20
24
25
21
24
21
20
18
20

23
24
25
20
26
21
19
25

23
20
22
21
29
29
22
24

17
23
31
33
26
29
37
22
36

p4

21
29
28
26
26
27
28
33

23
22
21
25
26
26
23
25

19
24
32
34
28
26
32
25
35

p5

21
24
26
26
29
30
27
37

30
24
25
28
28
25
26
27

21
27
41
37
36
32
33
31
39

29
28
30
31
31
31
33
35

32
26
27
31
32
33
27
31

24
31
39
37
37
31
39
34
36

28
33
29
38
33
38
38
47

37
30
31
28
32
34
31
35

26
39
44
45
40
42
40
37
41

36
36
38
41
39
47
41
49

40
33
36
36
34
34
30
35

29
44
46
46
42
44
42
36
40

39
34
41
44
41
40
44
56

46
39
40
38
41
42
39
39

41
46
47
49
44
42
51
37
49

49
41
47
43
51
50
46
55

49
44
45
44
42
44
41
45

45
48
59
45
49
43
55
49
51

Number of vascular bundles


p6 p7 p8 p9 p10 p11

51
47
52
49
60
62
58
63

54
51
53
51
56
52
44
48

48
57
66
49
57
60
52
60
54

p12

64
61
46
54
63
77
63
65

59
62
57
61
59
59
62
66

72
106
71
69
75
79
65
67
62

p13

95
73
66
75
81
87
91
83

93
93
79
84
78
73
78
71

104
72
85
77
98
97
107
92
132

p14

0
68
112
168
138
89
112
76

116
0
0
0
86
86
0
70

p15

Tab. B.2: Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-4; -5 and -6 from sample Trunk-1 at different height positions (continue to the next page)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

209

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-7
1
18
2
21
3
22
4
22
5
27
6
25
7
22
8
23
Wood disk-8
1
20
2
17
3
22
4
16
5
19
6
17
7
22
8
17
Wood disk-9
1
19
2
22
3
20
4
16
5
21
6
20
7
22

210
p3
23
20
25
23
22
25
25
24
20
21
23
20
26
20
23
23
23
25
18
18
21
23
26

p2
21
21
22
23
24
26
25
20
18
18
22
19
22
19
23
18
18
21
21
18
24
21
19

24
25
19
21
26
23
27

19
27
27
24
23
20
20
26

29
23
26
25
30
24
27
26

p4

19
27
23
23
34
26
29

25
26
31
24
29
23
22
25

29
24
32
27
29
28
31
25

p5

29
31
23
26
37
34
28

28
30
34
27
29
27
24
29

31
31
34
27
33
29
34
36

31
30
26
28
43
39
31

31
33
33
28
33
34
24
31

30
35
36
31
33
36
37
39

36
36
31
33
41
39
47

32
38
35
33
37
38
32
31

37
38
44
43
39
49
42
46

37
30
34
32
43
45
52

32
41
38
32
44
45
33
42

51
40
49
52
46
56
50
47

36
37
33
32
48
43
53

36
41
48
35
42
43
42
46

49
41
52
57
55
56
52
50

43
42
42
38
49
47
58

39
35
49
35
45
49
48
52

59
66
59
69
66
71
67
53

Number of vascular bundles


p6 p7 p8 p9 p10 p11

46
49
49
46
51
58
63

47
63
52
47
52
58
51
53

68
84
65
89
73
90
87
72

p12

54
63
53
92
80
62
72

58
69
56
52
56
71
65
57

134
104
103
112
91
97
94
95

p13

52
132
98
0
0
72
117

69
72
59
55
63
82
75
78

0
0
0
164
114
104
152
0

p14

90
82
99
87
89
114
0
0

p15

Tab. B.3: Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-7; -8 and -9 from sample Trunk-1 at different height positions (continue to the next page)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-10
1
21
2
23
3
21
4
21
5
21
6
23
7
23
8
23
Wood disk-11
1
18
2
19
3
18
4
20
5
21
6
21
7
19
8
18
Wood disk-12
1
20
2
19
3
21
4
24
5
20
6
18
7
18
8
20
p3
24
26
25
25
22
26
27
26
21
23
19
20
24
20
24
20
24
20
18
25
23
24
24
21

p2
24
23
22
21
22
23
24
25
19
22
19
18
20
20
21
22
21
20
23
21
20
18
21
20

25
24
21
27
23
27
22
23

21
22
19
22
24
25
24
25

27
25
29
28
27
29
27
29

p4

29
26
22
32
27
28
22
24

26
27
23
27
28
28
28
29

30
32
31
39
37
31
31
29

p5

28
31
28
30
28
38
27
28

23
28
26
28
26
30
27
27

34
36
37
40
38
35
32
34

43
33
29
33
30
41
30
27

27
34
29
33
29
34
41
39

34
41
39
43
43
38
35
36

47
49
37
38
39
44
39
35

28
36
35
34
33
38
47
42

39
42
44
55
46
48
41
42

51
49
36
38
47
45
42
41

32
41
36
41
43
45
48
48

44
54
52
57
51
54
48
46

58
47
41
45
51
53
43
45

32
42
39
49
51
46
53
52

45
54
56
61
58
63
59
49

66
51
57
48
52
54
47
43

33
50
42
58
54
51
50
53

59
63
64
66
63
71
62
59

Number of vascular bundles


p6 p7 p8 p9 p10 p11

67
65
72
53
58
68
63
62

52
55
61
57
50
60
61
62

61
78
72
68
70
73
75
72

p12

91
83
96
76
72
83
82
87

82
71
88
74
53
76
61
74

71
106
81
76
86
91
81
93

p13

0
84
103
98
93
101
108
144

0
0
0
0
0
0
82
85

110
0
90
95
0
0
106
110

p14

Tab. B.4: Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-10; -11 and -12 from sample Trunk-1 at different height positions

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

211

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-1
1
20.4
2
21.7
3
24.2
4
20.4
5
17.8
6
22.9
7
21.7
8
19.1
9
22.9
10
21.7
11
24.2
12
17.8
Wood disk-2
1
21.7
2
21.7
3
20.4
4
20.4
5
25.5
6
22.9
7
25.5
8
28.0
Wood disk-3
1
35.7
2
28.0
3
39.5
4
30.6
5
26.8
6
35.7
7
43.3
8
38.2

212
p3
20.4
24.2
14.0
21.7
20.4
17.8
21.7
24.2
17.8
20.4
22.9
22.9
19.1
29.3
28.0
20.4
26.8
21.7
24.2
29.3
29.3
28.0
34.4
39.5
34.4
35.7
31.8
36.9

p2

17.8
20.4
16.6
22.9
17.8
24.2
25.5
17.8
24.2
15.3
17.8
20.4

19.1
26.8
24.2
21.7
22.9
24.2
24.2
30.6

30.6
30.6
31.8
35.7
31.8
34.4
35.7
36.9

31.8
33.1
40.8
31.8
38.2
40.8
44.6
52.2

20.4
25.5
25.5
17.8
24.2
24.2
26.8
28.0

20.4
20.4
20.4
20.4
21.7
22.9
22.9
17.8
21.7
19.1
19.1
19.1

p4

31.8
31.8
35.7
36.9
34.4
44.6
38.2
51.0

16.6
26.8
28.0
26.8
28.0
30.6
26.8
30.6

12.7
19.1
20.4
17.8
20.4
22.9
21.7
19.1
19.1
20.4
25.5
25.5

p5

34.4
35.7
39.5
31.8
42.0
51.0
47.1
54.8

17.8
33.1
26.8
25.5
30.6
29.3
29.3
31.8

14.0
14.0
20.4
17.8
21.7
19.1
24.2
21.7
20.4
19.1
21.7
21.7

p6

31.8
38.2
44.6
47.1
36.9
53.5
52.2
54.8

21.7
31.8
33.1
34.4
38.2
31.8
33.1
42.0

19.1
20.4
16.6
21.7
22.9
25.5
19.1
24.2
20.4
16.6
22.9
21.7

p7

38.2
40.8
49.7
47.1
48.4
59.9
54.8
59.9

24.2
33.1
29.3
35.7
39.5
31.8
33.1
40.8

21.7
19.1
24.2
28.0
25.5
20.4
20.4
24.2
24.2
21.7
21.7
20.4

36.9
44.6
48.4
51.0
51.0
52.2
61.1
61.1

28.0
34.4
35.7
43.3
38.2
39.5
44.6
44.6

19.1
25.5
29.3
29.3
25.5
25.5
26.8
26.8
29.3
19.1
22.9
25.5

44.6
45.9
57.3
52.2
51.0
65.0
62.4
62.4

35.7
38.2
47.1
45.9
52.2
42.0
57.3
57.3

21.7
26.8
26.8
22.9
26.8
24.2
21.7
33.1
22.9
22.9
21.7
28.0

42.0
57.3
59.9
57.3
52.2
67.5
70.1
67.5

52.2
44.6
49.7
57.3
59.9
43.3
53.5
62.4

21.7
28.0
28.0
26.8
25.5
28.0
21.7
28.0
28.0
29.3
22.9
28.0

45.9
68.8
63.7
58.6
68.8
77.7
72.6
77.7

54.8
56.1
54.8
67.5
65.0
52.2
66.2
62.4

22.9
34.4
34.4
25.5
33.1
29.3
24.2
26.8
28.0
26.8
26.8
28.0

75.2
79.0
66.2
79.0
86.6
89.2
90.4
96.8

71.3
79.0
79.0
84.1
70.1
85.4
68.8
80.3

29.3
31.8
34.4
26.8
34.4
29.3
26.8
34.4
28.0
29.3
26.8
33.1

Population of vascular bundles (vb/cm2)


p8
p9 p10 p11 p12 p13

90.4
82.8
123.6
94.3
104.5
93.0
103.2
117.2

135.0
131.2
126.1
137.6
112.1
131.2
107.0
149.0

31.8
33.1
36.9
36.9
36.9
34.4
34.4
33.1
29.3
30.6
31.8
36.9

p14

114.6
140.1
133.8
149.0
180.9
160.5
129.9
208.9

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
112.1
0.0
203.8
0.0

29.3
30.6
38.2
36.9
43.3
25.5
35.7
44.6
33.1
34.4
33.1
42.0

p15
35.7
36.9
54.8
43.3
52.2
40.8
39.5
59.9
34.4
48.4
36.9
43.3

p16
45.9
67.5
89.2
65.0
71.3
52.2
43.3
62.4
36.9
45.9
44.6
53.5

p17
70.1
80.3
0.0
43.3
68.8
65.0
71.3
86.6
48.4
65.0
63.7
95.5

p18
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
95.5
104.5
96.8
101.9
105.7
0.0

p19

Tab. B.5: Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-1; -2 and -3 from sample Trunk-1 at different height positions (continue to the next page)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-4
1
21.7
2
25.5
3
29.3
4
35.7
5
30.6
6
29.3
7
35.7
8
31.8
9
34.4
Wood disk-5
1
26.8
2
17.8
3
24.2
4
25.5
5
31.8
6
30.6
7
25.5
8
28.0
Wood disk-6
1
29.3
2
31.8
3
26.8
4
31.8
5
25.5
6
25.5
7
29.3
8
28.0
p3
21.7
26.8
44.6
44.6
35.7
33.1
45.9
30.6
39.5
25.5
26.8
21.7
30.6
35.7
29.3
20.4
25.5
34.4
24.2
29.3
26.8
22.9
29.3
26.8
28.0

p2
19.1
25.5
38.2
38.2
29.3
31.8
42.0
29.3
34.4
26.8
20.4
21.7
26.8
34.4
26.8
22.9
25.5
30.6
31.8
26.8
30.6
26.8
25.5
22.9
25.5

29.3
30.6
31.8
25.5
33.1
26.8
24.2
31.8

29.3
25.5
28.0
26.8
36.9
36.9
28.0
30.6

21.7
29.3
39.5
42.0
33.1
36.9
47.1
28.0
45.9

p4

26.8
36.9
35.7
33.1
33.1
34.4
35.7
42.0

29.3
28.0
26.8
31.8
33.1
33.1
29.3
31.8

24.2
30.6
40.8
43.3
35.7
33.1
40.8
31.8
44.6

p5

26.8
30.6
33.1
33.1
36.9
38.2
34.4
47.1

38.2
30.6
31.8
35.7
35.7
31.8
33.1
34.4

26.8
34.4
52.2
47.1
45.9
40.8
42.0
39.5
49.7

36.9
35.7
38.2
39.5
39.5
39.5
42.0
44.6

40.8
33.1
34.4
39.5
40.8
42.0
34.4
39.5

30.6
39.5
49.7
47.1
47.1
39.5
49.7
43.3
45.9

35.7
42.0
36.9
48.4
42.0
48.4
48.4
59.9

47.1
38.2
39.5
35.7
40.8
43.3
39.5
44.6

33.1
49.7
56.1
57.3
51.0
53.5
51.0
47.1
52.2

45.9
45.9
48.4
52.2
49.7
59.9
52.2
62.4

51.0
42.0
45.9
45.9
43.3
43.3
38.2
44.6

36.9
56.1
58.6
58.6
53.5
56.1
53.5
45.9
51.0

49.7
43.3
52.2
56.1
52.2
51.0
56.1
71.3

58.6
49.7
51.0
48.4
52.2
53.5
49.7
49.7

52.2
58.6
59.9
62.4
56.1
53.5
65.0
47.1
62.4

62.4
52.2
59.9
54.8
65.0
63.7
58.6
70.1

62.4
56.1
57.3
56.1
53.5
56.1
52.2
57.3

57.3
61.1
75.2
57.3
62.4
54.8
70.1
62.4
65.0

Population of vascular bundles (vb/cm2)


p6
p7
p8
p9 p10 p11

65.0
59.9
66.2
62.4
76.4
79.0
73.9
80.3

68.8
65.0
67.5
65.0
71.3
66.2
56.1
61.1

61.1
72.6
84.1
62.4
72.6
76.4
66.2
76.4
68.8

p12

81.5
77.7
58.6
68.8
80.3
98.1
80.3
82.8

75.2
79.0
72.6
77.7
75.2
75.2
79.0
84.1

91.7
135.0
90.4
87.9
95.5
100.6
82.8
85.4
79.0

p13

121.0
93.0
84.1
95.5
103.2
110.8
115.9
105.7

118.5
118.5
100.6
107.0
99.4
93.0
99.4
90.4

132.5
91.7
108.3
98.1
124.8
123.6
136.3
117.2
168.2

p14

0.0
86.6
142.7
214.0
175.8
113.4
142.7
96.8

147.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
109.6
109.6
0.0
89.2

p15

Tab. B.6: Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-4; -5 and -6 from sample Trunk-1 at different height positions (continue to the next page)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

213

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-7
1
22.9
2
26.8
3
28.0
4
28.0
5
34.4
6
31.8
7
28.0
8
29.3
Wood disk-8
1
25.5
2
21.7
3
28.0
4
20.4
5
24.2
6
21.7
7
28.0
8
21.7
Wood disk-9
1
24.2
2
28.0
3
25.5
4
20.4
5
26.8
6
25.5
7
28.0

214
p3
29.3
25.5
31.8
29.3
28.0
31.8
31.8
30.6
25.5
26.8
29.3
25.5
33.1
25.5
29.3
29.3
29.3
31.8
22.9
22.9
26.8
29.3
33.1

p2
26.8
26.8
28.0
29.3
30.6
33.1
31.8
25.5
22.9
22.9
28.0
24.2
28.0
24.2
29.3
22.9
22.9
26.8
26.8
22.9
30.6
26.8
24.2

30.6
31.8
24.2
26.8
33.1
29.3
34.4

24.2
34.4
34.4
30.6
29.3
25.5
25.5
33.1

36.9
29.3
33.1
31.8
38.2
30.6
34.4
33.1

p4

24.2
34.4
29.3
29.3
43.3
33.1
36.9

31.8
33.1
39.5
30.6
36.9
29.3
28.0
31.8

36.9
30.6
40.8
34.4
36.9
35.7
39.5
31.8

p5

36.9
39.5
29.3
33.1
47.1
43.3
35.7

35.7
38.2
43.3
34.4
36.9
34.4
30.6
36.9

39.5
39.5
43.3
34.4
42.0
36.9
43.3
45.9

39.5
38.2
33.1
35.7
54.8
49.7
39.5

39.5
42.0
42.0
35.7
42.0
43.3
30.6
39.5

38.2
44.6
45.9
39.5
42.0
45.9
47.1
49.7

45.9
45.9
39.5
42.0
52.2
49.7
59.9

40.8
48.4
44.6
42.0
47.1
48.4
40.8
39.5

47.1
48.4
56.1
54.8
49.7
62.4
53.5
58.6

47.1
38.2
43.3
40.8
54.8
57.3
66.2

40.8
52.2
48.4
40.8
56.1
57.3
42.0
53.5

65.0
51.0
62.4
66.2
58.6
71.3
63.7
59.9

45.9
47.1
42.0
40.8
61.1
54.8
67.5

45.9
52.2
61.1
44.6
53.5
54.8
53.5
58.6

62.4
52.2
66.2
72.6
70.1
71.3
66.2
63.7

54.8
53.5
53.5
48.4
62.4
59.9
73.9

49.7
44.6
62.4
44.6
57.3
62.4
61.1
66.2

75.2
84.1
75.2
87.9
84.1
90.4
85.4
67.5

Population of vascular bundles (vb/cm2)


p6
p7
p8
p9 p10 p11

58.6
62.4
62.4
58.6
65.0
73.9
80.3

59.9
80.3
66.2
59.9
66.2
73.9
65.0
67.5

86.6
107.0
82.8
113.4
93.0
114.6
110.8
91.7

p12

68.8
80.3
67.5
117.2
101.9
79.0
91.7

73.9
87.9
71.3
66.2
71.3
90.4
82.8
72.6

170.7
132.5
131.2
142.7
115.9
123.6
119.7
121.0

p13

66.2
168.2
124.8
0.0
0.0
91.7
149.0

87.9
91.7
75.2
70.1
80.3
104.5
95.5
99.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
208.9
145.2
132.5
193.6
0.0

p14

114.6
104.5
126.1
110.8
113.4
145.2
0.0
0.0

p15

Tab. B.7: Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-7; -8 and -9 from sample Trunk-1 at different height positions (continue to the next page)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-10
1
26.8
2
29.3
3
26.8
4
26.8
5
26.8
6
29.3
7
29.3
8
29.3
Wood disk-11
1
22.9
2
24.2
3
22.9
4
25.5
5
26.8
6
26.8
7
24.2
8
22.9
Wood disk-12
1
25.5
2
24.2
3
26.8
4
30.6
5
25.5
6
22.9
7
22.9
8
25.5
p3
30.6
33.1
31.8
31.8
28.0
33.1
34.4
33.1
26.8
29.3
24.2
25.5
30.6
25.5
30.6
25.5
30.6
25.5
22.9
31.8
29.3
30.6
30.6
26.8

p2
30.6
29.3
28.0
26.8
28.0
29.3
30.6
31.8
24.2
28.0
24.2
22.9
25.5
25.5
26.8
28.0
26.8
25.5
29.3
26.8
25.5
22.9
26.8
25.5

31.8
30.6
26.8
34.4
29.3
34.4
28.0
29.3

26.8
28.0
24.2
28.0
30.6
31.8
30.6
31.8

34.4
31.8
36.9
35.7
34.4
36.9
34.4
36.9

p4

36.9
33.1
28.0
40.8
34.4
35.7
28.0
30.6

33.1
34.4
29.3
34.4
35.7
35.7
35.7
36.9

38.2
40.8
39.5
49.7
47.1
39.5
39.5
36.9

35.7
39.5
35.7
38.2
35.7
48.4
34.4
35.7

29.3
35.7
33.1
35.7
33.1
38.2
34.4
34.4

43.3
45.9
47.1
51.0
48.4
44.6
40.8
43.3

54.8
42.0
36.9
42.0
38.2
52.2
38.2
34.4

34.4
43.3
36.9
42.0
36.9
43.3
52.2
49.7

43.3
52.2
49.7
54.8
54.8
48.4
44.6
45.9

59.9
62.4
47.1
48.4
49.7
56.1
49.7
44.6

35.7
45.9
44.6
43.3
42.0
48.4
59.9
53.5

49.7
53.5
56.1
70.1
58.6
61.1
52.2
53.5

65.0
62.4
45.9
48.4
59.9
57.3
53.5
52.2

40.8
52.2
45.9
52.2
54.8
57.3
61.1
61.1

56.1
68.8
66.2
72.6
65.0
68.8
61.1
58.6

73.9
59.9
52.2
57.3
65.0
67.5
54.8
57.3

40.8
53.5
49.7
62.4
65.0
58.6
67.5
66.2

57.3
68.8
71.3
77.7
73.9
80.3
75.2
62.4

Population of vascular bundles (vb/cm2)


p5
p6
p7
p8
p9 p10

84.1
65.0
72.6
61.1
66.2
68.8
59.9
54.8

42.0
63.7
53.5
73.9
68.8
65.0
63.7
67.5

75.2
80.3
81.5
84.1
80.3
90.4
79.0
75.2

p11

85.4
82.8
91.7
67.5
73.9
86.6
80.3
79.0

66.2
70.1
77.7
72.6
63.7
76.4
77.7
79.0

77.7
99.4
91.7
86.6
89.2
93.0
95.5
91.7

p12

115.9
105.7
122.3
96.8
91.7
105.7
104.5
110.8

104.5
90.4
112.1
94.3
67.5
96.8
77.7
94.3

90.4
135.0
103.2
96.8
109.6
115.9
103.2
118.5

p13

0.0
107.0
131.2
124.8
118.5
128.7
137.6
183.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
104.5
108.3

140.1
0.0
114.6
121.0
0.0
0.0
135.0
140.1

p14

Tab. B.8: Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-10; -11 and -12 from sample Trunk-1 at different height positions

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

215

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-1
1
16
2
17
3
13
4
18
5
19
6
20
7
19
8
20
9
21
10
16
11
15
12
16
Wood disk-2
1
20
2
18
3
14
4
17
5
19
6
19
7
19
8
15
Wood disk-3
1
16
2
18
3
20
4
18
5
15
6
19
7
15
8
19

216
p3
18
19
16
18
15
19
19
18
18
17
17
19
19
21
17
21
20
21
24
19
18
19
20
23
20
18
19
20

p2
16
16
16
17
15
16
21
18
18
16
13
17
20
20
16
19
20
16
18
16
16
20
18
17
17
20
16
15

23
21
25
24
21
26
21
20

25
21
23
26
21
21
24
22

20
19
19
16
18
19
19
17
22
20
22
16

p4

24
22
27
21
25
23
26
27

28
25
24
26
26
24
24
23

18
20
20
18
17
20
20
19
24
20
21
21

p5

28
26
28
28
25
26
25
22

28
26
27
29
26
25
27
26

21
22
21
18
20
22
20
24
25
18
22
21

p6

33
29
31
30
28
29
30
29

30
34
30
30
30
30
27
28

25
25
21
20
20
20
21
21
25
21
26
20

p7

36
30
32
35
34
29
37
31

31
34
31
35
36
31
33
32

27
25
25
21
22
25
24
23
28
20
30
25

38
30
35
35
36
35
37
37

35
37
38
35
37
34
34
36

28
29
29
24
21
27
27
23
31
25
31
25

40
33
36
37
43
38
41
38

38
38
38
36
41
38
37
37

31
30
30
24
21
32
25
25
31
31
32
30

41
38
36
38
49
40
47
38

39
40
42
39
42
38
42
39

31
33
31
27
25
35
27
38
32
34
32
28

45
39
42
47
51
55
58
41

40
42
45
40
57
41
46
44

31
35
31
28
26
35
29
38
37
34
38
29

58
52
49
55
62
67
77
46

42
48
52
59
60
55
58
51

32
35
35
25
29
36
31
42
37
40
40
34

Number of vascular bundles


p8 p9 p10 p11 p12 p13

79
66
69
76
81
98
106
68

55
51
76
78
72
68
79
59

35
42
39
29
29
39
40
47
41
41
40
47

p14

91
89
100
124
91
0
0
92

61
67
112
93
97
126
93
152

38
51
48
39
39
41
42
47
42
48
43
50

p15

94
112
0
0
0
0
0
0

50
98
53
49
44
51
60
49
44
53
57
73

p16
84
0
81
79
74
72
75
69
51
88
81
94

p17
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
86
93
0
0
0

p18

Tab. B.9: Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-1; -2 and -3 from sample Trunk-2 at different height positions (continue to the next page)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-4
1
13
2
18
3
20
4
14
5
15
6
15
7
18
8
17
Wood disk-5
1
18
2
13
3
15
4
18
5
16
6
15
7
18
8
19
Wood disk-6
1
20
2
19
3
14
4
15
5
15
6
13
7
15
8
18
p3
17
22
19
18
19
23
17
20
21
19
19
18
19
18
21
20
20
23
18
20
15
17
18
21

p2
17
19
17
14
15
19
20
19
18
14
16
20
19
20
17
17
19
19
18
14
16
18
15
14

25
24
23
26
22
24
23
27

23
24
19
23
22
25
25
20

22
26
23
21
24
24
23
24

p4

27
28
28
27
22
24
23
27

24
25
23
27
22
24
25
24

25
28
28
23
24
23
26
29

p5

35
31
36
33
28
25
28
34

29
28
27
29
28
28
29
28

31
31
29
27
29
28
27
28

36
36
37
38
29
30
35
36

35
33
27
33
30
29
36
36

33
34
35
33
32
33
30
32

38
36
41
38
33
31
35
40

35
38
28
33
31
31
36
41

33
34
37
39
35
37
35
37

42
40
42
41
39
36
37
41

36
39
32
38
38
32
42
43

36
39
40
43
38
40
36
38

47
47
43
40
42
40
41
48

40
45
38
37
38
36
46
52

40
42
41
47
42
48
41
40

52
48
52
43
49
41
48
52

43
47
39
40
40
36
57
63

43
43
54
49
46
50
42
41

Number of vascular bundles


p6 p7 p8 p9 p10 p11

63
59
65
49
63
58
57
60

51
48
41
45
43
44
75
81

50
49
67
62
51
69
58
55

p12

76
78
81
56
87
77
63
79

67
56
59
56
52
56
93
90

61
64
87
83
60
88
71
69

p13

101
90
97
71
106
119
89
102

83
78
83
61
60
89
0
0

97
91
0
0
116
0
126
91

p14

124
0
0
88
104
0
0
0

p15

Tab. B.10: Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-4; -5 and -6 from sample Trunk-2 at different height positions (continue to the next page)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

217

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-7
1
18
2
20
3
15
4
14
5
19
6
17
7
18
8
16
Wood disk-8
1
18
2
16
3
14
4
14
5
19
6
17
7
15
8
15
Wood disk-9
1
19
2
20
3
17
4
18
5
18
6
18
7
15
8
19

218
p3
22
20
19
23
22
18
18
18
20
19
18
17
20
22
20
21
21
20
19
20
21
23
23
25

p2
18
19
20
17
17
17
19
20
17
17
14
15
17
18
15
18
19
18
16
20
18
16
18
19

25
25
24
21
26
23
27
29

21
24
19
22
21
21
21
21

27
25
27
28
22
23
27
24

p4

26
28
30
27
31
30
38
33

27
25
27
22
28
28
23
27

32
28
29
36
28
24
28
28

p5

31
29
31
29
39
38
40
38

33
29
28
25
29
31
34
28

33
33
33
36
32
29
31
33

35
35
37
35
44
40
48
45

39
35
31
29
36
38
39
35

38
41
37
40
39
36
35
38

40
37
40
39
51
42
53
46

39
38
36
36
36
37
41
38

47
46
46
47
46
40
39
43

42
42
49
47
58
55
58
48

41
44
41
38
36
40
42
40

51
55
47
48
47
47
42
52

48
48
58
59
60
69
62
50

45
46
48
42
39
42
42
41

58
69
52
51
58
48
55
58

53
56
65
63
75
83
69
58

48
52
55
47
40
42
43
46

65
80
59
67
66
51
69
67

Number of vascular bundles


p6 p7 p8 p9 p10 p11

57
71
81
69
91
102
87
61

51
58
58
51
43
46
48
58

71
107
74
85
70
66
80
84

p12

64
98
108
91
120
0
109
88

69
77
73
69
52
58
55
65

118
0
112
122
93
82
93
117

p13

122
160
0
132
0
0
0
117

93
97
76
93
76
71
73
78

0
0
0
0
150
108
0
0

p14

0
0
0
0
103
150
138
154

p15

Tab. B.11: Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-7; -8 and -9 from sample Trunk-2 at different height positions (continue to the next page)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-10
1
17
2
16
3
15
4
14
5
17
6
18
7
18
8
17
Wood disk-11
1
15
2
16
3
15
4
14
5
19
6
14
7
15
8
18
Wood disk-12
1
15
2
12
3
15
4
13
5
16
6
18
7
15
8
17
p3
23
22
17
17
19
20
23
22
18
19
20
18
17
19
18
19
15
13
18
16
16
13
20
16

p2
18
17
18
17
16
18
21
18
18
15
19
17
19
15
20
21
16
13
14
17
14
18
15
14

19
17
21
25
22
20
21
23

16
21
21
23
20
18
20
24

24
25
22
19
23
21
30
23

p4

24
22
27
25
23
21
25
23

21
27
27
23
22
23
22
25

24
29
26
22
24
25
32
28

p5

24
23
25
31
27
28
30
29

25
28
30
28
27
23
26
30

29
35
30
23
28
32
41
37

33
29
29
32
29
32
31
30

28
33
35
34
36
28
33
31

37
36
31
28
32
38
44
40

34
31
37
39
40
36
35
37

33
34
37
37
39
31
37
38

40
41
38
35
33
44
49
40

37
31
40
39
38
42
35
37

38
39
33
38
38
37
42
47

49
47
47
46
40
46
55
42

42
37
46
47
42
47
38
46

40
40
41
39
40
48
58
54

50
47
52
59
53
49
56
51

49
38
50
48
42
47
42
48

46
49
40
39
44
50
61
60

55
52
57
61
67
56
56
54

Number of vascular bundles


p6 p7 p8 p9 p10 p11

51
46
56
55
48
53
47
52

48
48
43
48
51
56
68
73

67
53
69
72
75
72
70
60

p12

76
84
72
58
51
61
52
92

51
53
51
63
67
71
81
92

77
71
81
89
92
79
78
66

p13

0
0
0
89
77
82
130
0

65
114
88
84
98
102
0
0

0
84
114
0
0
0
93
84

p14

p15

Tab. B.12: Number of vascular bundles for wood disk-10; -11 and -12 from sample Trunk-2 at different height positions

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

219

220

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-1
1
20.4
2
21.7
3
16.6
4
22.9
5
24.2
6
25.5
7
24.2
8
25.5
9
26.8
10
20.4
11
19.1
12
20.4
Wood disk-2
1
25.5
2
22.9
3
17.8
4
21.7
5
24.2
6
24.2
7
24.2
8
19.1
Wood disk-3
1
20.4
2
22.9
3
25.5
4
22.9
5
19.1
6
24.2
7
19.1
8
24.2
p3
22.9
24.2
20.4
22.9
19.1
24.2
24.2
22.9
22.9
21.7
21.7
24.2
24.2
26.8
21.7
26.8
25.5
26.8
30.6
24.2
22.9
24.2
25.5
29.3
25.5
22.9
24.2
25.5

p2
20.4
20.4
20.4
21.7
19.1
20.4
26.8
22.9
22.9
20.4
16.6
21.7
25.5
25.5
20.4
24.2
25.5
20.4
22.9
20.4
20.4
25.5
22.9
21.7
21.7
25.5
20.4
19.1

29.3
26.8
31.8
30.6
26.8
33.1
26.8
25.5

31.8
26.8
29.3
33.1
26.8
26.8
30.6
28.0

25.5
24.2
24.2
20.4
22.9
24.2
24.2
21.7
28.0
25.5
28.0
20.4

p4

30.6
28.0
34.4
26.8
31.8
29.3
33.1
34.4

35.7
31.8
30.6
33.1
33.1
30.6
30.6
29.3

22.9
25.5
25.5
22.9
21.7
25.5
25.5
24.2
30.6
25.5
26.8
26.8

p5

35.7
33.1
35.7
35.7
31.8
33.1
31.8
28.0

35.7
33.1
34.4
36.9
33.1
31.8
34.4
33.1

26.8
28.0
26.8
22.9
25.5
28.0
25.5
30.6
31.8
22.9
28.0
26.8

p6

42.0
36.9
39.5
38.2
35.7
36.9
38.2
36.9

38.2
43.3
38.2
38.2
38.2
38.2
34.4
35.7

31.8
31.8
26.8
25.5
25.5
25.5
26.8
26.8
31.8
26.8
33.1
25.5

45.9
38.2
40.8
44.6
43.3
36.9
47.1
39.5

39.5
43.3
39.5
44.6
45.9
39.5
42.0
40.8

34.4
31.8
31.8
26.8
28.0
31.8
30.6
29.3
35.7
25.5
38.2
31.8

48.4
38.2
44.6
44.6
45.9
44.6
47.1
47.1

44.6
47.1
48.4
44.6
47.1
43.3
43.3
45.9

35.7
36.9
36.9
30.6
26.8
34.4
34.4
29.3
39.5
31.8
39.5
31.8

51.0
42.0
45.9
47.1
54.8
48.4
52.2
48.4

48.4
48.4
48.4
45.9
52.2
48.4
47.1
47.1

39.5
38.2
38.2
30.6
26.8
40.8
31.8
31.8
39.5
39.5
40.8
38.2

52.2
48.4
45.9
48.4
62.4
51.0
59.9
48.4

49.7
51.0
53.5
49.7
53.5
48.4
53.5
49.7

39.5
42.0
39.5
34.4
31.8
44.6
34.4
48.4
40.8
43.3
40.8
35.7

57.3
49.7
53.5
59.9
65.0
70.1
73.9
52.2

51.0
53.5
57.3
51.0
72.6
52.2
58.6
56.1

39.5
44.6
39.5
35.7
33.1
44.6
36.9
48.4
47.1
43.3
48.4
36.9

73.9
66.2
62.4
70.1
79.0
85.4
98.1
58.6

53.5
61.1
66.2
75.2
76.4
70.1
73.9
65.0

40.8
44.6
44.6
31.8
36.9
45.9
39.5
53.5
47.1
51.0
51.0
43.3

Population of vascular bundles (vb/cm2


p7
p8
p9 p10 p11 p12 p13

100.6
84.1
87.9
96.8
103.2
124.8
135.0
86.6

70.1
65.0
96.8
99.4
91.7
86.6
100.6
75.2

44.6
53.5
49.7
36.9
36.9
49.7
51.0
59.9
52.2
52.2
51.0
59.9

p14

115.9
113.4
127.4
158.0
115.9
0.0
0.0
117.2

77.7
85.4
142.7
118.5
123.6
160.5
118.5
193.6

48.4
65.0
61.1
49.7
49.7
52.2
53.5
59.9
53.5
61.1
54.8
63.7

p15
63.7
124.8
67.5
62.4
56.1
65.0
76.4
62.4
56.1
67.5
72.6
93.0

p16
107.0
0.0
103.2
100.6
94.3
91.7
95.5
87.9
65.0
112.1
103.2
119.7

p17

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
109.6
118.5
0.0
0.0
0.0

p18

Tab. B.13: Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-1; -2 and -3 from sample Trunk-2 at different height positions (continue to the next
page)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-4
1
16.6
2
22.9
3
25.5
4
17.8
5
19.1
6
19.1
7
22.9
8
21.7
Wood disk-5
1
22.9
2
16.6
3
19.1
4
22.9
5
20.4
6
19.1
7
22.9
8
24.2
Wood disk-6
1
25.5
2
24.2
3
17.8
4
19.1
5
19.1
6
16.6
7
19.1
8
22.9
p3
21.7
28.0
24.2
22.9
24.2
29.3
21.7
25.5
26.8
24.2
24.2
22.9
24.2
22.9
26.8
25.5
25.5
29.3
22.9
25.5
19.1
21.7
22.9
26.8

p2
21.7
24.2
21.7
17.8
19.1
24.2
25.5
24.2
22.9
17.8
20.4
25.5
24.2
25.5
21.7
21.7
24.2
24.2
22.9
17.8
20.4
22.9
19.1
17.8

31.8
30.6
29.3
33.1
28.0
30.6
29.3
34.4

29.3
30.6
24.2
29.3
28.0
31.8
31.8
25.5

28.0
33.1
29.3
26.8
30.6
30.6
29.3
30.6

p4

34.4
35.7
35.7
34.4
28.0
30.6
29.3
34.4

30.6
31.8
29.3
34.4
28.0
30.6
31.8
30.6

31.8
35.7
35.7
29.3
30.6
29.3
33.1
36.9

p5

44.6
39.5
45.9
42.0
35.7
31.8
35.7
43.3

36.9
35.7
34.4
36.9
35.7
35.7
36.9
35.7

39.5
39.5
36.9
34.4
36.9
35.7
34.4
35.7

45.9
45.9
47.1
48.4
36.9
38.2
44.6
45.9

44.6
42.0
34.4
42.0
38.2
36.9
45.9
45.9

42.0
43.3
44.6
42.0
40.8
42.0
38.2
40.8

48.4
45.9
52.2
48.4
42.0
39.5
44.6
51.0

44.6
48.4
35.7
42.0
39.5
39.5
45.9
52.2

42.0
43.3
47.1
49.7
44.6
47.1
44.6
47.1

53.5
51.0
53.5
52.2
49.7
45.9
47.1
52.2

45.9
49.7
40.8
48.4
48.4
40.8
53.5
54.8

45.9
49.7
51.0
54.8
48.4
51.0
45.9
48.4

59.9
59.9
54.8
51.0
53.5
51.0
52.2
61.1

51.0
57.3
48.4
47.1
48.4
45.9
58.6
66.2

51.0
53.5
52.2
59.9
53.5
61.1
52.2
51.0

66.2
61.1
66.2
54.8
62.4
52.2
61.1
66.2

54.8
59.9
49.7
51.0
51.0
45.9
72.6
80.3

54.8
54.8
68.8
62.4
58.6
63.7
53.5
52.2

Population of vascular bundles (vb/cm2)


p6
p7
p8
p9 p10 p11

80.3
75.2
82.8
62.4
80.3
73.9
72.6
76.4

65.0
61.1
52.2
57.3
54.8
56.1
95.5
103.2

63.7
62.4
85.4
79.0
65.0
87.9
73.9
70.1

p12

96.8
99.4
103.2
71.3
110.8
98.1
80.3
100.6

85.4
71.3
75.2
71.3
66.2
71.3
118.5
114.6

77.7
81.5
110.8
105.7
76.4
112.1
90.4
87.9

p13

128.7
114.6
123.6
90.4
135.0
151.6
113.4
129.9

105.7
99.4
105.7
77.7
76.4
113.4
0.0
0.0

123.6
115.9
0.0
0.0
147.8
0.0
160.5
115.9

p14

158.0
0.0
0.0
112.1
132.5
0.0
0.0
0.0

p15

Tab. B.14: Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-4; -5 and -6 from sample Trunk-2 at different height positions (continue to the next
page)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

221

222

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-7
1
22.9
2
25.5
3
19.1
4
17.8
5
24.2
6
21.7
7
22.9
8
20.4
Wood disk-8
1
22.9
2
20.4
3
17.8
4
17.8
5
24.2
6
21.7
7
19.1
8
19.1
Wood disk-9
1
24.2
2
25.5
3
21.7
4
22.9
5
22.9
6
22.9
7
19.1
p3
28.0
25.5
24.2
29.3
28.0
22.9
22.9
22.9
25.5
24.2
22.9
21.7
25.5
28.0
25.5
26.8
26.8
25.5
24.2
25.5
26.8
29.3
29.3

p2
22.9
24.2
25.5
21.7
21.7
21.7
24.2
25.5
21.7
21.7
17.8
19.1
21.7
22.9
19.1
22.9
24.2
22.9
20.4
25.5
22.9
20.4
22.9

31.8
31.8
30.6
26.8
33.1
29.3
34.4

26.8
30.6
24.2
28.0
26.8
26.8
26.8
26.8

34.4
31.8
34.4
35.7
28.0
29.3
34.4
30.6

p4

33.1
35.7
38.2
34.4
39.5
38.2
48.4

34.4
31.8
34.4
28.0
35.7
35.7
29.3
34.4

40.8
35.7
36.9
45.9
35.7
30.6
35.7
35.7

p5

39.5
36.9
39.5
36.9
49.7
48.4
51.0

42.0
36.9
35.7
31.8
36.9
39.5
43.3
35.7

42.0
42.0
42.0
45.9
40.8
36.9
39.5
42.0

44.6
44.6
47.1
44.6
56.1
51.0
61.1

49.7
44.6
39.5
36.9
45.9
48.4
49.7
44.6

48.4
52.2
47.1
51.0
49.7
45.9
44.6
48.4

51.0
47.1
51.0
49.7
65.0
53.5
67.5

49.7
48.4
45.9
45.9
45.9
47.1
52.2
48.4

59.9
58.6
58.6
59.9
58.6
51.0
49.7
54.8

53.5
53.5
62.4
59.9
73.9
70.1
73.9

52.2
56.1
52.2
48.4
45.9
51.0
53.5
51.0

65.0
70.1
59.9
61.1
59.9
59.9
53.5
66.2

61.1
61.1
73.9
75.2
76.4
87.9
79.0

57.3
58.6
61.1
53.5
49.7
53.5
53.5
52.2

73.9
87.9
66.2
65.0
73.9
61.1
70.1
73.9

67.5
71.3
82.8
80.3
95.5
105.7
87.9

61.1
66.2
70.1
59.9
51.0
53.5
54.8
58.6

82.8
101.9
75.2
85.4
84.1
65.0
87.9
85.4

Population of vascular bundles (vb/cm2)


p6
p7
p8
p9 p10
p11

72.6
90.4
103.2
87.9
115.9
129.9
110.8

65.0
73.9
73.9
65.0
54.8
58.6
61.1
73.9

90.4
136.3
94.3
108.3
89.2
84.1
101.9
107.0

p12

81.5
124.8
137.6
115.9
152.9
0.0
138.9

87.9
98.1
93.0
87.9
66.2
73.9
70.1
82.8

150.3
0.0
142.7
155.4
118.5
104.5
118.5
149.0

p13

155.4
203.8
0.0
168.2
0.0
0.0
0.0

118.5
123.6
96.8
118.5
96.8
90.4
93.0
99.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
191.1
137.6
0.0
0.0

p14

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
131.2
191.1
175.8
196.2

p15

Tab. B.15: Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-7; -8 and -9 from sample Trunk-2 at different height positions (continue to the next
page)

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Sampling
series
p1
Wood disk-10
1
21.7
2
20.4
3
19.1
4
17.8
5
21.7
6
22.9
7
22.9
8
21.7
Wood disk-11
1
19.1
2
20.4
3
19.1
4
17.8
5
24.2
6
17.8
7
19.1
8
22.9
Wood disk-12
1
19.1
2
15.3
3
19.1
4
16.6
5
20.4
6
22.9
7
19.1
8
21.7
p3
29.3
28.0
21.7
21.7
24.2
25.5
29.3
28.0
22.9
24.2
25.5
22.9
21.7
24.2
22.9
24.2
19.1
16.6
22.9
20.4
20.4
16.6
25.5
20.4

p2
22.9
21.7
22.9
21.7
20.4
22.9
26.8
22.9
22.9
19.1
24.2
21.7
24.2
19.1
25.5
26.8
20.4
16.6
17.8
21.7
17.8
22.9
19.1
17.8

24.2
21.7
26.8
31.8
28.0
25.5
26.8
29.3

20.4
26.8
26.8
29.3
25.5
22.9
25.5
30.6

30.6
31.8
28.0
24.2
29.3
26.8
38.2
29.3

p4

30.6
28.0
34.4
31.8
29.3
26.8
31.8
29.3

26.8
34.4
34.4
29.3
28.0
29.3
28.0
31.8

30.6
36.9
33.1
28.0
30.6
31.8
40.8
35.7

p5

30.6
29.3
31.8
39.5
34.4
35.7
38.2
36.9

31.8
35.7
38.2
35.7
34.4
29.3
33.1
38.2

36.9
44.6
38.2
29.3
35.7
40.8
52.2
47.1

42.0
36.9
36.9
40.8
36.9
40.8
39.5
38.2

35.7
42.0
44.6
43.3
45.9
35.7
42.0
39.5

47.1
45.9
39.5
35.7
40.8
48.4
56.1
51.0

43.3
39.5
47.1
49.7
51.0
45.9
44.6
47.1

42.0
43.3
47.1
47.1
49.7
39.5
47.1
48.4

51.0
52.2
48.4
44.6
42.0
56.1
62.4
51.0

47.1
39.5
51.0
49.7
48.4
53.5
44.6
47.1

48.4
49.7
42.0
48.4
48.4
47.1
53.5
59.9

62.4
59.9
59.9
58.6
51.0
58.6
70.1
53.5

53.5
47.1
58.6
59.9
53.5
59.9
48.4
58.6

51.0
51.0
52.2
49.7
51.0
61.1
73.9
68.8

63.7
59.9
66.2
75.2
67.5
62.4
71.3
65.0

62.4
48.4
63.7
61.1
53.5
59.9
53.5
61.1

58.6
62.4
51.0
49.7
56.1
63.7
77.7
76.4

70.1
66.2
72.6
77.7
85.4
71.3
71.3
68.8

Population of vascular bundles (vb/cm2)


p6
p7
p8
p9 p10 p11

65.0
58.6
71.3
70.1
61.1
67.5
59.9
66.2

61.1
61.1
54.8
61.1
65.0
71.3
86.6
93.0

85.4
67.5
87.9
91.7
95.5
91.7
89.2
76.4

p12

96.8
107.0
91.7
73.9
65.0
77.7
66.2
117.2

65.0
67.5
65.0
80.3
85.4
90.4
103.2
117.2

98.1
90.4
103.2
113.4
117.2
100.6
99.4
84.1

p13

0.0
0.0
0.0
113.4
98.1
104.5
165.6
0.0

82.8
145.2
112.1
107.0
124.8
129.9
0.0
0.0

0.0
107.0
145.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
118.5
107.0

p14

p15

Tab. B.16: Population of vascular bundles for wood disk-10; -11 and -12 from sample Trunk-2 at different height positions

Chapter B. Mathematical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

223

C Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

In this chapter, the theoretical of statistical analysis was discussed in order to analyze the experimental data of vascular bundles distribution for determining the oil palm wood zones. This
analysis was particularly generated using SPSS program version 15.0 to develop the position
and border-line of inner, central and peripheral zones. Using the average data of vascular bundle
populations for each position at transverse sectional view of oil palm wood, which was obtained
from previous mathematical analysis, the area of oil palm zone was determined by grouping and
classifying the similar values of number of vascular bundles per certain area on the basis of their
position from the central point to the outer part of the trunk. Figure 3.7 in Section 3.2.1.2 is
presented an illustration how the samplings and the representative data collection were drawn
and calculated, respectively. Looking at all sampling along the average radius in that gure, the
vascular bundles distribution from the center point (pith) to the outer part of the trunk can be
symbolized using the following statistical operation:

P ith (P ) P 1 P 2 P 3 ... P n outer part


R1
R2
R3
.
.
.
Rm

.
.
.

S11 S12 S13


S21 S22 S23
S31 S32 S33
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Sm1 Sm2 Sm3

...
...
...
...
...
...
...

S1n
S2n
S3n
.
.
.
Smn

Further, looking at the position of sampling, the average number of vascular bundles at each position in rotate clockwise direction for whole series of samplings can be dened as the following
equation:

P 1 V1 =

S11 +S21 +S31 +...+Sm1


M

k=1

P 2 V2 =

S12 +S22 +S32 +...+Sm2


M

k=2

P 3 V3 = S13 +S23 +SM33 +...+Sm3 =


.
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
.
.
.
. .
P n Vn =
224

S1n +S2n +S3n +...+Smn


M

Si1

m
Si2
m
Si3

k=3


k=n

; i = 1, 2, 3, ..., m
; i = 1, 2, 3, ..., m
; i = 1, 2, 3, ..., m

Sin

; i = 1, 2, 3, ..., m

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning


Finally, general form of the above equations is:
m


Vj =

Sij

k=1

(C.1)

i = 1, 2, 3, ..., m
j = 1, 2, 3, ..., n
k = 1, 2, 3, ..., m
Where, Vj is the average of vascular bundles at position j from the pith; Sij is total number of
vascular bundles at sampling series i and position sampling j from the pith and M is number of
sampling series.
Furthermore, the statistical analysis of oil palm wood zone was generated through the analysis
of variances homogeneity of the population of vascular bundles at each positions. In this part,
two hypotheses were proposed, i.e.:
H0: the whole populations of vascular bundles do have an equal variance.
H1: the whole populations of vascular bundles from central point to the outer part of the
trunk do not have an equal (unequal) variance.
Basic principe to decide a decision from the above hypotheses was using the probability analysis
as describe in the following operation:
If the probability of homogeneity of variances test result is more than 0.05 (p > 0.05),
the H0 is accepted, and
If the probability of homogeneity of variances test result is less than 0.05 (p < 0.05), the
H0 is refused.
After dening the variance population of the vascular bundles at all positions through homogeneity test, further testing was analysis of variance by using One-Way ANOVA test. The aim
of this test is to examine mean value of the whole populations of vascular bundles at all positions, whether they do have equal or unequal mean. In this case, the others two hypotheses were
proposed as follow:
H0: the whole populations of vascular bundles from central point to the outer part of the
trunk do have an equal mean value.
H1: the whole populations of vascular bundles from central point to the outer part of the
trunk do not have an equal (unequal) mean value.
The F-test was applied to decide a decision from the above hypotheses on the basic of the
following operation:
If F-calculated < F-table or the probability is more than 0.05 (p > 0.05), the H0 is accepted, and
225

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning


If F-calculated > F-table or the probability is less than 0.05 (p < 0.05), the H0 is refused.
After deciding the homogeneity of variances and mean value of the population of vascular
bundles, the obtained decisions were then used to determine the zone position of oil palm wood,
whether it is belong to inner zone (IZ), central zone (CZ) or peripheral zone (PZ), by using the
Post Hoc Multiple Comparisons analysis.
In this Post Hoc analysis, the populations of vascular bundles were classied by multiple comparisons of mean value through the two alternative assumption of variances, i.e.:
1. Equal Variances Assumed (EVA), it is used if the equal variances of vascular bundle
populations were assumed, then the analysis is examined using Duncans test.
2. Equal Variances Not Assumed (EVNA), it is used if the unequal variances of vascular
bundle populations were assumed, then the analysis is examined using Tamhanes T2
test.
The above assumptions of variances is depend on the result of test of homogeneity of variances,
which has already done previously. According to the result from multiple compares mean value
of vascular bundle populations, the dened groups or classes of vascular bundle population were
then transformed into sampling position of the population and plotted its position at transverse
section of the trunk starting from the central point to the outer part of the trunk. This was
conducted to dene the distance of the oil palm wood zone from the central point. Finally, the
oil palm wood zones, including inner, central and peripheral were identied.
In order to provide a proper visualization of the oil palm wood zoning, each positions or coordinates of the zone were then plotted and drawn in two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional
views (3D). This was generated using the computer language program and graphic plot, namely
FORTRAN and GNUPlot version 4.1, respectively.
SPSS Analysis Results for Sample Trunk-1
According to the above mentioned analysis operation, the following statistical operation was
presented to analysis the oil palm wood zoning at transverse section for sample wood disk-1
(Trunk-1). Number and population of vascular bundles of sample wood disk-1 is presented in
Table C.1, below:
Based on data from the above table, the descriptives of the obtained data by statistical analysis,
including mean value, standard deviation, standard error, 95% condence interval for mean, and
maximum and minimum values of wood-disk-1 is summarized in Table C.2. The lowest and the
highest vascular bundles population were about 12.7 at sampling position S5 and 105.7 vb/cm2
at S19, respectively. The total mean of all samplings was about 31.4 vb/cm2 with std. deviation
and std. error of about 17.7 and 1.2, respectively. By this data condition, it was indicated that the
populations of vascular bundles range were very wide-range, and thus, therefore the samplings
necessary to be divided into several groups based on their positions to determine the oil palm
wood zoning.
The analysis was continued to the test of variances homogeneity of vascular bundles population.
The result of this analysis is presented in Table C.3. In this table provides the Levene test
to check the assumption that the variances of vascular bundles populations are equal or not
signicantly different. It resulted that the probability is about 1.94.1016 or p < 0.05, therefore
226

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning


the Levene test was signicant, and thus the assumption of equal variances of vascular bundles
population at wood disk-1 (H0) is violated. It means that the populations of vascular bundles
at the position from central point toward the outer part were signicantly different. This was
reasonable argument to differentiate the wood zoning based on population of vascular bundles.
Furthermore, the ANOVA test was done to analyze whether the all populations are equal or
unequal mean values. The result for this test is presented in Table C.4. A statistically signicant
different was found for populations of vascular bundles at wood disk-1, where the probability
was about 7.94.1087 or p < 0.05. Therefore, the assumption of equal mean variances of
vascular bundles population (H0) at wood disk-1 is also violated.
Tab. C.1: Number and population of vascular bundles of wood disk-1 from sample Trunk-1 at
different positions of sampling over the transverse section
Sampling
series

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

Number of vascular bundles of wood disk-1


1
16
14
16
16
10
2
17
16
19
16
15
3
19
13
11
16
16
4
16
18
17
16
14
5
14
14
16
17
16
6
18
19
14
18
18
7
17
20
17
18
17
8
15
14
19
14
15
9
18
19
14
17
15
10
17
12
16
15
16
11
19
14
18
15
20
12
14
16
18
15
20
Population of vascular bundles (vb/cm2) of wood disk-1
1
20.4
17.8
20.4
20.4
12.7
2
21.7
20.4
24.2
20.4
19.1
3
24.2
16.6
14.0
20.4
20.4
4
20.4
22.9
21.7
20.4
17.8
5
17.8
17.8
20.4
21.7
20.4
6
22.9
24.2
17.8
22.9
22.9
7
21.7
25.5
21.7
22.9
21.7
8
19.1
17.8
24.2
17.8
19.1
9
22.9
24.2
17.8
21.7
19.1
10
21.7
15.3
20.4
19.1
20.4
11
24.2
17.8
22.9
19.1
25.5
12
17.8
20.4
22.9
19.1
25.5

p6

p7

Position of sampling from central point


p8
p9
p10
p11
p12

11
11
16
14
17
15
19
17
16
15
17
17

15
16
13
17
18
20
15
19
16
13
18
17

17
15
19
22
20
16
16
19
19
17
17
16

15
20
23
23
20
20
21
21
23
15
18
20

17
21
21
18
21
19
17
26
18
18
17
22

17
22
22
21
20
22
17
22
22
23
18
22

14.0
14.0
20.4
17.8
21.7
19.1
24.2
21.7
20.4
19.1
21.7
21.7

19.1
20.4
16.6
21.7
22.9
25.5
19.1
24.2
20.4
16.6
22.9
21.7

21.7
19.1
24.2
28.0
25.5
20.4
20.4
24.2
24.2
21.7
21.7
20.4

19.1
25.5
29.3
29.3
25.5
25.5
26.8
26.8
29.3
19.1
22.9
25.5

21.7
26.8
26.8
22.9
26.8
24.2
21.7
33.1
22.9
22.9
21.7
28.0

21.7
28.0
28.0
26.8
25.5
28.0
21.7
28.0
28.0
29.3
22.9
28.0

p13

p14

p15

p16

p17

p18

p19

18
27
27
20
26
23
19
21
22
21
21
22

23
25
27
21
27
23
21
27
22
23
21
26

25
26
29
29
29
27
27
26
23
24
25
29

23
24
30
29
34
20
28
35
26
27
26
33

28
29
43
34
41
32
31
47
27
38
29
34

36
53
70
51
56
41
34
49
29
36
35
42

55
63
0
34
54
51
56
68
38
51
50
75

0
0
0
0
0
0
75
82
76
80
83
0

22.9
34.4
34.4
25.5
33.1
29.3
24.2
26.8
28.0
26.8
26.8
28.0

29.3
31.8
34.4
26.8
34.4
29.3
26.8
34.4
28.0
29.3
26.8
33.1

31.8
33.1
36.9
36.9
36.9
34.4
34.4
33.1
29.3
30.6
31.8
36.9

29.3
30.6
38.2
36.9
43.3
25.5
35.7
44.6
33.1
34.4
33.1
42.0

35.7
36.9
54.8
43.3
52.2
40.8
39.5
59.9
34.4
48.4
36.9
43.3

45.9
67.5
89.2
65.0
71.3
52.2
43.3
62.4
36.9
45.9
44.6
53.5

70.1
80.3
0.0
43.3
68.8
65.0
71.3
86.6
48.4
65.0
63.7
95.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
95.5
104.5
96.8
101.9
105.7
0.0

Tab. C.2: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H1
Sample
DT1H1
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
S16
S17
S18
S19
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
11
5
220

21.233
20.058
20.700
20.492
20.383
19.650
20.925
22.625
25.383
24.958
26.325
28.350
30.367
33.842
35.558
43.842
56.475
68.909
100.880
31.438

2.202
3.401
2.987
1.584
3.452
3.112
2.784
2.601
3.506
3.449
2.715
3.804
3.097
2.673
5.802
8.252
14.981
15.136
4.554
17.745

0.636
0.982
0.862
0.457
0.996
0.898
0.804
0.751
1.012
0.996
0.784
1.098
0.894
0.772
1.675
2.382
4.325
4.564
2.037
1.196

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
19.834
17.897
18.802
19.485
18.190
17.673
19.156
20.972
23.156
22.767
24.600
25.933
28.399
32.143
31.872
38.598
46.957
58.740
95.225
29.080

Minimum

Maximum

17.8
15.3
14.0
17.8
12.7
14.0
16.6
19.1
19.1
21.7
21.7
22.9
26.8
29.3
25.5
34.4
36.9
43.3
95.5
12.7

24.2
25.5
24.2
22.9
25.5
24.2
25.5
28.0
29.3
33.1
29.3
34.4
34.4
36.9
44.6
59.9
89.2
95.5
105.7
105.7

22.632
22.219
22.598
21.498
22.577
21.627
22.694
24.278
27.611
27.150
28.050
30.767
32.334
35.540
39.245
49.085
65.993
79.078
106.535
33.796

Tab. C.3: Result of homogeneity of variances for wood disk-1


Sample
DT1H1

Levene Statistic
8.3523

df1
18

df2
201

Sig.
1.94E-16

227

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning


By using the obtained decisions from test of homogeneity of variances and ANOVA, the post
hoc test was calculated using the assumption equal variances not assumed (EVNA), because
the variances of vascular bundles population at wood disk-1 was unequal. According to the analysis result of post hoc test by multiple comparisons operation, the vascular bundles populations
were grouped by similarity of population values, which showed by the signicantly different of
the obtained result ( is signed for value that signicantly difference at level 0.05). The difference values were then plotted and transformed into position of sampling at transverse section of
wood disk. To differentiate between one zone to the others was marked by typing in different
colour of letter as shown in the Table C.5. The oil palm wood zoning was symbolized using
columnar-table. The columnar-1; columnar-2 and columnar-3 were marked for inner zone (IZ),
central zone (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ), respectively.
Summary from this result, it can be mentioned that the inner zone area was located from S1 to
S7; and from S8 to S14 and S15 to S19 were for central zone and peripheral zone, respectively.
On the basis of distance from central point, it can be stated that IZ; CZ and PZ were approx.
70mm; 70mm and 50mm, respectively. These distances was necessary to be corrected due to
the calibration of apparatus during counting the vascular bundles. The correction of each zone
was expressed in the following equations:
IZ = ((xi + 5 + (
CZ = ((xc + (

xi
))
10

(C.2)

xc
))
10

(C.3)

P Z = rf b (IZ + CZ)

(C.4)

Where, xi is inner zone distance in mm;  5(mm) is a radius of sampling at central point posiiorc
tion; xc is central zone distance in mm; ( X10
) is distance of one sampling to another (mm);
and rf b is radius of the trunk without bark.
Therefore, the corrected distance of IZ, CZ and PZ were then approx. 82mm; 77mm and
55mm, respectively. Furthermore, the similar statistical analysis was also carried out for sample
Trunk-1 (incl. wood disk-2 to wood disk-12) and Trunk-2 (incl. wood disk-1 to wood disk-12).
The descriptives results of statistical analysis for sample Trunk-1 (incl. wood disk-1 to wood
disk-12) are presented in Table C.6; C.7; C.8; C.9; C.10; C.11; C.12; C.13; C.14; C.15; C.16;
C.17, respectively.
Tab. C.4: Result of ANOVA test for Trunk-1
Sample
DT1H1

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Sum of Squares
59830.376
7219.743
67050.118

df
18
201
219

Mean Square
3323.910
35.919

F
92.539

Sig.
7.94E-87

Tab. C.5: Summary of statistical data analysis for sample T1WD1


Height
(m)
1

228

p1

p2

p3

p4

21.2

20.1

20.7

20.5

p5

p6

p7

p8

p9

20.4
19.6
20.9
Columnar-1: Inner Zone

22.6

25.4

Sampling Position
p10
p11

p12

24.9
26.3
28.3
Columnar-2: Central Zone

p13

p14

p15

30.4

33.9

35.6

p16

p17

p18

p19

43.8
56.5
68.9
100.9
Columnar-3: Peripheral Zone

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning


According to the summarized results in Table C.18 and C.19, all homogeneity test of variances
of vascular bundles populations were signicantly different. This was indicated by the probability for all wood disks which were less than 0.05 (p < 0.05). Its mean that all the Levene tests
were signicant, and thus the assumption of equal variances of vascular bundles population at
wood disk-1 (H0) is violated. In other words, the populations of vascular bundles at the position
from central point toward the outer part were signicantly different.
Due to all variances of population of vascular bundles were unequal or signicantly different
at level 0.05, therefore the post hoc multiple comparison was analyzed using the assumption
equal variances not assumed (EVNA) through the Thamhanes T2 test.
Tab. C.6: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H1
Sample
DT1H1
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
S16
S17
S18
S19
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
11
5
220

21.233
20.058
20.700
20.492
20.383
19.650
20.925
22.625
25.383
24.958
26.325
28.350
30.367
33.842
35.558
43.842
56.475
68.909
100.880
31.438

2.202
3.401
2.987
1.584
3.452
3.112
2.784
2.601
3.506
3.449
2.715
3.804
3.097
2.673
5.802
8.252
14.981
15.136
4.554
17.745

0.636
0.982
0.862
0.457
0.996
0.898
0.804
0.751
1.012
0.996
0.784
1.098
0.894
0.772
1.675
2.382
4.325
4.564
2.037
1.196

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
19.834
22.632
17.897
22.219
18.802
22.598
19.485
21.498
18.190
22.577
17.673
21.627
19.156
22.694
20.972
24.278
23.156
27.611
22.767
27.150
24.600
28.050
25.933
30.767
28.399
32.334
32.143
35.540
31.872
39.245
38.598
49.085
46.957
65.993
58.740
79.078
95.225
106.535
29.080
33.796

Minimum

Maximum

17.8
15.3
14.0
17.8
12.7
14.0
16.6
19.1
19.1
21.7
21.7
22.9
26.8
29.3
25.5
34.4
36.9
43.3
95.5
12.7

24.2
25.5
24.2
22.9
25.5
24.2
25.5
28.0
29.3
33.1
29.3
34.4
34.4
36.9
44.6
59.9
89.2
95.5
105.7
105.7

229

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Tab. C.7: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H2
Sample
DT1H2
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
2
114

23.263
24.213
24.850
24.050
26.775
28.025
33.263
33.438
38.538
46.963
52.863
59.875
77.250
128.650
157.950
46.421

2.774
3.416
4.080
3.376
4.404
4.815
5.856
5.364
5.775
8.199
6.874
6.041
6.400
13.610
64.842
32.790

0.981
1.208
1.443
1.194
1.557
1.702
2.070
1.897
2.042
2.899
2.430
2.136
2.263
4.812
45.850
3.071

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
20.944
25.581
21.357
27.068
21.439
28.261
21.227
26.873
23.093
30.457
23.999
32.051
28.367
38.158
28.953
37.922
33.710
43.365
40.108
53.817
47.116
58.609
54.825
64.925
71.900
82.600
117.272
140.028
-424.629
740.529
40.337
52.505

Minimum

Maximum

20.4
19.1
19.1
17.8
16.6
17.8
21.7
24.2
28.0
35.7
43.3
52.2
68.8
107.0
112.1
16.6

28.0
30.6
29.3
28.0
30.6
33.1
42.0
40.8
44.6
57.3
62.4
67.5
85.4
149.0
203.8
203.8

Tab. C.8: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H3
Sample
DT1H3
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
Total

230

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
120

34.725
33.438
33.750
39.163
38.050
42.038
44.888
49.850
50.788
55.100
59.225
66.725
82.800
101.125
152.213
58.925

5.798
2.525
3.860
7.081
6.643
8.269
8.541
8.052
8.032
7.833
9.328
10.643
9.793
13.849
30.505
32.917

2.050
0.893
1.365
2.504
2.349
2.923
3.020
2.847
2.840
2.770
3.298
3.763
3.462
4.897
10.785
3.005

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
29.877
39.573
31.327
35.548
30.523
36.977
33.243
45.082
32.496
43.604
35.125
48.950
37.747
52.028
43.119
56.581
44.072
57.503
48.551
61.649
51.426
67.024
57.827
75.623
74.613
90.987
89.547
112.703
126.710
177.715
52.975
64.875

Minimum

Maximum

26.8
30.6
28.0
31.8
31.8
31.8
31.8
38.2
36.9
44.6
42.0
45.9
66.2
82.8
114.6
26.8

43.3
36.9
39.5
52.2
51.0
54.8
54.8
59.9
61.1
65.0
70.1
77.7
96.8
123.6
208.9
208.9

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Tab. C.9: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H4
Sample
DT1H4
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
126

30.444
31.978
35.833
35.944
36.100
42.044
43.600
50.111
52.244
57.467
62.844
71.178
94.256
122.300
54.739

4.694
7.123
8.549
8.603
6.780
7.914
6.194
7.103
6.990
5.760
6.515
7.371
16.606
22.800
27.081

1.565
2.374
2.850
2.868
2.260
2.638
2.065
2.368
2.330
1.920
2.172
2.457
5.535
7.600
2.413

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
26.836
34.053
26.502
37.453
29.262
42.405
29.332
42.557
30.888
41.312
35.961
48.128
38.839
48.361
44.651
55.571
46.871
57.618
53.039
61.894
57.836
67.852
65.512
76.843
81.491
107.020
104.774
139.826
49.964
59.514

Minimum

Maximum

21.7
19.1
21.7
21.7
24.2
26.8
30.6
33.1
36.9
47.1
54.8
61.1
79.0
91.7
19.1

35.7
42.0
45.9
47.1
44.6
52.2
49.7
57.3
58.6
65.0
75.2
84.1
135.0
168.2
168.2

Tab. C.10: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H5
Sample
DT1H5
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
116

26.275
25.663
26.938
30.250
30.400
33.913
38.063
41.088
44.275
51.600
56.375
65.125
77.250
103.350
114.050
48.799

4.306
4.331
4.929
4.376
2.380
2.551
3.507
3.701
3.676
3.260
3.022
4.723
3.535
10.596
24.469
25.507

1.523
1.531
1.743
1.547
0.841
0.902
1.240
1.308
1.300
1.153
1.069
1.670
1.250
3.746
12.234
2.368

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
22.675
29.875
22.042
29.283
22.816
31.059
26.591
33.909
28.411
32.389
31.779
36.046
35.131
40.994
37.994
44.181
41.202
47.348
48.874
54.326
53.848
58.902
61.177
69.073
74.295
80.205
94.491
112.209
75.114
152.986
44.108
53.490

Minimum

Maximum

17.8
20.4
20.4
25.5
26.8
30.6
33.1
35.7
38.2
48.4
52.2
56.1
72.6
90.4
89.2
17.8

31.8
34.4
35.7
36.9
33.1
38.2
42.0
47.1
51.0
58.6
62.4
71.3
84.1
118.5
147.8
147.8

231

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Tab. C.11: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H6
Sample
DT1H6
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
7
119

28.500
27.563
27.713
29.138
34.713
35.025
39.488
45.213
52.075
53.988
60.838
70.388
78.513
103.650
138.857
54.339

2.513
3.113
3.526
3.276
4.272
6.029
2.807
7.805
6.133
8.076
5.741
7.940
11.395
12.356
45.071
32.364

0.888
1.100
1.246
1.158
1.510
2.132
0.992
2.759
2.168
2.855
2.030
2.807
4.029
4.368
17.035
2.967

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
26.399
30.601
24.960
30.165
24.765
30.660
26.399
31.876
31.141
38.284
29.985
40.065
37.141
41.834
38.687
51.738
46.948
57.202
47.236
60.739
56.038
65.637
63.750
77.025
68.986
88.039
93.320
113.980
97.173
180.541
48.464
60.214

Minimum

Maximum

25.5
22.9
22.9
24.2
26.8
26.8
35.7
35.7
45.9
43.3
52.2
59.9
58.6
84.1
86.6
22.9

31.8
31.8
34.4
33.1
42.0
47.1
44.6
59.9
62.4
71.3
70.1
80.3
98.1
121.0
214.0
214.0

Tab. C.12: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H7
Sample
DT1H7
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

232

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
108

28.650
28.988
29.763
33.425
35.825
40.600
44.113
53.825
62.263
65.588
81.225
99.988
132.163
170.050
60.847

3.405
2.679
2.232
3.016
3.507
3.764
3.918
5.268
6.007
6.501
7.780
12.827
17.788
36.930
37.986

1.204
0.947
0.789
1.066
1.240
1.331
1.385
1.862
2.124
2.299
2.751
4.535
6.289
18.465
3.655

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
25.803
31.497
26.748
31.227
27.897
31.628
30.904
35.946
32.893
38.757
37.453
43.747
40.837
47.388
49.421
58.229
57.240
67.285
60.152
71.023
74.721
87.729
89.264
110.711
117.291
147.034
111.286
228.814
53.601
68.093

Minimum

Maximum

22.9
25.5
25.5
29.3
30.6
34.4
38.2
47.1
51.0
52.2
67.5
82.8
115.9
132.5
22.9

34.4
33.1
31.8
38.2
40.8
45.9
49.7
62.4
71.3
72.6
90.4
114.6
170.7
208.9
208.9

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Tab. C.13: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H8
Sample
DT1H8
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
6
118

23.900
25.300
28.038
29.625
32.625
36.300
39.325
43.950
48.888
53.025
56.038
67.363
77.050
88.075
119.100
50.090

3.001
2.680
2.706
4.178
3.848
3.653
4.253
3.653
6.903
5.636
8.563
6.864
8.804
12.045
14.595
25.527

1.061
0.948
0.957
1.477
1.361
1.291
1.504
1.291
2.440
1.992
3.027
2.427
3.113
4.259
5.958
2.350

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
21.391
26.409
23.059
27.541
25.775
30.300
26.132
33.118
29.408
35.842
33.246
39.354
35.770
42.880
40.896
47.004
43.117
54.658
48.314
57.736
48.879
63.196
61.624
73.101
69.690
84.410
78.005
98.145
103.784
134.416
45.436
54.744

Minimum

Maximum

20.4
22.9
25.5
24.2
28.0
30.6
30.6
39.5
40.8
44.6
44.6
59.9
66.2
70.1
104.5
20.4

28.0
29.3
33.1
34.4
39.5
43.3
43.3
48.4
57.3
61.1
66.2
80.3
90.4
104.5
145.2
145.2

Tab. C.14: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H9
Sample
DT1H9
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
96

25.486
25.857
28.014
30.029
32.929
37.843
41.500
47.871
49.671
51.314
58.057
65.886
86.629
119.980
48.620

2.642
2.751
4.027
3.581
6.165
6.044
7.823
6.820
10.126
10.118
8.353
8.198
18.145
41.481
26.411

0.999
1.040
1.522
1.353
2.330
2.284
2.957
2.578
3.827
3.824
3.157
3.099
6.858
18.551
2.696

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
23.042
27.929
23.313
28.401
24.290
31.738
26.717
33.340
27.227
38.630
32.253
43.433
34.265
48.735
41.564
54.179
40.307
59.036
41.957
60.672
50.332
65.783
58.304
73.468
69.847
103.410
68.475
171.485
43.268
53.971

Minimum

Maximum

20.4
22.9
22.9
24.2
24.2
29.3
33.1
39.5
38.2
40.8
48.4
58.6
67.5
66.2
20.4

28.0
30.6
33.1
34.4
43.3
47.1
54.8
59.9
66.2
67.5
73.9
80.3
117.2
168.2
168.2

233

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Tab. C.15: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H10
Sample
DT1H10
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
5
109

28.050
29.300
31.988
35.175
41.400
45.550
49.213
56.850
64.650
70.863
80.750
90.600
109.075
130.160
59.803

1.336
1.659
1.979
1.789
4.521
3.250
4.464
6.464
5.638
7.781
4.928
6.481
14.022
11.695
29.195

0.472
0.586
0.700
0.632
1.598
1.149
1.578
2.285
1.993
2.751
1.742
2.291
4.957
5.230
2.796

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
26.933
29.167
27.913
30.687
30.333
33.642
33.680
36.670
37.621
45.179
42.833
48.267
45.481
52.944
51.446
62.254
59.937
69.363
64.357
77.368
76.630
84.870
85.182
96.018
97.353
120.797
115.639
144.681
54.260
65.346

Minimum

Maximum

26.8
26.8
28.0
31.8
36.9
40.8
43.3
49.7
56.1
57.3
75.2
77.7
90.4
114.6
26.8

29.3
31.8
34.4
36.9
49.7
51.0
54.8
70.1
72.6
80.3
90.4
99.4
135.0
140.1
140.1

Tab. C.16: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H11
Sample
DT1H11
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

234

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
2
106

24.525
25.638
27.250
28.975
34.400
34.238
42.338
46.663
53.175
57.963
62.263
72.925
92.200
106.400
47.483

1.666
1.859
2.545
2.691
2.361
2.591
6.274
7.397
7.104
9.344
10.033
5.769
14.146
2.687
22.305

0.589
0.657
0.900
0.951
0.835
0.916
2.218
2.615
2.512
3.304
3.547
2.040
5.002
1.900
2.166

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
23.132
25.918
24.084
27.191
25.122
29.378
26.726
31.224
32.426
36.374
32.071
36.404
37.092
47.583
40.478
52.847
47.236
59.114
50.151
65.774
53.875
70.650
68.102
77.748
80.373
104.027
82.258
130.542
43.187
51.779

Minimum

Maximum

22.9
22.9
24.2
24.2
29.3
29.3
34.4
35.7
40.8
40.8
42.0
63.7
67.5
104.5
22.9

26.8
28.0
30.6
31.8
36.9
38.2
52.2
59.9
61.1
67.5
73.9
79.0
112.1
108.3
112.1

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning


The results of homogeneity test of variances and ANOVA test were presented in Table C.18 and
Table C.19, respectively.

Tab. C.17: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT1H12
Sample
DT1H12
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
7
111

25.488
26.138
28.513
30.575
33.438
37.913
42.338
52.238
55.575
60.988
66.563
80.900
106.675
133.029
55.044

2.476
1.813
3.117
2.800
4.465
4.544
7.364
6.428
6.739
7.262
8.978
7.611
9.817
24.278
31.498

0.875
0.641
1.102
0.990
1.579
1.606
2.604
2.273
2.383
2.567
3.174
2.691
3.471
9.176
2.990

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
23.418
27.557
24.621
27.654
25.907
31.118
28.234
32.916
29.705
37.170
34.114
41.711
36.181
48.494
46.864
57.611
49.941
61.209
54.917
67.058
59.057
74.068
74.537
87.263
98.468
114.882
110.575
155.482
49.119
60.969

Minimum

Maximum

22.9
22.9
22.9
26.8
28.0
34.4
34.4
44.6
45.9
52.2
54.8
67.5
91.7
107.0
22.9

30.6
29.3
31.8
34.4
40.8
48.4
54.8
62.4
65.0
73.9
84.1
91.7
122.3
183.4
183.4

Tab. C.18: Result of homogeneity of variances for Trunk-1


Sample
DT1H1
DT1H2
DT1H3
DT1H4
DT1H5
DT1H6
DT1H7
DT1H8
DT1H9
DT1H10
DT1H11
DT1H12

Levene Statistic
8.3523
20.8856
4.9138
2.4847
5.3569
8.4652
15.2329
4.7876
9.6396
5.2296
3.7153
3.1062

df1
18
14
14
13
14
14
13
14
13
13
13
13

df2
201
99
105
112
101
104
94
103
82
95
92
97

Sig.
1.94E-16
1.56E-23
6.38E-07
5.15E-03
1.60E-07
6.81E-12
7.15E-18
1.07E-06
8.17E-12
5.86E-07
9.41E-05
6.85E-04

235

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning


SPSS Analysis Results for Sample Trunk-2
The descriptives results of statistical analysis for sample Trunk-2 (incl. wood disk-1 to wood
disk-12) are presented in Table C.20; C.21; C.22; C.23; C.24; C.25; C.26; C.27; C.28; C.29;
C.30; C.31, respectively.
Tab. C.19: Result of ANOVA test for Trunk-1
Sample
DT1H1

DT1H2

DT1H3

DT1H4

DT1H5

DT1H6

DT1H7

DT1H8

DT1H9

DT1H10

DT1H11

DT1H12

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

Sig.

59830.376
7219.743
67050.118
107321.799
7820.384
115142.183
117735.478
12724.395
130459.873
80336.829
9819.291
90156.120
61218.659
3499.983
64718.642
107050.829
16056.550
123107.378
120999.220
8633.230
129632.450
70128.849
4679.570
74808.419
48586.722
13368.818
61955.540
80164.278
3930.302
84094.580
50499.827
4072.641
54572.468
102820.389
6896.214
109716.603

18
201
219
14
99
113
14
105
119
13
112
125
14
101
115
14
104
118
13
94
107
14
103
117
13
82
95
13
95
108
13
92
105
13
97
110

3323.910
35.919

92.539

7.94E-87

7665.843
78.994

97.044

3.10E-51

8409.677
121.185

69.396

1.99E-46

6179.756
87.672

70.487

1.25E-47

4372.761
34.653

126.186

2.58E-57

7646.488
154.390

49.527

1.78E-39

9307.632
91.843

101.343

2.74E-49

5009.204
45.433

110.255

2.67E-55

3737.440
163.034

22.924

5.27E-22

6166.483
41.372

149.051

4.13E-57

3884.602
44.268

87.752

6.61E-46

7909.261
71.095

111.249

3.42E-52

Tab. C.20: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H1
Sample
DT2H1
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
S16
S17
S18
Total

236

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
11
2
205

22.308
21.142
22.608
24.100
25.283
26.967
28.142
31.308
33.967
36.308
39.600
41.500
44.167
49.792
56.050
72.292
98.200
114.050
40.072

3.049
2.456
1.632
2.504
2.306
2.650
3.013
3.654
3.996
4.722
4.814
5.253
6.267
7.336
5.823
19.296
14.359
6.293
21.801

0.880
0.709
0.471
0.723
0.666
0.765
0.870
1.055
1.154
1.363
1.390
1.516
1.809
2.118
1.681
5.570
4.329
4.450
1.523

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
20.371
24.245
19.581
22.702
21.571
23.645
22.509
25.691
23.818
26.748
25.283
28.650
26.227
30.056
28.987
33.630
31.427
36.506
33.308
39.309
36.541
42.659
38.162
44.838
40.185
48.149
45.131
54.453
52.350
59.750
60.031
84.552
88.554
107.846
57.507
170.593
37.070
43.074

Minimum

Maximum

16.6
16.6
19.1
20.4
21.7
22.9
25.5
25.5
26.8
26.8
31.8
33.1
31.8
36.9
48.4
56.1
65.0
109.6
16.6

26.8
26.8
24.2
28.0
30.6
31.8
33.1
38.2
39.5
40.8
48.4
48.4
53.5
59.9
65.0
124.8
119.7
118.5
124.8

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Tab. C.21: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H2
Sample
DT2H2
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
S16
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
2
122

22.450
23.100
25.825
29.150
31.850
34.063
38.050
41.888
45.538
48.238
51.125
56.538
67.675
85.675
127.563
131.200
49.936

2.728
2.402
2.620
2.468
2.040
1.641
2.578
2.500
1.889
1.846
2.086
7.095
7.846
13.897
38.020
16.263
30.668

0.965
0.849
0.926
0.873
0.721
0.580
0.911
0.884
0.668
0.653
0.737
2.509
2.774
4.913
13.442
11.500
2.777

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
20.169
24.731
21.092
25.108
23.635
28.015
27.087
31.213
30.144
33.556
32.690
35.435
35.895
40.205
39.797
43.978
43.958
47.117
46.694
49.781
49.381
52.869
50.606
62.469
61.116
74.234
74.057
97.293
95.777
159.348
-14.921
277.321
44.439
55.433

Minimum

Maximum

17.8
20.4
21.7
26.8
29.3
31.8
34.4
39.5
43.3
45.9
48.4
51.0
53.5
65.0
77.7
119.7
17.8

25.5
25.5
30.6
33.1
35.7
36.9
43.3
45.9
48.4
52.2
53.5
72.6
76.4
100.6
193.6
142.7
193.6

Tab. C.22: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H3
Sample
DT2H3
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
6
118

22.288
22.150
25.000
28.838
31.050
33.113
38.038
42.038
45.063
48.725
52.075
60.200
74.213
102.375
124.633
48.721

2.457
2.356
2.047
2.774
2.875
2.664
1.973
3.738
3.114
3.968
5.948
8.754
13.001
18.495
17.059
28.505

0.869
0.833
0.724
0.981
1.016
0.942
0.697
1.322
1.101
1.403
2.103
3.095
4.597
6.539
6.964
2.624

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
20.233
24.342
20.181
24.119
23.288
26.712
26.519
31.156
28.647
33.453
30.886
35.339
36.388
39.687
38.913
45.162
42.459
47.666
45.408
52.042
47.102
57.048
52.882
67.518
63.343
85.082
86.913
117.837
106.731
142.535
43.524
53.918

Minimum

Maximum

19.1
19.1
22.9
25.5
26.8
28.0
35.7
36.9
38.2
42.0
45.9
49.7
58.6
84.1
113.4
19.1

25.5
25.5
29.3
33.1
34.4
35.7
42.0
47.1
48.4
54.8
62.4
73.9
98.1
135.0
158.0
158.0

237

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Tab. C.23: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H4
Sample
DT2H4
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
5
109

20.700
22.300
24.688
29.788
32.800
36.625
41.713
45.688
49.388
54.300
58.600
73.425
92.813
132.740
48.865

3.025
2.733
2.788
1.910
3.025
2.011
1.894
2.500
2.949
3.955
5.860
9.873
14.723
20.299
27.955

1.070
0.966
0.986
0.675
1.070
0.711
0.670
0.884
1.043
1.398
2.072
3.491
5.205
9.078
2.678

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
18.171
23.229
20.015
24.585
22.356
27.019
28.190
31.385
30.271
35.329
34.944
38.306
40.129
43.296
43.597
47.778
46.922
51.853
50.994
57.606
53.701
63.499
65.171
81.679
80.504
105.121
107.536
157.944
43.558
54.173

Minimum

Maximum

16.6
17.8
21.7
26.8
29.3
34.4
38.2
42.0
45.9
51.0
52.2
62.4
76.4
115.9
16.6

25.5
25.5
29.3
33.1
36.9
39.5
44.6
49.7
54.8
61.1
68.8
87.9
112.1
160.5
160.5

Tab. C.24: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H5
Sample
DT2H5
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
Total

238

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
6
3
113

21.013
22.463
24.688
28.813
30.888
35.988
41.238
43.475
47.788
52.863
58.150
68.150
84.225
96.383
134.200
48.308

2.619
2.641
1.544
2.788
1.894
0.874
4.322
5.369
5.175
7.126
12.174
19.755
20.724
15.625
22.997
27.317

0.926
0.934
0.546
0.986
0.670
0.309
1.528
1.898
1.829
2.519
4.304
6.984
7.327
6.379
13.277
2.570

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
18.823
23.202
20.255
24.670
23.397
25.978
26.481
31.144
29.304
32.471
35.257
36.718
37.624
44.851
38.987
47.963
43.462
52.113
46.905
58.820
47.972
68.328
51.635
84.665
66.900
101.550
79.986
112.781
77.072
191.328
43.216
53.400

Minimum

Maximum

16.6
17.8
22.9
24.2
28.0
34.4
34.4
35.7
40.8
45.9
45.9
52.2
66.2
76.4
112.1
16.6

24.2
25.5
26.8
31.8
34.4
36.9
45.9
52.2
54.8
66.2
80.3
103.2
118.5
113.4
158.0
158.0

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Tab. C.25: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H6
Sample
DT2H6
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
112

20.538
21.163
24.213
30.888
32.813
39.813
44.113
46.500
50.638
55.425
61.275
75.488
95.063
123.400
51.523

3.225
2.724
3.202
2.125
3.039
5.001
4.211
4.362
2.860
4.241
5.323
6.357
12.863
17.995
29.372

1.140
0.963
1.132
0.751
1.074
1.768
1.489
1.542
1.011
1.499
1.882
2.247
4.548
6.362
2.775

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
17.841
23.234
18.885
23.440
21.535
26.890
29.111
32.664
30.272
35.353
35.632
43.993
40.592
47.633
42.853
50.147
48.247
53.028
51.879
58.971
56.824
65.726
70.173
80.802
84.309
105.816
108.356
138.444
46.024
57.023

Minimum

Maximum

16.6
17.8
19.1
28.0
28.0
31.8
36.9
39.5
45.9
51.0
52.2
62.4
71.3
90.4
16.6

25.5
24.2
29.3
34.4
35.7
45.9
48.4
52.2
53.5
61.1
66.2
82.8
110.8
151.6
151.6

Tab. C.26: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H7
Sample
DT2H7
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
7
2
105

21.813
23.425
25.463
32.325
37.125
41.388
48.413
56.388
61.950
71.500
83.463
101.438
134.129
164.350
58.144

2.595
1.648
2.643
2.814
4.492
2.561
2.543
4.064
5.050
8.165
10.536
16.548
19.895
37.830
35.754

0.917
0.583
0.934
0.995
1.588
0.905
0.899
1.437
1.785
2.887
3.725
5.850
7.520
26.750
3.489

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
19.643
23.982
22.047
24.803
23.253
27.672
29.973
34.677
33.369
40.881
39.247
43.528
46.286
50.539
52.990
59.785
57.728
66.172
64.674
78.326
74.654
92.271
87.603
115.272
115.728
152.529
-175.541
504.241
51.225
65.063

Minimum

Maximum

17.8
21.7
22.9
28.0
30.6
36.9
44.6
49.7
53.5
61.1
65.0
84.1
104.5
137.6
17.8

25.5
25.5
29.3
35.7
45.9
45.9
52.2
59.9
70.1
87.9
101.9
136.3
155.4
191.1
191.1

239

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Tab. C.27: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H8
Sample
DT2H8
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
116

20.375
20.863
25.013
27.100
32.963
37.725
44.913
47.938
51.288
54.925
59.400
65.775
82.488
104.625
173.575
52.564

2.369
1.927
2.033
1.770
2.942
3.726
4.670
2.232
3.100
3.743
6.448
7.493
11.373
13.268
29.550
33.412

0.837
0.681
0.719
0.626
1.040
1.317
1.651
0.789
1.096
1.324
2.280
2.649
4.021
4.691
14.775
3.102

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
18.395
22.355
19.251
22.474
23.313
26.712
25.621
28.579
30.503
35.422
34.610
40.840
41.008
48.817
46.072
49.803
48.696
53.879
51.795
58.055
54.009
64.791
59.511
72.039
72.979
91.996
93.532
115.718
126.554
220.596
46.419
58.709

Minimum

Maximum

17.8
17.8
21.7
24.2
28.0
31.8
36.9
45.9
45.9
49.7
51.0
54.8
66.2
90.4
131.2
17.8

24.2
22.9
28.0
30.6
35.7
43.3
49.7
52.2
56.1
61.1
70.1
73.9
98.1
123.6
196.2
196.2

Tab. C.28: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H9
Sample
DT2H9
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

240

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
6
3
93

22.743
22.743
26.771
31.114
38.214
43.129
49.871
54.971
63.886
73.514
84.429
101.529
125.267
175.800
59.886

2.007
1.861
1.942
2.512
5.040
6.283
6.547
7.969
8.879
9.631
13.328
19.351
24.920
25.079
37.946

0.758
0.703
0.734
0.949
1.905
2.375
2.475
3.012
3.356
3.640
5.037
7.314
10.174
14.479
3.935

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
20.887
24.599
21.022
24.464
24.975
28.568
28.791
33.437
33.553
42.876
37.318
48.939
43.816
55.927
47.602
62.341
55.674
72.097
64.607
82.422
72.103
96.754
83.632
119.425
99.115
151.419
113.500
238.100
52.071
67.701

Minimum

Maximum

19.1
20.4
24.2
26.8
33.1
36.9
44.6
47.1
53.5
61.1
67.5
72.6
81.5
155.4
19.1

25.5
25.5
29.3
34.4
48.4
51.0
61.1
67.5
73.9
87.9
105.7
129.9
152.9
203.8
203.8

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Tab. C.29: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H10
Sample
DT2H10
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
108

21.025
22.775
25.963
29.775
33.438
40.600
45.563
50.963
59.250
66.400
72.925
85.663
100.800
119.425
52.952

1.809
1.860
3.168
4.128
4.137
7.211
6.632
6.393
5.738
4.931
6.024
9.281
10.888
18.018
28.049

0.639
0.658
1.120
1.460
1.463
2.550
2.345
2.260
2.029
1.743
2.130
3.281
3.849
9.009
2.699

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
19.513
22.537
21.220
24.330
23.314
28.611
26.324
33.226
29.979
36.896
34.571
46.629
40.018
51.107
45.618
56.307
54.453
64.047
62.278
70.522
67.889
77.961
77.904
93.421
91.698
109.902
90.754
148.096
47.601
58.302

Minimum

Maximum

17.8
20.4
21.7
24.2
28.0
29.3
35.7
42.0
51.0
59.9
66.2
67.5
84.1
107.0
17.8

22.9
26.8
29.3
38.2
40.8
52.2
56.1
62.4
70.1
75.2
85.4
95.5
117.2
145.2
145.2

Tab. C.30: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H11
Sample
DT2H11
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
6
110

20.050
22.938
23.563
25.975
30.250
34.550
41.088
45.525
49.675
57.338
61.950
69.250
84.250
116.967
47.573

2.339
2.820
1.181
3.269
2.944
3.083
3.829
3.522
5.204
9.450
10.526
13.604
18.978
21.523
26.660

0.827
0.997
0.417
1.156
1.041
1.090
1.354
1.245
1.840
3.341
3.721
4.810
6.710
8.787
2.542

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
18.094
22.006
20.580
25.295
22.575
24.550
23.242
28.708
27.789
32.711
31.972
37.128
37.886
44.289
42.581
48.469
45.324
54.026
49.437
65.238
53.150
70.750
57.877
80.623
68.384
100.116
94.380
139.553
42.535
52.611

Minimum

Maximum

17.8
19.1
21.7
20.4
26.8
29.3
35.7
39.5
42.0
49.7
49.7
54.8
65.0
82.8
17.8

24.2
26.8
25.5
30.6
34.4
38.2
45.9
49.7
59.9
73.9
77.7
93.0
117.2
145.2
145.2

241

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning


The results of homogeneity test of variances and ANOVA test for sample Trunk-2 (incl. wood
disk-1 to wood disk-12) were presented in Table C.32 and Table C.33, respectively.
The summarized analysis of oil palm wood samples Trunk-1 and Trunk-2 were presented in
Table 4.7 (Chapter 4, see Section 4.1.2).

Tab. C.31: Result of descriptives One-Way Anova for sample wood disk DT2H12
Sample
DT2H12
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
108

19.275
19.263
20.238
26.763
30.250
34.550
39.000
46.025
47.613
54.938
57.950
64.963
86.938
120.400
45.034

2.488
2.204
2.991
3.097
2.418
3.692
2.056
3.637
4.252
5.132
5.442
4.714
19.291
30.780
25.548

0.880
0.779
1.057
1.095
0.855
1.305
0.727
1.286
1.503
1.815
1.924
1.667
6.820
15.390
2.458

95% Condence Interval for Mean


Lower Bound
Upper Bound
17.195
21.355
17.420
21.105
17.737
22.738
24.173
29.352
28.229
32.271
31.463
37.637
37.281
40.719
42.984
49.066
44.058
51.167
50.647
59.228
53.400
62.500
61.021
68.904
70.810
103.065
71.423
169.377
40.161
49.908

Tab. C.32: Result of homogeneity of variances for Trunk-2


Sample
DT2H1
DT2H2
DT2H3
DT2H4
DT2H5
DT2H6
DT2H7
DT2H8
DT2H9
DT2H10
DT2H11
DT2H12

242

Levene Statistic
5.1335
9.5951
6.0659
17.2731
8.5298
4.4514
11.1852
10.1313
5.5561
3.0024
7.3616
12.5343

df1
17
15
14
13
14
13
13
14
13
13
13
13

df2
187
106
103
95
98
98
91
101
79
94
96
94

Sig.
3.75E-09
7.35E-14
1.34E-08
1.19E-19
9.72E-12
6.81E-06
6.76E-14
8.54E-14
4.70E-07
1.02E-03
8.26E-10
2.05E-15

Minimum

Maximum

15.3
16.6
16.6
21.7
26.8
29.3
36.9
39.5
39.5
47.1
48.4
58.6
65.0
98.1
15.3

22.9
22.9
25.5
31.8
34.4
39.5
42.0
51.0
53.5
59.9
63.7
71.3
117.2
165.6
165.6

Chapter C. Statistical Analysis of Oil Palm Wood Zoning

Tab. C.33: Result of ANOVA test for Trunk-2


Sample
DT2H1

DT2H2

DT2H3

DT2H4

DT2H5

DT2H6

DT2H7

DT2H8

DT2H9

DT2H10

DT2H11

DT2H12

Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

Sig.

87736.071
9223.025
96959.096
100881.459
12919.223
113800.681
88675.717
6391.680
95067.397
79781.353
4616.075
84397.428
73449.896
10127.647
83577.543
90946.502
4814.318
95760.820
125284.423
7663.716
132948.138
122312.334
6068.194
128380.528
122632.864
9837.868
132470.732
79805.708
4375.801
84181.510
69252.075
8218.183
77470.258
63255.192
6586.451
69841.643

17
187
204
15
106
121
14
103
117
13
95
108
14
98
112
13
98
111
13
91
104
14
101
115
13
79
92
13
94
107
13
96
109
13
94
107

5160.945
49.321

104.640

8.43E-86

6725.431
121.879

55.181

5.17E-43

6333.980
62.055

102.070

1.06E-53

6137.027
48.590

126.302

6.92E-54

5246.421
103.343

50.767

1.66E-38

6995.885
49.126

142.408

1.72E-57

9637.263
84.217

114.434

1.99E-50

8736.595
60.081

145.413

3.00E-60

9433.297
124.530

75.751

5.32E-39

6138.901
46.551

131.875

2.60E-54

5327.083
85.606

62.228

8.16E-41

4865.784
70.069

69.443

2.94E-42

243

D Data of Physical Properties


D.1 Moisture Content
Tab. D.1: Moisture content of oil palm wood in green condition at inner zone (IZ) along the
trunk
Sample
Code

W0
(g)

Sample Weight
W1
W2
(g)
(g)

W3
(g)

AIZ11
AIZ12
AIZ13
AIZ14
AIZ15
AIZ16

119.010
127.185
122.003
150.183
156.178
158.043

35.778
32.947
33.781
38.042
38.466
37.922

35.692
32.887
33.688
37.898
38.292
37.795

35.692
32.887
33.688
37.870
38.292
37.795

AIZ21
AIZ22
AIZ23
AIZ24
AIZ25
AIZ26

144.742
148.352
114.286
143.972
142.509
144.487

33.011
34.670
32.239
35.475
35.069
35.145

32.925
34.599
33.192
35.436
35.142
35.100

32.882
34.599
33.158
35.436
35.113
35.100

AIZ31
AIZ32
AIZ33
AIZ34
AIZ35
AIZ36

159.006
152.990
157.774
142.951
145.157
143.076

36.789
34.725
35.226
36.394
37.518
38.108

36.780
34.634
35.138
36.398
37.514
38.011

36.696
34.634
35.193
36.398
37.555
38.011

AIZ41
AIZ42
AIZ43
AIZ44
AIZ45
AIZ46

148.937
146.884
148.281
146.455
146.013
147.004

36.785
36.295
38.792
30.027
29.292
29.595

36.682
36.230
38.776
29.883
29.244
29.571

36.682
36.247
38.753
29.868
29.244
29.527

AIZ51
AIZ52
AIZ53
AIZ54
AIZ55
AIZ56

131.112
133.822
130.889
135.638
136.498
135.124

29.952
31.243
30.576
29.791
30.178
29.646

29.843
31.211
30.498
29.758
30.077
29.581

29.843
31.211
30.486
29.740
30.131
29.581

AIZ61
AIZ62
AIZ63
AIZ64
AIZ65
AIZ66

140.401
139.554
140.366
136.297
135.118
135.835

32.761
32.294
32.882
31.554
30.307
30.571

32.609
32.145
32.772
31.473
30.210
30.474

32.531
32.078
32.772
31.368
30.210
30.474

Moisture
Content
(%)

Sample
Code

233.436
286.733
262.156
296.575
307.861
318.158
284.153
340.186
328.775
244.671
306.287
305.858
311.644
306.237
333.306
341.734
348.311
292.744
286.518
276.407
313.170
306.022
305.231
282.631
390.341
399.292
397.863
346.897
339.339
328.765
329.341
356.079
353.015
356.793
343.889
331.591
335.046
328.311
334.510
347.262
345.741
337.077

AIZ71
AIZ72
AIZ73
AIZ74
AIZ75
AIZ76

139.133
140.102
141.476
128.530
127.157
123.473

30.025
29.630
28.694
25.402
27.156
27.283

29.884
29.488
28.576
25.360
27.181
27.296

29.884
29.436
28.481
25.346
27.156
27.282

AIZ81
AIZ82
AIZ83
AIZ84
AIZ85
AIZ86

118.522
122.875
121.799
127.872
127.262
122.300

24.337
26.244
24.358
25.398
25.443
25.205

24.203
26.135
24.250
25.357
25.260
25.069

24.062
26.112
24.137
25.274
25.260
25.069

AIZ91
AIZ92
AIZ93
AIZ94
AIZ95
AIZ96

125.767
127.302
120.009
131.079
137.050
136.251

23.788
24.559
22.928
22.006
23.752
24.033

23.768
24.468
22.840
21.937
23.680
24.030

23.649
24.468
22.840
21.937
23.680
23.815

AIZ10-1
AIZ10-2
AIZ10-3
AIZ10-4
AIZ10-5
AIZ10-6

129.392
121.849
129.265
116.597
119.963
120.589

31.510
32.682
33.529
20.774
20.786
20.645

31.374
32.540
33.311
20.734
20.732
20.635

31.374
32.540
33.311
20.658
20.732
20.571

AIZ11-1
AIZ11-2
AIZ11-3
AIZ11-4
AIZ11-5
AIZ11-6

140.712
137.512
129.773
110.573
124.713
106.983

32.143
32.344
32.944
23.140
24.482
17.276

32.133
32.328
32.990
23.115
24.334
17.192

32.095
32.244
32.926
23.022
24.334
17.192

AIZ12-1
AIZ12-2
AIZ12-3

104.552
110.838
103.898

16.650
16.928
22.086

16.502
16.791
22.067

16.502
16.698
21.935

W0
(g)

Sample Weight
W1
W2
(g)
(g)

Notes:
IZjk is sample from inner zone at height j and replication k
W0=sample weight in green condition; W1=sample weight after 24 hours;
W2=sample weight after 24+6 hours; W3=sample weight after 24+6+2 hours; n=69 samples; Standard Testing DIN 52 183

244

W3
(g)

Moisture
Content
(%)
365.577
375.955
396.738
407.102
368.246
352.580
377.700
392.569
370.569
404.615
405.943
403.808
387.854
394.226
431.807
420.280
425.433
497.525
478.758
472.123
454.321
312.418
274.459
288.055
464.416
478.637
486.209
384.032
338.423
326.473
294.135
380.293
412.505
522.284
379.019
533.572
563.780
373.663
490.338

D.1. Moisture Content

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties

Tab. D.2: Moisture content of oil palm wood in green condition at central zone (CZ) along the
trunk
Sample
Code

W0
(g)

Sample Weight
W1
W2
(g)
(g)

W3
(g)

ACZ11
ACZ12
ACZ13
ACZ14
ACZ15
ACZ16

130.761
130.453
133.323
163.058
171.640
176.849

40.670
43.870
42.321
61.180
66.880
69.420

40.630
43.848
42.280
61.104
66.756
69.299

40.630
43.848
42.280
61.104
66.756
69.299

ACZ21
ACZ22
ACZ23
ACZ24
ACZ25
ACZ26

178.467
175.129
164.989
146.824
146.199
149.516

72.140
70.562
65.821
49.716
49.696
52.252

72.016
70.488
65.725
49.608
49.637
52.158

72.016
70.488
65.725
49.608
49.649
52.158

ACZ31
ACZ32
ACZ33
ACZ34
ACZ35
ACZ36

153.013
155.907
154.633
143.429
141.198
137.447

54.338
54.725
55.423
35.420
33.239
35.562

54.273
54.680
55.257
35.324
33.190
32.508

54.273
54.680
55.275
35.324
33.190
32.549

ACZ41
ACZ42
ACZ43
ACZ44
ACZ45
ACZ46

148.300
145.157
146.099
144.015
144.139
143.828

52.097
46.878
49.773
36.353
37.391
29.090

51.986
46.782
49.756
36.363
37.307
39.111

52.027
46.782
49.700
36.363
37.307
39.104

ACZ51
ACZ52
ACZ53
ACZ54
ACZ55
ACZ56

136.869
136.657
131.557
147.723
144.622
145.404

36.620
37.426
37.136
34.516
35.853
35.137

36.633
37.353
37.061
34.442
35.860
35.079

36.552
37.353
37.033
34.442
35.860
35.079

ACZ61
ACZ62
ACZ63
ACZ64
ACZ65
ACZ66

136.095
137.424
136.896
129.871
132.530
132.563

37.102
36.775
37.255
30.442
31.615
32.812

36.985
36.707
37.054
30.758
31.473
32.650

36.959
36.616
37.000
30.758
31.473
32.621

Moisture
Content
(%)

Sample
Code

221.834
197.512
215.333
166.853
157.115
155.197
185.641
147.816
148.452
151.029
195.968
194.465
186.660
170.732
181.932
185.126
179.752
306.038
325.423
322.277
250.092
185.044
210.284
193.962
296.048
286.359
267.809
239.918
274.450
265.853
255.243
328.904
303.296
314.504
290.375
268.232
275.311
269.989
322.235
321.091
306.373
293.872

ACZ71
ACZ72
ACZ73
ACZ74
ACZ75
ACZ76

140.798
141.519
140.137
129.225
129.772
127.349

31.541
32.626
33.048
30.032
31.254
31.762

31.518
32.583
33.035
29.993
31.156
31.715

31.518
32.583
32.976
29.993
31.156
31.681

ACZ81
ACZ82
ACZ83
ACZ84
ACZ85
ACZ86

130.735
130.570
129.900
122.250
127.328
119.043

34.386
31.921
32.975
23.905
25.372
23.582

34.356
31.854
32.913
23.695
25.259
23.455

34.356
31.835
32.913
23.695
25.259
23.427

ACZ91
ACZ92
ACZ93
ACZ94
ACZ95
ACZ96

124.130
120.333
118.072
152.048
149.802
145.033

26.324
24.782
24.531
28.441
28.935
28.774

26.193
24.635
29.529
28.426
28.859
28.685

26.193
24.544
24.414
28.339
28.859
28.685

ACZ10-1
ACZ10-2
ACZ10-3
ACZ10-4
ACZ10-5
ACZ10-6

132.840
130.594
137.607
110.612
114.085
119.141

29.950
29.266
30.512
23.261
25.213
26.595

29.807
28.996
30.419
23.131
25.158
26.454

29.807
28.996
30.345
23.131
25.081
26.454

ACZ11-1
ACZ11-2
ACZ11-3
ACZ11-4
ACZ11-5
ACZ11-6

128.898
125.402
133.237
126.234
119.736
125.468

27.590
31.659
31.743
26.476
25.497
25.193

27.499
31.551
31.607
26.308
25.420
25.030

27.400
31.430
31.607
26.308
25.353
25.030

ACZ12-1
ACZ12-2
ACZ12-3

107.675
102.986
108.199

17.055
16.864
17.008

16.983
16.714
16.894

16.889
16.714
16.894

W0
(g)

Sample Weight
W1
W2
(g)
(g)

W3
(g)

Moisture
Content
(%)
346.723
334.334
324.967
330.851
316.523
301.973
325.895
280.530
310.146
294.677
415.932
404.090
408.144
352.253
373.905
390.275
383.624
436.533
419.082
405.606
401.504
345.667
350.386
353.475
378.198
354.866
350.370
355.494
370.431
298.988
321.543
379.831
372.275
401.270
357.390
537.545
516.166
540.458
531.390

Notes:
CZjk is sample from central zone at height j and replication k
W0=sample weight in green condition; W1=sample weight after 24 hours;
W2=sample weight after 24+6 hours; W3=sample weight after 24+6+2 hours; n=69 samples; Standard Testing DIN 52 183

245

D.1. Moisture Content

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties

Tab. D.3: Moisture content of oil palm wood in green condition at peripheral zone (PZ) along
the trunk
Sample
Code

W0
(g)

Sample Weight
W1
W2
(g)
(g)

W3
(g)

APZ11
APZ12
APZ13
APZ14
APZ15
APZ16

124.926
137.492
133.626
165.643
161.637
164.667

53.768
52.862
52.577
79.013
76.395
79.264

53.646
52.798
52.532
78.900
76.430
79.202

53.646
52.772
52.532
78.900
76.356
79.202

APZ21
APZ22
APZ23
APZ24
APZ25
APZ26

178.668
175.890
170.202
147.051
149.012
146.528

83.580
82.257
78.291
63.805
64.881
62.846

83.563
82.165
78.227
63.751
64.846
62.768

83.563
82.165
78.227
63.805
64.846
62.768

APZ31
APZ32
APZ33
APZ34
APZ35
APZ36

160.774
160.714
159.273
146.933
145.321
144.663

72.767
70.964
69.545
55.054
53.565
54.049

72.637
70.875
69.454
55.025
53.512
53.999

72.686
70.866
69.454
55.010
53.512
54.999

APZ41
APZ42
APZ43
APZ44
APZ45
APZ46

148.018
146.576
149.694
143.975
146.528
146.363

60.538
59.510
60.056
45.882
48.513
50.127

60.500
59.478
60.018
45.635
48.377
50.056

60.427
59.478
60.018
45.635
48.377
49.863

APZ51
APZ52
APZ53
APZ54
APZ55
APZ56

134.428
139.091
137.076
146.707
143.821
143.528

48.850
50.677
47.730
32.953
32.853
31.877

48.657
50.517
47.682
32.800
32.872
31.838

48.657
50.480
47.540
32.800
32.872
31.743

APZ61
APZ62
APZ63
APZ64
APZ65
APZ66

132.996
136.202
136.614
134.882
139.948
137.139

44.779
46.494
47.562
40.148
42.903
41.443

44.738
46.402
47.491
40.008
42.722
41.302

44.662
46.402
47.470
39.973
42.645
41.267

Moisture
Content
(%)

Sample
Code

132.871
160.540
154.371
109.940
111.689
107.908
129.553
113.812
114.069
117.574
130.469
129.794
133.444
123.194
121.190
126.786
129.322
167.102
171.567
163.028
146.499
144.953
146.437
149.415
215.492
202.888
193.530
175.453
176.277
175.537
188.338
347.277
337.518
352.156
262.851
197.783
193.526
187.790
237.433
228.170
232.321
212.837

APZ71
APZ72
APZ73
APZ74
APZ75
APZ76

133.710
134.935
134.879
126.971
127.311
129.174

39.567
40.304
40.275
37.304
37.956
37.252

39.428
40.194
40.225
37.233
37.789
37.121

39.373
40.194
40.179
37.163
37.733
37.121

APZ81
APZ82
APZ83
APZ84
APZ85
APZ86

122.076
131.153
137.903
125.420
128.610
133.313

37.045
42.345
47.793
28.116
28.978
28.970

37.293
42.222
47.664
28.050
28.887
28.841

37.302
42.178
47.664
28.050
28.887
28.829

APZ91
APZ92
APZ93
APZ94
APZ95
APZ96

129.105
119.338
129.158
142.710
141.671
132.566

37.987
36.512
38.874
36.068
35.646
33.370

37.943
36.388
38.725
35.826
35.667
33.245

37.847
36.388
30.725
35.826
35.588
33.245

APZ10-1
APZ10-2
APZ10-3
APZ10-4
APZ10-5
APZ10-6

140.308
149.824
146.072
110.272
114.234
115.703

39.711
42.601
42.781
28.466
29.405
30.750

39.605
42.462
42.647
28.408
29.311
30.725

39.605
42.398
42.647
28.367
29.190
30.636

APZ11-1
APZ11-2
APZ11-3
APZ11-4
APZ11-5
APZ11-6

136.458
138.540
138.542
136.912
136.343
130.890

35.079
35.180
34.090
36.041
36.643
35.114

34.960
35.110
34.066
36.006
36.560
35.099

34.960
35.110
33.954
35.948
36.467
35.099

APZ12-1
APZ12-2
APZ12-3

115.223
112.720
111.403

23.757
23.679
23.294

23.660
23.439
23.166

23.586
23.293
23.166

W0
(g)

Sample Weight
W1
W2
(g)
(g)

Notes:
P Zjk is sample from peripheral zone at height j and replication k
W0=sample weight in green condition; W1=sample weight after 24 hours;
W2=sample weight after 24+6 hours; W3=sample weight after 24+6+2 hours; n=69 samples; Standard Testing DIN 52 183

246

W3
(g)

Moisture
Content
(%)
239.598
235.709
235.695
241.660
237.400
247.981
239.674
227.264
210.951
189.323
347.130
345.218
362.427
280.385
241.123
227.960
320.368
298.342
298.086
298.755
280.772
254.268
253.375
242.514
288.733
291.346
277.670
267.985
290.326
294.588
308.029
280.861
273.880
272.917
286.767
388.523
383.922
380.890
384.445

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties

D.1. Moisture Content

247

D.1. Moisture Content

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties

Tab. D.4: Moisture content of oil palm frond in green condition


Sample
Code
AF11
AF12
AF13

Alu-pan
(g)

W0
(g)

0.526
0.545
0.520

86.795
86.737
85.026

Sample Weight
W1
W2
(g)
(g)
24.907
24.218
23.881

24.907
24.218
23.903

Moisture
Content
(%)

Sample
Code

Alu-pan
(g)

W0
(g)

Sample Weight
W1
W2
(g)
(g)

253.837
AF23-1
0.563
47.811
16.488
16.433
264.094
AF23-2
0.527
50.012
16.439
16.374
261.399
AF23-3
0.465
48.056
15.601
15.540
259.777
AF21
0.538
62.079
17.315
17.248
17.248
268.288
AF24-1
0.515
38.541
13.172
13.123
AF22
0.594
60.848
17.182
17.105
17.073
265.641
AF24-2
0.361
38.864
12.555
12.516
AF23
0.525
57.648
16.678
16.591
16.591
255.552
AF24-3
0.521
39.138
12.415
12.384
263.161
AF31
0.497
53.475
14.689
14.653
14.642
274.535
AF25-1
0.434
44.531
13.270
13.230
AF32
0.460
58.315
15.092
15.069
15.042
296.756
AF25-2
0.458
44.200
12.845
12.802
AF33
0.498
56.925
14.763
14.734
14.734
296.368
AF25-3
0.463
45.787
13.085
13.052
289.220
AF41
0.616
55.138
16.487
16.450
16.450
244.335
AF26-1
0.418
45.802
14.247
14.202
AF42
0.643
49.608
16.303
16.250
16.243
213.878
AF26-2
0.451
45.192
14.867
14.818
AF43
0.529
54.770
16.742
16.693
16.673
235.982
AF26-3
0.523
47.501
14.269
14.227
231.399
AF51
0.563
58.315
17.639
17.591
17.574
239.498
AF27-1
0.528
55.867
15.825
15.787
AF52
0.474
57.900
17.923
17.873
17.838
230.719
AF27-2
0.509
57.424
16.175
16.121
AF53
0.462
57.766
17.237
17.191
17.185
242.666
AF27-3
0.547
60.042
16.036
15.987
237.627
AF61
0.523
59.767
17.417
17.388
17.374
251.576
AF28-1
0.470
64.637
20.137
20.084
AF62
0.591
61.556
17.491
17.464
17.454
261.531
AF28-2
0.465
64.009
19.728
19.663
AF63
0.501
62.919
18.023
17.985
17.976
257.185
AF28-3
0.442
62.988
20.244
20.170
256.764
AF71
0.520
58.690
19.720
19.656
19.636
204.300
AF29-1
0.571
55.401
16.982
16.884
AF72
0.526
59.504
19.151
19.096
19.055
218.301
AF29-2
0.547
55.832
16.151
16.054
AF73
0.616
54.606
18.989
18.953
18.937
194.689
AF29-3
0.529
56.975
17.175
17.104
205.763
AF81
0.538
60.865
15.799
15.740
15.740
296.836
AF30-1
0.430
56.461
15.903
15.870
AF82
0.376
59.244
15.578
15.517
15.526
288.568
AF30-2
0.434
53.619
16.170
16.132
AF83
0.542
61.057
16.124
16.060
16.087
289.289
AF30-3
0.596
57.001
15.842
15.797
291.564
AF91
0.525
67.224
20.802
20.747
20.673
231.045
AF31-1
0.513
47.966
15.569
15.507
AF92
0.581
69.925
21.640
21.540
21.540
230.855
AF31-2
0.575
55.243
17.015
16.958
AF93
0.757
53.273
16.971
16.870
16.870
225.923
AF31-3
0.566
54.002
17.186
17.123
229.275
AF10-1
0.528
50.068
18.672
18.570
18.570
174.582
AF32-1
0.449
64.657
19.495
19.402
AF10-2
0.545
67.818
21.376
21.269
21.178
226.046
AF32-2
0.443
61.892
18.998
18.921
AF10-3
0.556
58.041
15.625
15.536
15.500
284.669
AF32-3
0.356
62.642
18.736
18.660
228.432
AF11-1
0.381
54.707
16.663
16.583
16.583
235.304
AF33-1
0.464
47.013
15.401
15.382
AF11-2
0.421
55.636
16.924
16.879
16.846
236.164
AF33-2
0.428
49.447
15.604
15.579
AF11-3
0.469
53.961
17.331
17.265
17.251
218.746
AF33-3
0.432
48.055
15.172
15.110
230.072
AF12-1
0.580
47.155
14.958
14.909
14.909
225.040
AF34-1
0.520
51.731
19.141
19.045
AF12-2
0.616
47.369
14.654
14.610
14.610
234.093
AF34-2
0.529
56.511
19.145
19.040
AF12-3
0.603
47.896
14.500
14.451
14.526
239.675
AF34-3
0.537
56.344
18.826
18.719
232.936
AF13-1
0.533
60.440
16.722
16.626
16.626
272.255
AF35-1
0.532
51.166
17.756
17.694
AF13-2
0.522
44.610
12.840
12.765
12.765
260.108
AF35-2
0.526
52.377
17.383
17.327
AF13-3
0.532
54.878
15.156
15.090
15.063
274.000
AF35-3
0.534
50.558
17.181
17.117
268.788
AF14-1
0.557
49.810
15.170
15.132
15.164
237.188
AF36-1
0.689
55.482
17.948
17.894
AF14-2
0.560
46.718
14.569
14.538
14.563
229.629
AF36-2
0.529
57.746
17.445
17.375
AF14-3
0.608
50.046
15.111
15.069
15.098
241.187
AF36-3
0.533
56.153
17.362
17.285
236.001
AF15-1
0.528
41.722
12.853
12.826
12.812
235.347
AF37-1
0.340
43.204
14.316
14.238
AF15-2
0.517
44.611
13.374
13.350
13.328
244.189
AF37-2
0.433
47.780
14.895
14.853
AF15-3
0.616
44.900
13.599
13.579
13.563
242.041
AF37-3
0.435
47.546
14.728
14.691
240.525
AF16-1
0.501
44.276
14.884
14.843
14.843
205.222
AF38-1
0.530
39.018
14.604
14.549
AF16-2
0.530
42.073
14.548
14.526
14.512
197.118
AF38-2
0.553
38.347
14.076
14.018
AF16-3
0.500
44.223
14.828
14.799
14.777
206.248
AF38-3
0.547
40.503
14.815
14.748
202.863
AF17-1
0.455
57.370
16.451
16.417
16.401
256.923
AF39-1
0.525
47.016
14.630
14.538
AF17-2
0.449
57.683
16.459
16.392
16.374
259.397
AF39-2
0.532
46.693
14.211
14.148
AF17-3
0.404
60.314
17.220
17.175
17.131
258.163
AF39-3
0.534
46.643
14.446
14.366
258.161
AF18-1
0.517
47.198
13.799
13.762
13.733
253.216
AF40-1
0.552
59.756
20.363
20.266
AF18-2
0.524
46.717
13.995
13.945
13.931
244.544
AF40-2
0.554
51.889
16.469
16.383
AF18-3
0.565
44.498
13.872
13.848
13.831
231.170
AF40-3
0.539
51.409
16.377
16.885
242.977
AF19-1
0.505
49.338
12.919
12.880
12.909
293.688
AF41-1
0.553
44.895
15.812
15.731
AF19-2
0.295
48.552
12.337
12.317
12.317
301.406
AF41-2
0.555
43.496
16.039
15.959
AF19-3
0.462
44.535
12.204
12.164
12.192
275.729
AF41-3
0.569
48.445
16.510
16.446
290.274
AF20-1
0.413
58.361
16.849
16.815
16.815
253.298
AF42-1
0.540
42.239
13.356
13.296
AF20-2
0.452
58.761
16.494
16.435
16.485
263.681
AF42-2
0.521
43.535
14.066
14.006
AF20-3
0.435
56.886
16.040
15.994
15.994
262.819
AF42-3
0.534
44.742
13.407
13.346
259.933
AF21-1
0.547
52.121
18.443
18.397
18.397
188.930
AF43-1
0.564
48.585
16.698
16.604
AF21-2
0.650
53.850
18.053
18.027
18.027
206.152
AF43-2
0.555
46.608
16.714
16.687
AF21-3
0.765
52.100
17.832
17.779
17.821
200.979
AF43-3
0.571
47.150
16.010
15.915
198.687
AF22-1
0.423
47.030
15.423
15.400
15.430
210.568
AF22-2
0.437
44.764
15.079
15.029
15.062
203.091
AF22-3
0.437
44.714
14.706
14.671
14.683
210.803
208.154
F jk is oil palm frond at number sample j and sample portion k, where k value 1=base part; 2=middle part and 3=tip part of the frond
W0=sample weight in green condition; W1=sample weight after 24 hours;
W2=sample weight after 24+6 hours; W3=sample weight after 24+6+2 hours; n=43 samples with 5cm in length; Standard Testing DIN 52 183

248

24.979
24.236
23.938

W3
(g)

W3
(g)
16.388
16.398
15.562
13.154
12.551
12.384
13.255
12.827
13.052
14.212
14.818
14.227
15.762
16.102
15.987
20.058
19.643
20.124
16.836
16.054
17.117
15.830
16.118
15.797
15.490
16.935
17.109
19.426
18.959
18.678
15.342
15.555
15.110
19.011
19.040
18.719
17.694
17.338
17.117
17.894
17.391
17.302
14.253
14.831
14.667
14.569
14.049
14.689
14.538
14.105
14.342
20.202
16.388
16.291
15.691
15.962
16.405
13.265
14.006
13.359
16.825
16.674
15.910

Moisture
Content
(%)
198.566
211.795
215.235
208.532
200.862
215.857
225.525
214.081
243.944
253.642
260.029
252.538
229.013
211.415
242.805
227.744
263.260
265.004
285.330
271.198
227.583
231.338
217.783
225.568
237.104
256.516
240.282
244.634
263.838
239.104
271.061
258.001
216.839
234.156
223.013
224.669
238.346
231.870
239.952
236.723
212.871
224.050
224.452
220.458
176.951
202.426
206.935
195.437
195.036
208.417
201.658
201.703
218.471
239.325
231.683
229.827
208.086
228.844
231.022
222.651
174.151
180.039
182.534
178.908
231.770
240.094
233.930
235.265
201.293
224.207
222.943
216.148
192.918
178.711
202.324
191.318
227.694
218.977
244.702
230.457
195.314
185.706
203.664
194.895

D.1. Moisture Content

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties

Tab. D.5: Moisture content of oil palm leaves which attached at frond in green condition
Sample
Code

Alu-pan

Sample Weight
W1
W2
(g)
(g)

(g)

W0
(g)

W3
(g)

AL11
AL12
AL13

0.467
0.508
0.509

30.970
34.900
62.330

22.910
69.978
88.039

22.890
23.990
41.320

22.890
23.640
41.210

AL21
AL22
AL23

0.538
0.437
0.527

42.680
35.540
36.020

72.564
61.851
53.256

31.750
27.560
27.300

31.750
27.560
27.300

AL31
AL32
AL33

0.542
0.629
0.568

50.150
42.930
42.370

63.504
42.431
25.066

40.630
32.620
32.750

40.630
32.620
32.750

AL41
AL42
AL43

0.529
0.626
0.506

77.390
47.230
41.430

56.520
97.676

44.440
27.450

44.440
27.200
33.510

AL51
AL52
AL53

0.560
0.537
0.533

39.160
40.390
56.680

45.624
78.813
86.559

27.500
27.020
39.710

27.500
27.020
39.710

AL61
AL62
AL63

0.454
0.551
0.531

39.180
57.310
32.910

64.863
87.195
76.937

25.640
37.900
24.350

25.470
37.900
24.350

AL71
AL72
AL73

0.526
0.543
0.540

36.990
33.470
36.900

32.847
15.174
31.101

35.640
30.960
33.360

35.640
30.960
33.360

AL81
AL82
AL83

0.528
0.493
0.513

54.700
39.330
34.410

31.974
91.192
92.135

33.890
25.400
23.980

33.890
25.400
23.980

AL91
AL92
AL93

0.576
0.532
0.541

34.130
36.700
37.670

82.546
16.641
16.798

25.590
28.180
29.600

25.590
28.180
29.600

AL10-1
AL10-2
AL10-3

0.535
0.470
0.537

30.000
32.470
30.230

14.386
27.443
29.776

29.120
29.720
27.880

28.890
29.720
27.880

AL11-1
AL11-2
AL11-3

0.556
0.529
0.527

36.460
51.300
38.470

69.836
88.229
68.362

24.930
35.760
28.880

24.930
35.760
28.880

AL12-1
AL12-2
AL12-3

0.580
0.474
0.624

40.150
43.180
36.330

62.939
22.670
15.088

38.530
33.570
31.760

38.530
33.570
31.760

AL13-1
AL13-2
AL13-3

0.567
0.452
0.383

63.090
29.670
30.130

42.359
22.291
23.677

57.260
29.110
20.900

57.260
28.510
20.900

AL14-1
AL14-2
AL14-3

0.569
0.468
0.406

40.450
46.270
36.130

17.926
73.382
68.992

29.020
32.060
23.770

29.020
32.060
23.770

AL15-1
AL15-2
AL15-3

0.383
0.433
0.434

23.110
32.040
30.350

83.308
39.385
90.247

20.410
22.990
22.150

20.410
22.990
22.150

AL16-1
AL16-2
AL16-3

0.452
0.650
0.536

22.840
32.600
25.730

70.410
33.023
62.756

21.690
26.530
19.580

21.690
26.530
19.580

AL17-1
AL17-2
AL17-3

0.459
0.521
0.474

34.020
35.850
71.740

80.942
72.079
95.049

24.360
23.590
37.340

24.360
23.590
37.340

AL18-1
AL18-2
AL18-3

0.538
0.598
0.558

34.200
33.630
38.490

120.061
16.795
18.032

26.100
26.240
29.400

26.100
26.000
29.400

AL19-1
AL19-2
AL19-3

0.530
0.449
0.546

30.520
28.640
30.700

19.605
22.874
41.572

22.220
24.720
20.210

22.000
24.720
20.050

AL20-1
AL20-2
AL20-3

0.483
0.535
0.462

38.310
29.160
29.340

110.418
23.570
50.542

27.740
24.720
23.340

27.740
24.720
23.340

AL21-1
AL21-2
AL21-3

0.445
0.533
0.610

43.370
37.030
39.520

56.731
15.467
32.487

33.350
33.280
31.510

33.350
33.280
31.510

AL22-1
AL22-2
AL22-3

0.577
0.535
0.441

49.780
32.270
39.640

55.529
28.564
38.142

44.490
28.710
30.540

44.490
28.710
30.540

Moisture
Content
(%)

Sample
Code

Alu-pan

36.034
48.677
51.891
45.534
35.019
29.422
32.570
32.337
23.748
32.228
29.892
28.623
75.038
75.374
23.997
58.137
43.281
50.485
43.316
45.694
54.805
51.969
35.938
47.571
3.845
8.252
10.786
7.628
62.376
55.928
44.445
54.250
34.141
30.816
27.771
30.909
3.915
9.402
8.595
7.304
47.305
44.109
33.824
41.746
4.269
29.037
14.678
15.994
10.283
4.134
44.987
19.802
40.174
44.980
52.902
46.019
13.482
40.121
37.760
30.454
5.415
23.454
32.294
20.388
40.417
53.145
93.311
62.291
31.688
30.037
31.517
31.080
39.683
16.151
54.604
36.813
38.779
18.358
26.226
27.788
30.451
11.451
25.922
22.608
12.047
12.635
30.234
18.305

AL23-1
AL23-2
AL23-3

0.502
0.424
0.618

35.610
41.930
37.240

51.703
20.916
18.479

26.200
31.190
30.860

26.200
31.190
30.640

AL24-1
AL24-2
AL24-3

0.531
0.344
0.441

25.290
35.450
29.720

52.249
29.162
53.663

25.160
26.510
21.780

24.890
26.510
21.780

AL25-1
AL25-2
AL25-3

0.549
0.547
0.335

25.420
33.980
28.980

71.100
60.784
87.218

21.300
23.620
19.780

21.300
23.620
19.780

AL26-1
AL26-2
AL26-3

0.457
0.583
0.435

35.820
34.580
39.260

76.385
26.528
26.481

33.400
33.170
31.070

32.880
33.170
31.260

AL27-1
AL27-2
AL27-3

0.532
0.695
0.532

42.370
43.780
36.020

45.894
14.019
23.963

33.710
34.390
25.840

33.710
34.200
25.840

AL28-1
AL28-2
AL28-3

0.541
0.560
0.527

42.470
30.390
30.700

26.803
18.159
26.942

32.890
29.540
28.420

32.890
29.540
28.420

AL29-1
AL29-2
AL29-3

0.565
0.569
0.565

31.840
26.470
31.840

32.613
29.078
56.165

22.670
22.640
22.670

22.570
22.640
22.570

AL30-1
AL30-2
AL30-3

0.457
0.583
0.450

35.820
34.580
37.470

29.078
26.528
26.481

33.400
33.170
31.380

32.880
33.170
31.380

AL31-1
AL31-2
AL31-3

0.469
0.618
0.514

39.530
39.870
38.290

39.397
20.285
32.547

29.240
36.260
30.400

29.240
36.260
30.400

AL32-1
AL32-2
AL32-3

0.530
0.524
0.316

42.110
39.560
29.200

51.584
22.698
50.820

39.620
31.470
21.340

39.620
31.470
21.340

AL33-1
AL33-2
AL33-3

0.510
0.343
0.608

33.800
36.170
40.000

60.616
32.862
72.238

30.540
24.430
27.360

30.540
24.430
27.360

AL34-1
AL34-2
AL34-3

0.452
0.729
0.690

27.330
51.160
45.770

87.970
23.164
12.829

26.950
43.770
36.010

26.710
43.770
36.010

AL35-1
AL35-2
AL35-3

0.535
0.283
0.546

38.980
27.640
32.100

22.879
18.966
25.522

29.710
24.850
30.400

29.710
24.850
30.400

AL36-1
AL36-2
AL36-3

0.558
0.595
0.533

31.660
32.240
26.840

28.709
28.699
44.186

30.180
28.310
22.330

30.180
28.310
22.180

AL37-1
AL37-2
AL37-3

0.534
0.521
0.553

38.480
38.380
35.220

59.288
23.934
14.806

28.320
29.930
29.610

28.320
29.930
29.610

AL38-1
AL38-2
AL38-3

0.618
0.563
0.542

35.880
32.800
32.730

46.262
15.742
15.210

28.540
25.420
23.750

28.540
25.420
23.580

AL39-1
AL39-2
AL39-3

0.537
0.420
0.351

38.980
39.740
40.420

25.165
16.667
58.327

30.210
29.300
26.880

30.210
29.300
26.880

AL40-1
AL40-2
AL40-3

0.510
0.594
0.477

42.360
37.090
67.910

72.957
19.719
32.891

32.130
33.850
46.730

32.130
33.850
46.730

AL41-1
AL41-2
AL41-3

0.429
0.456
0.533

33.250
32.010
31.710

61.845
30.597
47.921

29.750
26.200
24.830

29.750
26.200
24.830

AL42-1
AL42-2
AL42-3

0.921
0.302
0.278

22.070
24.570
25.770

62.615
142.527
20.796

18.310
23.360
18.850

18.310
23.360
18.850

AL43-1
AL43-2
AL43-3

0.458
0.319
0.528

24.320
25.120
39.310

60.361
91.195
123.091

17.300
14.450
22.850

17.300
14.450
22.850

(g)

W0
(g)

Sample Weight
W1
W2
(g)
(g)

W3
(g)

Moisture
Content
(%)
36.618
34.909
21.984
31.170
1.642
34.166
37.209
24.339
19.854
44.901
47.313
37.356
9.068
4.327
25.953
13.116
26.102
28.593
40.224
31.640
29.615
2.933
8.174
13.574
42.127
17.353
42.127
33.869
9.068
4.327
19.690
11.028
35.765
10.129
26.400
24.098
6.370
26.142
37.386
23.299
10.856
48.740
47.249
35.615
2.361
17.170
27.633
15.721
31.774
11.357
5.694
16.275
4.996
14.180
21.527
13.568
36.565
28.733
19.307
28.202
26.288
29.690
39.717
31.898
29.555
36.150
51.038
38.915
32.353
9.743
45.792
29.296
11.937
22.568
28.316
20.940
21.623
5.248
37.260
21.377
41.682
75.508
73.739
63.643

Notes:
Ljk is oil palm leaves from frond at number sample j and sample portion k, where k value 1=from base part of the frond;
2=from middle part of the frond and 3=from tip part of the frond
W0=sample weight in green condition; W1=sample weight after 24 hours;
W2=sample weight after 24+6 hours; W3=sample weight after 24+6+2 hours; n=43 samples; Standard Testing DIN 52 183

249

D.1. Moisture Content

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties


.

Tab. D.6: Moisture content of oil palm root in green condition


Sample
Code
AR1
AR2
AR3
AR4
AR5
AR6
AR7
AR8
AR9
AR10
AR11
AR12
AR13
AR14
AR15

Alu-pan
(g)
0.672
0.676
0.676
0.711
0.676
0.601
0.670
0.712
0.653
0.668
0.678
0.658
0.650
0.646
0.673

W0
(g)
8.523
9.639
8.724
9.060
8.252
9.655
9.092
9.327
9.278
8.828
8.334
8.146
8.136
9.325
8.520

Sample Weight
W1
W2
(g)
(g)
8.155 8.154
9.168 9.155
8.402 8.381
8.762 8.740
7.964 7.958
9.140 9.121
8.711 8.687
8.883 8.869
8.863 8.872
8.490 8.469
8.098 8.083
7.877 7.860
7.845 7.841
8.896 8.872
8.211 8.155

W3
(g)
8.131
9.155
8.381
8.740
7.958
9.121
8.670
8.869
8.854
8.469
8.071
7.860
7.820
8.865
8.150
Average

Moisture
Content
(%)
5.255
5.708
4.452
3.986
4.037
6.268
5.275
5.615
5.170
4.602
3.557
3.971
4.407
5.597
4.949
4.857

Notes:
Lj is oil palm root sample number j
W0=sample weight in green condition; W1=sample weight after 24 hours;
W2=sample weight after 24+6 hours; W3=sample weight after 24+6+2 hours;
n=15 samples; Standard Testing DIN 52 183

250

D.2. Density

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties

D.2 Density
Tab. D.7: Density of dried wood of oil palm at inner zone (IZ)
Sample
Code

Specimen Dimension
W2
W
(mm)
(mm)

L1
(mm)

L2
(mm)

L
(mm)

W1
(mm)

T1
(mm)

T2
(mm)

T
(mm)

V
(cm3 )

BIZ1-1
BIZ1-2
BIZ1-3
BIZ1-4
BIZ1-5
BIZ1-6
BIZ1-7
BIZ1-8
BIZ1-9
BIZ1-10

32.57
32.02
36.52
32.06
32.14
31.43
36.82
32.03
31.85
35.95

32.54
32.10
36.35
32.09
32.02
32.07
36.62
31.90
32.02
35.68

32.56
32.06
36.44
32.08
32.08
31.75
36.72
31.97
31.94
35.82

32.58
32.44
32.39
32.33
32.78
31.93
31.73
31.91
32.37
32.32

32.23
32.33
32.17
32.24
32.66
32.07
32.03
31.86
32.33
32.09

32.41
32.39
32.28
32.29
32.72
32.00
31.88
31.89
32.35
32.21

32.10
31.82
32.04
31.97
32.00
32.23
32.04
31.98
31.96
31.89

32.28
31.70
32.06
32.09
31.69
31.95
32.16
31.99
32.42
31.91

32.19
31.76
32.05
32.03
31.85
32.09
32.10
31.99
32.19
31.90

33.959
32.975
37.695
33.168
33.426
32.603
37.577
32.599
33.255
36.794

BIZ3-1
BIZ3-2
BIZ3-3
BIZ3-4
BIZ3-5
BIZ3-6
BIZ3-7
BIZ3-8
BIZ3-9
BIZ3-10

32.06
32.28
32.13
32.58
32.01
32.78
32.40
32.36
32.16
31.85

32.08
32.37
32.10
31.97
32.19
32.95
32.17
32.21
31.98
32.11

32.07
32.33
32.12
32.28
32.10
32.87
32.29
32.29
32.07
31.98

32.03
37.46
31.96
32.27
31.98
32.29
31.89
32.61
31.60
32.69

32.08
31.93
31.61
32.10
31.91
32.26
32.43
33.18
31.19
32.83

32.06
34.70
31.79
32.19
31.95
32.28
32.16
32.90
31.40
32.76

32.58
32.16
36.29
32.04
35.64
31.94
32.12
31.91
31.10
32.68

32.28
31.88
35.80
32.14
35.47
32.30
31.77
31.72
32.25
31.62

32.43
32.02
36.05
32.09
35.56
32.12
31.95
31.82
31.68
32.15

33.338
35.911
36.794
33.334
36.459
34.070
33.168
33.788
31.892
33.682

BIZ5-1
BIZ5-2
BIZ5-3
BIZ5-4
BIZ5-5
BIZ5-6
BIZ5-7
BIZ5-8
BIZ5-9
BIZ5-10

32.26
32.14
31.41
32.57
31.96
31.67
31.83
32.16
32.31
32.45

32.53
32.00
32.12
32.12
31.65
31.85
31.83
32.67
32.55
32.55

32.40
32.07
31.77
32.35
31.81
31.76
31.83
32.42
32.43
32.50

32.91
31.94
31.52
31.60
32.12
32.04
32.19
31.42
32.15
32.42

32.82
31.43
31.96
31.72
32.16
32.01
32.27
32.04
32.10
32.31

32.87
31.69
31.74
31.66
32.14
32.03
32.23
31.73
32.13
32.37

31.97
32.12
32.27
31.41
31.63
31.60
32.26
32.14
32.18
32.37

32.27
32.21
32.15
31.40
31.78
31.87
32.56
32.30
32.90
32.37

32.12
32.17
32.21
31.41
31.71
31.74
32.41
32.22
32.54
32.37

34.197
32.684
32.475
32.160
32.409
32.278
33.249
33.139
33.901
34.049

BIZ7-1
BIZ7-2
BIZ7-3
BIZ7-4
BIZ7-5
BIZ7-6
BIZ7-7
BIZ7-8
BIZ7-9
BIZ7-10

31.91
31.75
32.23
32.29
31.96
32.24
31.90
32.12
32.30
32.11

31.61
31.89
32.20
32.24
32.14
32.40
32.26
32.11
32.02
32.37

31.76
31.82
32.22
32.27
32.05
32.32
32.08
32.12
32.16
32.24

31.99
32.17
31.53
32.19
32.44
32.32
31.81
32.10
32.17
32.84

31.66
32.14
31.53
31.92
32.86
32.20
32.05
31.93
32.47
32.06

31.83
32.16
31.53
32.06
32.65
32.26
31.93
32.02
32.32
32.45

32.79
32.06
32.84
31.89
32.01
32.13
32.33
32.08
33.10
32.01

32.74
31.96
32.17
31.77
32.05
32.08
32.14
31.98
33.48
32.72

32.77
32.01
32.51
31.83
32.03
32.11
32.24
32.03
33.29
32.37

33.118
32.752
33.017
32.920
33.517
33.474
33.019
32.932
34.602
33.860

BIZ9-1
BIZ9-2
BIZ9-3
BIZ9-4
BIZ9-5
BIZ9-6
BIZ9-7
BIZ9-8
BIZ9-9
BIZ9-10

32.27
32.33
32.35
31.95
31.23
32.24
31.71
32.99
31.95
31.16

32.19
32.14
32.50
30.94
31.51
32.00
31.61
33.66
32.32
32.11

32.23
32.24
32.43
31.45
31.37
32.12
31.66
33.33
32.14
31.64

32.30
32.58
32.51
32.04
31.77
32.69
31.79
32.12
32.23
32.01

32.20
32.41
32.18
32.22
31.88
32.20
31.39
32.30
32.27
31.89

32.25
32.50
32.35
32.13
31.83
32.45
31.59
32.21
32.25
31.95

32.50
32.21
32.38
32.39
31.97
32.70
33.50
32.51
32.24
31.90

32.40
32.24
32.71
32.22
32.31
32.27
33.42
32.70
32.59
31.98

32.45
32.23
32.55
32.31
32.14
32.49
33.46
32.61
32.42
31.94

33.729
33.755
34.133
32.639
32.087
33.854
33.465
34.998
33.593
32.283

Weight

Density

(g)

(g/cm3 )

5.961
5.771
6.694
6.411
6.051
6.120
6.709
5.932
5.831
6.387
Average
6.304
6.457
6.712
5.966
6.868
6.026
6.455
6.034
5.621
6.034
Average
6.556
6.400
6.277
5.887
6.095
5.950
6.792
6.417
6.288
6.318
Average
6.072
6.248
6.315
6.280
5.912
6.647
6.531
6.005
6.161
5.939
Average
4.800
5.357
5.352
5.005
5.268
5.649
5.640
5.634
5.408
4.849
Average

0.1755
0.1750
0.1776
0.1933
0.1810
0.1877
0.1785
0.1820
0.1753
0.1736
0.1800
0.1891
0.1798
0.1824
0.1790
0.1884
0.1769
0.1946
0.1786
0.1763
0.1791
0.1824
0.1917
0.1958
0.1933
0.1831
0.1881
0.1843
0.2043
0.1936
0.1855
0.1856
0.1905
0.1833
0.1908
0.1913
0.1908
0.1764
0.1986
0.1978
0.1823
0.1781
0.1754
0.1865
0.1423
0.1587
0.1568
0.1533
0.1642
0.1669
0.1685
0.1610
0.1610
0.1502
0.1583

251

D.2. Density

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties


Tab. D.8: Density of dried wood of oil palm at central zone (CZ)
Sample
Code

252

Specimen Dimension
W2
W
(mm)
(mm)

L1
(mm)

L2
(mm)

L
(mm)

W1
(mm)

T1
(mm)

T2
(mm)

T
(mm)

V
(cm )

BCZ1-1
BCZ1-2
BCZ1-3
BCZ1-4
BCZ1-5
BCZ1-6
BCZ1-7
BCZ1-8
BCZ1-9
BCZ1-10

32.69
32.07
32.32
32.10
32.22
32.28
32.18
31.69
32.22
32.22

32.47
32.08
32.38
32.11
32.16
32.10
32.45
31.75
32.25
32.32

32.58
32.08
32.35
32.11
32.19
32.19
32.32
31.72
32.24
32.27

32.20
32.30
32.24
31.76
31.95
32.42
32.27
31.45
32.68
32.75

31.91
32.11
32.18
31.83
32.10
32.26
32.30
31.65
32.18
32.19

32.06
32.21
32.21
31.80
32.03
32.34
32.29
31.55
32.43
32.47

32.12
31.68
31.86
31.84
32.65
31.94
31.90
32.09
31.75
32.25

32.02
31.50
32.05
31.88
31.85
31.89
31.74
31.88
32.28
32.12

32.07
31.59
31.96
31.86
32.25
31.92
31.82
31.99
32.02
32.19

33.492
32.632
33.297
32.522
33.246
33.224
33.197
32.010
33.468
33.724

BCZ3-1
BCZ3-2
BCZ3-3
BCZ3-4
BCZ3-5
BCZ3-6
BCZ3-7
BCZ3-8
BCZ3-9
BCZ3-10

30.68
30.31
32.15
32.13
32.00
32.33
32.54
32.30
32.43
32.38

30.89
30.07
32.03
31.87
31.97
32.12
32.25
32.38
32.26
32.46

30.79
30.19
32.09
32.00
31.99
32.23
32.40
32.34
32.35
32.42

32.20
31.93
31.42
31.19
32.12
32.25
32.14
32.36
31.52
31.84

32.55
31.79
31.54
31.33
31.14
32.60
32.93
31.93
32.47
31.92

32.38
31.86
31.48
31.26
31.63
32.43
32.54
32.15
32.00
31.88

32.34
32.08
31.76
32.02
31.38
31.16
31.16
32.60
32.26
31.89

32.22
32.20
32.12
32.17
31.48
31.61
31.61
32.91
31.92
31.99

32.28
32.14
31.94
32.10
31.43
31.39
31.39
32.76
32.09
31.94

32.172
30.914
32.266
32.105
31.797
32.794
33.079
34.051
33.209
33.012

BCZ5-1
BCZ5-2
BCZ5-3
BCZ5-4
BCZ5-5
BCZ5-6
BCZ5-7
BCZ5-8
BCZ5-9
BCZ5-10

30.52
32.06
32.91
31.90
32.89
32.56
32.11
31.92
32.56
30.85

30.46
32.01
33.07
31.95
32.04
32.60
32.34
32.06
32.41
31.13

30.49
32.04
32.99
31.93
32.47
32.58
32.23
31.99
32.49
30.99

31.93
31.52
31.58
31.92
32.05
31.97
31.86
31.93
32.33
32.23

31.75
32.06
31.57
31.98
32.17
31.62
32.14
31.72
32.35
31.89

31.84
31.79
31.58
31.95
32.11
31.80
32.00
31.83
32.34
32.06

31.74
32.39
32.03
32.09
31.85
32.21
31.87
32.09
30.85
31.77

31.52
32.28
31.67
32.11
32.00
32.22
32.60
31.09
30.55
31.69

31.63
32.34
31.85
32.10
31.93
32.22
32.24
31.59
30.70
31.73

30.706
32.930
33.177
32.742
33.280
33.371
33.241
32.161
32.252
31.525

BCZ7-1
BCZ7-2
BCZ7-3
BCZ7-4
BCZ7-5
BCZ7-6
BCZ7-7
BCZ7-8
BCZ7-9
BCZ7-10

31.54
32.27
31.92
31.60
32.08
31.91
31.89
31.59
32.24
31.60

32.09
32.24
31.87
31.81
32.06
31.63
32.09
31.55
32.26
31.63

31.82
32.26
31.90
31.71
32.07
31.77
31.99
31.57
32.25
31.62

31.87
31.92
31.89
31.97
32.05
32.16
31.93
32.06
32.06
32.22

31.63
31.85
32.00
31.57
32.05
32.24
32.04
31.80
32.02
32.16

31.75
31.89
31.95
31.77
32.05
32.20
31.99
31.93
32.04
32.19

31.87
31.86
31.50
32.05
32.33
31.85
32.27
32.17
31.97
31.93

31.80
32.03
31.74
32.67
31.99
32.86
32.35
32.22
31.95
32.45

31.84
31.95
31.62
32.36
32.16
32.36
32.31
32.20
31.96
32.19

32.157
32.854
32.217
32.595
33.055
33.099
33.060
32.454
33.024
32.759

BCZ9-1
BCZ9-2
BCZ9-3
BCZ9-4
BCZ9-5
BCZ9-6
BCZ9-7
BCZ9-8
BCZ9-9
BCZ9-10

32.30
32.05
31.84
32.01
32.27
31.92
32.07
32.37
31.97
31.78

32.45
32.16
31.82
31.81
32.11
31.57
32.24
32.26
31.83
31.69

32.38
32.11
31.83
31.91
32.19
31.75
32.16
32.32
31.90
31.74

32.21
31.60
32.37
32.12
31.42
31.95
32.02
32.07
31.61
32.27

31.95
31.41
32.52
31.60
31.62
32.31
31.64
32.02
31.44
32.44

32.08
31.51
32.45
31.86
31.52
32.13
31.83
32.05
31.53
32.36

32.32
31.18
31.64
31.25
31.60
31.43
31.97
32.26
32.35
32.01

31.63
31.30
31.70
32.07
32.23
32.05
31.98
31.81
32.28
32.16

31.98
31.24
31.67
31.66
31.92
31.74
31.98
32.04
32.32
32.09

33.209
31.598
32.706
32.187
32.382
32.374
32.726
33.173
32.497
32.944

Weight

Density

(g)

(g/cm3 )

8.347
6.605
6.737
6.315
7.914
6.998
6.110
10.853
8.303
6.285
Average
6.027
5.541
6.053
6.431
6.202
7.230
6.692
6.204
6.355
6.989
Average
6.795
6.803
7.136
7.440
6.801
7.187
6.799
6.980
6.503
6.698
Average
6.728
7.712
6.800
6.798
6.931
6.503
6.703
6.650
6.627
6.739
Average
5.748
5.098
5.459
5.463
5.398
5.313
5.499
5.622
5.267
5.411
Average

0.2492
0.2024
0.2023
0.1942
0.2380
0.2106
0.1841
0.3391
0.2481
0.1864
0.2254
0.1873
0.1792
0.1876
0.2003
0.1950
0.2205
0.2023
0.1822
0.1914
0.2117
0.1958
0.2213
0.2066
0.2151
0.2272
0.2044
0.2154
0.2045
0.2170
0.2016
0.2125
0.2126
0.2092
0.2347
0.2111
0.2086
0.2097
0.1965
0.2028
0.2049
0.2007
0.2057
0.2084
0.1731
0.1613
0.1669
0.1697
0.1667
0.1641
0.1680
0.1695
0.1621
0.1642
0.1666

D.2. Density

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties


Tab. D.9: Density of dried wood of oil palm at peripheral zone (PZ)
Sample
Code

Specimen Dimension
W2
W
(mm)
(mm)

L1
(mm)

L2
(mm)

L
(mm)

W1
(mm)

T1
(mm)

T2
(mm)

T
(mm)

V
(cm )

BPZ1-1
BPZ1-2
BPZ1-3
BPZ1-4
BPZ1-5
BPZ1-6
BPZ1-7
BPZ1-8
BPZ1-9
BPZ1-10

32.17
32.07
32.28
32.30
32.47
32.36
32.08
32.22
32.56
32.10

32.18
31.71
32.06
32.27
32.34
32.89
32.03
32.28
32.09
32.08

32.18
31.89
32.17
32.29
32.41
32.63
32.06
32.25
32.33
32.09

32.70
32.33
32.20
32.15
32.08
31.68
32.22
31.44
31.73
32.12

32.74
32.56
32.09
32.12
32.09
31.69
32.05
31.63
32.14
32.09

32.72
32.45
32.15
32.14
32.09
31.69
32.14
31.54
31.94
32.11

32.03
32.37
32.05
31.76
32.92
32.09
32.20
32.02
32.27
32.13

32.29
32.51
31.94
31.79
32.08
32.22
32.81
32.15
32.39
32.19

32.16
32.44
32.00
31.78
32.50
32.16
32.51
32.09
32.33
32.16

33.857
33.565
33.086
32.966
33.791
33.239
33.483
32.631
33.374
33.133

BPZ3-1
BPZ3-2
BPZ3-3
BPZ3-4
BPZ3-5
BPZ3-6
BPZ3-7
BPZ3-8
BPZ3-9
BPZ3-10

32.09
32.23
31.91
32.12
32.49
32.03
32.14
32.13
31.91
32.03

32.29
31.84
31.89
32.36
32.14
32.10
32.16
32.14
31.98
31.99

32.19
32.04
31.90
32.24
32.32
32.07
32.15
32.14
31.95
32.01

32.23
32.03
32.20
31.97
31.85
32.09
31.96
32.04
31.92
32.28

32.24
31.90
32.55
31.88
31.84
32.04
32.32
32.35
32.24
33.11

32.24
31.97
32.38
31.93
31.85
32.07
32.14
32.20
32.08
32.70

32.11
31.71
31.39
32.02
32.42
31.94
32.05
32.02
31.71
32.12

31.89
31.82
30.79
32.04
32.17
31.78
32.08
31.86
31.65
32.00

32.00
31.77
31.09
32.03
32.30
31.86
32.07
31.94
31.68
32.06

33.205
32.527
32.109
32.967
33.234
32.757
33.133
33.045
32.466
33.553

BPZ5-1
BPZ5-2
BPZ5-3
BPZ5-4
BPZ5-5
BPZ5-6
BPZ5-7
BPZ5-8
BPZ5-9
BPZ5-10

32.27
31.97
32.08
31.94
32.00
31.85
30.09
32.05
32.10
32.12

32.24
31.96
32.11
31.92
31.96
32.01
32.01
32.27
32.57
34.27

32.26
31.97
32.10
31.93
31.98
31.93
31.05
32.16
32.34
33.20

32.33
31.36
32.38
32.09
32.04
32.11
32.84
32.56
32.10
32.10

32.25
31.43
32.33
32.10
32.10
32.14
32.12
32.15
32.10
32.82

32.29
31.40
32.36
32.10
32.07
32.13
32.48
32.36
32.10
32.46

32.08
32.42
32.03
32.15
31.52
31.72
31.99
31.51
31.80
31.90

32.22
32.26
31.84
32.48
31.66
31.52
32.15
31.54
31.82
31.59

32.15
32.34
31.94
32.32
31.59
31.62
32.07
31.53
31.81
31.75

33.485
32.455
33.162
33.116
32.399
32.434
32.343
32.803
33.017
34.206

BPZ7-1
BPZ7-2
BPZ7-3
BPZ7-4
BPZ7-5
BPZ7-6
BPZ7-7
BPZ7-8
BPZ7-9
BPZ7-10

33.00
33.37
33.25
33.04
33.72
32.84
33.48
33.07
33.33
33.44

33.10
33.52
33.26
33.85
34.35
33.05
33.27
33.05
33.50
33.43

33.05
33.45
33.26
33.45
34.04
32.95
33.38
33.06
33.42
33.44

32.89
33.15
33.25
33.03
33.02
32.91
33.55
33.30
33.38
32.53

32.82
33.25
33.56
33.03
32.18
33.51
33.45
33.97
34.19
32.54

32.86
33.20
33.41
33.03
32.60
33.21
33.50
33.64
33.79
32.54

33.75
33.14
33.28
33.15
33.13
33.30
33.48
32.99
32.99
32.83

33.33
32.82
33.05
33.02
33.39
33.32
33.32
32.85
33.12
32.96

33.54
32.98
33.17
33.09
33.26
33.31
33.40
32.92
33.06
32.90

36.420
36.620
36.842
36.549
36.903
36.445
37.343
36.606
37.317
35.783

BPZ9-1
BPZ9-2
BPZ9-3
BPZ9-4
BPZ9-5
BPZ9-6
BPZ9-7
BPZ9-8
BPZ9-9
BPZ9-10

32.95
33.63
33.43
34.24
33.49
33.64
33.32
33.31
32.29
33.40

33.16
33.32
33.31
33.86
33.24
34.62
33.41
32.50
33.04
33.29

33.06
33.48
33.37
34.05
33.37
34.13
33.37
32.91
32.67
33.35

33.07
34.25
33.10
33.14
33.11
33.13
33.54
32.17
33.34
33.97

33.04
34.11
33.64
33.13
33.15
33.89
33.55
33.08
32.98
33.61

33.06
34.18
33.37
33.14
33.13
33.51
33.55
32.63
33.16
33.79

33.37
33.05
33.13
33.12
33.27
33.32
33.18
33.46
33.75
32.29

33.29
33.11
33.41
33.22
33.40
33.51
33.17
33.40
33.16
33.64

33.33
33.08
33.27
33.17
33.34
33.42
33.18
33.43
33.46
32.97

36.417
37.849
37.048
37.424
36.848
38.217
37.130
35.888
36.237
37.143

Weight

Density

(g)

(g/cm3 )

17.468
14.706
13.787
14.102
17.345
15.503
12.061
13.037
12.535
12.934
Average
11.560
18.470
11.133
12.501
11.427
14.012
14.909
10.689
14.130
19.225
Average
12.705
9.817
13.033
9.023
9.452
11.549
17.761
19.744
10.092
9.152
Average
13.598
14.882
13.960
13.648
13.173
14.093
13.169
13.187
13.616
14.041
Average
14.014
15.369
13.700
14.764
13.846
13.583
13.608
14.287
13.806
14.091
Average

0.5159
0.4381
0.4167
0.4278
0.5133
0.4664
0.3602
0.3995
0.3756
0.3904
0.4304
0.3481
0.5678
0.3467
0.3792
0.3438
0.4278
0.4500
0.3235
0.4352
0.5730
0.4195
0.3794
0.3025
0.3930
0.2725
0.2917
0.3561
0.5491
0.6019
0.3057
0.2676
0.3719
0.3734
0.4064
0.3789
0.3734
0.3570
0.3867
0.3526
0.3602
0.3649
0.3924
0.3746
0.3848
0.4061
0.3698
0.3945
0.3758
0.3554
0.3665
0.3981
0.3810
0.3794
0.3811

253

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties

D.3 Shrinkage

254

D.3. Shrinkage

Weight

277.99
276.94
282.55
277.43
279.32

270.66
289.77
274.24
278.11
276.72

276.68
273.19
286.71
278.17
285.64

286.55
284.53
283.83
287.57
289.00

Sample
Code

SIZ21
SIZ22
SIZ23
SIZ24
SIZ25

SIZ31
SIZ32
SIZ33
SIZ34
SIZ35

SIZ51
SIZ52
SIZ53
SIZ54
SIZ55

SIZ61
SIZ62
SIZ63
SIZ64
SIZ65

153.38
153.43
153.27
154.00
153.46

150.17
151.68
152.28
150.99
152.80

152.34
152.54
153.06
152.37
153.03

151.82
152.13
152.66
150.89
151.78

153.14
153.65
153.74
154.30
153.47

151.34
152.09
152.18
150.54
152.59

151.88
152.50
152.66
152.00
152.90

152.21
152.00
152.29
151.60
152.01

Length (mm)
L1
L2

153.26
153.54
153.51
154.15
153.47

150.76
151.89
152.23
150.77
152.70

152.11
152.52
152.86
152.19
152.97

152.02
152.07
152.48
151.25
151.90

51.41
51.96
52.20
51.94
52.22

52.16
52.32
51.61
52.23
53.48

51.88
51.36
52.19
52.70
51.26

51.49
52.22
52.81
51.60
51.26

W1

51.11
52.48
52.09
52.31
52.15

51.82
51.93
52.16
51.17
52.65

51.44
51.64
51.92
52.75
51.81

51.44
47.68
52.40
51.81
51.53

Width (mm)
W2

52.01
52.19
51.93
52.61
51.60

51.45
51.80
50.50
51.50
51.62

51.09
51.89
51.56
52.64
52.03

51.46
48.13
51.89
52.03
52.24

W3

51.56
52.34
52.01
52.46
51.88

51.64
51.87
51.33
51.34
52.14

51.27
51.77
51.74
52.70
51.92

51.45
47.91
52.15
51.92
51.89

Average

31.47
36.53
37.28
37.44
36.31

37.02
36.71
37.53
35.93
37.15

38.14
37.29
38.42
31.44
31.59

37.23
37.09
37.16
31.68
36.89

T1

36.94
36.18
36.19
36.69
36.82

36.94
36.07
37.09
36.49
36.44

37.18
36.61
37.25
31.93
37.11

37.69
38.38
37.34
36.89
36.82

Thick (mm)
T2

36.51
37.27
36.07
36.50
37.14

36.45
37.28
36.42
37.14
37.14

37.45
37.50
38.00
38.16
38.88

37.48
37.30
37.18
36.33
36.79

T3

36.73
36.73
36.13
36.60
36.98

36.70
36.68
36.76
36.82
36.79

37.32
37.06
37.63
35.05
38.00

37.59
37.84
37.26
36.61
36.81

Average

58.55
49.73
54.85
62.67
69.70

58.44
65.07
72.68
58.60
58.63

92.77
110.92
52.02
63.90
51.21

70.19
62.12
64.40
60.24
67.23

Weight
after 24h (g)

46.04
44.95
48.34
51.75
53.80

49.74
53.01
58.75
49.92
51.29

88.41
103.32
48.96
61.31
49.96

58.56
53.09
51.86
52.20
56.90

Weight
after 30h (g)

46.37
45.26
48.56
51.96
54.30

50.13
53.41
59.20
50.18
51.50

88.91
103.92
49.08
61.91
50.50

58.96
53.32
52.53
52.55
57.20

Weight
after 32h (g)

290.20
295.10
288.45
295.93
294.40

285.64
288.91
287.20
284.93
292.88

290.98
292.56
297.58
281.04
301.75

293.96
275.65
296.25
287.49
290.06

Volume
(wet, in cm3 )

Tab. D.10: Shrinkage of oil palm wood at various trunk height in inner zone (IZ)
Average

225
230
240
230
240

230
240
200
240
240

265
270
250
230
240

265
250
250
240
265

Volume
(kiln dry, in cc)

9.851
9.306
15.611
16.517
8.640
11.985
8.928
7.710
15.988
18.161
20.465
14.250
19.480
16.929
30.363
15.769
18.054
20.119
22.468
22.061
16.798
22.280
18.478
20.417

Shrinkage
(%)

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties

D.3. Shrinkage

255

Weight

284.11
281.23
285.35
282.22
385.38

308.34
292.02
293.47
279.88
307.47

283.47
282.21
272.44
273.57
272.48

283.30
285.51
2889.25
290.84
282.75

Sample
Code

SCZ21
SCZ22
SCZ23
SCZ24
SCZ25

256

SCZ31
SCZ32
SCZ33
SCZ34
SCZ35

SCZ51
SCZ52
SCZ53
SCZ54
SCZ55

SCZ61
SCZ62
SCZ63
SCZ64
SCZ65

153.14
152.95
151.37
152.58
151.67

152.53
153.34
151.99
152.57
152.54

124.72
128.03
180.63
151.28
152.23

152.28
181.91
151.29
152.65
152.74

153.04
153.05
151.24
152.44
152.04

152.33
153.32
152.26
152.62
152.47

124.60
124.08
150.06
151.65
152.30

152.37
152.27
151.78
152.43
152.68

Length (mm)
L1
L2

153.09
153.00
151.31
152.51
151.86

152.43
153.33
152.13
152.60
152.51

124.66
126.06
165.35
151.47
152.27

152.33
167.09
151.54
152.54
152.71

Average

52.13
53.08
52.78
51.15
52.29

52.39
51.60
50.06
52.46
51.15

24.75
23.25
52.00
52.47
51.84

51.68
52.75
52.73
51.69
52.53

W1

52.15
52.42
52.81
51.77
52.09

52.03
52.21
51.30
51.77
51.80

24.09
24.04
51.97
51.99
51.90

52.09
52.97
51.93
51.72
51.79

Width (mm)
W2

51.43
51.67
52.89
52.50
52.60

51.57
52.46
51.62
51.26
52.40

24.06
24.30
52.10
51.53
52.07

52.14
51.88
51.73
51.93
52.16

W3

51.79
52.05
52.85
52.14
52.35

51.80
52.34
51.46
51.52
52.10

24.08
24.17
52.04
51.76
51.99

52.12
52.43
51.83
51.83
51.98

Average

36.85
36.23
36.99
37.47
36.47

35.64
36.81
36.90
36.81
35.20

37.06
36.02
37.58
36.81
37.28

36.21
37.32
36.89
37.94
36.48

T1

37.05
37.55
36.55
36.79
36.20

36.33
36.60
36.62
35.72
36.31

36.44
35.72
36.55
36.12
36.43

36.92
37.02
36.44
37.20
36.74

Thick (mm)
T2

37.27
36.93
37.25
36.07
36.55

37.28
36.76
36.05
35.74
36.67

36.33
36.25
36.67
36.00
36.15

37.94
37.55
37.71
36.62
37.23

T3

37.16
37.24
36.90
36.43
36.38

36.81
36.68
36.34
35.73
36.49

36.39
35.99
36.61
36.06
36.29

37.43
37.29
37.08
36.91
36.99

Average

57.34
55.18
74.28
71.06
59.51

75.18
69.80
56.56
64.46
61.36

151.55
121.19
110.64
88.35
139.49

73.54
76.60
87.08
80.60
82.82

Weight
after 24h (g)

51.57
54.20
73.44
70.34
57.06

72.97
68.25
44.20
52.57
57.52

150.15
119.81
109.31
86.52
136.87

72.57
72.35
82.06
78.38
81.96

Weight
after 30h (g)

51.98
54.87
74.09
70.86
57.69

73.48
68.84
54.75
63.03
58.08

150.88
120.30
109.93
87.15
137.53

73.08
72.83
82.69
79.00
82.61

Weight
after 32h (g)

294.62
296.54
295.07
289.66
289.14

290.61
294.35
284.44
280.87
289.93

109.20
109.64
314.98
282.70
287.25

297.13
326.61
291.19
291.79
293.55

Volume
(wet, in cm3 )

Tab. D.11: Shrinkage of oil palm wood at various trunk height in central zone (CZ)

225
240
220
220
225

220
225
225
230
230

70
70
270
260
270

260
250
260
260
260

Volume
(kiln dry, in cc)
12.498
23.455
10.711
10.894
11.430
13.798
35.896
36.153
14.281
8.031
6.006
20.074
24.297
23.559
20.898
18.112
20.671
21.507
23.632
19.066
25.441
24.049
22.183
22.874

Shrinkage
(%)

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties

D.3. Shrinkage

Weight

300.48
294.98
297.38
304.17
300.61

291.84
332.41
316.62
305.71
310.43

294.07
290.75
288.88
292.34
293.66

303.64
289.49
295.26
293.70
297.58

Sample
Code

SPZ21
SPZ22
SPZ23
SPZ24
SPZ25

SPZ31
SPZ32
SPZ33
SPZ34
SPZ35

SPZ51
SPZ52
SPZ53
SPZ54
SPZ55

SPZ61
SPZ62
SPZ63
SPZ64
SPZ65

154.79
153.07
154.24
154.30
154.38

153.47
152.58
153.89
152.69
193.11

148.96
153.32
148.62
154.36
154.25

152.14
150.32
151.10
151.86
181.32

154.96
153.23
154.16
154.25
152.35

153.88
152.99
153.80
152.80
153.42

147.35
152.99
148.78
154.39
154.54

152.14
150.46
150.98
151.85
151.36

154.88
153.15
154.20
154.28
153.37

153.68
152.79
153.85
152.75
173.27

148.16
153.16
148.70
154.38
154.40

152.14
150.39
151.04
151.86
166.34

Average

52.69
52.35
52.22
53.05
52.80

52.42
52.75
52.86
52.51
53.44

51.89
52.02
51.75
52.55
52.97

52.54
51.83
52.32
51.88
52.80

W1

52.67
51.82
52.45
51.81
50.66

52.56
52.55
52.60
52.12
52.55

51.24
51.18
51.97
52.35
52.25

52.26
52.23
52.03
52.51
51.99

Width (mm)
W2

52.28
50.90
52.86
50.53
52.82

52.10
52.76
52.48
52.04
52.52

51.02
50.95
50.98
62.16
51.82

51.98
52.41
52.26
52.52
51.14

W3

52.48
51.36
52.66
51.17
51.74

52.33
52.66
52.54
52.08
52.54

51.13
51.07
51.48
57.26
52.04

52.12
52.32
52.15
52.52
51.57

Average

37.17
36.76
37.81
36.16
31.89

36.42
36.62
36.11
35.88
36.84

36.39
37.27
36.33
36.36
37.30

36.55
36.66
37.14
37.42
37.36

T1

36.81
37.42
36.54
36.33
36.12

36.56
36.04
35.84
35.85
36.57

35.83
36.23
36.44
36.07
36.43

37.13
37.23
36.63
36.86
36.53

Thick (mm)
T2

35.99
37.54
36.14
37.61
36.25

36.98
36.33
35.44
36.59
36.83

35.56
35.25
35.84
35.74
36.24

37.67
37.32
37.44
36.82
36.69

T3

36.40
37.48
36.34
36.97
36.19

36.77
36.19
35.64
36.22
36.70

35.70
35.74
36.14
35.91
36.34

37.40
37.28
37.04
36.84
36.61

Average

108.54
87.55
91.07
93.02
94.91

96.11
84.31
88.21
89.10
85.27

120.44
200.76
167.25
138.89
136.45

88.19
90.52
102.86
98.55
107.38

Weight
after 24h (g)

107.55
86.34
89.96
92.00
93.32

95.17
82.99
87.17
88.25
84.74

118.94
199.26
162.70
133.31
131.08

84.15
88.51
96.57
94.36
100.97

Weight
after 30h (g)

108.05
86.85
90.76
92.75
94.01

95.61
83.61
87.59
88.69
85.10

119.47
199.88
163.18
133.96
131.78

84.44
88.98
97.15
95.08
101.43

Weight
after 32h (g)

295.83
294.81
295.06
291.85
287.13

295.70
291.10
288.08
288.13
334.06

270.40
279.52
276.63
317.35
291.91

296.56
293.29
291.69
293.79
314.02

Volume
(wet, in cm3 )

Tab. D.12: Shrinkage of oil palm wood at various trunk height in peripheral zone (PZ)

Length (mm)
L1
L2

230
215
240
210
235

240
240
220
240
240

240
235
245
265
260

265
270
265
260
275

Volume
(kiln dry, in cc)

10.643
7.942
9.149
11.500
12.425
10.332
11.241
15.927
11.433
16.497
10.932
13.206
18.836
17.555
23.632
16.704
28.157
20.977
22.251
27.072
18.660
28.045
18.156
22.837

Shrinkage
(%)

Chapter D. Data of Physical Properties

D.3. Shrinkage

257

E Statistical Analysis of Physical Properties


E.1 Statistical Analysis Results
Tab. E.1: Univariate analysis of variance - test of between-subjects effects
Source
Type III Sum of Squares
df
Corrected Model
1.468
14
Intercept
10.057
1
Zone
1.412
2
Height
0.030
4
Zone * Height
0.026
8
Error
0.251 135
Total
11.776 150
Corrected Total
1.719 149
- Dependent variable: density of wood;
- R Squared = 0.854 (Adjusted R Squared = 0.839)

Mean Square
0.105
10.057
0.706
0.007
0.003
0.002

F
56.304
5401.245
379.045
4.022
1.760

Sig.
3.04E-49
9.37E-111
4.09E-56
4.10E-03
9.02E-02

Tab. E.2: Post hoc test of homogeneous subsets of oil palm wood zoning based on Duncans test
Oil palm wood zoning

1
0.180

Inner Zone
50
Central Zone
50
Peripheral Zone
50
Sig.
- Total sample: 150; alpha 0.05

Subset
2

0.202
1

0.396
1

Tab. E.3: Post hoc test of homogeneous subsets of trunk height based on Duncans test
Subset
1
2
9 meter
30
0.235
7 meter
30
0.256
0.256
5 meter
30
0.258
0.258
3 meter
30
0.266
1 meter
30
0.279
Sig.
0.052
0.071
- Total sample: 150; alpha 0.05
Trunk height

258

Chapter E. Statistical Analysis of Physical Properties

E.1. Statistical Analysis Results

Tab. E.4: Post hoc test of homogeneous subsets of inner, central and peripheral zones of oil
palm wood based on Duncans test
Height at IZ

9
1
3
7
5
Sig.

10
10
10
10
10

Height at CZ

9
3
7
5
1
Sig.

10
10
10
10
10

Height at PZ

5
7
9
3
1
Sig.

10
10
10
10
10

Subset for alpha = .05


1
2
0.158
0.180
0.182
0.186
1

0.060

Subset for alpha = .05


1
2
0.167
0.196
0.208
0.213
1

0.122

0.186
0.191
0.214

0.208
0.213
0.225
0.117

Subset for alpha = .05


1
0.372
0.375
0.381
0.420
0.430
0.106

259

E.2. Regression Analysis Results

Chapter E. Statistical Analysis of Physical Properties

E.2 Regression Analysis Results


Tab. E.5: Descriptive statistics of regression analysis
Density of wood
Oil palm wood zoning
Trunk height

Mean
0.259
2
5

Std. Deviation
0.107
0.819
2.838

N
150
150
150

Tab. E.6: Model summary of regression analysis


R
Adjusted Std. Error of
Square R Square the Estimate R Square Change
1
0.833a
0.694
0.690
0.060
0.694
a. Predictors: (Constant), Trunk height, Oil palm wood zoning
Model

Change Statistics
F Change df1 df2
167.062
2
147

Sig. F Change
1.41866E-38

Tab. E.7: ANOVA of regression analysis


Model
1

Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Regression
1.194
2
0.597
167.062
Residual
0.525
147
0.004
Total
1.719
149
a. Predictors: (Constant), Trunk height, Oil palm wood zoning

Sig.
1.419E-38

Tab. E.8: Coefcient of regression analysis


Model

Unstandardized
Coefcients
Std. Error

B
1

260

(Constant)
Oil palm wood zoning
Trunk height

0.067
0.108
-0.005

0.016
0.006
0.002

Standardized
Coefcients
Beta
0.824
-0.127

4.310
18.066
-2.780

Sig.

2.98E-05
3.68E-39
6.15E-03

Correlations
Zero-order

Partial

Part

0.824
-0.127

0.830
-0.223

0.824
-0.127

Collinearity
Statistics
Tolerance
VIF
1
1

1
1

F Data of Mechanical Properties


F.1 Static Bending Strength

261

F.1. Static Bending Strength

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

Tab. F.1: Modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of oil palm wood (control
specimen)
Sample
Code

b
(cm)

h
(cm)

l
(cm)

e1

e2

P1

P2

dP

y1

y2

dy

Pmax
(kg)

IZ11
IZ12
IZ13
IZ14
IZ15

2.51
2.58
2.63
2.64
2.43

2.65
2.61
2.63
2.63
2.52

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.2693x + 0.2824
y = 0.2423x + 0.2406
y = 0.1975x + 0.2795
y = 0.2756x + 0.5203
y = 0.3014x + 0.4892

0.2693
0.2423
0.1975
0.2756
0.3014

0.2834
0.2406
0.2795
0.5203
0.4892

5
5
5
5
5

25
20
30
20
20

20
15
25
15
15

1.6299
1.4521
1.2670
1.8983
1.9962

7.0159
5.0866
6.2045
6.0323
6.5172

0.5386
0.3635
0.4938
0.4134
0.4521

26.5327
23.2873
33.0650
24.1292
21.7120

IZ31
IZ32
IZ33
IZ34
IZ35

2.54
2.62
2.64
2.59
2.64

2.63
2.50
2.34
2.57
2.04

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.1603x + 0.3664
y = 0.2023x + 0.3703
y = 0.3014x + 0.4481
y = 0.3663x + 0.6821
y = 0.3147x + 0.6823

0.1603
0.2023
0.3014
0.3663
0.3147

0.3664
0.3703
0.4481
0.6821
0.6823

5
5
5
5
5

30
25
20
15
20

25
20
15
10
15

1.1679
1.3818
1.9551
2.5136
2.2558

5.1754
5.4278
6.4761
6.1766
6.9763

0.4008
0.4046
0.4521
0.3663
0.4721

33.3983
29.8217
23.3036
18.6631
23.3517

IZ51
IZ52
IZ53
IZ54
IZ55

2.57
2.60
2.60
2.65
2.64

2.63
2.62
2.66
2.60
2.66

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.1608x + 0.5376
y = 0.2234x + 0.537
y = 0.219x + 0.2127
y = 0.3029x + 0.4314
y = 0.2368x + 0.4258

0.1608
0.2234
0.219
0.3029
0.2368

0.5376
0.537
0.2127
0.4314
0.4258

10
5
5
5
5

40
25
30
20
30

30
20
25
15
25

2.1456
1.6540
1.3077
1.9459
1.6098

6.9696
6.1220
6.7827
6.4894
7.5298

0.4824
0.4468
0.5475
0.4544
0.5920

44.1634
28.7173
30.0073
21.6223
30.5294

IZ71
IZ72
IZ73
IZ74
IZ75

2.50
2.63
2.66
2.58
2.57

2.68
2.62
2.50
2.67
2.60

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.3113x + 0.5121
y = 0.3395x + 0.4181
y = 0.2515x + 0.5155
y = 0.22x + 0.4374
y = 0.251x + 0.3725

0.3113
0.3395
0.2515
0.22
0.251

0.5121
0.4181
0.5155
0.4374
0.3725

5
5
5
5
5

15
20
30
30
25

10
15
25
25
20

2.0686
2.1156
1.7730
1.5374
1.6275

5.1816
7.2081
8.0605
7.0374
6.6475

0.3113
0.5093
0.6288
0.5500
0.5020

19.1538
21.4097
30.8835
32.2437
26.9404

IZ91
IZ92
IZ93
IZ94
IZ95

2.47
2.54
2.54
2.65
2.56

2.43
2.50
2.42
2.53
2.56

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.3022x + 0.2948
y = 0.2532x - 0.0847
y = 0.5578x + 0.0985
y = 0.214x + 0.3663
y = 0.4323x + 0.2946

0.3022
0.2532
0.5578
0.214
0.4323

0.2948
0.0847
0.0985
0.3663
0.2946

5
5
5
5
5

20
25
10
30
15

15
20
5
25
10

1.8058
1.1813
2.8875
1.4363
2.4561

6.3388
6.2453
5.6765
6.7863
6.7791

0.4533
0.5064
0.2789
0.5350
0.4323

22.5537
28.7675
12.7862
33.2439
15.7030

CZ11
CZ12
CZ13
CZ14
CZ15

2.60
2.60
2.33
2.30
2.22

2.36
2.32
2.30
2.35
2.43

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.0561x + 0.3592
y = 0.0899x + 0.4865
y = 0.1129x + 0.9785
y = 0.1006x + 0.1618
y = 0.04x + 0.5191

0.0561
0.0899
0.1129
0.1006
0.04

0.3592
0.4865
0.9785
0.1618
0.5191

15
15
15
15
15

80
60
40
50
90

65
45
25
35
75

1.2007
1.8350
2.6720
1.6708
1.1191

4.8472
5.8805
5.4945
5.1918
4.1191

0.3647
0.4046
0.2823
0.3521
0.3000

117.9177
60.1954
48.4699
54.6674
173.5889

CZ31
CZ32
CZ33
CZ34
CZ35

2.68
2.69
2.58
2.66
2.66

2.58
2.70
2.58
2.58
2.62

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.0887x + 0.3482
y = 0.0968x + 0.3233
y = 0.0996x + 0.2893
y = 0.0876x + 0.231
y = 0.0511x + 0.1479

0.0887
0.0968
0.0996
0.0876
0.0511

0.3482
0.3233
0.2893
0.231
0.1479

15
15
15
15
15

70
50
50
60
80

55
35
35
45
65

1.6787
1.7753
1.7833
1.5450
0.9144

6.5572
5.1633
5.2693
5.4870
4.2359

0.4879
0.3388
0.3486
0.3942
0.3322

71.6703
59.2976
58.4211
63.4725
110.6152

CZ51
CZ52
CZ53
CZ54
CZ55

2.70
2.70
2.63
2.58
2.63

2.68
2.58
2.69
2.67
2.70

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.122x + 0.0395
y = 0.1469x + 0.577
y = 0.1065x + 0.4957
y = 0.1198x + 0.5346
y = 0.1407x + 0.6427

0.122
0.1469
0.1065
0.1198
0.1407

0.0395
0.577
0.4957
0.5346
0.6427

15
15
15
15
15

55
30
50
50
40

40
15
35
35
25

1.8695
2.7805
2.0932
2.3316
2.7532

6.7495
4.9840
5.8207
6.5246
6.2707

0.4880
0.2204
0.3728
0.4193
0.3518

55.0114
38.7645
57.4656
52.6056
49.7333

CZ71
CZ72
CZ73
CZ74
CZ75

2.70
2.63
2.55
2.67
2.58

2.60
2.67
2.66
2.63
2.64

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.1516x + 0.9834
y = 0.2327x + 0.5629
y = 0.1073x + 0.627
y = 0.1835x + 0.4289
y = 0.1554x + 0.5432

0.1516
0.2327
0.1073
0.1835
0.1554

0.9834
0.5629
0.627
0.4289
0.5432

15
15
15
15
15

40
30
50
30
30

25
15
35
15
15

3.2574
4.0534
2.2365
3.1814
2.8742

7.0474
7.5439
5.9920
5.9339
5.2052

0.3790
0.3491
0.3756
0.2753
0.2331

43.8211
30.8146
53.3705
35.5176
38.9083

CZ91
CZ92
CZ93
CZ94
CZ95

2.55
2.61
2.50
2.55
2.49

2.64
2.68
2.68
2.44
2.72

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.1663x + 0.8404
y = 0.2287x + 0.5381
y = 0.1715x + 0.6138
y = 0.1763x + 0.6432
y = 0.3048x + 0.3879

0.1663
0.2287
0.1715
0.1763
0.3048

0.8404
0.5381
0.6138
0.6432
0.3879

10
10
10
10
10

30
25
30
30
20

20
15
20
20
10

2.5034
2.8251
2.3288
2.4062
3.4359

5.8294
6.2556
5.7588
5.9322
6.4839

0.3326
0.3431
0.3430
0.3526
0.3048

31.7511
25.7193
36.6741
35.2644
22.1949

PZ11
PZ12
PZ13
PZ14
PZ15

2.74
2.50
2.80
2.72
2.60

2.66
2.66
2.66
2.64
2.64

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.024x + 0.621
y = 0.0504x + 1.0883
y = 0.0277x + 1.1228
y = 0.0308x + 1.0985
y = 0.0477x + 1.2129

0.024
0.0504
0.0277
0.0308
0.0477

0.621
1.0883
1.1228
1.0985
1.2129

20
20
20
20
20

90
90
90
90
90

70
70
70
70
70

1.1010
2.0963
1.6768
1.7145
2.1669

2.7810
5.6243
3.6158
3.8705
5.5059

0.1680
0.3528
0.1939
0.2156
0.3339

232.6203
122.9883
213.4296
185.7922
113.0037

PZ31
PZ32
PZ33
PZ34
PZ35

2.77
2.74
2.75
2.66
2.76

2.69
2.65
2.65
2.58
2.67

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.0421x + 1.4386
y = 0.0316x + 0.7854
y = 0.0334x + 0.7249
y = 0.0376x + 1.1966
y = 0.0322x + 1.51

0.0421
0.0316
0.0334
0.0376
0.0322

1.4386
0.7854
0.7249
1.1966
1.51

20
20
20
20
20

90
90
90
90
90

70
70
70
70
70

2.2806
1.4174
1.3929
1.9486
2.1540

5.2276
3.6294
3.7309
4.5806
4.4080

0.2947
0.2212
0.2338
0.2632
0.2254

166.3535
205.1713
189.9055
142.9197
178.4740

PZ51
PZ52
PZ53
PZ54
PZ55

2.82
2.70
2.61
2.70
2.62

2.58
2.67
2.65
2.62
2.67

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.0287x + 0.7176
y = 0.0253x + 0.6823
y = 0.0492x + 0.7603
y = 0.0355x + 0.7874
y = 0.0417x + 0.2565

0.0287
0.0253
0.0492
0.0355
0.0417

0.7176
0.6823
0.7603
0.7874
0.2565

20
20
20
20
20

90
90
90
90
90

70
70
70
70
70

1.2916
1.1883
1.7443
1.4974
1.0905

3.3006
2.9593
5.1883
3.9824
4.0095

0.2009
0.1771
0.3444
0.2485
0.2919

234.9014
286.4894
114.5092
180.9730
135.8806

PZ71
PZ72
PZ73
PZ74
PZ75

2.61
2.60
2.63
2.67
2.51

2.61
2.64
2.65
2.69
2.59

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.0772x + 0.7814
y = 0.0582x + 0.6411
y = 0.0766x - 0.0429
y = 0.0852x + 0.4952
y = 0.0686x + 0.5847

0.0772
0.0582
0.0766
0.0852
0.0686

0.7814
0.6411
0.0429
0.4952
0.5847

20
20
20
20
20

90
90
90
90
90

70
70
70
70
70

2.3254
1.8051
1.4891
2.1992
1.9567

7.7294
5.8791
6.8511
8.1632
6.7587

0.5404
0.4074
0.5362
0.5964
0.4802

87.0886
106.6053
72.0379
79.9155
94.7646

PZ91
PZ92
PZ93
PZ94
PZ95

2.65
2.74
2.77
2.73
2.65

2.66
2.67
2.66
2.64
2.71

36
36
36
36
36

y = 0.0466x + 0.409
y = 0.0636x + 0.793
y = 0.0653x + 0.638
y = 0.0596x + 0.3908
y = 0.0512x + 0.281

0.0466
0.0636
0.0653
0.0596
0.0512

0.409
0.793
0.638
0.3908
0.281

20
20
20
20
20

90
90
90
90
90

70
70
70
70
70

1.3410
2.0650
1.9440
1.5828
1.3050

4.6030
6.5170
6.5150
5.7548
4.8890

0.3262
0.4452
0.4571
0.4172
0.3584

120.6416
92.8527
88.0848
91.1475
112.2754

262

MOE
(kg/cm2 )

MOR
(kg/cm2 )

9272.563
10494.285
12344.043
8812.459
9951.679
10175.006
15747.551
14084.139
11440.704
7242.883
16536.985
13010.453
15515.333
11165.730
10883.915
8267.655
9913.271
11149.181
7786.172
7263.536
11158.552
10796.210
10287.755
9458.445
10890.236
11607.269
5808.837
12700.660
6282.065
9457.813
60838.051
39962.304
36443.002
38843.478
91458.620
53509.091
28571.299
22757.711
26430.742
29147.590
47713.481
30924.164
18395.836
17123.906
21393.671
19826.096
16014.241
18550.750
16213.042
10012.940
22649.713
13086.784
15811.206
15554.737
14948.696
10151.646
14133.151
17860.168
7637.065
12946.145
94241.198
49184.930
79903.316
75668.672
51114.487
70022.520
51384.106
72388.944
68238.697
67907.683
68952.303
65774.347
83918.437
89707.642
48809.491
67663.042
56088.830
69237.489
32558.784
41892.801
31111.817
26341.458
38989.744
34178.921
50184.640
35164.630
34261.759
38960.706
43194.038
40353.154

81.285
71.550
98.151
71.354
75.978
79.664
102.653
98.343
87.053
58.913
114.775
92.348
134.157
86.888
88.081
65.178
88.256
92.512
57.602
64.039
100.313
94.667
83.737
80.072
83.503
97.855
46.416
105.832
50.543
76.830
439.719
232.278
212.351
232.412
714.429
366.238
216.950
163.287
183.698
193.579
327.133
216.929
153.184
116.473
163.058
154.448
140.074
145.447
129.648
88.751
159.732
103.852
116.845
119.765
96.473
74.087
110.292
125.433
65.059
94.269
647.929
375.452
581.738
529.230
336.748
494.219
448.168
575.795
531.015
435.878
489.821
496.136
675.757
803.741
337.367
527.280
392.851
547.399
264.505
317.681
210.624
223.362
303.925
264.019
347.442
256.694
242.690
258.683
311.526
283.407

Time
(s)

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

Sample
Code

IZ1T11
IZ1T12
IZ1T13
IZ1T14
IZ1T15

IZ3T11
IZ3T12
IZ3T13
IZ3T14
IZ3T15

IZ5T11
IZ5T12
IZ5T13
IZ5T14
IZ5T15

IZ7T11
IZ7T12
IZ7T13
IZ7T14
IZ7T15

IZ9T11
IZ9T12
IZ9T13
IZ9T14
IZ9T15

54.356
64.290
54.672
55.414
54.049
56.556
63.408
54.536
60.932
50.317
58.225
57.484
51.492
56.320
59.712
66.257
52.385
57.233
49.208
47.678
46.558
58.819
50.066
50.466
53.614
55.390
55.543
46.443
50.215
52.241

B0
(g)
66.716
83.298
64.768
70.058
62.187
69.405
74.440
86.382
80.285
66.022
76.739
76.774
71.425
79.377
77.075
80.846
66.922
75.129
61.818
57.150
62.708
69.783
61.534
62.599
71.005
78.252
74.416
69.272
70.852
72.759

B1
(g)
22.74
29.57
18.47
26.43
15.06
22.45
17.40
58.39
31.76
31.21
31.80
34.11
38.71
40.94
29.08
22.02
27.75
31.70
25.63
19.87
34.69
18.64
22.91
24.35
32.44
41.27
33.98
49.15
41.10
39.59

R
(%)

2.65
2.63
2.62
2.59
2.61

2.52
2.57
2.74
2.54
2.65

2.70
2.60
2.56
2.65
2.50

2.73
2.66
2.64
2.60
2.60

2.63
2.62
2.60
2.60
2.61

b
(cm)

2.66
2.56
2.57
2.52
2.57

2.66
2.65
2.47
2.65
2.63

2.60
2.70
2.67
2.77
2.70

2.61
2.36
2.48
2.50
2.52

2.58
2.59
2.59
2.60
2.57

h
(cm)

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

l
(cm)

y = 0.2018x + 0.6701
y = 0.2388x + 0.5355
y = 0.1928x + 0.6044
y = 0.2763x + 0.64
y = 0.197x + 1.0654

y = 0.2557x + 0.3349
y = 0.2568x + 0.4467
y = 0.2518x + 0.0917
y = 0.1579x + 0.7266
y = 0.239x + 0.1804

y = 0.2451x + 0.6396
y = 0.2096x + 0.4299
y = 0.1484x + 0.6003
y = 0.147x + 0.0474
y = 0.2054x + 0.6097

y = 0.1579x + 0.64
y = 0.1996x + 0.5326
y = 0.1507x + 0.5664
y = 0.2424x + 0.3575
y = 0.1807x + 0.5439

y = 0.2031x + 0.4082
y = 0.1527x + 0.5412
y = 0.181x + 0.5134
y = 0.1627x + 0.556
y = 0.2153x + 0.4684

0.2018
0.2388
0.1928
0.2763
0.1970

0.2557
0.2568
0.2518
0.1579
0.2390

0.2451
0.2096
0.1484
0.1470
0.2054

0.1579
0.1996
0.1507
0.2424
0.1807

0.2031
0.1527
0.1810
0.1627
0.2153

e1

0.6701
0.5355
0.6044
0.6400
1.0654

0.3349
0.4467
0.0917
0.7266
0.1804

0.6396
0.4299
0.6003
0.0474
0.6097

0.6400
0.5326
0.5664
0.3575
0.5439

0.4082
0.5412
0.5134
0.5560
0.4684

e2

5
5
5
5
5

5
5
5
5
5

10
10
10
10
10

10
10
10
10
10

10
10
10
10
10

P1

30
25
30
25
25

25
30
20
30
30

30
25
40
40
30

30
25
30
25
30

30
30
30
30
30

P2

25
20
25
20
20

20
25
15
25
25

20
15
30
30
20

20
15
20
15
20

20
20
20
20
20

dP

1.6791
1.7295
1.5684
2.0215
2.0504

1.6134
1.7307
1.3507
1.5161
1.3754

3.0906
2.5259
2.0843
1.5174
2.6637

2.2190
2.5286
2.0734
2.7815
2.3509

2.4392
2.0682
2.3234
2.1830
2.6214

y1

6.7241
6.5055
6.3884
7.5475
5.9904

6.7274
8.1507
5.1277
5.4636
7.3504

7.9926
5.6699
6.5363
5.9274
6.7717

5.3770
5.5226
5.0874
6.4175
5.9649

6.5012
5.1222
5.9434
5.4370
6.9274

y2

0.5045
0.4776
0.4820
0.5526
0.3940

0.5114
0.6420
0.3777
0.3948
0.5975

0.4902
0.3144
0.4452
0.4410
0.4108

0.3158
0.2994
0.3014
0.3636
0.3614

0.4062
0.3054
0.3620
0.3254
0.4306

dy

35.7985
29.0701
34.9508
27.7013
28.1816

29.5901
30.5985
24.1126
39.8111
31.2111

33.8537
27.3902
43.8058
44.5706
34.6785

39.6034
29.0906
36.8002
25.5189
30.0010

30.6186
37.5744
34.4973
35.2351
31.1909

Pmax
(kg)
12715.186
16780.616
14265.805
15687.963
12228.230
14335.560
15218.828
16713.574
19220.969
11844.631
15513.664
15702.333
10028.140
10874.057
16130.204
14087.859
11540.265
12532.105
9617.702
9496.897
11218.902
15627.663
10123.635
11216.960
11588.723
11069.743
13603.160
10185.099
13364.152
11962.175

MOE
(kg/cm2 )
94.446
115.448
106.808
108.255
97.704
104.532
114.996
106.033
122.387
84.801
98.119
105.267
100.159
78.035
129.617
118.369
102.751
105.786
89.614
91.552
77.892
120.524
91.949
94.306
103.098
91.076
109.065
90.948
88.278
96.493

MOR
(kg/cm2 )

0.273
0.341
0.267
0.288
0.258
0.285
0.290
0.382
0.341
0.282
0.325
0.324
0.283
0.314
0.313
0.306
0.275
0.298
0.256
0.233
0.257
0.288
0.245
0.256
0.280
0.323
0.307
0.295
0.293
0.300

Density
(g/cm2 )

Tab. F.2: Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil palm wood in inner zone (IZ) treated with bioresin for 150
seconds

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

F.1. Static Bending Strength

263

264

Time
(s)

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

Sample
Code

CZ1T11
CZ1T12
CZ1T13
CZ1T14
CZ1T15

CZ3T11
CZ3T12
CZ3T13
CZ3T14
CZ3T15

CZ5T11
CZ5T12
CZ5T13
CZ5T14
CZ5T15

CZ7T11
CZ7T12
CZ7T13
CZ7T14
CZ7T15

CZ9T11
CZ9T12
CZ9T13
CZ9T14
CZ9T15

95.806
98.321
130.820
111.627
112.287
109.772
84.650
93.042
75.472
77.738
105.062
87.193
110.959
75.495
81.751
80.773
101.409
90.077
66.313
85.716
75.907
57.749
63.966
69.930
58.689
62.451
62.142
62.193
58.073
60.710

B0
(g)
111.316
110.868
138.958
120.782
122.234
120.832
96.036
105.600
93.056
91.105
118.532
100.866
123.127
92.959
95.750
90.063
113.699
103.120
80.946
101.407
90.996
104.428
82.848
92.125
82.179
76.778
81.920
83.907
81.856
81.328

B1
(g)
16.19
12.76
6.22
8.20
8.86
10.45
13.45
13.50
23.30
17.19
12.82
16.05
10.97
23.13
17.12
11.50
12.12
14.97
22.07
18.31
19.88
80.83
29.52
34.12
40.02
22.94
31.83
34.91
40.95
34.13

R
(%)

2.61
2.64
2.58
2.46
2.44

2.46
2.62
2.60
2.68
2.49

2.66
2.61
2.67
2.56
2.70

2.68
2.63
2.61
2.70
2.60

2.65
2.62
2.46
2.56
2.70

b
(cm)

2.65
2.60
2.72
2.72
2.65

2.70
2.64
2.64
2.71
2.65

2.66
2.70
2.66
2.70
2.70

2.59
2.37
2.78
2.63
2.64

2.33
2.34
2.30
2.36
2.28

h
(cm)

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

l
(cm)

y = 0.119x + 0.5151
y = 0.126x + 0.5167
y = 0.1411x + 0.6777
y = 0.1216x + 0.5843
y = 0.1395x + 0.5316

y = 0.1531x + 0.4423
y = 0.0665x + 0.7377
y = 0.0855x + 0.6222
y = 0.1509x + 0.3418
y = 0.107x + 0.483

y = 0.0434x + 0.6429
y = 0.0899x + 0.8247
y = 0.0873x + 0.6605
y = 0.088x + 0.479
y = 0.063x + 0.2887

y = 0.0707x + 0.1893
y = 0.0548x + 0.9392
y = 0.0803x + 0.5495
y = 0.0833x + 0.7148
y = 0.056x + 0.536

y = 0.0712x + 0.723
y = 0.0702x + 0.5986
y = 0.0476x + 0.6111
y = 0.0588x + 0.597
y = 0.0521x + 1.0983

0.1190
0.1260
0.1411
0.1216
0.1395

0.1531
0.0665
0.0855
0.1509
0.1070

0.0434
0.0899
0.0873
0.0880
0.0630

0.0707
0.0548
0.0803
0.0833
0.0560

0.0712
0.0702
0.0476
0.0588
0.0521

e1

0.5151
0.5167
0.6777
0.5843
0.5316

0.4423
0.7377
0.6222
0.3418
0.4830

0.6429
0.8247
0.6605
0.4790
0.2887

0.1893
0.9392
0.5495
0.7148
0.5360

0.7230
0.5986
0.6111
0.5970
1.0983

e2

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

P1

50
50
40
40
40

40
70
50
40
50

80
70
60
60
60

70
70
70
60
80

70
70
80
80
80

P2

35
35
25
25
25

25
55
35
25
35

65
55
45
45
45

55
55
55
45
65

55
55
65
65
65

dP

2.3001
2.4067
2.7942
2.4083
2.6241

2.7388
1.7352
1.9047
2.6053
2.0880

1.2939
2.1732
1.9700
1.7990
1.2337

1.2498
1.7612
1.7540
1.9643
1.3760

1.7910
1.6516
1.3251
1.4790
1.8798

y1

6.4651
6.8167
6.3217
5.4483
6.1116

6.5663
5.3927
4.8972
6.3778
5.8330

4.1149
7.1177
5.8985
5.7590
4.0687

5.1383
4.7752
6.1705
5.7128
5.0160

5.7070
5.5126
4.4191
5.3010
5.2663

y2

0.4165
0.4410
0.3528
0.3040
0.3488

0.3828
0.3658
0.2993
0.3773
0.3745

0.2821
0.4945
0.3929
0.3960
0.2835

0.3889
0.3014
0.4417
0.3749
0.3640

0.3916
0.3861
0.3094
0.3822
0.3387

dy

58.0016
56.1687
47.7645
45.7931
44.8909

43.1858
73.7619
59.9299
49.1266
54.9877

106.6683
73.5180
62.8071
69.1052
66.0648

74.8620
87.3063
79.4725
62.7943
102.0841

73.9154
77.6776
129.8448
105.6721
112.2337

Pmax
(kg)
48871.299
49495.024
81869.463
58951.412
69958.660
61829.171
35431.865
61103.626
25903.418
28508.312
43538.590
38897.162
53682.315
25255.503
26587.475
26304.714
34837.895
33333.580
15734.245
36384.197
28516.503
14491.576
23524.845
23730.273
20180.058
19950.464
15921.870
19376.357
18413.903
18768.530

MOE
(kg/cm2 )
277.441
292.386
538.800
400.212
431.801
388.128
224.865
320.224
212.755
181.568
304.208
248.724
306.044
208.651
179.526
199.957
181.248
215.085
130.039
218.131
178.590
134.784
169.812
166.271
170.884
169.956
135.127
135.869
141.472
150.662

MOR
(kg/cm2 )
0.501
0.502
0.682
0.555
0.552
0.558
0.384
0.471
0.356
0.356
0.480
0.410
0.483
0.366
0.374
0.362
0.433
0.404
0.339
0.407
0.368
0.399
0.349
0.372
0.330
0.311
0.324
0.348
0.352
0.333

Density
(g/cm2 )

Tab. F.3: Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil palm wood in central zone (CZ) treated with bioresin for
150 seconds

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

F.1. Static Bending Strength

Time
(s)

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

150
150
150
150
150

Sample
Code

PZ1T11
PZ1T12
PZ1T13
PZ1T14
PZ1T15

PZ3T11
PZ3T12
PZ3T13
PZ3T14
PZ3T15

PZ5T11
PZ5T12
PZ5T13
PZ5T14
PZ5T15

PZ7T11
PZ7T12
PZ7T13
PZ7T14
PZ7T15

PZ9T11
PZ9T12
PZ9T13
PZ9T14
PZ9T15

216.534
209.304
153.222
174.727
138.339
178.425
95.694
128.781
100.432
103.926
137.838
113.334
139.912
134.040
150.812
174.854
141.965
148.317
122.592
148.367
126.393
92.196
180.647
134.039
175.643
125.437
129.190
124.423
148.209
140.580

B0
(g)
223.965
219.675
164.188
180.108
150.024
187.592
106.345
136.459
112.231
111.457
143.937
122.086
149.011
145.113
157.676
183.870
151.258
157.386
129.927
153.808
135.555
97.709
186.623
140.724
181.009
133.467
138.812
130.110
157.532
148.186

B1
(g)
3.43
4.95
7.16
3.08
8.45
5.41
11.13
5.96
11.75
7.25
4.42
8.10
6.50
8.26
4.55
5.16
6.55
6.20
5.98
3.67
7.25
5.98
3.31
5.24
3.06
6.40
7.45
4.57
6.29
5.55

R
(%)

2.74
2.63
2.74
2.47
2.80

2.57
2.62
2.63
2.66
2.66

2.63
2.76
2.64
2.81
2.65

2.67
2.67
2.68
2.68
2.67

2.83
2.78
2.71
2.71
2.58

b
(cm)

2.67
2.67
2.70
2.46
2.61

2.70
2.54
2.59
2.55
2.66

2.72
2.60
2.71
2.60
2.73

2.63
2.63
2.63
2.45
2.50

2.74
2.70
2.62
2.70
2.68

h
(cm)

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

l
(cm)

y = 0.026x + 0.7552
y = 0.0406x + 0.5212
y = 0.0381x + 0.705
y = 0.0434x + 0.748
y = 0.033x + 0.5994

y = 0.0366x + 0.925
y = 0.0318x + 0.5989
y = 0.0379x + 0.5175
y = 0.0712x + 0.6208
y = 0.0258x + 0.9411

y = 0.0291x + 0.3634
y = 0.0326x + 0.2447
y = 0.0292x + 0.4722
y = 0.0235x + 0.3918
y = 0.0287x + 0.4314

y = 0.0567x + 0.3685
y = 0.0353x + 0.2789
y = 0.0528x + 0.5124
y = 0.0495x + 0.2632
y = 0.0324x + 0.4035

y = 0.0212x + 0.3153
y = 0.0192x + 0.3227
y = 0.0313x + 0.39
y = 0.0248x + 0.152
y = 0.0333x + 0.369

0.0260
0.0406
0.0381
0.0434
0.0330

0.0366
0.0318
0.0379
0.0712
0.0258

0.0291
0.0326
0.0292
0.0235
0.0287

0.0567
0.0353
0.0528
0.0495
0.0324

0.0212
0.0192
0.0313
0.0248
0.0333

e1

0.7552
0.5112
0.7050
0.7480
0.5994

0.9250
0.5989
0.5179
0.6208
0.9411

0.3634
0.2447
0.4722
0.3918
0.4314

0.3685
0.2789
0.5124
0.2632
0.4035

0.3153
0.3227
0.3900
0.1520
0.3690

e2

20
20
20
20
20

20
20
20
20
20

20
20
20
20
20

20
20
20
20
20

20
20
20
20
20

P1

90
90
90
90
90

90
90
90
90
90

90
90
90
90
90

90
90
90
90
90

90
90
90
90
90

P2

70
70
70
70
70

70
70
70
70
70

70
70
70
70
70

70
70
70
70
70

70
70
70
70
70

dP

1.2752
1.3232
1.4670
1.6160
1.2594

1.6570
1.2349
1.2759
2.0448
1.4571

0.9454
0.8967
1.0562
0.8618
1.0054

1.5025
0.9849
1.5684
1.2532
1.0515

0.7393
0.7067
1.0160
0.6480
1.0350

y1

3.0952
4.1652
4.1340
4.6540
3.5694

4.2190
3.4609
3.9289
7.0288
3.2631

2.9824
3.1787
3.1002
2.5068
3.0144

5.4715
3.4559
5.2644
4.7182
3.3195

2.2233
2.0507
3.2070
2.3840
3.3660

y2

0.1820
0.2842
0.2667
0.3038
0.2310

0.2562
0.2226
0.2653
0.4984
0.1806

0.2037
0.2282
0.2044
0.1645
0.2009

0.3969
0.2471
0.3696
0.3465
0.2268

0.1484
0.1344
0.2191
0.1736
0.2331

dy

254.5340
143.7841
158.3470
143.9609
170.9619

166.0847
237.7443
146.5036
89.1461
219.8471

184.0543
152.5837
171.0461
203.5383
175.5043

97.0451
142.0746
107.6179
126.2170
176.3382

205.1603
272.9989
156.6952
179.1194
146.9416

Pmax
(kg)
94509.078
111022.293
76459.246
88172.925
70530.862
88138.881
42353.172
68029.033
45311.824
59787.345
86292.135
60354.702
75734.203
73756.582
76024.375
100497.043
75375.777
80277.596
63000.212
85431.484
67352.429
37142.005
90302.809
68645.788
86018.094
57389.434
56765.005
73089.587
70999.292
68852.282

MOE
(kg/cm2 )
521.434
727.415
454.860
489.598
428.202
524.302
283.756
415.420
313.496
423.687
570.623
401.396
510.794
441.617
476.392
578.611
479.855
497.454
478.699
759.513
448.422
278.313
630.768
519.143
703.666
414.120
428.081
520.081
484.010
509.991

MOR
(kg/cm2 )

0.802
0.813
0.642
0.684
0.603
0.709
0.421
0.540
0.442
0.472
0.599
0.495
0.579
0.562
0.612
0.699
0.581
0.606
0.520
0.642
0.553
0.400
0.733
0.570
0.687
0.528
0.521
0.595
0.599
0.586

Density
(g/cm2 )

Tab. F.4: Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil palm wood in peripheral zone (PZ) treated with bioresin
for 150 seconds

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

F.1. Static Bending Strength

265

266

Time
(s)

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

Sample
Code

IZ1T21
IZ1T22
IZ1T23
IZ1T24
IZ1T25

IZ3T21
IZ3T22
IZ3T23
IZ3T24
IZ3T25

IZ5T21
IZ5T22
IZ5T23
IZ5T24
IZ5T25

IZ7T21
IZ7T22
IZ7T23
IZ7T24
IZ7T25

IZ9T21
IZ9T22
IZ9T23
IZ9T24
IZ9T25

51.793
63.038
50.285
72.751
74.111
62.396
50.074
51.256
61.309
52.391
57.247
54.455
59.399
47.969
52.655
56.133
51.518
53.535
46.239
47.575
48.404
49.603
48.035
47.971
64.282
67.943
57.436
50.448
59.703
59.962

B0
(g)
66.048
76.162
62.800
89.372
86.866
76.250
67.745
64.158
72.375
65.760
67.732
67.554
78.569
73.959
71.781
75.093
73.327
74.546
63.504
63.546
68.088
78.395
65.812
67.869
103.391
83.808
81.623
71.060
69.293
81.835

B1
(g)
27.52
20.82
24.89
22.85
17.21
22.66
35.29
25.17
18.05
25.52
18.32
24.47
32.27
54.18
36.32
33.78
42.33
39.78
37.34
33.57
40.67
58.04
37.01
41.33
60.84
23.35
42.11
40.86
16.06
36.64

R
(%)

2.61
2.61
2.57
2.55
2.61

2.56
2.56
2.64
2.75
2.60

2.56
2.52
2.64
2.60
2.72

2.17
2.53
2.61
2.62
2.64

2.63
2.55
2.59
2.67
2.66

b
(cm)

2.55
2.55
2.57
2.58
2.46

2.50
2.58
2.61
2.42
2.62

2.64
2.57
2.66
2.70
2.67

2.61
2.67
2.32
2.15
2.60

2.32
2.61
2.53
2.59
2.61

h
(cm)

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

l
(cm)

y = 0.166x + 1.5259
y = 0.2016x + 0.8659
y = 0.2422x + 0.9272
y = 0.275x + 1.2259
y = 0.2642x + 2.5271

y = 0.2167x + 0.4568
y = 0.2045x + 0.5238
y = 0.2111x + 0.4539
y = 0.2297x + 0.3899
y = 0.2127x + 0.3457

y = 0.1305x + 0.6597
y = 0.2102x + 0.4855
y = 0.1477x + 0.5104
y = 0.1658x + 0.5309
y = 0.2049x + 0.4358

y = 0.1933x + 0.4544
y = 0.2246x + 0.5472
y = 0.15x + 0.791
y = 0.1646x + 0.5993
y = 0.1627x + 0.6065

y = 0.2218x + 0.3669
y = 0.1236x + 0.6028
y = 0.1875x + 0.5973
y = 0.1102x + 0.6857
y = 0.105x + 0.6683

0.1660
0.2016
0.2422
0.2750
0.2642

0.2167
0.2045
0.2111
0.2297
0.2127

0.1305
0.2102
0.1477
0.1658
0.2049

0.1933
0.2246
0.1500
0.1646
0.1627

0.2218
0.1236
0.1875
0.1102
0.1050

e1

1.5259
0.8659
0.9272
1.2259
2.5271

0.4568
0.5238
0.4539
0.3899
0.3457

0.6597
0.4855
0.5104
0.5309
0.4358

0.4544
0.5472
0.7910
0.5993
0.6065

0.3669
0.6028
0.5973
0.6857
0.6683

e2

5
5
5
5
5

5
5
5
5
5

10
10
10
10
10

10
10
10
10
10

10
10
10
10
10

P1

40
40
30
20
25

25
25
30
20
30

50
25
40
30
30

30
20
40
30
30

30
40
30
50
60

P2

35
35
25
15
20

20
20
25
15
25

40
15
30
20
20

20
10
30
20
20

20
30
20
40
50

dP

2.3559
1.8739
2.1382
2.6009
3.8481

1.5403
1.5463
1.5094
1.5384
1.4092

1.9647
2.5875
1.9874
2.1889
2.4848

2.3874
2.7932
2.2910
2.2453
2.2335

2.5849
1.8388
2.4723
1.7877
1.7183

y1

8.1659
8.9299
8.1932
6.7259
9.1321

5.8743
5.6363
6.7869
4.9839
6.7267

7.1847
5.7405
6.4184
5.5049
6.5828

6.2534
5.0392
6.7910
5.5373
5.4875

7.0209
5.5468
6.2223
6.1957
6.9683

y2

0.5810
0.7056
0.6055
0.4125
0.5284

0.4334
0.4090
0.5278
0.3446
0.5318

0.5220
0.3153
0.4431
0.3316
0.4098

0.3866
0.2246
0.4500
0.3292
0.3254

0.4436
0.3708
0.3750
0.4408
0.5250

dy

41.9617
41.7479
30.4819
24.1173
25.8348

29.4845
29.4572
31.1143
22.7274
34.1822

50.9150
25.9438
41.5883
34.1856
36.2207

37.8080
27.5385
43.6918
35.5855
36.4077

30.5976
47.6583
35.5393
52.3829
60.5567

Pmax
(kg)
16012.763
20814.565
14831.494
22816.833
23488.488
19592.828
15639.915
10784.089
23858.975
27214.541
15450.267
18589.557
18975.152
12972.237
15893.450
13746.696
10995.193
14516.546
13456.391
12973.439
11771.555
13028.899
11727.429
12591.543
16235.975
13368.908
11039.283
9685.354
11362.368
12338.378

MOE
(kg/cm2 )
116.721
148.153
115.761
157.933
180.465
143.807
138.114
82.450
167.949
158.668
110.163
131.469
154.096
84.171
120.226
97.395
100.869
111.351
99.510
93.348
93.426
76.205
103.423
93.182
133.514
132.833
96.970
76.726
88.326
105.674

MOR
(kg/cm2 )
0.301
0.318
0.266
0.359
0.348
0.318
0.332
0.264
0.332
0.324
0.274
0.305
0.323
0.317
0.284
0.297
0.280
0.300
0.276
0.267
0.274
0.327
0.268
0.283
0.432
0.350
0.343
0.300
0.300
0.345

Density
(g/cm2 )

Tab. F.5: Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil palm wood in inner zone (IZ) treated with bioresin for 300
seconds

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

F.1. Static Bending Strength

Time
(s)

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

Sample
Code

CZ1T21
CZ1T22
CZ1T23
CZ1T24
CZ1T25

CZ3T21
CZ3T22
CZ3T23
CZ3T24
CZ3T25

CZ5T21
CZ5T22
CZ5T23
CZ5T24
CZ5T25

CZ7T21
CZ7T22
CZ7T23
CZ7T24
CZ7T25

CZ9T21
CZ9T22
CZ9T23
CZ9T24
CZ9T25

115.068
112.773
103.738
93.782
97.561
104.584
82.669
84.421
84.045
109.969
100.786
92.378
76.855
93.259
70.320
76.175
81.142
79.550
67.873
76.794
60.293
74.335
72.343
70.328
57.553
61.448
76.253
73.729
65.901
66.977

B0
(g)
124.154
122.805
115.330
106.216
107.151
115.131
93.040
98.466
96.297
121.057
116.471
105.066
88.795
107.505
82.990
91.103
91.517
92.382
80.056
95.851
80.216
88.972
92.838
87.587
78.363
78.863
96.218
100.300
80.504
86.850

B1
(g)
7.90
8.90
11.17
13.26
9.83
10.21
12.55
16.64
14.58
10.08
15.56
13.88
15.54
15.28
18.02
19.60
12.79
16.24
17.95
24.82
33.04
19.69
28.33
24.77
36.16
28.34
26.18
36.04
22.16
29.78

(%)

2.58
2.52
2.50
2.51
2.54

2.66
2.65
2.46
2.66
2.63

2.67
2.60
2.59
2.66
2.64

2.67
2.45
2.55
2.63
2.60

2.55
2.67
2.60
2.60
2.58

b
(cm)

2.63
2.66
2.65
2.66
2.65

2.63
2.64
2.63
2.67
2.65

2.58
2.71
2.61
2.63
2.52

2.66
2.70
2.70
2.61
2.73

2.32
2.25
2.40
2.25
2.25

h
(cm)

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

l
(cm)

y = 0.1576x + 0.4981
y = 0.1324x + 0.6052
y = 0.0796x + 0.4647
y = 0.0965x + 0.5946
y = 0.1234x + 0.329

y = 0.1056x + 0.5547
y = 0.0806x + 0.7022
y = 0.1175x + 0.6423
y = 0.1002x + 0.6881
y = 0.0849x + 0.6751

y = 0.0902x + 0.4778
y = 0.0735x + 0.4496
y = 0.1229x + 0.4497
y = 0.0882x + 0.6943
y = 0.0881x + 0.5814

y = 0.0728x + 0.5684
y = 0.0632x + 0.6147
y = 0.0676x + 0.6659
y = 0.0533x + 0.482
y = 0.0565x + 0.4988

y = 0.0496x + 0.5225
y = 0.0519x + 0.5932
y = 0.0608x + 0.5592
y = 0.0721x + 0.67
y = 0.0656x + 0.6132

0.1576
0.1324
0.0796
0.0965
0.1234

0.1056
0.0806
0.1175
0.1002
0.0849

0.0902
0.0735
0.1229
0.0882
0.0881

0.0728
0.0632
0.0676
0.0533
0.0565

0.0496
0.0519
0.0608
0.0721
0.0656

e1

0.4981
0.6052
0.4647
0.5946
0.3290

0.5547
0.7022
0.6423
0.6881
0.6751

0.4778
0.4496
0.4497
0.6943
0.5814

0.5684
0.6147
0.6659
0.4820
0.4988

0.5225
0.5932
0.5592
0.6700
0.6132

e2

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

15
15
15
15
15

P1

40
40
50
60
50

50
60
60
60
70

50
70
60
60
50

70
70
70
70
70

80
80
80
80
80

P2

25
25
35
45
35

35
45
45
45
55

35
55
45
45
35

55
55
55
55
55

65
65
65
65
65

dP

2.8621
2.5912
1.6587
2.0421
2.1800

2.1387
1.9112
2.4048
2.1911
1.9486

1.8308
1.5521
2.2932
2.0173
1.9029

1.6604
1.5627
1.6799
1.2815
1.3463

1.2665
1.3717
1.4712
1.7515
1.5972

y1

6.8021
5.9012
4.4447
6.3846
6.4990

5.8347
5.5382
7.6923
6.7001
6.6181

4.9878
5.5946
7.8237
5.9863
4.9864

5.6644
5.0387
5.3979
4.2130
4.4538

4.4905
4.7452
5.4232
6.4380
5.8612

y2

0.3940
0.3310
0.2786
0.4343
0.4319

0.3696
0.3627
0.5288
0.4509
0.4670

0.3157
0.4043
0.5531
0.3969
0.3084

0.4004
0.3476
0.3718
0.2932
0.3108

0.3224
0.3374
0.3952
0.4687
0.4264

dy

47.0193
48.1097
55.8294
64.3427
57.1535

59.2682
66.7297
60.5916
61.4087
77.5441

59.4505
72.1643
61.4178
70.9274
55.1110

71.5683
79.9045
84.2372
109.2347
86.7804

130.0976
138.9496
94.0387
89.3172
80.2571

Pmax
(kg)
73851.904
73896.069
53374.873
54624.987
60502.931
63250.153
31883.057
38271.286
34377.108
46799.696
39024.538
38071.137
28201.395
30667.541
20609.827
27329.397
31337.623
27629.157
22826.257
29679.379
22182.337
22991.344
28070.261
25149.916
15769.007
18574.369
31496.102
25585.951
19996.823
22284.451

MOE
(kg/cm2 )
511.855
555.105
339.082
366.430
331.812
420.857
204.569
241.586
244.698
329.244
241.834
252.386
180.634
204.082
187.978
208.168
177.512
191.675
173.949
195.101
192.291
174.872
226.723
192.587
142.278
145.701
171.722
195.639
173.026
165.673

MOR
(kg/cm2 )

0.583
0.568
0.513
0.504
0.513
0.536
0.364
0.413
0.389
0.490
0.456
0.422
0.358
0.424
0.341
0.362
0.382
0.373
0.318
0.381
0.344
0.348
0.370
0.352
0.321
0.327
0.403
0.417
0.332
0.360

Density
(g/cm2 )

Tab. F.6: Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil palm wood in central zone (CZ) treated with bioresin for
300 seconds

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

F.1. Static Bending Strength

267

268

Time
(s)

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

300
300
300
300
300

Sample
Code

PZ1T21
PZ1T22
PZ1T23
PZ1T24
PZ1T25

PZ3T21
PZ3T22
PZ3T23
PZ3T24
PZ3T25

PZ5T21
PZ5T22
PZ5T23
PZ5T24
PZ5T25

PZ7T21
PZ7T22
PZ7T23
PZ7T24
PZ7T25

PZ9T21
PZ9T22
PZ9T23
PZ9T24
PZ9T25

146.911
155.738
218.625
161.793
78.495
152.312
112.551
97.834
105.172
105.142
105.027
105.145
144.559
145.662
137.265
180.807
175.014
156.661
115.404
118.088
93.536
129.458
112.561
113.809
116.399
138.032
127.179
121.212
126.367
125.838

B0
(g)
158.151
166.438
229.313
172.018
91.456
163.475
126.081
106.464
116.454
113.025
115.888
115.582
150.658
152.275
148.487
190.919
182.662
165.000
125.840
126.668
107.096
135.847
118.820
122.854
129.451
144.107
138.187
129.943
137.420
135.822

B1
(g)
7.65
6.87
4.89
6.32
16.51
8.45
12.02
8.82
10.73
7.50
10.34
9.88
4.22
4.54
8.18
5.59
4.37
5.38
9.04
7.27
14.50
4.94
5.56
8.26
11.21
4.40
8.66
7.20
8.75
8.04

R
(%)

2.66
2.76
2.80
2.63
2.70

2.63
2.60
2.62
2.62
2.54

2.66
2.67
2.70
2.60
2.58

2.72
2.66
2.66
2.68
2.69

2.72
2.72
2.66
2.71
2.67

b
(cm)

2.65
2.67
2.61
2.63
2.71

2.68
2.65
2.56
2.60
2.69

2.61
2.63
2.70
2.62
2.74

2.67
2.68
2.67
2.62
2.66

2.57
2.65
2.86
2.64
2.68

h
(cm)

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

36
36
36
36
36

l
(cm)

y = 0.0446x + 0.5315
y = 0.0309x + 0.6813
y = 0.0406x + 0.6932
y = 0.0411x + 0.6524
y = 0.0405x + 0.6293

y = 0.0455x + 0.5703
y = 0.0437x + 0.6806
y = 0.0568x + 0.6122
y = 0.0363x + 0.6017
y = 0.041x + 0.6381

y = 0.0297x + 0.538
y = 0.028x + 0.664
y = 0.0291x + 0.6944
y = 0.0231x + 1.0158
y = 0.024x + 0.5583

y = 0.0414x + 0.7684
y = 0.0517x + 0.7566
y = 0.0438x + 0.4206
y = 0.0477x + 0.6961
y = 0.0478x + 0.4796

y = 0.0306x + 0.6926
y = 0.0301x + 0.9305
y = 0.0204x + 0.553
y = 0.029x + 0.5362
y = 0.0936x + 0.5718

0.0446
0.0309
0.0406
0.0411
0.0405

0.0455
0.0437
0.0568
0.0363
0.0410

0.0297
0.0280
0.0291
0.0231
0.0240

0.0414
0.0517
0.0438
0.0477
0.0478

0.0306
0.0301
0.0204
0.0290
0.0936

e1

0.5315
0.6813
0.6932
0.6524
0.6293

0.5703
0.6806
0.6122
0.6017
0.6381

0.5380
0.6640
0.6944
1.0158
0.5583

0.7684
0.7566
0.4206
0.6961
0.4796

0.6926
0.9305
0.5530
0.5362
0.5718

e2

20
20
20
20
20

20
20
20
20
20

20
20
20
20
20

20
20
20
20
20

20
20
20
20
20

P1

90
90
90
90
90

90
90
90
90
90

90
90
90
90
90

90
90
90
90
90

90
90
90
90
90

P2

70
70
70
70
70

70
70
70
70
70

70
70
70
70
70

70
70
70
70
70

70
70
70
70
70

dP

1.4235
1.2993
1.5052
1.4744
1.4393

1.4803
1.5546
1.7482
1.3277
1.4581

1.1320
1.2240
1.2764
1.4778
1.0383

1.5964
1.7906
1.2966
1.6501
1.4356

1.3046
1.5325
0.9610
1.1162
2.4438

y1

4.5455
3.4623
4.3472
4.3514
4.2743

4.6653
4.6136
5.7242
3.8687
4.3281

3.2110
3.1840
3.3134
3.0948
2.7183

4.4944
5.4096
4.3626
4.9891
4.7816

3.4466
3.6395
2.3890
3.1462
8.9958

y2

0.3122
0.2163
0.2842
0.2877
0.2835

0.3185
0.3059
0.3976
0.2541
0.2870

0.2079
0.1960
0.2037
0.1617
0.1680

0.2898
0.3619
0.3066
0.3339
0.3346

0.2142
0.2107
0.1428
0.2030
0.6552

dy

147.6990
260.2692
147.8455
144.4760
145.1357

121.4445
143.7922
104.7358
167.9797
159.0198

173.4548
242.9225
201.4885
250.8351
236.3565

131.7815
109.3774
135.9574
121.6020
128.9187

170.9524
177.7568
259.1586
185.7460
76.2722

Pmax
(kg)
82557.743
76555.164
91883.516
80661.899
24246.889
71181.042
54418.239
44062.684
52596.637
50732.991
48197.268
50001.564
83040.108
85765.174
75422.247
107983.726
91572.459
88756.743
50637.935
55163.918
46717.327
69778.166
57540.429
55967.555
52831.555
71853.208
57708.784
59317.480
53594.577
59061.121

MOE
(kg/cm2 )
513.847
502.527
643.200
531.051
214.773
481.079
366.992
309.151
387.162
356.942
365.758
357.201
516.913
710.295
552.781
758.938
658.932
639.572
347.173
425.269
329.388
512.156
467.204
416.238
426.971
714.307
418.565
428.866
395.244
476.791

MOR
(kg/cm2 )
0.628
0.641
0.837
0.668
0.355
0.626
0.482
0.415
0.455
0.447
0.450
0.450
0.603
0.602
0.566
0.779
0.718
0.653
0.496
0.511
0.444
0.554
0.483
0.497
0.510
0.543
0.525
0.522
0.522
0.524

Density
(g/cm2 )

Tab. F.7: Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil palm wood in peripheral zone (PZ) treated with bioresin
for 300 seconds

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

F.1. Static Bending Strength

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

IZ3T1K11
IZ3T1K12
IZ3T1K13

IZ5T1K11
IZ5T1K12
IZ5T1K13

IZ7T1K11
IZ7T1K12
IZ7T1K13

CZ3T1K11
CZ3T1K12
CZ3T1K13

CZ5T1K11
CZ5T1K12
CZ5T1K13

CZ7T1K11
CZ7T1K12
CZ7T1K13

PZ3T1K11
PZ3T1K12
PZ3T1K13

PZ5T1K11
PZ5T1K12
PZ5T1K13

PZ7T1K11
PZ7T1K12
PZ7T1K13

Time
hour

10

10

10

C
(%)

101.994
190.948
154.975

137.113
132.793
128.337

177.309
122.708
141.883

63.904
69.040
69.373

112.322
78.480
85.945

123.619
178.430
86.972

52.596
66.114
66.286

58.498
67.762
54.316

65.822
54.805
49.467

B0
(g)

115.064
211.043
173.649

148.569
144.272
140.254

193.618
134.780
152.453

76.200
84.544
82.271

124.526
87.356
95.790

136.013
192.882
100.844

66.111
75.159
74.417

71.124
74.178
65.083

74.663
64.370
59.960

B1
(g)
13.4317
17.4528
21.2121
17.3655
21.5836
9.4684
19.8229
16.9583
25.6959
13.6809
12.2665
17.2144
10.0260
8.0995
15.9500
11.3585
10.8652
11.3099
11.4550
11.2100
19.2414
22.4565
18.5922
20.0967
9.1981
9.8380
7.4498
8.8286
8.3552
8.6443
9.2857
8.7617
12.8145
10.5238
12.0497
11.7960

R
(%)

2.57
2.56
2.68

2.75
2.63
2.63

2.74
2.73
2.60

2.65
2.62
2.64

2.68
2.64
2.65

2.70
2.62
2.60

2.70
2.61
2.59

2.62
2.60
2.62

2.38
2.30
2.56

b
(cm)

2.60
2.66
2.70

2.60
2.65
2.66

2.66
2.62
2.72

2.61
2.69
2.64

2.65
2.69
2.58

2.68
2.68
2.70

2.58
2.60
2.70

2.70
2.63
2.64

2.71
2.62
2.70

h
(cm)

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

l
(cm)

y = 0.0665x + 0.4751
y = 0.0244x + 0.6682
y = 0.0336x + 0.4044

y = 0.0412x + 0.3625
y = 0.048x + 0.1373
y = 0.0454x + 0.2095

y = 0.0323x + 0.5868
y = 0.0475x + 0.2142
y = 0.0319x + 0.2959

y = 0.1092x + 0.9277
y = 0.0963x + 0.5004
y = 0.0521x + 0.552

y = 0.0519x + 0.552
y = 0.0959x + 0.8585
y = 0.0805x + 1.0235

y = 0.0427x + 0.2802
y = 0.112x + 0.4324
y = 0.0964x + 0.5005

y = 0.2702x + 0.7296
y = 0.2143x + 1.0606
y = 0.1809x + 0.85

y = 0.1836x + 0.8987
y = 0.155x + 1.1301
y = 0.279x + 0.8187

y = 0.1175x + 0.8452
y = 0.1823x + 1.2145
y = 0.208x + 0.6745

0.0665
0.0244
0.0336

0.0412
0.0480
0.0454

0.0323
0.0475
0.0319

0.1092
0.0963
0.0521

0.0519
0.0959
0.0805

0.0427
0.1120
0.0964

0.2702
0.2143
0.1809

0.1836
0.1550
0.2790

0.1175
0.1823
0.2080

e1

0.4751
0.6682
0.4044

0.3625
0.1373
0.2095

0.5868
0.2142
0.2959

0.9277
0.5004
0.5520

0.5520
0.8585
1.0235

0.2802
0.4324
0.5005

0.7296
1.0606
0.8500

0.8987
1.1301
0.8187

0.8452
1.2145
0.6745

e2

10
10
10

10
10
10

10
10
10

10
10
10

10
10
10

10
10
10

5
5
5

5
5
5

5
5
5

P1

80
80
80

80
80
80

80
80
80

30
40
50

90
60
60

90
40
50

25
30
30

30
40
25

50
30
30

P2

70
70
70

70
70
70

70
70
70

20
30
40

80
50
50

80
30
40

20
25
25

25
35
20

45
25
25

dP

1.1401
0.9122
0.7404

0.7745
0.6173
0.6635

0.9098
0.6892
0.6149

2.0197
1.4634
1.0730

1.0710
1.8175
1.8285

0.7072
1.5524
1.4645

2.0806
2.1321
1.7545

1.8167
1.9051
2.2137

1.4327
2.1260
1.7145

y1

5.7951
2.6202
3.0924

3.6585
3.9773
3.8415

3.1708
4.0142
2.8479

4.2037
4.3524
3.1570

5.2230
6.6125
5.8535

4.1232
4.9124
5.3205

7.4846
7.4896
6.2770

6.4067
7.3301
7.7937

6.7202
6.6835
6.9145

y2

0.4655
0.1708
0.2352

0.2884
0.3360
0.3178

0.2261
0.3325
0.2233

0.2184
0.2889
0.2084

0.4152
0.4795
0.4025

0.3416
0.3360
0.3856

0.5404
0.5358
0.4523

0.4590
0.5425
0.5580

0.5288
0.4558
0.5200

dy

88.300
305.800
196.420

141.600
127.400
139.500

232.800
136.700
187.900

37.260
47.160
52.190

113.493
67.498
64.513

130.629
49.205
50.376

29.338
35.679
39.367

38.092
44.646
25.562

51.612
30.107
32.938

Pmax
(kg)
20956.793
15467.821
11128.917
15851.177
12319.193
15910.185
8672.219
12300.532
9309.777
11864.919
12647.884
11274.194
52559.532
20650.179
23643.177
32284.296
45061.717
23668.358
31838.063
33522.713
22670.311
23749.971
46088.660
30836.314
70024.419
50013.515
69883.841
63307.259
58573.012
49649.274
51902.825
53375.037
38830.475
99213.966
65808.524
67950.988

MOE
(kg/cm2 )
159.452
102.973
95.305
119.244
107.697
134.059
75.591
105.782
88.149
109.200
112.589
103.313
363.747
141.198
143.522
216.156
325.638
190.799
197.495
237.977
111.458
134.327
153.168
132.984
648.430
393.910
527.484
523.275
411.318
372.491
404.808
396.206
274.457
911.650
542.897
576.335

MOR
(kg/cm2 )

0.322
0.297
0.241
0.286
0.279
0.301
0.261
0.281
0.264
0.308
0.296
0.289
0.522
0.763
0.399
0.561
0.487
0.342
0.389
0.406
0.306
0.333
0.328
0.322
0.738
0.523
0.599
0.620
0.577
0.575
0.557
0.570
0.478
0.861
0.667
0.669

Density
(g/cm2 )

Tab. F.8: Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil palm wood treated with 10% acetone for 24 hours

Sample
Code

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

F.1. Static Bending Strength

269

270

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

24
24
24

IZ3T1K21
IZ3T1K22
IZ3T1K23

IZ5T1K21
IZ5T1K22
IZ5T1K23

IZ7T1K21
IZ7T1K22
IZ7T1K23

CZ3T1K21
CZ3T1K22
CZ3T1K23

CZ5T1K21
CZ5T1K22
CZ5T1K23

CZ7T1K21
CZ7T1K22
CZ7T1K23

PZ3T1K21
PZ3T1K22
PZ3T1K23

PZ5T1K21
PZ5T1K22
PZ5T1K23

PZ7T1K21
PZ7T1K22
PZ7T1K23

Time
hour

20

20

20

C
(%)

117.490
108.286
95.615

122.925
107.913
109.769

120.820
128.305
114.347

60.273
64.638
68.978

85.918
83.227
80.494

122.105
97.956
75.484

49.865
72.829
50.722

57.764
56.669
51.242

60.660
56.970
47.625

B0
(g)

141.230
130.690
118.165

151.803
131.934
136.293

147.614
160.648
145.490

86.370
82.354
89.965

101.043
96.428
98.792

141.779
114.170
90.880

62.432
88.397
61.862

73.013
76.939
72.819

76.136
71.938
58.974

B1
(g)
25.5127
26.2735
23.8299
25.2054
26.3988
35.7691
42.1080
34.7586
25.2020
21.3761
21.9629
22.8470
16.1124
16.5523
20.3964
17.6870
17.6040
15.8614
22.7321
18.7325
43.2980
27.4080
30.4256
33.7106
22.1768
25.2079
27.2355
24.8734
23.4924
22.2596
24.1635
23.3051
20.2060
20.6897
23.5842
21.4933

R
(%)

2.62
2.65
2.65

2.74
2.62
2.67

2.67
2.82
2.74

2.66
2.54
2.69

2.67
2.60
2.70

2.63
2.47
2.68

2.60
2.54
2.66

2.60
2.64
2.68

2.60
2.59
2.63

b
(cm)

2.62
2.60
2.57

2.67
2.65
2.69

2.66
2.60
2.65

2.70
2.65
2.70

2.67
2.69
2.61

2.72
2.73
2.68

2.55
2.73
2.56

2.67
2.66
2.66

2.60
2.60
2.55

h
(cm)

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

l
(cm)

y = 0.0722x + 0.9265
y = 0.0497x + 1.0902
y = 0.0739x + 1.2751

y = 0.0261x + 1.1715
y = 0.051x + 1.9833
y = 0.0386x + 1.1138

y = 0.0604x + 1.1729
y = 0.0336x + 1.8647
y = 0.0271x + 1.344

y = 0.1828x + 0.9389
y = 0.166x + 0.6805
y = 0.1407x + 0.0537

y = 0.1097x + 0.9278
y = 0.1384x + 0.6025
y = 0.0742x + 1.4034

y = 0.0736x + 1.1179
y = 0.0774x + 0.9997
y = 0.0786x + 1.528

y = 0.3414x + 0.3555
y = 0.2732x - 0.0542
y = 0.2988x + 0.1981

y = 0.1481x + 0.7249
y = 0.2102x + 0.868
y = 0.2144x + 0.5004

y = 0.1401x + 0.3701
y = 0.128x + 0.9125
y = 0.2153x + 0.7357

0.0722
0.0497
0.0739

0.0261
0.0510
0.0386

0.0604
0.0336
0.0271

0.1828
0.1660
0.1407

0.1097
0.1384
0.0742

0.0736
0.0774
0.0786

0.3414
0.2732
0.2988

0.1481
0.2102
0.2144

0.1401
0.1280
0.2153

e1

0.9265
1.0902
1.2751

1.1715
1.9833
1.1138

1.1729
1.8647
1.3440

0.9289
0.6805
0.0537

0.9278
0.6025
1.4034

1.1179
0.9997
1.5280

0.3555
0.0542
0.1981

0.7249
0.8680
0.5004

0.3701
0.9125
0.7357

e2

20
20
20

20
20
20

20
20
10

10
10
10

10
10
10

10
10
10

5
5
5

10
5
5

10
10
5

P1

90
90
90

90
90
90

80
90
80

40
40
40

60
40
70

70
60
70

20
20
20

50
20
30

50
40
30

P2

70
70
70

70
70
70

60
70
70

30
30
30

50
30
60

60
50
60

15
15
15

40
15
25

40
30
25

dP

2.3705
2.0842
2.7531

1.6935
3.0033
1.8858

2.3809
2.5367
1.6150

2.7569
2.3405
1.4607

2.0248
1.9865
2.1454

1.8539
1.7737
2.3140

2.0625
1.3118
1.6921

2.2059
1.9190
1.5724

1.7711
2.1925
1.8122

y1

7.4245
5.5632
7.9261

3.5205
6.5733
4.5878

6.0049
4.8887
3.5120

8.2409
7.3205
5.6817

7.5098
6.1385
6.5974

6.2699
5.6437
7.0300

7.1835
5.4098
6.1741

8.1299
5.0720
6.9324

7.3751
6.0325
7.1947

y2

0.5054
0.3479
0.5173

0.1827
0.3570
0.2702

0.3624
0.2352
0.1897

0.5484
0.4980
0.4221

0.5485
0.4152
0.4452

0.4416
0.3870
0.4716

0.5121
0.4098
0.4482

0.5924
0.3153
0.5360

0.5604
0.3840
0.5383

dy

94.800
106.734
93.550

211.643
121.294
138.840

99.608
190.720
244.200

41.237
41.054
41.514

62.867
48.481
77.907

70.216
67.671
74.383

20.623
25.228
23.168

50.206
23.953
32.860

54.089
47.085
33.114

Pmax
(kg)
18218.641
20017.864
12423.020
16886.508
15914.219
11167.757
10785.568
12622.515
7924.833
8261.238
8747.126
8311.066
29943.822
29986.215
28766.418
29565.485
20921.645
16652.569
32746.005
23440.073
12187.044
14865.109
15657.046
14236.400
38428.586
70038.862
84409.249
64292.232
85688.523
46907.082
58142.286
63579.297
34285.078
50387.778
35087.937
39920.264

MOE
(kg/cm2 )
166.183
145.221
104.562
138.655
146.269
69.244
93.576
103.030
65.872
71.963
71.766
69.867
194.866
198.505
208.672
200.681
178.355
139.153
228.730
182.079
114.834
124.287
114.315
117.812
284.717
540.249
685.326
503.431
585.092
355.991
388.055
443.046
284.641
321.741
288.620
298.334

MOR
(kg/cm2 )

0.313
0.297
0.244
0.285
0.292
0.304
0.284
0.293
0.262
0.354
0.252
0.289
0.551
0.470
0.351
0.457
0.394
0.383
0.389
0.389
0.334
0.340
0.344
0.339
0.577
0.609
0.557
0.581
0.576
0.528
0.527
0.544
0.572
0.527
0.482
0.527

Density
(g/cm2 )

Tab. F.9: Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil palm wood treated with 20% acetone for 24 hours

Sample
Code

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

F.1. Static Bending Strength

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

IZ3T2K11
IZ3T2K12
IZ3T2K13

IZ5T2K11
IZ5T2K12
IZ5T2K13

IZ7T2K11
IZ7T2K12
IZ7T2K13

CZ3T2K11
CZ3T2K12
CZ3T2K13

CZ5T2K11
CZ5T2K12
CZ5T2K13

CZ7T2K11
CZ7T2K12
CZ7T2K13

PZ3T2K11
PZ3T2K12
PZ3T2K13

PZ5T2K11
PZ5T2K12
PZ5T2K13

PZ7T2K11
PZ7T2K12
PZ7T2K13

Time
hour

10

10

10

C
(%)

100.833
112.151
99.672

187.599
118.269
132.629

98.761
147.273
184.393

62.706
62.311
73.020

79.159
71.655
100.004

81.864
80.207
85.273

54.611
52.904
52.129

65.311
51.981
48.480

71.169
68.613
59.801

B0
(g)

127.207
142.418
125.957

221.273
140.842
156.685

124.766
174.238
213.565

85.695
87.334
97.228

98.043
89.237
120.640

106.266
100.170
106.424

82.099
81.390
80.445

83.203
78.222
70.369

90.072
87.403
77.496

B1
(g)
26.5607
27.3855
29.5898
27.8453
27.3951
50.4819
45.1506
41.0092
50.3342
53.8447
54.3191
52.8327
29.8080
24.8893
24.8039
26.5004
23.8558
24.5370
20.6352
23.0093
36.6616
40.1582
33.1526
36.6575
26.3312
18.3095
15.8206
20.1538
17.9500
19.0862
18.1378
18.3913
26.1561
26.9877
26.3715
26.5051

R
(%)

2.59
2.64
2.62

2.61
2.73
2.70

2.77
2.75
2.72

2.65
2.68
2.68

2.65
2.66
2.64

2.64
2.66
2.66

2.65
2.61
2.58

2.60
2.68
2.64

2.63
2.53
23.60

b
(cm)

2.50
2.71
2.63

2.59
2.70
2.64

2.66
2.68
2.69

2.62
2.63
2.69

2.67
2.67
2.66

2.82
2.81
2.68

2.61
2.67
2.69

2.62
2.70
2.54

2.55
2.57
2.10

h
(cm)

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

l
(cm)

y = 0.0582x + 1.4574
y = 0.0707x - 0.0748
y = 0.0703x + 0.2723

y = 0.0581x + 0.5197
y = 0.0395x + 0.8026
y = 0.0433x + 0.6617

y = 0.0357x + 0.5175
y = 0.0374x + 0.3285
y = 0.0445x + 0.0916

y = 0.1857x + 0.7338
y = 0.1517x + 0.6833
y = 0.1304x + 0.5457

y = 0.1027x + 0.2558
y = 0.1024x + 0.9311
y = 0.0954x + 0.7789

y = 0.0757x + 0.0243
y = 0.069x + 0.5026
y = 0.1066x + 0.8865

y = 0.3102x + 0.1857
y = 0.1764x + 0.9692
y = 0.2506x + 0.8587

y = 0.2611x + 0.4285
y = 0.2345x + 0.3457
y = 0.2478x + 0.0531

y = 0.2185x - 0.0698
y = 0.1994x + 1.1173
y = 0.39x + 0.07

0.0582
0.0707
0.0703

0.0581
0.0395
0.0433

0.0357
0.0374
0.0445

0.1857
0.1517
0.1304

0.1027
0.1024
0.0954

0.0757
0.0690
0.1066

0.3102
0.1764
0.2506

0.2611
0.2345
0.2478

0.2185
0.1994
0.3900

e1

1.4574
0.0748
0.0272

0.5197
0.8026
0.6617

0.5179
0.3285
0.0916

0.7338
0.6833
0.5457

0.2558
0.9311
0.7789

0.0243
0.5026
0.8865

0.1857
0.9692
0.8587

0.4285
0.3457
0.0531

0.0698
1.1173
0.0700

e2

20
20
20

20
20
20

20
20
20

5
5
5

10
10
10

20
10
10

5
5
5

5
5
5

5
5
5

P1

90
90
80

90
90
90

90
90
90

40
40
40

50
50
70

90
70
50

25
30
25

25
30
25

30
30
20

P2

70
70
60

70
70
70

70
70
70

35
35
35

40
40
60

70
60
40

20
25
20

20
25
20

25
25
15

dP

2.6214
1.3392
1.4332

1.6817
1.5926
1.5277

1.2319
1.0765
0.9816

1.6623
1.4418
1.1977

1.2828
1.9551
1.7329

1.5383
1.1926
1.9525

1.7367
1.8512
2.1117

1.7340
1.5182
1.2921

1.0227
2.1143
2.0200

y1

6.6954
6.2882
5.6512

5.7487
4.3576
4.5587

3.7309
3.6945
4.0966

8.1618
6.7513
5.7617

5.3908
6.0511
7.4569

6.8373
5.3326
6.2165

7.9407
6.2612
7.1237

6.9560
7.3807
6.2481

6.4852
7.0993
7.8700

y2

0.4074
0.4949
0.4218

0.4067
0.2765
0.3031

0.2499
0.2618
0.3115

0.6500
0.5310
0.4564

0.4108
0.4096
0.5724

0.5299
0.4140
0.4264

0.6204
0.4410
0.5012

0.5222
0.5863
0.4956

0.5463
0.4985
0.5850

dy

119.694
103.488
87.083

106.192
132.588
133.496

156.495
169.775
123.545

40.222
44.378
48.641

59.717
54.625
71.350

104.185
75.877
52.671

27.407
39.548
25.441

29.453
30.394
25.464

34.006
35.540
20.538

Pmax
(kg)
12241.081
13620.795
1368.400
9076.759
9553.520
9429.281
10880.307
9954.369
7980.651
13309.895
9268.083
10186.210
26025.578
28641.636
21369.988
25345.734
22516.320
22497.390
24606.526
23206.745
13179.103
15771.024
17146.611
15365.579
62669.267
58916.757
49506.447
57030.824
44272.248
54953.641
54223.066
51149.652
49522.748
31399.035
34811.573
38577.785

MOE
(kg/cm2 )
107.378
114.847
10.656
77.627
89.116
84.007
80.734
84.619
81.984
114.777
73.587
90.116
267.977
195.079
148.873
203.976
170.695
155.554
206.262
177.504
119.401
129.276
135.442
128.040
431.174
464.156
338.956
411.429
327.525
359.756
383.082
356.788
399.289
288.232
259.487
315.670

MOR
(kg/cm2 )

0.373
0.373
0.043
0.263
0.339
0.300
0.292
0.310
0.330
0.324
0.322
0.325
0.396
0.372
0.415
0.394
0.385
0.349
0.477
0.404
0.343
0.344
0.375
0.354
0.470
0.657
0.811
0.646
0.909
0.531
0.611
0.684
0.546
0.553
0.508
0.535

Density
(g/cm2 )

Tab. F.10: Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil palm wood treated with 10% acetone for 48 hours

Sample
Code

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

F.1. Static Bending Strength

271

272

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

48
48
48

IZ3T2K21
IZ3T2K22
IZ3T2K23

IZ5T2K21
IZ5T2K22
IZ5T2K23

IZ7T2K21
IZ7T2K22
IZ7T2K23

CZ3T2K21
CZ3T2K22
CZ3T2K23

CZ5T2K21
CZ5T2K22
CZ5T2K23

CZ7T2K21
CZ7T2K22
CZ7T2K23

PZ3T2K21
PZ3T2K22
PZ3T2K23

PZ5T2K21
PZ5T2K22
PZ5T2K23

PZ7T2K21
PZ7T2K22
PZ7T2K23

Time
hour

20

20

20

C
(%)

96.403
164.500
184.930

119.206
107.677
103.036

208.648
117.867
160.180

67.226
61.096
73.853

94.165
84.794
82.512

96.130
91.276
99.836

47.925
58.397
53.616

56.597
67.416
57.754

62.376
59.918
64.795

B0
(g)

128.420
227.068
218.899

162.992
142.145
156.751

239.565
155.329
218.496

99.311
95.947
105.344

130.033
111.120
116.831

141.786
122.727
126.154

82.125
94.705
92.900

92.964
97.717
85.450

95.214
86.309
89.137

B1
(g)
52.6452
44.0452
37.5677
44.7527
64.2561
44.9463
47.9551
52.3858
71.3615
62.1744
73.2692
68.9350
47.4940
34.4570
26.3612
36.1041
38.0906
31.0470
41.5927
36.9101
47.7271
57.0430
42.6401
49.1367
14.8178
31.7833
36.4065
27.6692
36.7314
32.0106
52.1323
40.2914
33.2116
38.0353
18.3686
29.8718

R
(%)

2.67
2.68
2.73

2.70
2.65
2.75

2.75
2.77
2.80

2.72
2.64
2.66

2.63
2.64
2.60

2.63
2.63
2.68

2.56
2.62
2.61

2.60
2.67
2.68

2.56
2.56
2.64

b
(cm)

2.61
2.69
2.74

2.67
2.65
2.72

2.75
2.70
2.71

2.68
2.67
2.60

2.65
2.70
2.70

2.70
2.72
2.68

2.69
2.70
2.67

2.69
2.61
2.57

2.51
2.64
2.52

h
(cm)

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

36
36
36

l
(cm)

y = 0.069x + 0.7445
y = 0.0244x + 0.4003
y = 0.026x + 0.5281

y = 0.0449x + 0.6942
y = 0.0515x + 0.1052
y = 0.0297x + 0.7491

y = 0.0222x + 0.1347
y = 0.0437x + 0.5334
y = 0.0251x + 0.7726

y = 0.1346x + 0.4954
y = 0.1387x + 1.2073
y = 0.089x + 0.7071

y = 0.0634x + 0.6463
y = 0.0805x + 0.2889
y = 0.0855x + 0.5845

y = 0.0574x + 0.3444
y = 0.0639x + 0.5075
y = 0.0626x + 0.549

y = 0.311x - 0.4475
y = 0.162x + 0.6295
y = 0.3038x + 0.037

y = 0.2156x + 0.414
y = 0.1316x + 0.513
y = 0.1817x + 0.6139

y = 0.149x + 0.2589
y = 0.1709x + 0.5015
y = 0.1466x + 0.0883

0.0690
0.0244
0.0260

0.0499
0.0515
0.0297

0.0222
0.0437
0.0251

0.1364
0.1387
0.0890

0.0634
0.0805
0.0855

0.0574
0.0639
0.0626

0.3110
0.1620
0.3038

0.2156
0.1316
0.1817

0.1490
0.1709
0.1466

e1

0.7445
0.4003
0.5281

0.6942
0.1052
0.7491

0.1347
0.5334
0.7726

0.4954
1.2073
0.7071

0.6463
0.2889
0.5845

0.3444
0.5075
0.5490

0.4475
0.6295
0.0370

0.4140
0.5130
0.6139

0.2589
0.5015
0.0883

e2

20
20
20

20
20
20

20
20
20

10
10
10

10
10
10

20
10
10

10
10
10

5
10
5

5
5
5

P1

90
90
90

90
90
90

90
90
90

50
50
60

80
60
50

90
80
70

25
40
25

30
60
30

40
30
40

P2

70
70
70

70
70
70

70
70
70

40
40
50

70
50
40

70
70
60

15
30
15

25
50
25

35
25
35

dP

2.1245
0.8883
1.0481

1.6922
1.1352
1.3431

0.5787
1.4074
1.2746

1.8594
2.5943
1.5971

1.2803
1.0939
1.4395

1.4924
1.1465
1.1750

3.5575
2.2495
3.0750

1.4920
1.8290
1.5224

1.0039
1.3560
0.8213

y1

6.9545
2.5963
2.8681

5.1852
4.7402
3.4221

2.1327
4.4664
3.0316

7.3154
8.1423
6.0471

5.7183
5.1189
4.8595

5.5104
5.6195
4.9310

8.2225
7.1095
7.6320

6.8820
8.4090
6.0649

6.2189
5.6285
5.9523

y2

0.4830
0.1708
0.1820

0.3493
0.3605
0.2079

0.1554
0.3059
0.1757

0.5456
0.5548
0.4450

0.4438
0.4025
0.3420

0.4018
0.4473
0.3756

0.4665
0.4860
0.4557

0.5390
0.6580
0.4543

0.5215
0.4273
0.5131

dy

96.982
302.581
237.885

122.769
111.915
189.787

277.475
131.985
266.128

51.870
51.523
63.008

86.710
60.230
58.754

94.850
88.001
78.560

30.170
43.490
25.730

32.859
60.156
35.387

41.057
33.143
46.678

Pmax
(kg)
19337.490
14489.510
18832.501
17553.167
10689.775
18670.624
14111.020
14490.473
7526.452
13961.752
7728.326
9738.843
39254.421
34489.285
36118.857
36620.855
37589.356
27884.086
26657.337
30710.259
16332.770
16735.294
28032.112
20366.725
91867.894
48954.770
83388.831
74737.165
45483.033
45925.806
70966.217
54125.019
35609.480
91635.985
79884.005
69043.157

MOE
(kg/cm2 )
137.465
100.309
150.349
129.374
94.313
178.601
107.953
126.956
87.948
122.957
74.674
95.193
267.146
244.222
220.389
243.919
253.522
168.996
167.390
196.636
143.376
147.831
189.218
160.141
720.476
352.948
698.855
590.759
344.427
324.747
503.721
390.965
287.932
842.550
626.753
585.745

MOR
(kg/cm2 )

0.412
0.355
0.372
0.380
0.369
0.390
0.345
0.368
0.331
0.372
0.370
0.358
0.555
0.477
0.488
0.506
0.518
0.433
0.462
0.471
0.378
0.378
0.423
0.393
0.880
0.577
0.800
0.752
0.628
0.562
0.582
0.591
0.512
0.875
0.813
0.733

Density
(g/cm2 )

Tab. F.11: Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and density of oil palm wood treated with 20% acetone for 48 hours

Sample
Code

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

F.1. Static Bending Strength

F.2. Shear Strength Parallel to Grain

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

F.2 Shear Strength Parallel to Grain


Tab. F.12: Shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood for control specimen
Sample
Code

b
(cm)

h
(cm)

Pmax
(kg)

Shear
(kg/cm2 )

Sample
Code

b
(cm)

h
(cm)

Pmax
(kg)

Shear
(kg/cm2 )

Sample
Code

b
(cm)

h
(cm)

Pmax
(kg)

Shear
(kg/cm2 )

GIZ11
GIZ12
GIZ13
GIZ14
GIZ15

5.24
5.18
5.23
5.22
5.17

5.07
5.06
4.91
5.08
4.96

446
426
412
544
362

GCZ11
GCZ12
GCZ13
GCZ14
GCZ15

5.16
5.27
5.20
5.13
5.20

5.12
5.06
5.00
5.20
5.16

564
350
636
888
482

5.14
5.17
5.10
5.01
5.03

4.21
5.15
4.96
4.52
3.97

636
524
1248
670
1024

5.34
5.28
5.30
5.36
5.36

5.10
5.05
5.11
4.97
5.13

548
618
530
538
540

GCZ31
GCZ32
GCZ33
GCZ34
GCZ35

5.16
5.28
5.14
5.02
5.30

4.16
4.96
4.52
4.33
4.97

204
500
252
370
478

GPZ31
GPZ32
GPZ33
GPZ34
GPZ35

5.25
5.27
5.32
5.26
5.35

4.50
5.02
5.03
4.43
5.55

712
1124
748
524
500

GIZ51
GIZ52
GIZ53
GIZ54
GIZ55

5.25
5.25
5.24
5.11
5.20

4.05
4.90
4.22
4.44
5.37

406
484
206
334
298

GCZ51
GCZ52
GCZ53
GCZ54
GCZ55

5.16
5.33
5.36
5.28
5.27

5.00
5.01
5.00
4.78
4.71

382
418
488
354
344

GPZ51
GPZ52
GPZ53
GPZ54
GPZ55

5.33
5.24
4.90
5.34
5.26

4.93
4.42
5.24
5.07
5.01

414
512
1772
642
604

GIZ71
GIZ72
GIZ73
GIZ74
GIZ75

5.16
5.17
5.14
5.18
5.08

5.06
5.19
5.00
5.03
5.20

208
296
290
182
152

GCZ71
GCZ72
GCZ73
GCZ74
GCZ75

5.26
5.21
5.11
5.04
5.32

4.94
4.92
4.90
4.90
4.88

284
300
202
212
346

GPZ71
GPZ72
GPZ73
GPZ74
GPZ75

5.26
5.18
5.27
5.29
5.20

5.10
4.36
4.12
4.36
4.33

312
192
312
550
468

GIZ91
GIZ92
GIZ93
GIZ94
GIZ95

5.19
5.22
5.26
5.22
5.24

5.14
5.08
4.86
4.76
5.05

170
248
398
272
208

GCZ91
GCZ92
GCZ93
GCZ94
GCZ95

5.32
5.48
5.10
5.24
5.48

4.29
4.66
4.10
4.01
4.51

228
182
168
220
206

21.3481
13.1252
24.4615
33.2883
17.9636
22.0374
9.5036
19.0921
10.8467
17.0220
18.1466
14.9222
14.8177
15.6535
18.2090
14.0262
13.8588
15.3130
10.9296
11.7036
8.0674
8.5844
13.3274
10.5225
9.9900
7.1270
8.0344
10.4700
8.3351
8.7913

GPZ11
GPZ12
GPZ13
GPZ14
GPZ15

GIZ31
GIZ32
GIZ33
GIZ34
GIZ35

16.7879
16.2528
16.0441
20.5147
14.1168
16.7432
20.1219
23.1773
19.5695
20.1958
19.6386
20.5406
19.0947
18.8144
9.3159
14.7212
10.6718
14.5236
7.9664
11.0315
11.2840
6.9851
5.7541
8.6042
6.3726
9.3523
15.5690
10.9469
7.8603
10.0202

GPZ91
GPZ92
GPZ93
GPZ94
GPZ95

5.30
5.34
5.40
5.42
5.36

4.95
4.86
4.65
4.50
4.79

486
234
314
134
530

29.3908
19.6804
49.3359
29.5868
51.2792
35.8546
30.1376
42.4866
27.9526
22.4875
16.8393
27.9807
15.7553
22.1063
69.0139
23.7130
22.9199
30.7017
11.6305
8.5013
14.3697
23.8463
20.7852
15.8266
18.5249
9.0165
12.5050
5.4941
20.6431
13.2367

273

F.2. Shear Strength Parallel to Grain

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

Tab. F.13: Shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood treated with bioresin for 150 seconds
Sample
Code

274

Impregnation
Time (s)

B0
(g)

B1
(g)

R
(%)

GIZ1T11
GIZ1T12
GIZ1T13
GIZ1T14
GIZ1T15

150
150
150
150
150

40.394
42.049
41.576
42.630
41.809

48.318
48.367
47.893
50.690
48.122

GIZ3T11
GIZ3T12
GIZ3T13
GIZ3T14
GIZ3T15

150
150
150
150
150

44.942
36.939
37.897
42.257
43.547

51.275
43.581
45.373
48.728
51.335

GIZ5T11
GIZ5T12
GIZ5T13
GIZ5T14
GIZ5T15

150
150
150
150
150

23.539
28.056
32.060
24.751
26.515

32.332
33.798
38.211
30.762
33.165

GIZ7T11
GIZ7T12
GIZ7T13
GIZ7T14
GIZ7T15

150
150
150
150
150

31.279
29.345
25.363
31.664
30.083

45.005
42.814
48.102
44.633
45.436

GIZ9T11
GIZ9T12
GIZ9T13
GIZ9T14
GIZ9T15

150
150
150
150
150

27.181
30.372
33.715
30.790
26.596

36.569
28.527
49.231
38.218
35.734

GCZ1T11
GCZ1T12
GCZ1T13
GCZ1T14
GCZ1T15

150
150
150
150
150

56.192
78.581
76.768
62.528
67.815

64.876
85.432
83.347
72.740
76.072

GCZ3T11
GCZ3T12
GCZ3T13
GCZ3T14
GCZ3T15

150
150
150
150
150

36.640
45.492
40.222
39.745
33.832

45.582
55.861
48.133
47.364
40.027

GCZ5T11
GCZ5T12
GCZ5T13
GCZ5T14
GCZ5T15

150
150
150
150
150

37.399
42.389
41.102
45.535
37.523

47.318
52.751
46.042
55.951
51.401

GCZ7T11
GCZ7T12
GCZ7T13
GCZ7T14
GCZ7T15

150
150
150
150
150

31.449
35.502
31.350
35.696
35.176

42.220
45.577
41.874
45.956
45.734

GCZ9T11
GCZ9T12
GCZ9T13
GCZ9T14
GCZ9T15

150
150
150
150
150

35.724
31.170
37.453
29.109
33.790

45.201
42.207
43.207
43.177
43.615

GPZ1T11
GPZ1T12
GPZ1T13
GPZ1T14
GPZ1T15

150
150
150
150
150

62.180
47.925
61.563
56.635
54.511

68.663
53.725
66.662
64.271
62.686

GPZ3T11
GPZ3T12
GPZ3T13
GPZ3T14
GPZ3T15

150
150
150
150
150

53.588
66.304
61.383
62.079
75.527

67.976
72.976
69.413
68.103
79.869

GPZ5T11
GPZ5T12
GPZ5T13
GPZ5T14
GPZ5T15

150
150
150
150
150

74.618
69.348
62.446
64.172
64.904

81.255
74.695
68.028
72.654
70.339

GPZ7T11
GPZ7T12
GPZ7T13
GPZ7T14
GPZ7T15

150
150
150
150
150

47.152
48.729
44.556
39.451
45.910

64.773
57.466
54.582
52.490
54.651

GPZ9T11
GPZ9T12
GPZ9T13
GPZ9T14
GPZ9T15

150
150
150
150
150

55.545
52.961
48.597
50.306
55.747

61.681
58.287
54.285
57.943
59.890

19.617
15.025
15.194
18.907
15.100
16.768
14.091
17.981
19.727
15.313
17.884
16.999
37.355
20.466
19.186
24.286
25.080
25.275
43.882
45.899
89.654
40.958
51.035
54.286
34.539
-6.075
46.021
24.125
34.359
26.594
15.454
8.718
8.570
16.332
12.176
12.250
24.405
22.793
19.668
19.170
18.311
20.869
26.522
24.445
12.019
22.875
36.985
24.569
34.249
28.379
33.569
28.743
30.015
30.991
26.528
35.409
15.363
48.329
29.077
30.941
10.426
12.102
8.283
13.483
14.997
11.858
26.849
10.063
13.082
9.704
5.749
13.089
8.895
7.710
8.939
13.218
8.374
9.427
37.371
17.930
22.502
33.051
19.039
25.979
11.047
10.056
11.7044
15.1811
7.4318
11.0841

b
(cm)

h
(cm)

Pmax
(kg)

Shear
(kg/cm2 )

5.25
5.24
5.20
5.20
5.24

4.94
5.08
4.99
5.07
5.02

580
588
528
590
544

5.24
5.31
5.31
5.30
5.38

5.17
5.04
5.00
5.19
5.11

598
476
456
602
654

5.31
5.27
5.26
5.27
5.12

4.22
4.37
4.92
4.04
4.90

350
340
580
400
272

5.15
5.22
5.20
5.21
5.21

5.20
5.00
5.19
4.97
5.19

250
456
396
294
276

5.28
5.29
5.28
5.26
5.23

5.05
5.13
4.96
5.11
5.07

314
564
554
464
336

5.36
5.31
5.21
5.33
5.26

5.15
5.10
4.94
5.21
4.89

1284
1158
820
588
768

5.28
5.28
5.36
5.30
5.31

4.09
5.20
4.93
4.94
3.95

530
550
530
670
324

5.45
5.00
27.00
5.36
5.33

4.97
5.66
5.05
5.00
4.85

356
484
394
604
414

5.15
5.23
5.20
5.26
5.25

4.98
4.92
4.77
4.90
4.85

348
344
250
290
504

5.19
5.34
5.48
5.36
5.31

5.06
3.84
4.33
3.84
5.11

422
202
282
234
382

5.06
5.12
5.06
5.26
5.04

4.48
4.12
1.10
4.50
4.19

446
246
414
354
232

5.27
2.33
5.40
5.30
5.30

4.72
5.06
5.27
5.30
5.02

402
1014
704
570
994

5.15
5.35
5.33
5.38
5.30

5.21
4.32
4.84
5.27
4.30

758
748
704
830
890

5.34
5.19
4.94
5.07
5.33

5.15
5.38
5.23
5.16
4.40

924
510
544
546
330

5.35
5.44
5.35
5.39
5.30

4.26
4.25
4.92
4.38
4.89

590
500
325
464
7298

22.3636
22.0893
20.3484
22.3790
20.6806
21.5722
22.0739
17.7861
17.1751
21.8853
23.7889
20.5419
15.6193
14.7634
22.4118
18.7875
10.8418
16.4848
9.3353
17.4713
14.6732
11.3541
10.2071
12.6082
11.7762
20.7829
21.1541
17.2628
12.6715
16.7295
46.5150
42.7606
31.8603
21.1745
29.8584
34.4337
24.5425
20.0321
20.0569
25.5901
15.4473
21.1338
13.1431
17.1025
2.8896
22.5373
16.0152
14.3375
13.5688
13.3688
10.0790
11.2516
19.7938
13.6124
16.0692
9.8510
11.8845
11.3689
14.0782
12.6504
19.6746
11.6619
74.3802
14.9556
10.9861
26.3317
16.1612
86.0065
24.7382
20.2919
37.3600
36.9116
28.2504
32.3641
27.2898
29.2742
39.0522
31.2461
33.5988
18.2650
21.0557
20.8706
14.0713
21.5723
25.8874
21.6263
12.3471
19.6542
19.8787
19.8787

F.2. Shear Strength Parallel to Grain

Chapter F. Data of Mechanical Properties

Tab. F.14: Shear strength parallel to grain of oil palm wood treated with bioresin for 300 seconds
Sample
Code

Impregnation
Time (s)

B0
(g)

B1
(g)

R
(%)

GIZ1T21
GIZ1T22
GIZ1T23
GIZ1T24
GIZ1T25

300
300
300
300
300

29.393
43.070
30.687
41.835
43.134

39.881
50.276
39.315
52.232
50.272

GIZ3T21
GIZ3T22
GIZ3T23
GIZ3T24
GIZ3T25

300
300
300
300
300

44.915
41.379
38.880
40.338
44.156

53.779
44.142
57.362
48.680
52.757

GIZ5T21
GIZ5T22
GIZ5T23
GIZ5T24
GIZ5T25

300
300
300
300
300

31.579
30.923
25.683
23.382
34.762

40.732
39.995
31.962
35.890
44.779

GIZ7T21
GIZ7T22
GIZ7T23
GIZ7T24
GIZ7T25

300
300
300
300
300

28.946
30.516
30.943
30.087
29.968

53.573
50.222
40.292
46.523
46.655

GIZ9T21
GIZ9T22
GIZ9T23
GIZ9T24
GIZ9T25

300
300
300
300
300

25.220
28.157
25.837
26.573
26.091

39.053
39.026
40.039
37.704
37.802

GCZ1T21
GCZ1T22
GCZ1T23
GCZ1T24
GCZ1T25

300
300
300
300
300

59.941
56.460
68.723
61.664
72.571

69.344
64.982
77.395
73.600
80.912

GCZ3T21
GCZ3T22
GCZ3T23
GCZ3T24
GCZ3T25

300
300
300
300
300

40.967
34.518
40.064
35.524
33.582

50.865
44.142
50.200
51.572
42.466

GCZ5T21
GCZ5T22
GCZ5T23
GCZ5T24
GCZ5T25

300
300
300
300
300

45.451
38.338
39.545
39.880
38.544

57.754
50.424
48.605
50.927
48.712

GCZ7T21
GCZ7T22
GCZ7T23
GCZ7T24
GCZ7T25

300
300
300
300
300

29.655
26.434
28.066
31.266
28.055

43.801
43.631
41.729
46.716
40.636

GCZ9T21
GCZ9T22
GCZ9T23
GCZ9T24
GCZ9T25

300
300
300
300
300

36.740
31.054
32.010
31.576
29.667

49.420
47.488
45.788
47.839
41.178

GPZ1T21
GPZ1T22
GPZ1T23
GPZ1T24
GPZ1T25

300
300
300
300
300

60.899
66.474
61.869
66.148
58.829

70.225
74.540
69.251
74.540
66.643

GPZ3T21
GPZ3T22
GPZ3T23
GPZ3T24
GPZ3T25

300
300
300
300
300

68.526
58.072
78.522
58.456
72.142

79.099
68.031
85.341
65.138
78.517

GPZ5T21
GPZ5T22
GPZ5T23
GPZ5T24
GPZ5T25

300
300
300
300
300

29.936
62.189
69.468
63.274
60.202

38.767
68.881
73.378
70.728
68.063

GPZ7T21
GPZ7T22
GPZ7T23
GPZ7T24
GPZ7T25

300
300
300
300
300

52.249
42.245
41.468
42.382
57.152

64.281
65.057
51.741
54.519
64.529

GPZ9T21
GPZ9T22
GPZ9T23
GPZ9T24
GPZ9T25

300
300
300
300
300

44.697
53.146
50.316
52.357
59.450

55.413
59.202
58.925
59.614
69.222

35.682
16.731
28.116
24.852
16.548
24.386
19.735
6.677
47.536
20.680
19.479
22.821
28.984
29.337
24.448
53.494
28.816
33.016
85.079
64.576
30.214
54.628
55.683
58.036
54.849
38.601
54.968
41.888
44.885
47.038
15.687
15.094
12.619
19.357
11.494
14.850
24.161
27.881
25.300
45.175
26.455
29.794
27.069
31.525
22.911
27.701
26.380
27.117
47.702
65.056
48.682
49.415
44.844
51.140
34.513
52.921
43.043
51.504
38.801
44.156
15.314
12.134
11.932
12.687
13.283
13.070
15.429
17.149
8.684
11.431
8.837
12.306
29.500
10.761
5.628
11.781
13.058
14.145
23.028
53.999
24.773
28.637
12.908
28.669
23.975
11.395
17.110